Peritoneal dialysis in children with sepsis associated AKI (SA-AKI): an experience in a low to middle income country.
Authors: Tomar A, Kumar V, Saha A Abstract Background: In critically ill children, sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (SA-AKI) has significant morbidity and mortality. Aim: To estimate whether early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) has a better short-term outcome than standard PD. Methods: Early PD (n = 25) was defined as a need for PD in Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 2 AKI, while those fulfilling the criteria for stage 3 KDIGO were categorised as a standard PD group (n = 25). The primary outcome measure was the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at discharge or...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - January 20, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

COVID-19 in the paediatric population of Kazakhstan.
Conclusion: Most cases of COVID-19 infection in children in Kazakhstan were asymptomatic or the symptoms were mild. Only three patients required intensive care. PMID: 33315538 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - December 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Global emerging resistance in pediatric infections with TB, HIV, and gram-negative pathogens.
Authors: Enane LA, Christenson JC Abstract Infants, children and adolescents are at risk of life-threatening, antimicrobial-resistant infections. Global burdens of drug-resistant TB, HIV and gram-negative pathogens have a particular impact on paediatric age groups, necessitating a paediatric-focused agenda to address emerging resistance. Dedicated approaches are needed to find, successfully treat and prevent resistant infections in paediatric populations worldwide. Challenges include the diagnosis and identification of resistant infections, limited access to novel antimicrobials or to paediatric-friendly formulatio...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - December 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in a 2.5-month-old infant: congenital or acquired dilemma?
Authors: Bhat YR, Kini S, Halegubbi Karegowda L Abstract Infants may develop congenital tuberculosis from an infectious mother or acquire the disease postnatally by contact with an infectious adult. Delayed diagnosis is common, especially in infants under 1 year of age, and, if unrecognised, there is an increased risk of death. A 2.5-month-old boy presented with respiratory distress, small inhomogeneous opacities in both lungs and hepatosplenomegaly mimicking sepsis. He had received BCG vaccination and there was no history of contact with tuberculosis (TB). He had had fever since 1 month of age for which there...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 21, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk factors in Brazilianchildren and adolescents: the mediating role of obesity parameters.
CONCLUSION: Adiposity plays a central role in CMRF; therefore, maintaining an adequate weight status should be an important objective of health-promoting programmes in early age. Abbreviations: CMRF, cardiometabolic risk factors; CRF, cardiorespiratory fitness; BMI. body mass index; HDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, PROCESS PROESP-Br, Projeto Esporte Brasil; SPSS, Package for Social Sciences; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; WC, waist circumference; WHtR, waist-to-height ratio; %BF, percentage of body fat. PMID: 33112727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - October 29, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Neisseria oralis septicaemia in a newborn: first recorded case.
Authors: Baniulyte G, Svirpliene S, Eccleston A, Arjunan S, Connor M Abstract Neisseria oralis is a bacterium which normally resides within the oral microflora. A female infant was born by emergency caesarean section owing to fetal distress with a gestational age of 38 weeks, a birthweight of 2250 g and a temperature of 36.5°C. The pregnancy had been normal. The delivery was complicated by prolonged rupture of membranes (48 hours) and meconium-stained and foul-smelling liquor. APGAR scores were 1 at 1 min, 9 at 5 min and 9 at 10 min. The infant looked pale and had respiratory distr...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - October 14, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Validity of maternal visual assessment of neonatal jaundice: a hospital-based study in Thailand.
CONCLUSION: Teaching mothers to visually assess their infants for neonatal jaundice was demonstrated to be feasible. ABBREVIATIONS: CI, confidence interval; MB, microbilirubin; min/max, minimum/maximum; NPV, negative predictive value; OPD, outpatient department; PPV, positive predictive value; SD, standard deviation; TcB, transcutaneous bilirubin. PMID: 32990182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Infantile nephrotic syndrome secondary to cytomegalovirus infection in a 7-month-old girl: resolution with ganciclovir.
Authors: Kaur J, Deepthi B, Dhull RS, Faruq MD, Saha A Abstract Infantile nephrotic syndrome is a rare disorder which is frequently caused by genetic defects. A 7-month-old girl presented with fever, loose stools and anasarca and was diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. Work-up for a genetic cause was negative. Cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction (CMV PCR) was positive and the infant was treated with ganciclovir for 6 weeks, followed by valganciclovir for 10 weeks. All symptoms resolved within 2 weeks of commencing treatment and she attained complete remission within 4 weeks. CMV PCR was neg...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

An adolescent girl with obstructive uropathy requiring nephro-ureterectomy was subsequently diagnosed with renal tuberculosis: case report.
Authors: Kaba Ö, Kara M, Bayramoğlu Z, Çalışkan E, Çetin B, Karimov E, Özkuvancı Ü, Özlük Y, Hançerli Torun S, Yürük Yıldırım ZN, Ziylan HO, Somer A Abstract A 15-year-old girl was followed up for 2 years in a district hospital for management of vesicoureteral reflux and, subsequently, hydronephrosis of both kidneys and required bilateral ureteroneocystostomy. Despite surgery, there was continuous progression of the left hydronephrosis. Referral to a tertiary hospital because of continued sterile pyuria prompted investigation for tuberculosis (TB):...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 30, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Prospective evaluation of World Health Organization guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in children presenting to an emergency department in a resource-limited setting.
CONCLUSION: The WHO criteria had poor sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children presenting to the ED in a resource-limited setting. PMID: 32937093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 18, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Paediatric scurvy: frequently misdiagnosed.
Authors: Musa H, Ismail II, Abdul Rashid NH Abstract Paediatric scurvy is uncommon in the modern age but cases have been reported in children with neurodevelopmental issues and restricted dietary habits. The broad clinical picture is frequently overlooked as primarily other systemic diseases are considered first leading to extensive investigations and delay in diagnosis. A 4-year-old boy with autism and bilateral lower limb pain and refusal to walk is reported. His restricted diet and radiographic findings were highly suggestive of scurvy which was confirmed by the extremely low levels of ascorbic acid. Treatment w...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 18, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

A rare case of metapneumovirus-induced rhabdomyolysis and multi-organ dysfunction in a 4-year-old child.
Authors: Chidambaram AC, Bhowmick R, Parameswaran N, Gunasekaran D Abstract Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a common cause of acute respiratory tract infections in children. In immunocompetent individuals, the course of hMPV infection is usually benign and self-limiting. A developmentally normal, previously healthy 4-year-old girl presented with pneumonia and later developed rhabdomyolysis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) which was fatal. Extensive microbiological investigation for a possible viral aetiology was positive only for hMPV, thus making it the first reported case of hMPV infection-related rhab...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 12, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Review of Ebola virus disease in children - how far have we come?
Authors: Dixit D, Masumbuko Claude K, Kjaldgaard L, Hawkes MT Abstract Ebola virus (EBOV) causes an extremely contagious viral haemorrhagic fever associated with high mortality. While, historically, children have represented a small number of total cases of Ebolavirus disease (EVD), in recent outbreaks up to a quarter of cases have been in children. They pose unique challenges in clinical management and infection prevention and control. In this review of paediatric EVD, the epidemiology of past EVD outbreaks with specific focus on children is discussed, the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings are descri...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 9, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of SARS-CoV2-infected paediatric patients in Jordan: serial RT-PCR testing until discharge.
CONCLUSION: All children admitted who tested positive for SARS-CoV2 had mild symptoms and five had cutaneous manifestations. RT-PCR may remain positive for over one month. PMID: 32894032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 9, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Diaphragmatic palsy in a 10-month-old boy with infantile tremor syndrome causing respiratory failure with full response to vitamin B12 therapy.
Authors: Bidhuri N, Kumar V, Singh R, Singh DP, Agarwal S, Nandan D Abstract Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) owing to vitamin B12 deficiency usually presents with tremors, anaemia, pigmentary skin changes, neuro-regression and hypotonia. A 10-month-old boy with ITS and respiratory failure owing to bilateral diaphragmatic palsy who responded to high parenteral doses of vitamin B12 is presented. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of diaphragmatic palsy associated with ITS and vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID: 32870749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Neonaticide rate unchanged in Japan despite a decrease in the birth rate.
CONCLUSION: The number of births in Japan has been declining gradually but the rate of neonaticide is the same. PMID: 32783699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - August 14, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Inflammatory bowel disease in children in sub-Saharan Africa.
Authors: Epstein D, Kassianides C, Gaibee Z, Watermeyer G, Griffiths A PMID: 32772905 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - August 13, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Child survivor of rabies in India: a case report.
This report demonstrates the detailed clinico-investigative profile of a child who survived rabies following inadequate post-exposure prophylaxis and adds to the sparse knowledge of this usually fatal condition. ABBREVIATIONS: ADEM, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; CBNAAT, cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; EEG, electroencephalogram; GCS, Glasgow coma scale; EVM, eye opening, best verbal response, best motor response; IM, intramuscular; IVIg, intravenous immunoglobulin; MRC, Medical Research Council; MRI/FLAIR, magnetic resonance imaging/fluid attenuation inversion recovery;...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - August 5, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Intrapericardial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour in a 3-month-old infant associated with Coronavirus OC43 presenting with pericardial tamponade.
Authors: Donmez YN, Aykan HH, Orhan D, Peker RO, Yilmaz M, Karagoz T Abstract Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour usually has a benign course and is very rarely associated with the heart. It can have life-threatening consequences, depending on its position or the presence of aggressive and metastatic complications. A 3-month-old boy presented with pericardial tamponade and was diagnosed with intrapericardial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour associated with Coronavirus OC43. A large tumour attached to the left ventricle was completely removed by surgical resection and he made a full recovery. ABBREVIATIONS: A...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 16, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Myocardial injury in patients with sickle cell anaemia and myocardial ischaemia in Calabar, Nigeria.
Conclusions Most SCA children have an ischaemic ECG with elevated serum cTnT, especially during VOC, which suggests ischaemic-induced cardiac injury. However, elevated serum cTnT can occur without an ischaemic ECG and vice versa. Performing only electrocardiography or cTnT to detect ischaemia-induced cardiac injury may be misleading. Therefore, when there is a high index of suspicion, both tests should be undertaken, especially during VOC, to ensure prompt, effective treatment. Abbreviations AHC, apparently healthy children; AUC, area under the ROC curve; BMI, body mass index; cTnT, cardiac troponin T; ECG, electrocardiogr...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 16, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhoea: an integral part of management.
Authors: Rerksuppaphol L, Rerksuppaphol S PMID: 32644019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 11, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review.
Authors: Rajapakse N, Dixit D Abstract Coronaviruses, seven of which are known to infect humans, can cause a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe illness and death. Four human coronaviruses (hCoVs)-229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43-circulate globally, commonly infect children and typically cause mild upper respiratory tract infections. Three novel coronaviruses of zoonotic origin have emerged during the past two decades: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the recently discovered severe acute resp...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 27, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Zika virus in Brazil and worldwide: a narrative review.
Conclusions: More detailed knowledge of ZIKV infection in children allows the pediatrician to diagnose earlier, implement the correct treatment, monitor warnings signs for the most severe forms, and especially establish effective preventive measures. ABBREVIATIONS: CDC, Centers for Disease Control; CZS, congenital Zika syndrome; DEET, N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide; GBS, Guillain-Barré syndrome; PRNT, plaque reduction neutralisation test; RNA, ribonucleic acid; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; STX, saxitoxin; ZIKV, Zika virus. PMID: 32576082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 26, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Relationship between low serum vitamin D status and urinary tract infection in children: a case-control study.
Authors: Mahmoudzadeh H, Nikibakhsh AA, Pashapour S, Ghasemnejad-Berenji M Abstract BACKGROUND: A link between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections has recently been suggested. AIM: To investigate a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: A case-control study was undertaken comprising 75 children aged 2-7 years with UTI (cases) compared with 75 healthy controls in terms of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured using a chemiluminescence assay. For cases, dimercaptosuccinic ...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 4, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Juvenile dermatomyositis presenting as complete heart block in a 10-year-old girl.
Authors: Ghosh R, Roy D, Dubey S, Abdelrahman K, Dey AK, Chatterjee S, Lahiri D, Ray BK Abstract Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an auto-immune inflammatory condition associated with cardiac disorders including conduction abnormalities and myocardial dysfunction. The time of presentation of cardiac abnormalities can range from disease onset to after long-term follow-up, emphasising the importance of screening for cardiac involvement in JDM. A previously healthy 10-year-old girl presented with syncope, fatigue and weakness associated with a heliotrope rash. JDM was diagnosed based on the clinical, laboratory and i...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 21, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhoea: an integral part of management.
Authors: Kumar J, Yadav A PMID: 32400302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Vitamin B12 deficiency in Indian infants and children.
Authors: Goraya JS PMID: 32338199 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 28, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

An outbreak of dengue fever in children in the National Capital District of Papua New Guinea in 2016.
Conclusion: There is the potential for future outbreaks of increased severity in Papua New Guinea. Surveillance, mosquito reduction initiatives and health education programmes are needed to reduce the impact of future outbreaks. PMID: 32330106 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 25, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Influenza virus infection complicated by bacterial necrotising pneumonia: two case reports.
Authors: Arruda AA, Fortuna JP, Raposo AT, Soares MRP, Gonçalves JA, Gomes MF Abstract Necrotising pneumonia (NP) is a potentially severe complication of community-acquired pneumonia characterised by necrosis of consolidated lung tissue. A 7-year-old boy and a 6-year-old boy are presented, both of whom had a complicated influenza infection which evolved into severe NP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Both needed intensive care for invasive respiratory support. Despite extensive pleural involvement in both cases, only one required thoracic surgery. Case 1 also developed anaemia, hyponatraemia and hypo-albu...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Risk factors for mortality and management of children with complicated severe acute malnutrition at a tertiary referral hospital in Malawi.
Authors: Vonasek BJ, Chiume M, Crouse HL, Mhango S, Kondwani A, Ciccone EJ, Kazembe PN, Gaven W, Fitzgerald E Abstract Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major cause of childhood mortality in resource-limited settings. The relationship between clinical factors and adherence to the 'WHO 10 Steps' and mortality in children with SAM is not fully understood.Methods: Data from an ongoing prospective observational cohort study assessing admission characteristics, management patterns and clinical outcome in children aged 6-36 months admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malawi from September 2018 to Septem...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 5, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis without asthma or cystic fibrosis.
Authors: Kaur P, Kumar P, Randev S, Guglani V Abstract Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological disease complicating asthma or cystic fibrosis. An 8-year-old girl with no previous respiratory morbidity was diagnosed with ABPA on the basis of a raised eosinophil count and total and specific serum IgE levels combined with a positive skin-prick test for aspergillus and typical CT images of finger-in-glove hilar opacities and hyperattenuating mucous. She responded to treatment with itraconazole and corticosteroids and remains well. As far as we are aware, she is only the second child to be dia...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 4, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

The change in prevalence of suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Korean adolescents from 2001 to 2017.
Conclusions: The prevalence of suspected NAFLD continues to increase in Korean adolescents.Abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; KNHANES, Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID: 32223545 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors for neurocysticercosis in children with a first-onset seizure in rural North India.
Conclusion: In India, NCC is a common cause of first-onset seizure. The major risk factors are poor environmental sanitation and poor food and drinking water hygiene. NCC can be controlled and prevented by generating awareness of hygienic consumption of food and water and the provision of good sanitation. PMID: 32204672 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 26, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Fatal congenital tuberculosis owing to late diagnosis of maternal tuberculosis: case report and review of congenital tuberculosis in China.
Authors: Sun JM, Wang C, Jin DQ, Deng F Abstract Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare and the prognosis is poor if not detected early. The diagnosis is often delayed owing to non-specific clinical presentation, misdiagnosis and undiagnosed maternal TB during pregnancy. A 12-day-old girl presented with a 5-day history of fever, cough, poor feeding and respiratory distress. Her mother had a cough and fever at 30 weeks gestation which was managed empirically as community-acquired pneumonia without a TB workup. Immediately postpartum, her mother developed a high fever and shortness of breath and required admission...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 22, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Nebulised normal saline in moderate acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia in a low- to middle-income country: a randomised trial in Papua New Guinea.
Authors: Pukai G, Duke T Abstract Background: Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the commonest cause of hospitalisation in young children and supportive care remains the cornerstone of management. A randomised open trial was undertaken at the Port Moresby General Hospital Children's Emergency Department (CED) to determine whether nebulised normal saline had beneficial effects.Methods: Children
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 20, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Acute haemorrhagic pericarditis: an unusual presentation of Chlamydophila pneumoniae pneumonia infection.
Authors: Oztek Celebi FZ, Fettah A, Yesil S, Yoldas T, Tanir G, Akcaboy M, Senel S Abstract Chlamydophila pneumoniae, a common cause of respiratory tract infections, rarely leads to serious conditions. A 13-year-old boy with serologically confirmed C. pneumoniae infection presented with pneumonia complicated by pericardial and bilateral pleural effusions. He had a large haemorrhagic pericardial effusion from which 1000 ml of fluid was aspirated over 10 days and a right haemorrhagic pleural effusion which required a chest drain and the removal of 700 ml over 5 days. The addition of clarithromycin...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Nurse-led implementation of ETAT+ is associated with reduced mortality in a children's hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone.
Authors: Hands S, Verriotis M, Mustapha A, Ragab H, Hands C Abstract Background: In the wake of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone, secondary care facilities faced an increase in admissions with few members of medical staff available to assess and treat patients. This led to long waiting times in hospital outpatient departments. The study was undertaken in the outpatient department of Ola During Children's Hospital (the tertiary paediatric hospital for Sierra Leone) in the period immediately following the EVD epidemic of 2014-2015.Aims: This retrospective analysis of operational programme data a...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - January 24, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and type I diabetes: an unsolved enigma.
Authors: Kumar J, Yadav J PMID: 31960786 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - January 22, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and type 1 diabetes: an unsolved enigma.
Authors: Liao PF, Pan HH, Tsai JD, Hung TW, Sheu JN PMID: 31905051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - January 8, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a 2.5-year-old boy with dengue infection: a rare complication.
Authors: Gogireddy RR, Kumar V, Ranjit S, Natraj R, Venkatachalapathy P, Jayakumar I, Margabandhu S Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a neglected and least studied complication of dengue. AKI secondary to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in dengue is extremely rare and there are few case reports. A 2.5-year-old boy with dengue who developed TTP in the critical phase of illness is described. He presented with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and AKI. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)/TTP was suspected and he underwent seven cycles of plasma exchange along with renal replacement therapy, fol...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - January 2, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Management of neonatal jaundice in low- and middle-income countries.
Authors: Slusher TM, Vaucher YE Abstract Abbreviations: ABE: acute bilirubin encephalopathy; ABR: auditory evoked brainstem response; BIND: bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction; EBT: exchange blood transfusions; HIC: high-income countries; KSD: kernicterus spectrum disorder; LED: light-emitting diode; LMIC: low- and middle-income countries; SNH: severe neonatal jaundice or hyperbilirubinaemia; TcB: transcutaneous bilirubinometry; TSB: total serum bilirubin. PMID: 31875773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - December 27, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

The use of immature platelet fraction to predict time to platelet recovery in patients with dengue infection.
Conclusion: In patients with dengue infection, IPF ≥10.0% after defervescence is a predictor of subsequent platelet recovery to a haemostatic level ≥60 × 109/L within 72 hours. PMID: 31809660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - December 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Risk of metabolic syndrome and early vascular markers for atherosclerosis in obese Indonesian adolescents.
Conclusion: The prevalence of risks of cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents was significant. The higher the BMI Z-score, the higher the risks of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to reduce obesity and its cardiovascular disease morbidities are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.Abbreviations: BMI; body mass index; CIMT, carotid artery intima-media thickness; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FMD flow-mediated dilation; HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HbA1c haemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; IOTF, International Obesity Task Force...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 30, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Acceptability and uptake of an electronic decision-making tool to support the implementation of IMCI in primary healthcare facilities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Authors: Jensen C, McKerrow NH, Wills G Abstract Background: Despite progress in reducing child mortality, preventable child deaths remain a challenge in South Africa. Poor implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines has been well described, and the reported barriers to implementation include a lack of user-friendly implementation tools.Aim: To investigate whether an electronic decision support tool to strengthen IMCI implementation is acceptable to nurses, clinic managers and caregivers at primary care facilities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: The electronic IMCI (eIMCI)...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 30, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Serum periostin levels in acute rheumatic fever: is it useful as a new biomarker?
Authors: Epçaçan S, Yücel E Abstract Background: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) continues to be a public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Because there is no specific laboratory test for the exact diagnosis of ARF, the diagnosis is made by the modified Jones criteria. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein which has been shown to be expressed during remodelling, mechanical stress and tissue repair. There are no data on the relationship between periostin and ARF. Aim: To evaluate serum periostin levels in patients with ARF and investigate its usefulness as a biomarker for dia...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - October 29, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Efficacy of zinc supplementation in the management of acute diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial.
This study investigated the efficacy of zinc supplementation on the treatment outcomes of children admitted to hospital with acute diarrhoea. Methods: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in the Srinakharinwirot University Hospital's Paediatric Department, Thailand. Eligible children were randomly allocated to receive either zinc bisglycinate (15 mg elemental zinc) or a placebo. The study protocol was registered in the Thai Clinical Trials Registry (TCTR20190423004). Results: Of 86 patients, 50 (58.1%) were male and the mean age (range) was 2.5 years (6 months to 9.3 years). The...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - October 4, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Inflammatory bowel disease in Nigerian children: case series and management challenges.
Authors: Senbanjo I, Akinola A, Kumolu-Johnson T, Igbekoyi O, Oshikoya K Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rare in sub-Saharan Africa. Five cases in Nigerian children are presented to highlight the occurrence, pattern of clinical presentation and management challenges. The patients were identified following a retrospective review of all diagnosed cases of IBD between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2018 seen at the Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. The median age (range) was 9 (7-13) years. Three cases were diagnosed because bloody diar...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research