Shared Decision-Making for Patients Using Cannabis for Pain Symptom Management in the United States
The objective of this review was to synthesize information on cannabis use for pain with legal and policy implications to create a shared decision-making model that can be used to guide patient care interactions. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 30, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Marian Wilson, Tracy Klein, Ross J. Bindler, Louise Kaplan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Adults ’ Self-Management of Chronic Cancer and Noncancer Pain in People with and Without Cognitive Impairment: A Concept Analysis
To report a concept analysis of adult self-management of chronic pain. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Alfred Habamutaki Kiza, Xiaomei Cong Tags: Quality Improvement Source Type: research

Pain Prevalence, Pain Management, and the Need for Pain Education in Healthcare Undergraduates
Pain is a common health problem in undergraduate students. Pain prevalence, pain management strategies and knowledge among healthcare groups has not been revealed yet. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Yoshimi Kodama, Hiroki Fukahori, Mimi Tse, Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Educating Nurses on Intravenous Lidocaine for Postoperative Pain Management
This article aims to review the pharmacology of intravenous lidocaine for pain management, describe an experience of a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital with implementation of intravenous lidocaine on the surgical ward, and suggest practical tools that can be used to develop protocols and educational content for nurses managing intravenous lidocaine infusions in the postoperative period. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Oluwatobi O. Hunter, Audrey Wong, Jody Leng, Edward R. Mariano Tags: Clinical Consultation Source Type: research

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Music for Pain Relief after Arthroplasty Surgery
Effective pain management for patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, using pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies, is essential. This pilot study evaluated music as an adjuvant therapy with prescribed analgesics to reduce acute pain and analgesic use among patients undergoing arthroplasty surgery. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 28, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Joanne M. Laframboise-Otto, MaryBeth Horodyski, Hari K. Parvataneni, Ann L. Horgas Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Determinants of Knowledge of Pain among Nurses in a Tertiary Hospital in Spain
Poorly controlled pain in patients is related to several complications, such as increased nosocomial infections and mortality, where nurses play a crucial role. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 26, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Alba Maestro-Gonzalez, M. Pilar Mosteiro-Diaz, Julio Fernandez-Garrido, David Zuazua-Rico Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Management of Pain and Anxiety during Bone Marrow Aspiration: An Italian National Survey
Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) or biopsy is a necessary and frequent procedure for diagnosis and monitoring of hematological diseases. Pharmacological pain management approaches exist; however, previous experience and psychological preparation for BMA may impact pain perception. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 24, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Sarah J. Liptrott, Stefano Botti, Francesca Bonifazi, Marco Cioce, Valentina De Cecco, Anna Rita Pesce, Alessandro Caime, Elena Rostagno, Emanuela Samarani, Letizia Galgano, Fabio Ciceri, Laura Orlando, Gianpaolo Gargiulo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Behavioral and Physiological Pain Responses in Brain-Injured Patients Who Are Unable to Communicate in the Intensive Care Unit
Assessing pain of critically ill patients with brain injuries who are unable to communicate is a challenge. Current behavioral scales are limited in accurate pain assessments for this population. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 20, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Youngmin Cho, Gwi-Ryung Son Hong Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Using a Nurse-Led Pain Relief Model for Pain Management among Abdominal Surgical Patients: A Single-Center, Controlled before-after Study in China
Effective pain management is closely related to the prognosis of patients after surgery. Setting up acute pain service is among the effective strategies to control pain. The operation of acute pain service is mostly dominated by anesthesiologists; however, control of postsurgical pain is still unsatisfactory. Nurses are the main force for providing postoperative care of patients, and their role in acute pain service is crucial. Therefore, in the current study, we have developed a nurse-led pain relief model that emphasizes the central role of nurses during the entire surgical procedure. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 6, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Liangyu Fang, Laijuan Chen, Hongling Sun, Yinchuan Xu, Jingfeng Jin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Editorial board
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Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 1, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Table of contents
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Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 1, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

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Source: Pain Management Nursing - October 1, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Does Watching a Relaxing Video During Cystoscopy Affect Pain and Anxiety Levels of Female Patients? A Randomized Controlled Trial
Cystoscopy is noted to be more painful in men. Research has been done to support the use of video in men to reduce pain; it would follow that video would be useful in reducing pain in women as well. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - September 28, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Elif Gezginci, Selahattin Bedir, Cihat Ozcan, Emine Iyigun Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Effects of Auricular Point Acupressure on Pain Relief: A Systematic Review
This systematic review aimed to summarize and provide an update on clinical studies investigating the effects of auricular point acupressure (APA) on pain relief, in addition to the APA methods of delivery and operation. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - September 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Miaomiao Liu, Yingge Tong, Ling Chai, Siqing Chen, Zihao Xue, Yi Chen, Xiaoyan Li Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

A Paradigm Shift for Movement-based Pain Assessment in Older Adults: Practice, Policy and Regulatory Drivers
The profession of nursing has been on the front line of pain assessment and management in older adults for several decades. Self-report has traditionally been the most reliable pain assessment method, and it remains a priority best practice in identifying the presence and intensity of pain. Although advances in technology, biomarkers, and facial cue recognition now complement self-report, it is still important to maximize self-report of pain and to gather understanding of the total pain experience directly from patients. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - September 14, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Staja Q. Booker, Keela A. Herr, Ann L. Horgas Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Comparison of Four Pain Scales Among Hmong Patients with Limited English Proficiency
Little is known about the relevance of existing pain scales for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - September 11, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Maichou Lor, Kyung Soo Kim, Roger L. Brown, David Rabago, Miroslav Backonja Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pain Incidence, Treatment, and Associated Symptoms in Hospitalized Persons with Dementia
Moderate to severe pain has been frequently reported in hospitalized older adults. Pain in hospitalized persons with dementia within the context of other common symptoms, functional decline, delirium, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), has received little attention. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - September 9, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Marie Boltz, Barbara Resnick, Ashley Kuzmik, Jacqueline Mogle, Joanne Roman Jones, Rachel Arendacs, Rhonda BeLue, Pamela Cacchione, James E. Galvin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Fibromyalgia: Results of an Online Survey
Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition which may negatively impact various aspects of patients' lives. Many people with fibromyalgia look to complementary and alternative medicine treatments for symptom relief. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - September 2, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Andrea R. Pfalzgraf, Carroline P. Lobo, Vincent Giannetti, Kimberly Dupree Jones Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Positioning Effects for Procedural Pain Relief in Nicu: Systematic Review
To systematically  review the literature regarding the effectiveness of different positioning methods for procedural pain relief in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 26, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Anilsa Suraya Pedro Gaspar Francisco, Dayane Montemezzo, Simone Nascimento dos Santos Ribeiro, Bruna Frata, Nat ália Alves Menegol, Rodrigo Okubo, Anelise Sonza, Luciana Sayuri Sanada Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Twelve Weeks of Yoga for Chronic Nonspecific Lower Back Pain: A  Meta-Analysis
To investigate the overall effects of 12  weeks of yoga practice on chronic nonspecific lower back pain. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 19, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Sang-Dol Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Journey of the American Society for Pain Management Nursing Into Advocacy and Governmental Affairs
In the spring of 2008, as issues with the American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) organization and members were rising at the federal level in the realm of governmental affairs, the ASPMN leaders decided to pay closer attention to what was occurring with those issues.  The decision was made to start with a small first step to monitor legislation and share with ASPMN's members anything that might be of interest or of which they needed to be aware. The initial step forward was to identify what issues were being discussed and by whom. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 18, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Wade Delk, Ann Quinlan-Colwell Tags: Special Feature Source Type: research

Remembering Colleen Jane Dunwoody, Past President ASPMN 1997-1998
We do not remember specific days, but the beautiful people who cross our paths. A special message by one who cherished the many moments with Colleen Jane Dunwoody. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 18, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Marsha Stanton Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A Verbal Scrapbook Tribute to Ellyn Schreiner –Friend, Nurse, Mentor, Leader
Members of the American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) community are deeply saddened following the transition from this earthly life of our past president Ellyn T. Schreiner, MPH, RN-BC, CHPN. Because she was a passionate and expert scrapbooker, it seems appropriate, to create a verbal scrapbook in which we share precious personal memories of Ellyn. She spent more than half of her 45  years as a nurse working with people living with pain, first at the Adventist Hinsdale Hospital Pain Center, and later at the Adventist St. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 18, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Ann Quinlan-Colwell Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Nonpharmacological Pain Management on Adult Inpatient Units
Interprofessional staff are in a position to champion nonpharmacological pain management interventions, which can be effective when used in conjunction with analgesic medications. The purposes of this study were to understand the barriers and facilitators to using nonpharmacological pain management interventions as perceived by interprofessional staff, as well as to describe current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of interprofessional staff. An interpretive, descriptive study design at a large, urban, academic teaching hospital in the United States was used. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Caroline Warren, Pavithra Jaisankar, Emily Saneski, Amelia Tenberg, Elizabeth Scala Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Preoperative Pain, Catastrophizing, and Differential Gene Expression on Pain Outcomes after Pediatric Spinal Fusion
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most common spinal deformities in children and adolescents requiring extensive surgical intervention. Due to the nature of surgery, spinal fusion increases their risk of experiencing persistent postsurgical pain. Up to 20% of adolescents report pain for months or years after corrective spinal fusion surgery. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 5, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Mallory Perry, Christine B. Sieberg, Erin E. Young, Kyle Baumbauer, Vijender Singh, Cindy Wong, Angela Starkweather Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effect of Kangaroo Care and Oral Sucrose on Pain in Premature Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Premature infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit are routinely exposed to many painful procedures. Pain experienced during the neonatal period may lead to negative outcomes, especially in preterm neonates, hence pain in infants should be reduced. Kangaroo care and oral sucrose are some of the methods that can help reduce pain. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 3, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Elif Sen, Gulay Manav Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Innovative Approaches to Educating Future Clinicians about Opioids, Pain, Addiction and Health Policy
Opioid use disorder and overdose have reached unprecedented levels in many countries across the globe, including the United States, and pain is one of the most common reasons American adults seek healthcare. To address the interrelated public health crises of opioid use disorder and chronic pain, it is vital that clinicians practicing in diverse roles and settings possess the ability and knowledge to effectively manage pain, responsibly prescribe and monitor opioid analgesics, educate patients about harm reduction techniques, and treat opioid use disorder. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - August 2, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Shoshana V. Aronowitz, Peggy Compton, Heath D. Schmidt Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Editorial board
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Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 31, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Table of contents
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Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 31, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Information for Readers
(Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 31, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Effect of a QI Intervention on Nursing Assistants ’ Pain Knowledge and Reporting Behavior
We examined the effect of a multimodal intervention on certified nursing assistants ’ pain recognition knowledge and verbal reporting behavior. Secondarily, we examined pain documentation in a newly established pain log compared with pain verbally reported to nurses and documented in the electronic health record (EHR). (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 30, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Jessica A. Joy, Lorraine M. Novosel, Dianxu Ren, Sandra Engberg Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Factors Related to Nurses ’ Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Pain in Hospitals in Low-Income Areas
Effective pain management is closely related to nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pain. Limited studies have been performed related to nurses ’ knowledge and attitudes toward pain in hospitals in low-income areas. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 22, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Meijun Ou, Xianghua Xu, Yongyi Chen, Yunying Yan, Ke Wang, Lianqing Zhou Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The Effect of Position Support During Orthopedic Surgery on Postoperative Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Positional pain affect the patient ’s healing process after the operation. Anti-pressure positioning pads are medical products used to support the patient positioning during surgical procedures. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 21, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: D öndü Soyer Erdemir, Leman Şenturan Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Validation of the Arabic Version of the Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy results in multidimensional neurological and muscular symptoms, which interfere with the patients ’ daily life. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 16, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Abdullah Obaid, Aqel El-Aqoul, Ahmad Alafafsheh, Hussien Abu-Khudair, Murad Saleh, Amer Kuliab Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Policy Opportunities to Support Family Caregivers Managing Pain in People with Dementia
The inherent challenges of an aging population and increased frailty include physical, social, psychological, and cognitive issues and associated complexities. With the growing population of persons living with dementia (PLWD), the need for continued support of family caregivers for these individuals also grows. Chronic pain is a common problem among older adults. The 2016 Global Burden of Disease Study reported pain as the leading cause of disability and disease burden globally (Vos et  al., 2017). (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 16, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Jeffrey T. Boon, Cathy A. Maxwell Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Development and Pilot Evaluation of an Educational Tool for the FLACC Pain Scale
The FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) pain scale is commonly used for pediatric pain assessment; however, no online educational tool exists to facilitate the use of the scale. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Juliana Choueiry, Jessica Reszel, Jemila S. Hamid, Jodi Wilding, Brenda Martelli, Denise Harrison Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Policy Implications for Pain in Advanced Alzheimer's Disease
Untreated pain in people with Alzheimer's disease continues to be a serious public health problem. Pain is a subjective and complex experience that becomes increasingly challenging to assess as cognition declines. Our understanding of pain processing is incomplete, particularly for special populations such as people living with Alzheimer's disease, and especially in the advanced stages of the disease. Pain-processing networks in the brain are altered in Alzheimer's disease, yet evidence suggests people living with Alzheimer's disease do not experience less pain. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Alison R. Anderson, Karen Hyden, Michelle D. Failla, Michael A. Carter Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Pain Management in Home Health Care: Relationship With Dementia and Facility Admissions
Pain is common yet under-studied among older Medicare home health (HH) patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 13, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Jinjiao Wang, Todd B. Monroe, Adam Simning, Yeates Conwell, Thomas V. Caprio, Xueya Cai, Helena Temkin-Greener, Ulrike Muench, Fang Yu, Song Ge, Yue Li Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Nurse's Evaluation of a Pain Management Algorithm in Intensive Care Units
Many patients  have memories of pain during intensive care unit stay. To improve pain management, practice guidelines recommend that pain management should be guided by routine pain assessment and suggest an assessment-driven, protocol-based, stepwise approach. This recommendation prompted the development of a p ain-management algorithm. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 6, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Brita F. Olsen, Tone Rust øen, Berit T. Valeberg Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Prevalence and Correlates of Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Chronic Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study
Frailty is a frequent health condition in older adults of decreased functional reserve that leads to vulnerability to internal and external stressors. It has been associated with chronic pain, which is a common, costly and incapacitating condition in older adults. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 3, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Pedro Otones Reyes, Eva Garc ía Perea, Milagros Rico Blázquez, Azucena Pedraz Marcos Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Observation of Emergency Room Nurses Managing Pediatric Pain: Care to Be Given … Care Given…
Although pain undeniably has negative consequences, pain management often remains suboptimal, particularly in the pediatric population in the emergency room (ER). (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 2, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Soulaima Abouzida, Patricia Bourgault, Sylvie Lafrenaye Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A More Comfortable Method of Skin Prick Testing in Children Ages 0-2 to Decrease Symptoms of Pain
Skin prick testing (SPT) is the best initial diagnostic method for individuals of all ages who have potential allergies. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - July 1, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Nazli Ercan, Ilknur Bostanci, G ülay Şenel, Serap Özmen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Educational Program to Increase Substance Use Disorder Knowledge and Decrease Stigma in First-Year Nursing Students
The opioid epidemic in the United States is changing the population nurses serve. Stigma and bias among healthcare providers towards patients with substance use disorder occurs across disciplines and negatively impacts the care provided to this population. We sought to assess the knowledge and perceptions of first-year nursing students at a large college of nursing towards those with opioid use disorder and to provide an educational intervention with the goals of decreasing bias, increasing substance use disorder knowledge, and increasing the understanding of multi-pronged treatment strategies. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - June 23, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Jennifer Lanzillotta-Rangeley, Jamie Leslie, Myrna Little, Jack Stem, Emily Asselin, Melita Kurahovic Tags: Quality Improvement Source Type: research

African American Young Adults ’ Pain and Pain Reduction Strategies
Effective acute pain management strategies are important for young adults in order to reduce risk for transition to chronic pain. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - June 22, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Bright Eze, Deborah Dillon McDonald Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Characteristics of Low Back Pain in Pregnancy, Risk Factors, and Its Effects on Quality of Life
Low back pain is a common problem experienced during pregnancy, negatively affecting quality of life. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - June 18, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: M ünevver Aybüke Berber, İlkay Güngör Satılmış Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Adolescent Patients ’ Management of Postoperative Pain after Discharge: A Qualitative Study
Adolescents are typically admitted for a short period of time after inpatient surgery, leaving much of their recovery to occur at home. Pain, and thus pain management, is a major component of recovery at home. Research among pediatric outpatient surgical patients has found that pain experienced in the community setting after discharge is often severe and is related to knowledge deficits resulting in inadequate pain management. However, there is little research on community pain management after inpatient surgery. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - June 13, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Bill Dagg, Paula Forgeron, Gail Macartney, Julie Chartrand Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Dealing with Uncertainty: Lessons Learned from COVID-19
(Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - June 9, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Elaine Miller Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Depression in African American Patients Being Treated for Cancer Pain
Among cancer patients in the United States, African American cancer patients have the highest mortality rate and shortest survival rate. Although depression is known as a predictor of mortality in cancer and a potential barrier to health care utilization, research on depression in African American patients is limited. Cancer pain can interfere with an individual ’s ability to cope with depression. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - June 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Youjeong Kang, Salimah H. Meghani, Deborah W. Bruner, Katherine A. Yeager Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Facilitators, Barriers, and Solutions in Pain Management for Older Adults with Dementia
Although qualitative studies have been conducted to identify barriers and facilitators that influence the pain management of older adults with dementia, as far as we know, only a very recent study (Andrews et al., 2019) has used participatory action research (PAR) as a methodology for studying pain management. It allows nurses to examine and improve their practice based on their realities and within their context. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - May 28, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Al ícia Minaya-Freire, Anna Ramon-Aribau, Gemma Pou-Pujol, Meritxell Fajula-Bonet, Mireia Subirana-Casacuberta Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Comparison of the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate (PACSLAC) and Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale (PAINAD)
There is currently no gold standard instrument for assessing pain in severely cognitively impaired adults who are unable to provide self-report. (Source: Pain Management Nursing)
Source: Pain Management Nursing - May 28, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Teofanes Natavio, Elizabeth McQuillen, Mary S. Dietrich, Nancy Wells, Bethany A. Rhoten, April Hazard Vallerand, Todd B. Monroe Tags: Original Article Source Type: research