Partnership with Interventional Pulmonologist
This article offers the interventional pulmonologist insight into how the anesthesiologist thinks and approaches anesthetic care delivery. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Wendy M. Suhre, John D. Lang, David K. Madtes, Basem B. Abdelmalak Source Type: research

Anesthesia and Chronic Pain Management
The reasons for development of chronic pain are poorly understood. Chronic postoperative pain is linked to severe acute postoperative pain. Head and neck pain is often a complex phenomenon that requires meticulous diagnosis and treatment. Institution of early multimodal analgesic regimens by multidisciplinary teams may attenuate chronic pain formation and propagation in the otolaryngologic patient. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Anuj Malhotra, Mourad Shehebar, Yury Khelemsky Source Type: research

The Difficult Airway
Airway management is a cornerstone of anesthetic practice, and difficulty with airway management has potentially grave implications —failure to secure a patent airway can result in hypoxic brain injury or death in a matter of minutes. The difficult airway in otolaryngologic surgery requires careful planning and close communication between the anesthesiologist and ENT or head and neck surgeon. Knowledge of predictive factors an d a detailed preoperative evaluation can be used to predict which airway strategies are likely to be successful and which are likely to fail. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Carlos A. Artime, Soham Roy, Carin A. Hagberg Source Type: research

Working Together from Both Sides of the Curtain
All surgeons and anesthesiologists partner with each other in order to provide high-quality operative care. In Otolaryngology, specifically, the communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist is intimate and can be very complicated. Guest editors Drs Adam Levine, Samuel DeMaria, and Satish Govindaraj have crafted this issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America to address the very particular concerns that are raised when these 2 types of specialists are providing care to a single patient. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Anesthesia and Enhanced Recovery After Head and Neck Surgery
This article examines evidence-based enhanced recovery interventions and tailors them to a major head and neck surgery population. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 21, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Douglas M. Worrall, Anthony Tanella, Samuel DeMaria, Brett A. Miles Source Type: research

Anesthesia for Ambulatory and Office-Based Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery
With today ’s technological advances in outpatient surgery, anesthetic technique does not differ significantly between inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to decide which setting is most appropriate for the patient based on the surgeon’s ability, the patient’s comorbidities, the facility r esources, and the staff who will provide care for the patient. Matching all of the above can lead to good outcomes, less complications, and a good patient experience. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 21, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Leopoldo V. Rodriguez Source Type: research

Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management
Regional anesthesia and acute pain management in otolaryngology uses multimodal techniques for perioperative pain control. Multiple methods for regional anesthesia and acute pain management are discussed, including indications and techniques for decreasing perioperative opioid requirements and enhancing recovery. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 21, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Garrett Burnett, Samuel DeMaria, Adam I. Levine Source Type: research

Anesthetic Management of the Narrowed Airway
Airway narrowing can be idiopathic or can occur as a result of airway tumors, hematomas, infections, and other pathologic conditions. Endoscopic management variously involves balloon dilatation, stent placement, laser vaporization of pathologic tissue, microdebridement, and other interventions, using either a rigid or a flexible bronchoscope. Jet ventilation is frequently used in such settings, especially when the presence of an endotracheal tube would interfere with the procedure. In desperate cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be used in managing the critical airway. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 18, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Daniel John Doyle, Anastasios G. Hantzakos Source Type: research

Patient Safety in Anesthesia
This article addresses principles to prevent or manage challenging conditions such as airway fires, anatomically difficult airways, and post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage. Discussion includes rationales for the use of simulation and resilience engineering principles to achieve the safest patient care. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 17, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ellen S. Deutsch, Tracey Straker Source Type: research

Anesthetic Considerations for Oral, Maxillofacial, and Neck Trauma
Blunt, penetrating trauma to the ear, nose, and throat, and related structures are striking. Injuries may range from simple soft tissue wounds to complex injuries of the face, neck, and brain. Proximity of the cervical spine and airway complicate anesthetic management. A multidisciplinary approach is required. Airway control has highest priority in initial care. Management of airway, breathing, and circulation need to be tailored to the patient. Decisions regarding airway management, ventilation strategies, monitoring, and fluid and blood administration should be based on the patient ’s condition, clinical setting, a...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 17, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Jessica Lovich-Sapola, Freedom Johnson, Charles E. Smith Source Type: research

Simulation-Based Education and Team Training
Simulation-based education (SBE) has become pervasive in health care training and medical education, and is even more important in subspecialty training whereby providers such as otolaryngologists and anesthesiologists share overlapping patient concerns because of the proximity of the surgical airway. Both these subspecialties work in a fast-paced environment involving high-stakes situations and life-changing events that necessitate critical thinking and timely action, and have an exceedingly small bandwidth for error. Team training in the form of interprofessional education and learning involving surgeons, anesthesiologis...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 13, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Anjan Shah, Christine L. Mai, Ronak Shah, Adam I. Levine Source Type: research

Anesthesia in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pediatric Bronchoscopy
This article highlights indications, techniques, and complications encountered during pediatric bronchoscopy, with particular focus on anesthetic management of the pediatric airway. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 11, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Aldo V. Londino, Narasimhan Jagannathan Source Type: research

Perioperative Guidelines in Anesthesia
Agreement between surgical and anesthesia teams regarding appropriate perioperative management strategies is vital to delivering safe and effective patient care. Perioperative guidelines serve as a valuable reference in optimizing patients for surgery. The article provides a broad set of guidelines related to cardiovascular evaluation, medication reconciliation, and preoperative fasting and includes a framework for the care of patients with comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease and obstructive sleep apnea. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - September 10, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Shane C. Dickerson Source Type: research

Not Just Smaller Ears, Noses, Throats, and Necks
On the first day of my clinical rotation in Pediatrics as a third-year medical student, I was handed the Harriet Lane Handbook and told, with some ferocity, that “children are not just little adults.” Similarly, otolaryngologic problems in children are not just smaller versions of those problems in adults. Although otolaryngologists have always cared for children, and the fundamental nature of their specialty is conducive to treating diseases in children (otitis media, upper respiratory infections, and so forth), Dr Sylvan Stool pointed out the necessity of developing the discipline of pediatric otolaryngology ...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Updates in Pediatric Otolaryngology
OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Samantha Anne, Julina Ongkasuwan Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contributors
SUJANA S. CHANDRASEKHAR, MD, FACS, FAAOHNS (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contents
Erratumxiii (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Anesthesia for Otolaryngology (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Erratum
An error was made in the June 2019 issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics (Volume 52, Issue 3) in the Preface, written by guest editors Melissa A. Pynnonen and Cecelia E. Schmalbach (pgs. xv –xvi). (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 8, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Aerodigestive Programs Enhance Outcomes in Pediatric Patients
This article describes the origin and value of aerodigestive programs within the modern health care landscape, serving as a primer for providers and administrators investigating how to facilitate aerodigestive or similar programs. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 7, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Christopher T. Wootten, Ryan Belcher, Christian R. Francom, Jeremy D. Prager Source Type: research

Professionalism, Quality, and Safety for Pediatric Otolaryngologists
Professionalism, quality, and safety have become essential components of pediatric otolaryngology. Professionalism, as defined by Osler, refers to the long tradition of physicians carrying out the noble cause of providing health care to patients and families. The importance of professionalism cannot be overstated and now is widely understood to be a core competency of every practicing physician. The attention to quality and safety is also a central tenet of current surgical practice. Quality is doing the right thing at the right time for the right persons. Safety is providing care to patients that is free from undue harm. ...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - August 5, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ellen M. Friedman, Romaine F. Johnson Source Type: research

Principles of Pediatric Endoscopic Ear Surgery
The article describes the unique benefits and challenges of transcanal (and transmastoid) endoscopic ear surgery (EES) for management of middle ear disease in children. It provides a rationale for EES in children and describes differences in anatomy between the pediatric and adult ear. The basic principles of EES, from operating room layout, choice of surgical instruments, and tips and pearls to avoid complications specific to the endoscope, are reviewed. Finally, techniques and outcomes in pediatric EES for tympanic membrane perforation, congenital cholesteatoma, and acquired cholesteatoma are summarized. (Source: Otolary...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 26, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Kimberly A. Miller, Manuela Fina, Daniel J. Lee Source Type: research

What ’s New with Tubes, Tonsils, and Adenoids?
Evidence-based recommendations are constantly being updated for various pediatric surgical procedures, including the role for tympanostomy tubes, as well as indications for adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy. With a growing body of research available on some of the most prevalent pediatric conditions, an update on the current concepts surrounding management is warranted. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Cinzia L. Marchica, John P. Dahl, Nikhila Raol Source Type: research

Allergy and the Pediatric Otolaryngologist
This article summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy and allergic rhinitis. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Victoria S. Lee, Sandra Y. Lin Source Type: research

Craniofacial Interventions in Children
Craniofacial interventions are common and the surgical options continue to grow. The issues encountered include micrognathia, macroglossia, midface hypoplasia, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, hemifacial microsomia, and microtia. In addition, a unifying theme is complex upper airway obstruction. Throughout a child ’s life the focus of interventions may change from airway management to speech, hearing, and language optimization, and finally to decannulation and procedures aimed at social integration and self-esteem. Otolaryngologists play an important role is this arena and provide high-quality care while co ntinuing...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Brandon Hopkins, Kelly Dean, Swathi Appachi, Amelia F. Drake Source Type: research

Innovations in Endonasal Sinus Surgery in Children
This article discusses the role and risks of endoscopic sinus surgery, the use of balloon sinuplasty in children, management of complicated rhinosinusitis, and advances in skull base tumors and choanal atresia repair. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sophie G. Shay, Taher Valika, Robert Chun, Jeffrey Rastatter Source Type: research

Beyond Nodules —Diagnostic and Treatment Options in Pediatric Voice Disorders
Pediatric dysphonia is common; however, not all vocal fold pathology in children is due to nodules. Laryngeal stroboscopy (transoral or transnasal) often is essential for the diagnosis of other not-nodule lesions. As in adults, multidisciplinary care with a speech language pathologist helps with patient buy-in for therapy. Breathy dysphonia due to glottic incompetence may be related to vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI) or posterior glottic insufficiency. There are several medialization procedures available for children with VFMI due to recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Anne Hseu, Julina Ongkasuwan Source Type: research

Ankyloglossia and Other Oral Ties
This article presents the latest evidence on the diagnosis and management of tongue-tie and outlines some of the controversies and gaps in the existing evidence. Anterior tongue-tie is accepted in most clinical practices as a potential risk for breastfeeding difficulty, and good evidence exists that division of an anterior tongue-tie leads to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Posterior tongue ties and upper lip-ties are being studied more intensively to provide sound, evidence-based recommendations on their diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Jonathan Walsh, Margo McKenna Benoit Source Type: research

Assessment and Management of Thyroid Disease in Children
This article summarizes the current management of pediatric thyroid disease, with an emphasis on surgical management. Medical and surgical approaches to hyperthyroidism are reviewed as well as pathways for evaluation of nodules and malignancy. Differences between pediatric and adult thyroid management are highlighted. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Amy L. Dimachkieh, Ken Kazahaya, Daniel C. Chelius Source Type: research

Updates in Pediatric Otolaryngology
Pediatric Otolaryngology as a field has gone through incredible advancement over the past 40 years since its inception as a discipline of medicine. This Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America issue reviews these various developments. In otology, the authors present innovations in the use of otoendoscopes and in the evaluation of sensorineural hearing loss. In rhinology, new technology, such as balloon dilation, and transnasal approaches to the skull base are discussed. Contemporary management with multidisciplinary care of complex aerodigestive disorders, craniofacial disorders, and thyroid disorders is presented. (Sourc...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Samantha Anne, Julina Ongkasuwan Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Innovations in Airway Surgery
The management of pediatric airway stenosis has evolved considerably over time. At the outset, dilation was the mainstay of management. In the 1900s, open surgery in the form of cricoid expansion procedures or resection procedures was the primary treatment with subsequent development of the slide tracheoplasty. Now in the twenty-first century, advances in endoscopic management, balloon dilation, and stenting, along with the advent of external scaffolds and tissue replacement continue to advance pediatric airway surgery. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 15, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Amy Manning, Daniel J. Wehrmann, Catherine K. Hart, Glenn E. Green Source Type: research

Advances in Management of Pediatric Sensorineural Hearing Loss
The work-up and management of sensorineural hearing loss in children has been an area of rapid evolution. With the availability of genetic and cytomegalovirus testing, the diagnostic process is continuously refined. Aural rehabilitation should be provided to children in a timely manner. At present, the main surgical options for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss are bone conduction sound processors and cochlear implants. Investigations into modalities such as auditory brainstem implants are ongoing. With further technological and medical advancements, the evaluation and management of pediatric sensorineural hearin...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 11, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: C. Carrie Liu, Samantha Anne, David L. Horn Source Type: research

Managing the Child with Persistent Sleep Apnea
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 2% to 4% of American children, and is associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive sequelae. The primary treatment for pediatric OSA is adenotonsillectomy. Children with obesity, craniofacial syndromes, and severe baseline OSA are at risk for persistent disease. Evaluation of persistent OSA should focus on identifying the causes of upper airway obstruction. Interventions should be tailored to address the patient ’s symptomatology, sites of obstruction, and preference for surgical versus medical management. Further research is needed to identify manageme...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 10, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Andrew E. Bluher, Stacey L. Ishman, Cristina M. Baldassari Source Type: research

Updates in Pediatric Cholesteatoma
Advances in pediatric otology have provided new tools to diagnose and manage complex otologic disease. Diffusion-weighted MRI provides the surgeon with a tool to detect recurrent or residual cholesteatoma that may obviate a second look surgery. Surgical trends move toward less invasive surgery. The literature provides good evidence to advocate for preserving the posterior ear canal and single stage ossiculoplasty. The growing popularity and increasing evidence in the literature supports otoendoscopy as a means to minimize invasiveness while eradicating disease in previously difficult to reach anatomic locations. These adva...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Kimberly Luu, David Chi, Krista K. Kiyosaki, Kay W. Chang Source Type: research

Improving Quality of Communication: Caring for All Voices
Of all creatures, humans use their voices most robustly. Communication can occur in many ways, but vocal communication is most refined in humans. We learn language starting in infancy, when we begin mimicking sounds and inflections, and then go on to make words and sentences. It is said that there is no more beautiful and complicated vocalization in nature than the human song. Our larynx, initially designed for airway protection, affords us the ability to express ourselves with voice, whispered, spoken, shouted, and sung. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Advancements in Clinical Laryngology
OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Jonathan M. Bock, Chandra M. Ivey, Karen B. Zur Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contributors
SUJANA S. CHANDRASEKHAR, MD, FACS, FAAOHNS (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contents
Sujana S. Chandrasekhar (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Updates in Pediatric Otolaryngology (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - July 4, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Hoarseness Guidelines Redux
The Hoarseness Guideline Update provides an evidence-based approach to a patient who presents to the clinic with hoarseness. The guidelines cover management decisions in acute and chronic dysphonia for patients of all ages before and after laryngeal examination. The present review discusses the process used to develop these guidelines, including limitations of the process and each key action statement. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: David O. Francis, Libby J. Smith Source Type: research

Identification and Management of Chronic Laryngitis
This article describes the infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune causes of chronic laryngitis. Symptoms of chronic laryngitis are nonspecific and may range from mild to airway compromise requiring emergent tracheostomy. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Alisa Zhukhovitskaya, Sunil P. Verma Source Type: research

Reinke's Edema
Reinke's edema (RE) is the polypoid degeneration of one or both vocal folds within Reinke's space. The viscoelastic properties of the mucosal folds are characteristically altered by the expansion of the subepithelial space. Most frequently, patients present with dysphonia, with women being more affected than men. The primary risk factor is tobacco use. Voice overuse and laryngopharyngeal reflux are also considered to be contributory. Although RE shares the same primary risk factor as malignancy, the risk of malignancy is low, and dysplasia is found only in 0% to 3% of cases. Treatment is focused on decrease of risk factors...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Raluca Tavaluc, Melin Tan-Geller Source Type: research

Transgender Voice and Communication
Voice is a complex marker for gender and pivotal to the gender reassignment process. The goal of the transgender patient is to achieve a voice and communication style that is congruent with their gender identity. Voice and speech therapy are fundamental for successful transition. Phonosurgery, to adjust pitch, can be an important adjunct to relieve the patient from active pitch elevation of voice to free them to focus on the other adjustments needed and learned through behavioral training with speech and voice therapy. The authors review current management options for transgender patients with difficulties in voice and com...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Mingyang L. Gray, Mark S. Courey Source Type: research

Advancements in Clinical Laryngology
As with many medical specialties, Otolaryngology has been moving toward subspecialization. Through the hard work of interested innovators in both general otolaryngology and head and neck surgical specialties, Laryngology has developed into a highly specialized and scientific field. The last decade has seen a steep rise in specialists getting trained in voice health. Clinical and bench research on subjects of vocal tract physiology, voice production and pathology, and techniques for addressing these problems is being published in high-level journals. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Chandra M. Ivey, Jonathan M. Bock, Karen B. Zur Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Voice Therapy as Primary Treatment of Vocal Fold Pathology
This article provides an overview of the history of voice therapy within the context of treatment of laryngeal disorders, types of voice therapy, efficacy and outcome data to support the use of voice therapy, and clinical considerations and caveats. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 13, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Wendy DeLeo LeBorgne, Erin Nicole Donahue Source Type: research

The Art of Caring for the Professional Singer
This article introduces the otolaryngologist to the specifics of caring for professional singers. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 13, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Adam D. Rubin, Juliana Codino Source Type: research

Vocal Fold Paresis
This article discusses vocal fold paresis as a separate and distinct condition from vocal fold paralysis. The signs and symptoms of paresis may be different and less obvious than those for paralysis, so this condition is often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. Elements necessary to heighten clinical suspicion are included to assist in educating practitioners on these subtle findings. Once paresis is suspected, associated respiratory or sensory abnormalities also should be sought, because these may change the treatment plan when recognized. Utility of laryngeal electromyography is discussed along with potential treatment opti...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 11, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Chandra M. Ivey Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Benign Pediatric Lesions
Dysphonia is common in pediatrics and affects individuals from infancy through their teenage years. Pediatric dysphonia has a variable impact on children, ranging from no impact to a severe social barrier. Although most etiologies are benign, potentially life-threatening causes must be ruled out by direct examination of the larynx. The most common benign lesions of the larynx in pediatrics are vocal nodules, vocal fold polyps, cysts, granulomas, ectasias, sulcus vocalis, and vascular lesions, including hemangioma and postcricoid cushion. Treatment of benign vocal lesions should be tailored to the individual patient and the...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - May 11, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tiffiny A. Hron, Katherine R. Kavanagh, Nicole Murray Source Type: research