Inflammatory bowel disease in Nigerian children: case series and management challenges.
Authors: Senbanjo I, Akinola A, Kumolu-Johnson T, Igbekoyi O, Oshikoya K Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rare in sub-Saharan Africa. Five cases in Nigerian children are presented to highlight the occurrence, pattern of clinical presentation and management challenges. The patients were identified following a retrospective review of all diagnosed cases of IBD between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2018 seen at the Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. The median age (range) was 9 (7-13) years. Three cases were diagnosed because bloody diar...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - September 10, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial dysfunction in perinatal asphyxia.
Authors: Bhasin H PMID: 31296121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 14, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Improving the quality of neonatal data capture and clinical care at a tertiary-care hospital in Uganda through enhanced surveillance, training and mentorship.
Conclusion: Improvement in neonatal data capture and quality of care was observed following establishment of an enhanced surveillance system, training and mentorship. Abbreviations: aOR: adjusted odds ratio; CHRP: Centre for Health research and Programmes; HC: health centre; HMIS: Health Management Information System; JRRH: Jinja Regional Referral Hospital; NMRF: neonatal medical record form; PMTCT: prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; UPA: Uganda Paediatric Association. PMID: 31290375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Association between severe retinopathy of prematurity and postnatal weight gain in very low-birth weight infants at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand.
Authors: Wongnophirun A, Khuwuthyakorn V, Tantiprabha W, Wiwatwongwana A Abstract Background: Poor postnatal weight gain has been associated with low serum IGF-1, a key factor in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Aim: To investigate an association between relative weight gain (RWG) and severe ROP in very low-birthweight (VLBW) Thai infants. Methods: The medical records of VLBW infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Chiang Mai University Hospital from June 2014 to December 2016 and screened for ROP were reviewed. RWG and total calorie intake (TCI) in the 2nd, 4rth and 6t...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 7, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Reply to letter to the editor: "Comparison of efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen versus oral indomethacin".
Reply to letter to the editor: "Comparison of efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen versus oral indomethacin". Paediatr Int Child Health. 2019 Jul 03;:1-2 Authors: Khuwuthyakorn V, Tantiprabha W, Silvilairat S PMID: 31267847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial dysfunction in perinatal asphyxia.
Authors: Kumar J, Yadav A PMID: 31267849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Vitamin B12 status and neurodevelopmental delay in Indian infants: a hospital-based cross-sectional study.
Authors: Azad C, Jat KR, Kaur J, Guglani V, Palta A, Tiwari A, Bansal D Abstract Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency owing to a vegetarian diet is common in India and is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in infants aged 1-12 months and to correlate the results with neurodevelopment. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 infants aged 1-12 months presenting to the emergency department or ward and requiring blood sampling or intravenous cannulation was undertaken in a tertiary-care centre of Northern India. Patients' serum vitami...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Chronic tuberculous empyema in an 8-year-old boy.
Authors: Wen Y, Zhu Y, Gong Z, Shu M, Wan C Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as a causative organism of empyema thoracis is rare, especially in children. An 8-year-old boy with tuberculous empyema and no history of contact with tuberculosis presented with minimal symptoms other than mild deformity of the chest wall. He had been vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin. A chest CT scan demonstrated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, thickened and calcified pleural rind and rib thickening adjacent to the empyema. The diagnosis was confirmed by post-operative histopathological examination, positive acid-fa...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - July 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

CPAP and high-flow oxygen to address high mortality of very severe pneumonia in low-income countries - keeping it in perspective.
Authors: Duke T PMID: 31241014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

CFH and CFB mutations in Shiga toxin-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome in a 6-year-old boy.
Authors: Çelakil ME, Yücel BB, Bek K Abstract Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is most commonly associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) while the recurrent hereditary atypical (aHUS) form secondary to complement system control protein mutations is relatively rare. A 6-year-old boy with complement factor H (CFH) and factor B (CFB) mutations and a history of bloody diarrhoea and PCR positivity for Shiga toxin was initially diagnosed as STEC+HUS. Acute kidney injury resolved with Eculizumab but he remains with chronic renal failure. Although the exact role of STEC in the pathogenesis...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 28, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Effective training-of-trainers model for the introduction of continuous positive airway pressure for neonatal and paediatric patients in Kenya.
Conclusion: The ToT model was successful, nurses initiated CPAP most commonly, prematurity with acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common indication, and adverse events were uncommon. PMID: 31190634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Epidemiology of invasive bacterial infections in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-vaccinated and -unvaccinated children under 5 years of age in Soweto, South Africa: a cohort study from a high-HIV burden setting.
Authors: Johnstone SL, Moore DP, Klugman KP, Madhi SA, Groome MJ Abstract Background: There are limited data on paediatric invasive bacterial infections (IBI) and the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on the spectrum of IBI pathogens, specifically in African countries with a high prevalence of HIV infection. Aim: To describe the epidemiology of IBI in a cohort of children
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 5, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Comparative outcome of overhead and total body phototherapy for treatment of severe neonatal jaundice in Nigeria.
Authors: Amadi HO, Abdullahi RA, Mokuolu OA, Ezeanosike OB, Adesina CT, Mohammed IL, Olateju EK, Abubakar AL, Bello MA, Eneh AU, Onwe Ogah E, Eziechila BC, Chapp-Jumbo AU, Jimoh A, Udo JJ Abstract Background: In Nigeria, neonatal jaundice is commonly treated by overhead phototherapy with neonates lying supine, often with effective exposure of less than one half of the body surface. Total body exposure in phototherapy has been in use for less than 2 years in Nigeria, but is available in only five neonatal centres. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of total body exposure (TBPE) with the conventional partial exposure ...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - June 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Isotonic versus hypotonic saline as maintenance intravenous fluid therapy in children under 5 years of age admitted to general paediatric wards: a randomised controlled trial.
Authors: Kumar M, Mitra K, Jain R Abstract Background: To prevent the risk of iatrogenic hyponatraemia in hospitalised children, isotonic fluid has been recommended as maintenance intravenous fluid (IVF). There are few studies which compare half normal saline with normal saline as maintenance IVF in general paediatric wards. Aim: To compare the safety and efficacy of half normal saline with normal saline as maintenance IVF in general paediatric wards. Methods: Children aged between 3 months and 5 years with an anticipated requirement for IVF for 24 h were randomised to receive either half normal sali...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 31, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in poorly resourced settings: better to pre-empt than to wait until it is too late.
Authors: Molyneux EM PMID: 31116094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Importance of the method used to estimate 25(OH)D and the definition used for vitamin D status classification in a clinical trial on vitamin D metabolism.
Authors: Viraraghavan VR PMID: 31094295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 18, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Establishing a neonatal database in a tertiary hospital in Rwanda - an observational study.
CONCLUSIONS: An academic setting in a low- or middle-income country can create and maintain a neonatal database without funding and produce a wealth of actionable results. Throughout the process, there were considerable challenges which must be addressed if such a database is to be optimised, maintained and created in other clinical sites. ABBREVIATIONS: CHUK: Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Kigali (University Teaching Hospital of Kigali); CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; HCP: Healthcare professional; HRH, Human Resources for Health Programme; LMIC: low- and middle-income countries; MeSH: Medical subje...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 15, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Increased prevalence of hypertensive-level blood pressure using the American Academy of Pediatrics 2017 guidelines: a cross-sectional study in a primary school in Thailand.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypertensive-level BP in children was increased using the 2017 guidelines. Children with hypertensive-level BP using the 2017 AAP guidelines but not the 2004 AAP guidelines had greater BMI Z-scores and a greater proportion were obese than the in the normotensive children. Body mass index was the only independent factor associated with hypertensive-level BP. ABBREVIATIONS: AAP: American Academy of Pediatrics; BMI: body mass index; BP: blood pressure; cm: centimeter; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HT: hypertension; kg: kilograms; m: meter; NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination S...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - May 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Low rate of early vertical transmission of HIV supports the feasibility of effective implementation of the national PMTCT guidelines in routine practice of referral hospitals in Cameroon.
Authors: Penda CI, Tejiokem MC, Sofeu CL, Ndiang ST, Ateba Ndongo F, Kfutwah A, Guemkam G, Warszawski J, Faye A, Study Group TA Abstract BACKGROUND: Vertical (VT) transmission of HIV remains a public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the VT rate and factors associated with transmission in routine practice in three referral hospitals in Cameroon. METHODS: All HIV-infected mothers who delivered in maternity wards or sought paediatric services during the first postnatal week from November 2007 to October 2010 were invited to participate in the ANRS-Pediacam cohort. Their infants w...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 26, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Validation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry during phototherapy for detection and monitoring of neonatal jaundice in a low-income setting.
Authors: Johnson SM, Vasu V, Marseille C, Hill C, Janvier L, Toussaint P, Battersby C Abstract BACKGROUND: Severe neonatal jaundice (SNJ) and the associated long-term health sequelae are a significant problem in low-income countries (LIC) where measurement of total serum bilirubin (TSB) is often unavailable. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry (TcB) provides the opportunity for non-invasive, point-of-care monitoring. Few studies have evaluated its agreement with TSB levels during phototherapy in LIC. AIM: To determine agreement between TcB and TSB during phototherapy in a Haitian newborn population and to establish ...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 12, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is associated with a subsequent increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.
Authors: Liao PF, Tsai JD, Chen HJ, Pan HH, Hung TW, Chang HY, Sheu JN Abstract BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia increases the risk of T1D remains unclear. AIM: To estimate the association between neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and phototherapy and the risk of T1D using a large nationwide population-based cohort. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan from 2001 until 2005. Altogether, 23,784 neonates aged
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 11, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

A new low-cost commercial bubble CPAP (bCPAP) machine compared with a traditional bCPAP device in Nigeria.
This study aimed to design, produce and trial an appropriate low-cost bCPAP machine which is functionally effective and safe. METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed to assess the need for a new bCPAP design for use in Nigeria, leading to the development of a new system (politeCPAP) which was functionally and clinically validated in three Nigerian hospitals. Six months of clinical data on the new device of sufficient comparative quality were generated from one of the hospitals and compared with control data on the IbCPAP. The hospitals (n = 3) submitted data on 71 patients on IbCPAP or politeCPAP; 14 were disqualified...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Case detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis in primary-care settings.
Authors: Graham SM, Sekadde MP PMID: 30957711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Cooling therapy for the management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in middle-income countries: we can, but should we?
Authors: Thayyil S PMID: 30938237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 3, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Conventional intensive versus LED intensive phototherapy oxidative stress burden in neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia of haemolytic origin.
Authors: Mokhtar WA, Sherief LM, Elsayed H, Shehab MM, El Gebaly SM, Khalil AMM, Sobhy M, Kamal NM Abstract BACKGROUND: Phototherapy causes oxidative stress which is of particular importance in neonates because of the increased susceptibility of neonatal red blood cell membranes to oxidative damage. AIM: To evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status in neonates with haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia before and after exposure to two different intensive phototherapy light sources. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomised controlled study was undertaken in 54 full-term neonates with indirect haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - April 2, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Introduction to the special issue on gastroenterology.
Authors: Coulter JBS PMID: 30900523 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Phenotypic characteristics and clinical manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease in infants and children under 2 years of age in Liaoning Province, China: five of six infants with IL-10R mutations.
Authors: Teng X, Xu L, Sun M, Guo J Abstract A retrospective analysis of the phenotypic characteristics, clinical manifestations, investigations and interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) status of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in infants and children under 2 years of age in Liaoning Province, China between January 2015 and October 2016 is described. Six patients without a family history of IBD were diagnosed with Crohn disease, and IL-10R mutations were detected in five of them. Compound heterozygous patients with IL-10R mutations had severe clinical manifestations, were resistant to standard medication for IBD ...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Challenges and opportunities for paediatric gastroenterology in low- and middle-income countries: high time for action.
Authors: Allen SJ, Adepojou A, Akinyinka OO PMID: 30900525 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: review with a focus on practice in low- to middle-income countries.
Authors: Dalzell AM, Ba'Ath ME Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) should be considered in any child with a persistently altered bowel habit. Growth failure may be a consequence and there may also be extra-intestinal manifestations. Oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy and conventional histopathology are the diagnostic tools of choice in IBD. The identification and management of children with IBD in resource-poor settings is difficult and there are few data on its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. The main challenges are a lack of resources and infrastructure including trained personnel ...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 23, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Myocardial dysfunction as a predictor of the severity and mortality of hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in severe perinatal asphyxia: a case-control study.
Authors: Bhasin H, Kohli C Abstract BACKGROUND: In perinatal asphyxia, hypoxia often leads to myocardial ischaemia. Few studies have assessed the degree of myocardial dysfunction in severely asphyxiated term neonates. AIM: To assess the extent of myocardial damage in newborns with severe perinatal asphyxia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in asphyxiated newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and in controls who were term non-asphyxiated newborns. Total (T) creatinine kinase (CK), CK-MB, troponin-T and 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography were performed in both gro...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - March 1, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

HIV-exposed uninfected compared with unexposed infants show the presence of leucocytes, lower lactoferrin levels and antimicrobial-resistant micro-organisms in the stool.
Authors: Maloupazoa Siawaya AC, Kuissi Kamgaing E, Minto'o Rogombe S, Obiang T, Moungoyi Massala E, Magossou Mbadinga MJV, Leboueny M, Mvoundza Ndjindji O, Mveang-Nzoghe A, Ondo JP, Mintsa Ndong A, N Essone P, Agnandji ST, Kaba M, Ategbo S, Djoba Siawaya JF Abstract BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)-infants have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to infections. In this population, disturbance of the gut micro-environment might increase their susceptibility to enteric diseases and even favour the translocation of bacteria in the bloodstream. METHODS: The gastro-intestinal micro-environment was explo...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 16, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Effect of fortifiers on the osmolality of preterm human milk.
Authors: Siripattanapipong P, Yangthara B, Ngerncham S Abstract BACKGROUND: The nutritional content of preterm human milk (HM) can be increased by adding human milk fortifier (HMF). Premature formula (PF) has been used as an alternative to HMF due to the high cost of HMF in some countries. However, the osmolality of HM after fortification remains a matter of concern. AIM: To evaluate the osmolality of fortified preterm HM. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. HM was collected from 28 mothers of infants with a gestational age of
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Permanent damage of the sciatic nerve in an 8-year-old girl with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes.
Authors: Giza S, Litou E, Kotanidou EP, Kleisarchaki AN, Koliatos P, Tzirtzipis T, Tsinopoulou VR, Tychalas A, Evangeliou A, Galli-Tsinopoulou A Abstract Neuropathy, a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), is a heterogeneous group, and chronic polyneuropathy is the most common form in adults. Αn 8-year-old girl admitted with severe diabetic ketoacidosis was diagnosed with T1D. She was managed with intravenous fluids and insulin and was subsequently commenced on multiple daily subcutaneous injections of insulin. On the 7th day of hospitalisation, a right foot drop with sensory loss on the dorsal surface and c...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 13, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Child health and health systems in Asia.
Authors: Grundy J PMID: 30729877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Comparison of efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen versus oral indomethacin.
Authors: Kumar J, Yadav A PMID: 30729880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 9, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Outcomes of in-hospital paediatric cardiac arrest from a tertiary hospital in a low-income African country.
CONCLUSION: Survival following in-hospital paediatric CA was zero, suggesting that CPR may have no benefit in this tertiary hospital. Future efforts to improve outcomes should focus on advocating better pre-arrest care and research interventions aimed to identify and treat children at risk of CA within the resource constraints of this setting. PMID: 30714507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - February 6, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

A 9.5-year-old boy with recurrent neurological manifestations and severe hypertension, treated initially for polyarteritis nodosa, was subsequently diagnosed with adenosine deaminase type 2 deficiency (DADA2) which responded to anti-TNF- α.
A 9.5-year-old boy with recurrent neurological manifestations and severe hypertension, treated initially for polyarteritis nodosa, was subsequently diagnosed with adenosine deaminase type 2 deficiency (DADA2) which responded to anti-TNF-α. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2019 Jan 15;:1-4 Authors: Sahin S, Adrovic A, Barut K, Baran S, Tahir Turanli E, Canpolat N, Kizilkilic O, Ozkaya O, Kasapcopur O Abstract A 9.5-year-old boy was referred with a 2-year history of recurrent fever, myalgia, abdominal pain and various neurological manifestations associated with increased acute phase reactants and IgG lev...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - January 17, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Replacing hospital-based epilepsy clinics with rural epilepsy clinics and education in Uganda: impact on attendance.
CONCLUSIONS: Rural epilepsy clinics were associated with higher attendance than the hospital or local clinic and the attendance rate remained higher 5 years post-intervention. PMID: 30477407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 29, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Electrocardiogram in a patient with Paragonimiasis westermani-triggered Takotsubo syndrome.
Authors: Madias JE PMID: 30472935 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 28, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Intravenous magnesium sulphate infusion as first-line therapy in the control of spasms and muscular rigidity in childhood tetanus.
CONCLUSION: MgSO4 alone is effective in mild-to-moderate tetanus but not when it is severe. PMID: 30460880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 22, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Feasibility of high-flow nasal cannula implementation for children with acute lower respiratory tract disease in rural Kenya.
CONCLUSION: HFNC in limited-resource settings is feasible but there were technical challenges and concern about the increased workload. The small sample size, heterogeneous population, availability of oxygen and blending of wall air at the study site limit inferences for other sites in low- and middle-income countries. ABBREVIATIONS: ALRI, acute lower respiratory infection; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; ETAT, emergency triage, assessment and treatment; HDU, high dependency unit; HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; HIC, high-income country; HR, heart rate; ICU, intensive care unit; LMIC, low- and middle-income c...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Paediatric deaths in a tertiary government hospital setting, Malawi.
CONCLUSION: Despite a significant reduction in paediatric inpatient mortality in Malawi, infectious diseases remain the predominant cause. ABBREVIATIONS: ART: anti-retroviral therapy; Child PIP: Child Healthcare Problem Identification Programme; CCF: congestive cardiac failure; CNS: central nervous system; CoNS: coagulase-negative staphylococci; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; DNA pcr: deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction; ETAT: emergency triage assessment and treatment; LMIC: low- and middle-income countries; MDG: Millennium Development Goals; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; MRSA: methicillin-resistant Staphyloc...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 30378464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Diagnostic strategies for childhood tuberculosis in the context of primary care in a high-burden setting: the value of alternative sampling methods.
Authors: Hanrahan CF, Dansey H, Mutunga L, France H, Omar SV, Ismail N, Bassett J, Van Rie A Abstract BACKGROUND: Hospital studies have demonstrated the usefulness of alternative sampling strategies to expectorated sputum and new diagnostics for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis (TB) but there is limited evidence of how these approaches work in the primary-care setting. AIM: To assess the feasibility and yield of a variety of sample types and diagnostic tests for childhood TB at a primary-care clinic. METHODS: A prospective cohort of children (
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Thymus gland size during recovery from complicated severe acute malnutrition: a prospective study of the role of probiotics.
Authors: Nabukeera-Barungi N, Grenov B, Friis H, Lanyero B, Namusoke H, Mupere E, Michaelsen KF, Mølgaard C, Christensen VB, Rytter MJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are prone to infections due to immune dysfunction including severe thymus atrophy which recovers during nutritional rehabilitation. AIM: To investigate predictors of thymus size recovery, including probiotics during nutritional rehabilitation of children admitted with complicated SAM. METHODS: In this prospective study nested in a randomized controlled trial, children 6-59 months admitted with SAM rece...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Sudden unexpected infant death characteristics in the French region of West Provence-Alpes-C ôte d'Azur.
CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic infectious conditions were associated with a high proportion of SUID cases. Non-supine sleep positions were still practised. There is a need to increase SUID prevention campaigns. ABBREVIATIONS: HAS, Haute Autorité de Santé: French National Health Authority; NICHD, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; PACA, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France; SUID, sudden unexpected infant death; SIDS, sudden infant death syndrome; CépiDc, Centre d'Epidémiologie sur les Causes Médicales de Décès/Center for Epidemiology on the ...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 2, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

In neonates with vitamin D deficiency, low lymphocyte activation markers are risk factors for infection.
CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a reduction of lymphocyte subsets and altered T-lymphocyte activation which are considered to be risk factors for neonatal infection. PMID: 30375272 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Bubble CPAP devices for infants and children in resource-limited settings: review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: This narrative review found many studies which evaluated the real clinical outcomes with bCPAP in the target population as well as technical comparison of bCPAP components. However, many studies were not blinded or randomised and there was significant heterogeneity in design and outcome measures. ABBREVIATIONS: bCPAP, bubble continuous positive airway pressure; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; FiO2, fractional oxygen concentration; HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; HIC, high-income countries; LMIC, low- and middle-income countries; NP, nasopharyngeal; O2, oxygen; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressur...
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - November 1, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Predictors of mortality in children with nosocomial bloodstream infection.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that significant mortality is attributable to nosocomial bloodstream infection. An increased risk of death in children with nosocomial BSI can be identified by simple clinical predictors including malnutrition, admission to the PICU and use of a central line catheter. PMID: 30328385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - October 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of the Molteno Adapted Scale for developmental delay in South African toddlers.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides preliminary evidence supporting the use of the MAS for screening. PMID: 30328387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatrics and international child health)
Source: Paediatrics and international child health - October 19, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Paediatr Int Child Health Source Type: research