Pertussis: New preventive strategies for an old disease
In the last twenty years, despite high vaccination coverage, epidemics of pertussis are occurring in both developing and developed countries. Many reasons could explain the pertussis resurgence: the increasing awareness of the disease, the availability of new diagnostic tests with higher sensitivity, the emergence of new Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) strains different from those contained in the current vaccines, the asymptomatic transmission of B. pertussis in adolescents and adults and the shorter duration of protection given by the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Greta Di Mattia, Ambra Nicolai, Antonella Frassanito, Laura Petrarca, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla Tags: Review Source Type: research

Disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria in children with cystic fibrosis
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) (especially M. abscessus complex) infections pose a considerable challenge in the management of lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The apparent increase in prevalence is likely multifactorial. Emergent evidence of patient-to-patient transmission and isolation of highly resistant strains is concerning for all CF centers around the world. Treatment is often long and burdensome with multiple agents. Treatment side effects are frequent and can cause significant morbidity. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mimi Lu, Vishal Saddi, Philip N. Britton, Hiran Selvadurai, Paul Robinson, Chetan Pandit, Ben J. Marais, Dominic A. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Paediatric sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis, also called Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, was first described in the 19th century as a systemic granulomatous disorder involving predominantly the lungs and the lymphatic system [1]. More than a century after, its pathogenesis remains unknown and its pathophysiology remains controversial [2,3]. The current hypothesis is a multifactorial disease associating a genetic susceptibility and an environmental exposure that triggers or enhances the inflammatory and granulomatous process. Sarcoidosis is mainly an adult disease, children being affected around 10 times less frequently. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nadia Nathan, Chiara Sileo, Alain Calender, Yves Pacheco, Dominique Valeyre, Annick Clement, for the French Sarcoidosis Group (GSF), the Silicosis Group Tags: Review Source Type: research

The use of lumacaftor/ivacaftor to treat acute deterioration in paediatric cystic fibrosis
We describe the use of this drug to treat a child with an unusually severe exacerbation of CF lung disease and review the potential of lumacaftor/ivacaftor as a rescue therapy in the paediatric CF population. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: James A. Hammond, Gary J. Connett Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

Tracheal Bronchus Diagnosed In Children Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy
This paper describes the clinical features of paediatric patients with tracheal bronchus (TB) identified with flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in a tertiary care hospital.A retrospective review every FB with diagnosis of TB carried out in our centre since 1990 was performed which considered specifically: age at diagnosis, gender, semiology, somatic anomalies, tracheal bronchus type, other bronchoscopic findings and clinical progress. Out of 1665 FB in 1337 patients, TB was found in 26 (1.9%). The median age was 15 months (age range 1 month- 13 years), with no gender differences. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Estela P érez Ruiz, Pilar Caro Aguilera, Ana Isabel Valdivielso Martínez, Sonia Sanchís Cárdenas, Yazmina Martínez García, Javier Pérez Frías Tags: Clinical usefulness Source Type: research

Age-related ranges of respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) reference values for infants and children
The current noninvasive method for respiratory monitoring is respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP); two bands are connected, one each to the chest and the abdomen, to measure the breathing pattern. RIP requires post hoc analysis to calculate indices such as respiratory rate, phase angle, labored breathing index, and percent of rib cage contribution to breathing. Clinical studies have provided patient RIP values and age-matched normal values, but they lack global evaluation of normative data for a wide age range of pediatric subjects. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sona Lakshme Balasubramaniam, Yanping Wang, Lauren Ryan, Jobayer Hossain, Tariq Rahman, Thomas H. Shaffer Tags: Review Source Type: research

Pertussis: new preventive strategies for an old disease.
Authors have no conflict of interest (COI) to declare. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Greta Di Mattia, Ambra Nicolai, Antonella Frassanito, Laura Petrarca, Raffaella Nenna, Fabio Midulla Tags: Review Source Type: research

Question 2: What are the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth in children?
This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on growth in children with asthma. The evidence from randomized trials showed a mean reduction of −0.48 cm/year (95% CI −0.65 to −0.30) in linear growth velocity and of −0.61 cm (95% CI −0.83 to −0.38) in height during a one-year treatment with ICS. Some first-generation drugs had a slightly larger suppressive effect on growth than newer drugs, with a mean reduction in linear gro wth velocity of −0.91, −0.59, −0.08 and −0.39 cm/year for beclomethasone, budesoni...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Paulo Camargos, Linjie Zhang, Laura Lasmar, Paul Brand Tags: Asthma Frequently Asked Questions Source Type: research

Royal Society of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium 2017
The articles in this supplement arise from presentations given at the Royal Society of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Symposium held in London in November 2017. This highly successful and popular meeting, organised by Dr Iolo Doull, is designed to provide updates in key areas of CF clinical care for members of CF multidisciplinary teams. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Andrew M. Jones Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Exhaled Breath Testing – A Tool for the Clinician and Researcher
Exhaled breath is a robust matrix of biomarkers divided between three fractions – gaseous breath, volatile breath, and breath condensate. Breath is collected non-invasively through bags (for gaseous breath), cold condensation chambers (breath condensate), and adsorbent traps (volatile breath). Due to the incredibly dilute nature of breath matrices, breath biomarker analysis r equires precise analytical techniques, highly sensitive technology and often challenges the limit of detection of even the most advanced assays. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michael D. Davis, Stephen J. Fowler, Alison J. Montpetit Source Type: research

Sleep Frequently Asked Questions: Question 1: What abnormalities do babies with cleft lip and/or palate have on polysomnography?
Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital malformations with an estimate birth prevalence world wide of 12.44 (95% CI 9.72-15.93) per 10, 000 births for naturally conceived singleton births; prevalence is higher in infants conceived using assisted reproductive technologies.[1] CL/P can occur in isolation or with other anomalies or chromosomal variations and are classified as non-syndromic and syndromic CL/P based on the absence or presence of other congenital anomalies;[2] approximately 2/3rd of CL/P occurs in isolation or as non-syndromic CL/P and 1/3rd as syndromic. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joanna E. MacLean Source Type: research

“To trach or not to trach, that is the question”
Progressive neuromuscular disease requires increasing degrees of respiratory support to sustain life. Each step from intermittent to continuous —and noninvasive to invasive—ventilation requires thoughtful consideration based on the goals of the patient and family, and the inherent benefits and burdens of the treatment. Tracheostomy, in particular, should not be viewed as an inevitable next step when less permanent or invasive methods pr ove insufficient. Like other modes of respiratory support, tracheostomy may represent a bridge to recovery of pulmonary function, or a stabilizing action in the hope that novel ...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Robert Macauley Tags: Mini-symposium: Ethics and Palliative Care Source Type: research

Ready, Steady, Go – Achieving successful transition in Cystic Fibrosis
Successful transfer to adult services is the paediatric team ’s anticipated endpoint for the care they provide to their patients. The preceding transition process needs to be well planned and designed to address young peoples’ psycho-social, educational and vocational as well as their medical needs. Ready Steady Go is a generic programme that has been suc cessfully implemented to make the transition process an integral part of the routine care of young people with cystic fibrosis. Used in combination with other initiatives, the programme helps achieve the more seamless transfer of young people better prepared t...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gary James Connett, Arvind Nagra Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

Multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 in cystic fibrosis
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with a decline in lung function and overall poorer prognosis in the cystic fibrosis population. Molecular typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has identified multiple clonal strains with increased virulence and transmissibility. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST235 is an emerging clonal strain with multi-drug resistance and is associated with more virulent infections. Novel cephalosporins, which have recently been introduced to clinical practice, may have higher efficacy against multi-drug resistant bacteria. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Annabelle Lee, Andrew L. Jones Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

Assessment of liver disease in cystic fibrosis
Liver disease in cystic fibrosis has many causes, with biliary fibrosis due to abnormal CFTR protein predominating. Assessment requires aetiology to be defined. Biliary fibrosis may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which although initially asymptomatic, may cause varices and splenomegaly. Monitoring progression includes clinical and ultrasound assessment with endoscopic assessment of varices for those at risk. Extrapolated primarily from longitudinal assessment of viral hepatitis in adults, non-invasive elastography has a potential role. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Suzanne Davison Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

What are the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth in children?
This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effects of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on growth in children with asthma. The evidence from randomized trials showed a mean reduction of -0.48 cm/year (95% CI -0.65 to -0.30) in linear growth velocity and of -0.61 cm (95% CI -0.83 to -0.38) in height during a one-year treatment with ICS. Some first-generation drugs had a slightly larger suppressive effect on growth than newer drugs, with a mean reduction in linear growth velocity of -0.91, -0.59, -0.08 and -0.39 cm/year for beclomethasone, budesonide, ciclesonide and fluticasone, respectively. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Paulo Camargos, Linjie Zhang, Laura Lasmar, Paul Brand Tags: Asthma Frequently Asked Questions Source Type: research

Exercise Testing in Cystic Fibrosis: Who and Why?
Annual review exercise testing is recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Trust. Testing to date has focused on evaluating aerobic fitness, a key prognostic indicator. Tests available range from simple field tests, to comprehensive evaluations of aerobic exercise (dys)function – cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). ‘Field tests’, although easy to perform are limited in the information they provide. Whereas CPET, the ‘gold standard’ measure of aerobic fitness, is recommended as the first-choice exercise test by the European CF Society Exercise Working Group. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: D.S. Urquhart, Z.L. Saynor Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

Risk and Benefits of Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Neonatal and Childhood Respiratory Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Over 80% of the global burden of childhood deaths occur in Low ─ and Middle─Income Countries (LMIC). Of the leading causes of death, respiratory failure is common to the top three. Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (bCPAP) is a standard therapy considered safe and cost effective in high resource settings. Although high─quality trials from LMIC ar e few, pooled available trial data considered alongside studies from high─income countries suggests that bCPAP: (i) reduces mortality; (ii) reduces the need for mechanical ventilation; and (iii) prevents extubation failure. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - May 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Osayame A. Ekhaguere, Amsa B. Mairami, Haresh Kirpalani Source Type: research

CFTR modulator therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis and an organ transplant
CFTR modulators are a class of drugs which directly target the defective CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis (CF), improving its function with resultant clinical improvements. Currently these drugs are confined to people with a limited selection of genetic mutations. New modulators are in development which will lead to the majority of patients with CF becoming eligible for treatment. CFTR modulators are currently considered contraindicated in patients with a solid organ transplant. This excludes many patients who may benefit from the multisystem effects of CFTR modulator treatment. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 24, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ruth M. Mitchell, Andrew M. Jones, Peter J. Barry Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators for cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting autosomal recessive inherited disease in white populations; it affects approximately 70,000 children and adults worldwide[1], with a rate of one in 2500 newborns in the UK[2]. It was once considered a childhood disease, but with improvements in diagnosis and treatments, many people with CF are living well into adulthood. In 2016, data from the UK Cystic Fibrosis National Registry reported a median predicted survival of 47 years[3]. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 20, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sherie Smith, Christopher T. Edwards Source Type: research

Pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death (pDCD): A narrative review
Pediatric donation after circulatory death (pDCD) is an established pathway for organ donation. It remains, however, a relatively rare event worldwide, and most clinicians outside of the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are unfamiliar with it. The goal of this review is to introduce the processes and concepts of pDCD. While most children die in circumstances that would not allow pDCD, many children that die after withdrawal of life sustaining therapy (WLST) may be eligible for donation of some organs. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Matthew J. Weiss, Wendy Sherry, Laura Hornby Tags: Mini-symposium: Ethics and Palliative Care Source Type: research

Persistent and progressive long-term lung disease in survivors of preterm birth
Preterm birth accounts for approximately 11% of births globally, with rates increasing across many countries. Concurrent advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of infants of lower gestational age (GA). However, infants born (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rhea Urs, Sailesh Kotecha, Graham L. Hall, Shannon J Simpson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Pediatric Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death (pDCD): A narrative review
Pediatric donation after circulatory death (pDCD) is an established pathway for organ donation. It remains, however, a relatively rare event worldwide, and most clinicians outside of the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are unfamiliar with it. The goal of this review is to introduce the processes and concepts of pDCD. While most children die in circumstances that would not allow pDCD, many children that die after withdrawal of life sustaining therapy (WLST) may be eligible for donation of some organs. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Matthew J. Weiss, Wendy Sherry, Laura Hornby Tags: Mini-symposium: Ethics and Palliative Care Source Type: research

Persistent and progressive long-term lung disease in survivors of preterm birth
Preterm birth accounts for approximately 11% of births globally, with rates increasing across many countries. Concurrent advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of infants of lower gestational age (GA). However, infants born (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rhea Urs, Sailesh Kotecha, Graham L. Hall, Shannon J Simpson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Outdoor Air Pollution and Cystic Fibrosis
Outdoor air pollution is increasingly identified as a contributor to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Pro-inflammatory particles and gases are inhaled deep into the lungs, and are associated with impaired lung growth and exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases. The magnitude of these effects are of interest to patients and families, and have been assessed in studies specific to CF. Using systematic review methodology, we sought to collate these studies in order to summarise the known effects of air pollution in cystic fibrosis, and to present information on decreasing personal air pollution exposures. (Source:...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rossa Brugha, Claire Edmondson, Jane C. Davies Tags: Review Source Type: research

Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous antibiotics in cystic fibrosis
Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous antibiotics are common in cystic fibrosis (CF). As well as causing immediate morbidity, the need for future avoidance of the causative antibiotic can have a long-term negative impact on CF management. This paper reviews the epidemiology and clinical presentation of hypersensitivity reactions in CF patients, and using an illustrative case describes a rare but severe form of delayed drug reaction for which a high index of suspicion is required. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marie F.A. Wright, Andrew Bush, Siobhan B Carr Tags: The 2017 Royal Society Of Medicine Cystic Fibrosis Symposium Source Type: research

New and developing therapies in spinal muscular atrophy
Great progress has been made in the clinical translation of several therapeutic strategies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), including measures to selectively address Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein deficiency with SMN1 gene replacement or modulation of SMN2 encoded protein levels, as well as neuroprotective approaches and supporting muscle strength and function. This review highlights these novel therapies. This is particularly vital with the advent of the first disease modifying therapy, which has brought to the fore an array of questions surrounding who, how and when to treat, and stimulated challenges in resource ...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Didu Kariyawasam, Kate A. Carey, Kristi J. Jones, Michelle A. Farrar Tags: Mini-Symposium: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Source Type: research

Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous antibiotics in Cystic Fibrosis
Hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous antibiotics are common in cystic fibrosis (CF). As well as causing immediate morbidity, the need for future avoidance of the causative antibiotic can have a long-term negative impact on CF management. This paper reviews the epidemiology and clinical presentation of hypersensitivity reactions in CF patients, and using an illustrative case describes a rare but severe form of delayed drug reaction for which a high index of suspicion is required. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marie F.A. Wright, Siobhan B Carr, Andrew Bush Source Type: research

New and developing therapies in spinal muscular atrophy
Great progress has been made in the clinical translation of several therapeutic strategies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), including measures to selectively address Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein deficiency with SMN1 gene replacement or modulation of SMN2 encoded protein levels, as well as neuroprotective approaches and supporting muscle strength and function. This review highlights these novel therapies. This is particularly vital with the advent of the first disease modifying therapy, which has brought to the fore an array of questions surrounding who, how and when to treat, and stimulated challenges in resource ...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Didu Kariyawasam, Kate Carey, Kristi J Jones, Michelle A Farrar Tags: Mini-Symposium: Spinal Muscular atrophy: polysomnoagraphy and role of non-invasive support Source Type: research

Interventions for autumn exacerbations of asthma in children
Asthma exacerbations in school-aged children peak in autumn [1]. The peak follows shortly after the summer school holiday; occurring in September in the Northern Hemisphere [2] and February in the Southern Hemisphere [3]. This likely reflects a combination of risk factors, including poor treatment adherence, increased allergen and viral exposure, and altered immune tolerance [4]. Asthma admissions during the month when children return to school account for approaching a quarter of the annual total [5]. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Katharine C. Pike, Melika Akhbari, Dylan Kneale, Katherine M. Harris Tags: Cochrane Corner in Paediatric Respiratory reviews Source Type: research

Interventions for autumn exacerbations of asthma in children
Asthma exacerbations in school-aged children peak in autumn [2]. The peak follows shortly after the summer school holiday; occurring in September in the Northern Hemisphere [3] and February in the Southern Hemisphere [4]. This likely reflects a combination of risk factors, including poor treatment adherence, increased allergen and viral exposure, and altered immune tolerance [5]. Asthma admissions during the month when children return to school account for approaching a quarter of the annual total [6]. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - April 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Katharine C Pike, Melika Akhbari, Dylan Kneale, Katherine M Harris Source Type: research

Side effects of medications used to treat childhood interstitial lung disease
Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) comprises a range of different rare diseases. There is limited evidence for the treatment of chILD and no randomised clinical trials of treatment have been undertaken. Most treatments are therefore prescribed off-label based on expert opinion. The off-label nature of prescription of drugs for chILD highlights the importance of a solid understanding of the side effects to facilitate risk-benefit assessment. The European Respiratory Society chILD guidelines recommend the use of systemic glucocorticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - March 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oded Breuer, Andr é Schultz Tags: Review Source Type: research

Cystic fibrosis papers of the year 2017
The number of published articles on Cystic Fibrosis (CF) continues to increase year on year. The evidence base for small molecule therapies in CF has continued to expand, with evidence for lumacaftor/ivacaftor in younger patients and longer-term evidence in adults, and pivotal studies on tezacaftor/ivacaftor. There were reports on emerging CFTR mutation agnostic therapies, and new evidence for long standing therapies. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - March 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Iolo Doull Tags: Royal Society of Medicine 2017 Cystic Fibrosis Mini-symposium Review Source Type: research

Cystic Fibrosis Papers of the Year 2017
The number of published articles on Cystic Fibrosis (CF) continues to increase year on year. The evidence base for small molecule therapies in CF has continued to expand, with evidence for lumacaftor/ivacaftor in younger patients and longer-term evidence in adults, and pivotal studies on tezacaftor/ivacaftor. There were reports on emerging CFTR mutation agnostic therapies, and new evidence for long standing therapies. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - March 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Iolo Doull Tags: Review Source Type: research

Question 1: Why do children still die from asthma?
Asthma is one of the commonest chronic conditions in children and can occasionally be fatal. Little has changed regarding the risk factors for children dying from asthma in the last 30  years. The majority of deaths from asthma occur in children from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. These should be preventable with better education of families, oversight of medication adherence and improved communication between health care professionals and families. More needs to be done to deliver basic messages more effectively about asthma management to the most vulnerable in communities around the world. (Source: Paedi...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ana Maria Herrera Gana, Dominic A. Fitzgerald Tags: Asthma Frequently Asked Questions Source Type: research

Question 1: Why do children still die from asthma?
Asthma is one of the commonest chronic conditions in children and can occasionally be fatal. Little has changed regarding the risk factors for children dying from asthma in the last 30 years. The majority of deaths from asthma occur in children from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds. These should be preventable with better education of families, oversight of medication adherence and improved communication between health care professionals and families. More needs to be done to deliver basic messages more effectively about asthma management to the most vulnerable in communities around the world. (Source: Paediatr...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 17, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ana Maria Herrera Gana, Dominic A. Fitzgerald Tags: Review Source Type: research

The toxicity of E-cigarettes and children ’s respiratory health
Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries and are used by many young people who would be unlikely to take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Karin C. L ødrup Carlsen, Håvard O. Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen Tags: Review Source Type: research

“The toxicity of E-cigarettes and children’s respiratory health”
Electronic cigarettes (E-cig), also referred to as Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), were initially developed in 2003 to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoking. Since then, E-cig have become widely available in many countries, are used by many young people who would be unlikely take up cigarette smoking. However, the adverse effects on child health remain largely unknown. E-cigs are available through regulated sale in many countries, but easily accessible by the internet in others. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 10, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Karin C. L ødrup Carlsen, Håvard O Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma in children
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction, with periods of relative control and episodes of deterioration referred to as exacerbations. Exacerbations range in severity from mild to life-threatening and may require emergency department management and brief hospitalisations. Although rare, admissions to intensive care, mechanical ventilation and deaths from severe acute asthma exacerbations do still occur [2]. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rebecca Normansell, Rachel Knightly, Stephen J. Milan, Jennifer A. Knopp-Sihota, Brian H. Rowe, Colin Powell Tags: Cochrane Corner Source Type: research

Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma in children
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction, with periods of relative control and episodes of deterioration referred to as exacerbations. Exacerbations range in severity from mild to life-threatening and may require emergency department management and brief hospitalisations. Although rare, admissions to intensive care, mechanical ventilation and deaths from severe acute asthma exacerbations do still occur[2]. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - February 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rebecca Normansell, Rachel Knightly, Stephen J Milan, Jennifer A Knopp-Sihota, Brian H Rowe, Colin Powell Source Type: research

Obituary
(Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - January 1, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of foetal and infant growth and body composition on respiratory outcomes in preterm-born children
Body composition and growth outcomes of preterm-born subjects have been studied by many researchers. In general, preterm-born children have lower height and weight especially in infancy. Despite showing potential for catch-up growth, they continue to lag behind their term counterparts in adolescence and adulthood. The various methods of studying body composition and the differing gestations and ages at which it is assessed may go some way to explaining the inconsistent results observed in different studies. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - December 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sarah J. Kotecha, John Lowe, Sailesh Kotecha Tags: Review Source Type: research

Preschool wheeze, genes and treatment
Preschool wheeze is a common but poorly understood cause of respiratory morbidity that is both distinct from and overlaps with infantile bronchiolitis and school age asthma. Attempts at classification by epidemiology, pathophysiology, therapeutic response and clinical phenotype are imperfect and yet fundamental to both treatment choice and research design. The four main therapeutic classes for preschool wheeze, namely beta2 agonists, anticholinergics, corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers are employed with variable and often scanty evidence base, with evidence for a genetic influence on response variations. (Source: Pa...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - December 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chinedu Nwokoro, Jonathan Grigg Tags: Review Source Type: research