Are placebo pills presented as experimental treatment a true placebo?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reasons for discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy in patients with and without substance use disorders
Abstract: Several factors may accelerate opioid discontinuation rates, including lack of information about the long-term effectiveness of opioids for chronic pain, heightened awareness about opioid-related adverse events, closer monitoring of patients for opioid-related aberrant behaviors, and greater restrictions around opioid prescribing. Rates of discontinuation may be most pronounced in patients deemed to be at “high risk.” The purpose of this study was to compare reasons for discontinuation of long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) between patients with and without substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses receiving...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Biomarkers of neuropathic pain in skin nerve degeneration neuropathy: contact heat-evoked potentials as a physiological signature
In conclusion, CHEP is a sensitive tool to evaluate pathophysiology of small-fiber sensory nerve and serves as a physiological signature of neuropathic pain symptoms. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Bifunctional peptide-based opioid agonist/nociceptin antagonist ligand for dual treatment of nociceptive and neuropathic pain
Abstract: Drugs able to treat both nociceptive and neuropathic pain effectively without major side effects are lacking. We developed a bifunctional peptide-based hybrid (KGNOP1) that structurally combines a mu-opioid receptor agonist (KGOP1) with antinociceptive activity and a weak nociceptin receptor antagonist (KGNOP3) with anti-neuropathic pain activity. We investigated KGNOP1-related behavioral effects after intravenous administration in rats by assessing thermal nociception, cold hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, and plethysmography parameters incl...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Clinical assessment of the impact of pelvic pain on women
Abstract: We aimed to develop a questionnaire that assesses the impact of pelvic pain on women, regardless of diagnosis, that has high utility, sound psychometric performance, easy scoring, and high reliability. Two studies, with 3 separate cohorts, were undertaken. Both studies were completed online. Studies included women with self-reported pelvic pain. Women were eligible to participate regardless of whether their pelvic pain was undiagnosed, self-diagnosed, or diagnosed by a clinician. Study 1 used a 3-round “patient-as-expert” Delphi technique. These rounds defined the 10 aspects of life with the self-repo...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Brain activity for tactile allodynia: a longitudinal awake rat functional magnetic resonance imaging study tracking emergence of neuropathic pain
Abstract: Tactile allodynia, a condition in which innocuous mechanical stimuli are perceived as painful, is a common feature of chronic pain. However, how the brain reorganizes in relation to the emergence of tactile allodynia is still largely unknown. This may stem from the fact that experiments in humans are cross-sectional in nature, whereas animal brain imaging studies typically require anaesthesia rendering the brain incapable of consciously sensing or responding to pain. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake rats, we tracked brain activity with the development of tactile allodynia....
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

The role of nociceptive input and tissue injury on stress regulation in borderline personality disorder
Abstract: Approximately 60% to 90% of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) with cutting being the most frequently applied method. One of NSSI's functions is to reduce aversive tension. Previous studies have found a tension-reducing effect of painful tissue injury by an incision. It is still unclear whether this effect is based on the effect of tissue injury or the effect of pain experience, or both. The aim of this study was to determine whether tissue injury leads to a stronger stress reduction than a sole pain stimulus in patients with BPD. After stress induc...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Biased interpretations of ambiguous bodily threat information in adolescents with chronic pain
Abstract: Adult patients with chronic pain are consistently shown to interpret ambiguous health and bodily information in a pain-related and threatening way. This interpretation bias may play a role in the development and maintenance of pain and disability. However, no studies have yet investigated the role of interpretation bias in adolescent patients with pain, despite that pain often first becomes chronic in youth. We administered the Adolescent Interpretations of Bodily Threat (AIBT) task to adolescents with chronic pain (N = 66) and adolescents without chronic pain (N = 74). Adolescents were 10 to 18 years old and com...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Intraoperative ketamine reduces immediate postoperative opioid consumption after spinal fusion surgery in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency: a randomized, blinded trial
Abstract: Perioperative handling of surgical patients with opioid dependency represents an important clinical problem. Animal studies suggest that ketamine attenuates central sensitization and hyperalgesia and thereby reduces postoperative opioid tolerance. We hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would reduce immediate postoperative opioid consumption compared with placebo in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Primary outcome was morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were acute pain at rest and during mobilization 2 to 24 hours postope...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

A mouse model for chronic pain-induced increase in ethanol consumption
In this study, we model osteoarthritis (OA) in C57BL/6J mice by surgically destabilizing the medial meniscus (DMM). Sham-operated mice served as controls. Thirteen weeks after surgery, DMM but not sham-operated mice exhibited pronounced incapacitance of the surgically manipulated hind limb compared with the nonsurgically manipulated hind limb. At this time, the mice were exposed to the 2-bottle ethanol choice, beginning with 2.5% with a gradual increasing to 20%. Compared with sham controls, DMM mice consumed more EtOH and preferred EtOH over water at the 20% EtOH concentration. Histological analysis verified that the DMM ...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli
Abstract: The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P. We show with immunocytoche...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Conditioned pain modulation in patients with nonspecific chronic back pain with chronic local pain, chronic widespread pain, and fibromyalgia
Abstract: Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (C...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Dorsal root ganglion neurons become hyperexcitable and increase expression of voltage-gated T-type calcium channels (Cav3.2) in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy
Abstract: Here, it is shown that paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is associated with the development of spontaneous activity (SA) and hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that is paralleled by increased expression of low-voltage–activated calcium channels (T-type; Cav3.2). The percentage of DRG neurons showing SA and the overall mean rate of SA were significantly higher at day 7 in rats receiving paclitaxel treatment than in rats receiving vehicle. Cav3.2 expression was increased in L4-L6 DRG and spinal cord segments in paclitaxel-treated rats, localized to small calcitonin gene-related peptide and is...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Health utilities in people with chronic pain using a population-level survey and linked health care administrative data
Abstract: Health utilities are a preference-based measure of health-related quality of life that facilitates comparison of disease burden across conditions. We estimated utilities using a population-based, matched sample of adolescents and adults with and without chronic pain, controlling for comorbidity. Ontarians aged ≥12 years with and without chronic pain were identified from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2000-2001 and 2009-2010 and linked to their provincial health care administrative data. Individuals with chronic pain were matched to those without using age, sex, survey year, and a propensity score ...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Development and validation of a short-form Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire (PMAQ-14)
Abstract: Attitudes to pain medication are important aspects of adjustment to chronic pain. They are measured by the 47-item Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire (PMAQ). To measure those attitudes more quickly and easily, we developed and evaluated a 14-item PMAQ using data from 3 separate surveys of people with pain in the general population. In survey 1, participants (n = 295) completed the 47-item PMAQ and measures of pain, analgesic use, analgesic dependence, and attitudes to self-medication. For each of the 7 PMAQ scales, the 2 items that best preserved the content of the full parent scales were identified using co...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Psychosocial factors predict opioid analgesia through endogenous opioid function
We examined whether psychosocial factors (eg, depressive symptoms) predicted changes in spontaneous low back pain after administration of opioid analgesics, and whether endogenous opioid (EO) function mediated these relationships. Participants with chronic low back pain but who were not chronic opioid users (N = 89) underwent assessment of low back pain intensity pre- and post-drug in 3 (counterbalanced) conditions: (1) placebo, (2) intravenous naloxone, and (3) intravenous morphine. Comparison of placebo condition changes in back pain intensity to those under naloxone and morphine provided indexes of EO function and opioi...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Physical activity behavior predicts endogenous pain modulation in older adults
This study examined whether objective measures of physical activity behavior cross-sectionally predicted pain inhibitory function on the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) test and pain facilitation on the temporal summation (TS) test in healthy older adults. Fifty-one older adults wore an accelerometer on the hip for 7 days and completed the CPM and TS tests. Measures of sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were obtained from the accelerometer. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the relationship of TS and CPM with levels of physical activi...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

How nurse gender influences patient priority assignments in US emergency departments
Abstract: The goals of this study were to compare whether emergency department (ED) patients' pain intensity (PI) is measured differently by male and female nurses and to determine whether PI, heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were used to prioritize patient urgency differently by male and female nurses. The associations between patients' PI|HR|RR and the Emergency Severity Index (ESI) scores they were assigned by attending nurses were analyzed using a national database of electronic medical records of US Veterans Affairs ED patients from 2008 to 2012. A total of 129,991 patients presenting for emergency care (Mag...
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: the impact of sensorimotor activity
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

How does physical activity modulate pain?
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Nurse gender and its influence on emergency department triage—upsides and downsides of registry data
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - February 14, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Critical comments on Williams and Craig's recent proposal for revising the definition of pain
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Using placebos as an opioid-sparing method of pain management
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Long-lasting antinociceptive effects of green light in acute and chronic pain in rats
Abstract: Treatments for chronic pain are inadequate, and new options are needed. Nonpharmaceutical approaches are especially attractive with many potential advantages including safety. Light therapy has been suggested to be beneficial in certain medical conditions such as depression, but this approach remains to be explored for modulation of pain. We investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), in the visible spectrum, on acute sensory thresholds in naive rats as well as in experimental neuropathic pain. Rats receiving green LED light (wavelength 525 nm, 8 h/d) showed significantly increased paw withdrawal la...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Growth hormone regulates the sensitization of developing peripheral nociceptors during cutaneous inflammation
Abstract: Cutaneous inflammation alters the function of primary afferents and gene expression in the affected dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, specific mechanisms of injury-induced peripheral afferent sensitization and behavioral hypersensitivity during development are not fully understood. Recent studies in children suggest a potential role for growth hormone (GH) in pain modulation. Growth hormone modulates homeostasis and tissue repair after injury, but how GH affects nociception in neonates is not known. To determine whether GH played a role in modulating sensory neuron function and hyperresponsiveness during skin i...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Facilitated temporal summation of pain correlates with clinical pain intensity after hip arthroplasty
This study characterized the preoperative somatosensory profiles and provided possible interpretation of underlying pain mechanisms that might influence the development of postoperative pain. Forty hip OA patients with unilateral pain were assessed before and 6 weeks post-THA and compared with 40 asymptomatic control subjects. Hip pain intensity at rest and while walking was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Bilateral cuff algometry from the thighs was used to assess the cuff pressure pain thresholds, pressure values at VAS scores equal with 6 cm (PVAS6), cuff pressure tolerance, and temporal summation of pain (TS...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Sociodemographic disparities in chronic pain, based on 12-year longitudinal data
This study uses 7 biennial waves of national data from the Health and Retirement Study (1998-2010; n = 19,776) to describe long-term pain disparities among older (age 51+) American adults. It also investigates whether pain severity, reporting heterogeneity, survey nonresponse, and/or mortality selection might bias estimates of social disparities in pain. In the process, the article clarifies whether 2 unexpected patterns observed cross-sectionally—plateauing of pain above age 60, and lower pain among racial/ethnic minorities—are genuine or artefactual. Findings show high prevalence of chronic pain: 27.3% at bas...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

New-onset depression following stable, slow, and rapid rate of prescription opioid dose escalation
Abstract: Recent studies suggest that longer durations of opioid use, independent of maximum morphine equivalent dose (MED) achieved, is associated with increased risk of new-onset depression (NOD). Conversely, other studies, not accounting for duration, found that higher MED increased probability of depressive symptoms. To determine whether rate of MED increase is associated with NOD, a retrospective cohort analysis of Veterans Health Administration data (2000-2012) was conducted. Eligible patients were new, chronic (>90 days) opioid users, aged 18 to 80, and without depression diagnoses for 2 years before start of fol...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Amygdala-mediated mechanisms regulate visceral hypersensitivity in adult females following early life stress: importance of the glucocorticoid receptor and corticotropin-releasing factor
This study highlights a shift in GR and CRF regulation within the CeA after ELS that underlies the development of visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Persistent pain after motor vehicle collision: comparative effectiveness of opioids vs nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs prescribed from the emergency department—a propensity matched analysis
Abstract: Each year millions of Americans present to the emergency department (ED) for care after a motor vehicle collision (MVC); the majority (>90%) are discharged to home after evaluation. Acute musculoskeletal pain is the norm in this population, and such patients are typically discharged to home with prescriptions for oral opioid analgesics or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The influence of acute pain management on subsequent pain outcomes in this common ED population is unknown. We evaluated the effect of opioid analgesics vs NSAIDs initiated from the ED on the presence of moderate to severe musculo...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Does brief chronic pain management education change opioid prescribing rates? A pragmatic trial in Australian early-career general practitioners
Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the effect of pain education on opioid prescribing by early-career general practitioners. A brief training workshop was delivered to general practice registrars of a single regional training provider. The workshop significantly reduced “hypothetical” opioid prescribing (in response to paper-based vignettes) in an earlier evaluation. The effect of the training on “actual” prescribing was evaluated using a nonequivalent control group design nested within the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) cohort study: 4 other regional training providers were controls...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain
This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscal...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Peripheral neuropathic pain: a mechanism-related organizing principle based on sensory profiles
We present a new approach of subgrouping patients with peripheral neuropathic pain of different etiologies according to intrinsic sensory profiles. These 3 profiles may be related to pathophysiological mechanisms and may be useful in clinical trial design to enrich the study population for treatment responders. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Long-term use of opioids for nonmalignant pain among community-dwelling persons with and without Alzheimer disease in Finland: a nationwide register-based study
Abstract: Persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) commonly present with chronic nonmalignant pain, but long-term use of opioids among this population has not been studied previously. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of long-term (≥180 days) use of opioids for nonmalignant pain and associated factors among community-dwelling persons with AD and to compare the prevalence with a matched cohort without AD. The Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohort was used for this study, comprising all community-dwelling persons diagnosed with AD in Finland during 2005 to 2011 and their matched comparison persons with...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Ex vivo nonviral gene delivery of μ-opioid receptor to attenuate cancer-induced pain
Abstract: Virus-mediated gene delivery shows promise for the treatment of chronic pain. However, viral vectors have cytotoxicity. To avoid toxicities and limitations of virus-mediated gene delivery, we developed a novel nonviral hybrid vector: HIV-1 Tat peptide sequence modified with histidine and cysteine residues combined with a cationic lipid. The vector has high transfection efficiency with little cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines including HSC-3 (human tongue squamous cell carcinoma) and exhibits differential expression in HSC-3 (∼45-fold) relative to HGF-1 (human gingival fibroblasts) cells. We used the nonviral ...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Genetic variant rs3750625 in the 3′UTR of ADRA2A affects stress-dependent acute pain severity after trauma and alters a microRNA-34a regulatory site
In this study, we tested whether a genetic variant in the 3′UTR of ADRA2A, rs3750625, is associated with acute musculoskeletal pain (MSP) severity following motor vehicle collision (MVC, n = 948) and sexual assault (n = 84), and whether this influence was affected by stress severity. We evaluated rs3750625 because it is located in the seed binding region of miR-34a, a microRNA (miRNA) known to regulate pain and stress responses. In both cohorts, the minor allele at rs3750625 was associated with increased musculoskeletal pain in distressed individuals (stress*rs3750625 P = 0.043 for MVC cohort and P = 0.007 for sexual...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Protective determinants of sickness absence among employees with multisite pain—a 7-year follow-up
In conclusion, several modifiable factors related to work and lifestyle were found as predictive of lower rates of longer SA among occupationally active subjects with MSP. (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Brain substrates of reward processing and the μ-opioid receptor: a pathway into pain?
Abstract: The processing of reward and reinforcement learning seems to be important determinants of pain chronicity. However, reward processing is already altered early in life and if this is related to the development of pain symptoms later on is not known. The aim of this study was first to examine whether behavioural and brain-related indicators of reward processing at the age of 14 to 15 years are significant predictors of pain complaints 2 years later, at 16 to 17 years. Second, we investigated the contribution of genetic variations in the opioidergic system, which is linked to the processing of both, reward and pain,...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Racial and ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity: systematic review and meta-analysis
Abstract: Our objective was to describe the racial and ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO) were searched for studies examining racial/ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity. Thermal–heat, cold–pressor, pressure, ischemic, mechanical cutaneous, electrical, and chemical experimental pain modalities were assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality guideline. Meta-analysis was used to calculate standardized mean differences (SMDs) by pain sensit...
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Comprehensive Review Source Type: research

Translating e-pain research into patient care
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research

Phenotypes and treatment response: it's difficult to make predictions, especially about the future
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Opioidergic tone and pain susceptibility: interactions between reward systems and opioid receptors
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - January 25, 2017 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Clinical assessment of new antineuropathic strategies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: pain should not be the principal endpoint
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

We do not need a third mechanistic descriptor for chronic pain states! Not yet
No abstract available (Source: Pain)
Source: Pain - December 30, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research