The Role of Systemic Therapy in Advanced Cutaneous Melanoma of the Head and Neck
This article provides an overview of systemic therapies, including the pivotal agents that have led to these advances. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Melissa A. Wilson, Leslie A. Fecher Source Type: research

Surgical Management of Merkel Cell Carcinoma
The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) continues to increase. Understanding of MCC biology has advanced rapidly, with current staging providing valuable prognostic information. MCC treatment often is multidisciplinary. Surgery remains an important component in the staging and treatment, most commonly involving wide excision of the cancer and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Lymphadenectomy is used to treat nodal disease. Radiotherapy enhances locoregional control and possibly survival. Systemic therapies, in particular novel immunotherapies, may be promising in the treatment of advanced or recurrent and metastatic disease...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Miriam Lango, Yelizaveta Shnayder Source Type: research

Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Malignancies of the Head and Neck
This article highlights the use of radiation therapy in the definitive and adjuvant setting for basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. Themes that emerge include the overall efficacy of radiation therapy as a local therapy, the relevance of cosmesis, functional outcomes, late toxicities as secondary end points, and the multitude of treatment modalities that are used. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Rohan Katipally, Nishant Agrawal, Aditya Juloori Source Type: research

Cutaneous Sarcomas
Cutaneous sarcomas represent a rare group of tumors presenting in the head and neck. In this article, we discuss specific sarcoma tumor types and their presentation, pathogenesis, histologic findings, and management recommendations. Tumors to be reviewed include dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, atypical fibroxanthoma, pleomorphic dermal sarcoma, cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, and angiosarcoma. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Brittny N. Tillman, Jeffrey C. Liu Source Type: research

Reconstruction of Cutaneous Cancer Defects of the Head and Neck
The goals of cutaneous malignancy reconstruction are to restore the best functional and aesthetic outcome. Reconstruction should aim to restore all defects layers. While local flaps are the mainstay of head and neck Mohs reconstruction, the range of reconstructive options varies from healing by secondary intention to microvascular free tissue transfer. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Issam N. Eid, Oneida A. Arosarena Source Type: research

Cutaneous Head and Neck Cancers in the High-Risk Immunosuppressed Population
This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, incidence, prognosis, and special considerations required in managing cutaneous cancers in the IS patient population. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Karen Y. Choi, Cecelia E. Schmalbach Source Type: research

Injectables in Head and Neck Cutaneous Melanoma Treatment
Head and neck cutaneous melanomas pose many treatment challenges. Intratumoral injectables offer local and possibly systemic therapy in unresectable lesions. Talimogene laherparepvec, an injectable oncolytic type 1 herpes simplex virus, can improve durable response rates compared with systemic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with stage IIIB to IVM1a unresectable melanoma. These benefits were most noticed in lower-stage subsets and treatment naive patients. Efficacy of talimogene laherparepvec was maintained in patients with head and neck melanoma. Talimogene laherparepvec plus systemic ...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Brad Rumancik, Lawrence Mark Source Type: research

The Role of Mohs Surgery in Cutaneous Head and Neck Cancer
Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) represents an excellent means to address basal cell carcinoma and some squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) of the head and neck region, achieving excellent outcomes with respect to local recurrence rates and disease-specific survival. MMS by virtue of its technique maximally preserves uninvolved tissues of the head and neck, thereby maintaining form, cosmesis, and function to the greatest extent as dictated by the disease. However, the application of MMS for managing high-risk cSCC and melanoma requires additional investigation. MMS may also prove beneficial in treating rare cutaneous diseases ...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Gina D. Jefferson Source Type: research

Head and Neck Cutaneous Cancer
Cutaneous cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the United States with an estimated 3.5 million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosed annually, in addition to 60,000 invasive melanoma cases.1,2 The incidence is growing at epidemic proportions: there has been a 263% increase in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) between the time periods of 1976 to 1984 and 2000 to 2010.1 This exponential growth is attributed to our aging patient population, outdoor lifestyle changes, increased use of tanning beds, sun-worshipping tendencies, advances in solid organ transplantation, and changes to the ozone. (Source:...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Cecelia E. Schmalbach, Kelly M. Malloy Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Meaningfully Moving Forward Through Intentional Training, Mentorship, and Sponsorship
The acquisition of effective strategies to successfully navigate both professional and personal realms, as well as the intersections between them, has never been more important. Medicine has always been a rapidly evolving field. However, these changes are amplified by factors like the increased availability of information, managing nontraditional spheres of influence like social media, emerging infectious disease concerns like the COVID-19 pandemic, and understanding how the social determinants of health and our own biases impact not only the care we provide but also the outcomes of our patients and communities. (Source: O...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Jennifer A. Villwock Tags: Special Preface Source Type: research

Cutaneous Cancer Biology
There has been a drastic increase in the incidence of nonmelanoma (NMSC), including squamous, basal cell, and melanoma skin cancers worldwide. Most cases of skin cancer can be treated effectively with surgery; fewer than 10% of cases are advanced and may require additional therapies. A better understanding of the biology of skin cancer will help contribute to better prognostic information and identification of possible new therapeutic targets. Herein, the authors review the biology and pathogenesis of both NMSC and melanoma, focusing on critical cell signaling pathways mediating the disease and current therapeutic strategi...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 11, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Alok R. Khandelwal, Kristen A. Echanique, Maie St. John, Cherie Ann Nathan Source Type: research

The Role of Systemic Therapy in Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Systemic therapy for patients with head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HNCSCC) generally is used for patients with advanced disease and most often employed for patients in the palliative setting when disease is unresectable and/or widely metastatic. Cytotoxic agents and epidermal growth factor receptor pathway targeted therapy have been utilized most commonly, with few clinical data to support their efficacy. Adjuvant postoperative chemoradiation with platinum has been called into question based on recent data. Programmed cell death protein 1 receptor immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated profound act...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 11, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Caitlin P. McMullen, Thomas J. Ow Source Type: research

Offering a Helping Hand to Future Colleagues
The great actress and humanitarian Audrey Hepburn famously said, “Remember, if you ever need a helping hand, it's at the end of your arm; as you get older, remember you have another hand. The first is to help yourself, the second is to help others.” I first read this 4 years ago, when I was President of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck S urgery and writing a piece on mentorship and sponsorship. The 2 articles in the Special Article Series: Intentionally Shaping the Future of Otolaryngology in this issue speak to this concept. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 11, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Mentorship and Sponsorship in a Diverse Population
This article defines mentorship and sponsorship and the current state of these within otolaryngology. Strategies for being an effective mentor and mentee are listed. Mentorship needs among women and underrepresented minorities within otolaryngology are discussed. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Cristina Cabrera-Muffly Source Type: research

History of Endoscopic Ear Surgery
This article discusses the integration of the endoscope into the practice of otologic surgery. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Muaaz Tarabichi, Zainab Arsiwala Source Type: research

Teaching Endoscopic Ear Surgery
Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) has become an integral part of otologic surgery. Training in EES involves learning fundamental techniques for endoscopic visualization, becoming proficient at one-handed dissection, mastering use of instruments designed for endoscopic ear surgery, and learning to optimize the operating room setup specifically for EES. Despite the steep learning curve, EES offers several advantages over the microscope for otologic procedures. With the rise in the demand for minimally invasive approaches, EES has a clear role in the future of otologic surgery. Identifying strategies to improve the training proces...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Samuel R. Barber, Divya A. Chari, Alicia M. Quesnel Source Type: research

Getting Started with Endoscopic Ear Surgery
Because endoscopic technology has matured over the past several decades, ear surgeons have increasingly used endoscopy to address some of the limitations of operative microscopy. The wide field of view and high-resolution images provided by endoscopes allow for improved visualization of the tympanic cavity using minimally invasive surgical portals compared with the standard operative binocular microscope. The endoscope is becoming an essential tool in the otologist ’s armamentarium. In this article, the authors discuss rationale for endoscopic ear surgery, terminology and classification, surgical indications, essenti...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Elliott D. Kozin, Daniel J. Lee, Natasha Pollak Source Type: research

Endoscopic Assisted Lateral Skull Base Surgery
Pathology of the lateral skull base poses a unique challenge for the surgeon. An intimate knowledge of the anatomy and the various approaches used for accessing pathology of the lateral skull base is critical. Three novel, minimally invasive, transcanal approaches for the management of lateral skull base pathology are described herein along with their respective indications, advantages, and disadvantages. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Brandon Isaacson, Daniel E. Killeen, Luca Bianconi, Daniele Marchioni Source Type: research

New Navigation Approaches for Endoscopic Lateral Skull Base Surgery
Image-guided navigation is well established for surgery of the brain and anterior skull base. Although navigation workstations have been used widely by neurosurgeons and rhinologists for decades, utilization in the lateral skull base (LSB) has been less due to stricter requirements for overall accuracy less than 1  mm in this region. Endoscopic approaches to the LSB facilitate minimally invasive surgeries with less morbidity, yet there are risks of injury to critical structures. With improvements in technology over the years, image-guided navigation for endoscopic LSB surgery can reduce operative time, optim ize expos...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Samuel R. Barber Source Type: research

Endoscopic-Assisted Drug Delivery for Inner Ear Regeneration
Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by irreversible loss of auditory hair cells and/or neurons and is increasing in prevalence. Hair cells and neurons do not regenerate after damage, but novel regeneration therapies based on small molecule drugs, gene therapy, and cell replacement strategies offer promising therapeutic options. Endogenous and exogenous regeneration techniques are discussed in context of their feasibility for hair cell and neuron regeneration. Gene therapy and treatment of synaptopathy represent promising future therapies. Minimally invasive endoscopic ear surgery offers a viable approach to aid in deliver...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Judith S. Kempfle Source Type: research

Endoscopic Ear Surgery
OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Manuela X. Fina, Justin S. Golub, Daniel J. Lee Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contributors
SUJANA S. CHANDRASEKHAR, MD, FACS, FAAOHNS (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contents
Sujana S. Chandrasekhar (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Head and Neck Cutaneous Cancer (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 24, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Endoscopic Ear Surgery
Middle ear anatomy and physiology is highly complex, yet familiarity is important to perform middle ear surgery and understand surgically relevant ventilation pathways of the ear compartments. The middle ear is divided into five subspaces: the mesotympanum, the retrotympanum posteriorly, the epitympanum superiorly, the protympanum anteriorly, and the hypotympanum inferiorly. The Eustachian tube plays a crucial role in maintaining middle ear aeration and atmospheric pressure. There are two independent aeration routes of the epitympanum. Thanks to the advent of the endoscope, this anatomic and physiologic knowledge has allow...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Daniele Marchioni, Alessia Rubini, Davide Soloperto Source Type: research

Otoendoscopy in the Office and Operating Room
Since its introduction into the field of otology in 1967 endoscopes are gaining acceptance in evaluation and treatment of middle ear disease. Endoscopes offer a wide field view enabling looking “around the corner” with reduced need for soft tissue and bone removal. Outcomes of middle ear surgery for cholesteatoma and need for second-look procedures are improving because of the addition of endoscopic evaluation. Trainee education using the endoscope improves knowledge of middle ear anat omy. The portability of the endoscopic unit allows performing ear surgery in remote locations. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Michal Preis Source Type: research

Endoscopic Myringoplasty and Type I Tympanoplasty
Herein we provide a broad overview of the literature as it applies to endoscopic myringoplasty and type I tympanoplasty. Advantages and disadvantages of the endoscopic approach are reviewed for both the adult and pediatric populations and are compared with conventional microscopic techniques. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Zachary G. Schwam, Maura K. Cosetti Source Type: research

Novel Radiologic Approaches for Cholesteatoma Detection
This article outlines recent advances in CT and MRI technology and advantages and disadvantages of the newer techniques. Emphasis on improving the feedback loop between the radiologist and surgeon will increase the accuracy of these new technologies. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Alexander J. Saxby, Nicholas Jufas, Jonathan H.K. Kong, Allison Newey, Alexander G. Pitman, Nirmal P. Patel Source Type: research

The Endoscopic Management of Congenital Cholesteatoma
This article reviews the ways in which endoscopy can be applied to the surgical management of congenital cholesteatoma and provides a guide based on congenital cholesteatoma stage and extent. Outcomes have shown similar rates of residual disease in total endoscopic ear surgery compared with operative microscopy. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Rachel McCabe, Daniel J. Lee, Manuela Fina Source Type: research

Endoscopic Management of Pediatric Chronic Ear Disease
Pediatric chronic ear disease and its sequelae often necessitate surgical intervention, such as ear tube insertion, ossiculoplasty, tympanoplasty, and cholesteatoma removal. Although these procedures have traditionally been performed with the microscope, use of rigid endoscopes provides an alternative method for visualization. The endoscope offers improved visualization of the middle ear space and adjacent structures and can either be used alone to perform surgery through the ear canal or together with the microscope if mastoidectomy is required. Endoscopic ear surgery can reduce the need for a postauricular incision or ma...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Evette Ronner, Michael S. Cohen Source Type: research

Endoscopic Stapes Surgery
The endoscopic approach to stapes surgery affords unique advantages but is not without its specific challenges. The following reviews the equipment and surgical steps required to perform endoscopic stapes surgery safely and effectively, highlighting tips and potential points of failure through a series of case examples. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Kristen L. Yancey, Nauman F. Manzoor, Alejandro Rivas Source Type: research

Pearls and Pitfalls in Endoscopic Ear Surgery
“Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) has become increasingly popular due to numerous visualization benefits, including angled optics that enable the surgeon to see and dissect around corners. These advantages help the surgeon overcome the visualization limitations of microscopic ear surgery, reducing the need for a post-auricular incision and bone removal. This chapter discusses useful pearls and pitfalls of EES, technical tips and ergonomic strategies, so the learner can understand and solve common obstacles faced when learning EES and incorporate it into his or her practice.” (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sagit Stern Shavit, Rahul K. Sharma, Alexander Chern, Justin S. Golub Source Type: research

Women and Minorities in Otolaryngology
This article highlights some of these pioneering doctor s and their contributions to the field. Additionally, the current representation of women and minorities in otolaryngology residency programs and the gender and racial disparities in academic positions are reviewed. The need for mentorship during undergraduate medical education to improve diversity and inclusion within this surgical subspecialty is reinforced. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Barry Kriegsman, Scott Harrison, Lindsay Sobin Source Type: research

The Work Is Just Beginning —Racism in Medicine
The medical community is no exception when it comes to structural racism and implicit bias, often present in dangerously subtle ways. To enter a residency program in which one is the only black person seems odd, especially considering the decades-long calls to action for increasing diversity. Unless the societal majority removes the blinders and steps out of their realm of privilege to address personal and systemic racist and biased views, progress will not be made. Sponsorship and inclusion of those Underrepresented in Medicine also lead to a stronger, more diverse academic community, and ultimately better health care. (S...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Candace A. Flagg, Michelle F. Liu Source Type: research

Future of Endoscopic Ear Surgery
Endoscopic ear surgery has gained popularity in recent years, becoming standard practice in otology centers around the world as an adjunct to conventional microscopic surgery and as a sole tool for limited disease. During the last years, technical improvements and growing expertise in the handling of the endoscope allowed introducing an exclusive endoscopic approach to the middle ear, lateral skull base, middle cranial fossa, and posterior fossa/cerebellopontine angle pathologies. Endoscopic instrumentation, techniques, and knowledge have improved during the last few years, and in the future, endoscopic surgical techniques...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Joao Flavio Nogueira, Raquel de Sousa Lobo Ferreira Querido, Janaina Gon çalves da Silva Leite, Ticiana Cabral da Costa Source Type: research

The Role for Microsurgery of the Ear
Microscopic ear surgery (MES) has been used since the 1950s whereas endoscopic ear surgery (EES) was introduced in the mid-1990s. The advantages of MES should not be forgotten as surgeons turn their attention to new technology. These include depth perception, wide angle view, and the ability to operate with 2 hands. EES affords the ability to look around corners but needs a pristine field and is limited to single-handed surgery in a narrow field. Trainees should be taught both, and technique used should reflect the experience and abilities of the surgeon and the nature of the disease in the particular patient. (Source: Oto...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar, Sandra Ho, John W. House Source Type: research

A New Window to the Ear
Visualization is the key feature of safe and effective surgery. Until the introduction of the operative microscope in the mid 1900s, middle ear surgery was a crude endeavor, and ossicular reconstruction was merely an idea. Once the tympanic cavity could be illuminated and magnified, a new golden era of otologic surgery emerged. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Manuela Fina, Justin S. Golub, Daniel J. Lee Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Big Ear Surgeons Don ’t Need to Make Such Big Incisions
Physicians have always been trying to peer into places that are difficult to access. The first described endoscope was the lichtleiter, which used concave mirrors to reflect candlelight through an open tube into the esophagus, bladder, or rectum. It was created in 1806 by urologist Phillip Bozzini. The first useable cystoscope was created in 1877 by urologist Maximilian Carl-Friedrich Nitze, using a series of lenses to increase magnification. He was also the first to place light inside the organ of interest to aid visualization. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Tackling Gender and Racial Discrimination in Otolaryngology, Head (and Neck) On
This issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America features the third installment in our Special Article Series: Intentionally Shaping the Future of Otolaryngology, Guest Edited by Dr Jennifer A. Villwock. The first 2 articles of the series highlighted the importance of leadership in our field. The second 2 articles focused on the current state of the Otolaryngology workforce and the importance of devoting attention to diversity and inclusion in our field in order to improve the care that we deliver to a diverse population. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Special Foreword Source Type: research

False Dichotomies
There will be no shortage of things for which the year 2020 will be remembered. Among these events are the losses of numerous pioneers, including NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson, Congressman John Lewis, and Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. I feature their words in this preface not only to honor their lives and legacies but also because they ring true. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Jennifer A. Villwock Tags: Special Preface Source Type: research

Endoscopic Management of Primary Acquired Cholesteatoma
Endoscopic ear surgery is increasingly accepted as a primary modality for cholesteatoma surgery. A major advantage is the enhanced visualization of the middle ear in traditionally poorly accessible locations by the microscope. We discuss novel techniques for selective mastoid obliteration when a canal wall down mastoidectomy is necessary. Postoperatively, indications for non-echo planar diffusion-weighted imaging MRI versus second-look surgery are discussed. Finally, outcome data for endoscopic versus microscopic ear surgery are reviewed, which show equivalent outcomes regarding residual and recurrent disease, similar rate...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 29, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Whitney Chiao, Doug Chieffe, Manuela Fina Source Type: research

Robotic Ear Surgery
Robots under research and development for otology can be classified as collaborative (intervention is constrained by the robot but surgeon directly actuates the end-effector), teleoperated (surgeon remotely controls a tool with modification [eg, tremor reduction] by the robot), or autonomous (surgeon monitors the robot performing a task). Current clinical trials focus on more accurate stapes surgery, minimally invasive access to the cochlea, and less traumatic insertion of cochlear implant electrode arrays. Autonomous approaches to major aspects of surgical interventions (eg, mastoidectomy) will likely be late entries to c...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Katherine E. Riojas, Robert F. Labadie Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery for Residual and Recurrent Oropharyngeal Cancers
This article discusses current concepts on this topic, offers a deeper insight into the transoral anatomy for t hese cases, and covers the specific complexities of resections in the various subsites of the oropharynx. It provides practical tips on reconstruction, recovery, and rehabilitation as well as offering a synthesis of the current evidence and exploring future trends. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Vinidh Paleri, John Hardman, Grainne Brady, Ajith George, Cyrus Kerawala Source Type: research

Robotic Thyroidectomy
Through the past decades, there was a tremendous revolution in the surgical approaches for thyroidectomy. Remote access approaches (RAA) use the axillary approach, the axillary-bilateral breast approach, the bilateral axilla-breast approach, the retroauricular approach, and the transoral approach. The installation of the robotic system in surgery overcomes many limitations of the RAA. Although there are various types of robotic thyroidectomy by far, transaxillary is the commonly used approach. Moreover, the transoral approach is the most novel approach. In this article, the authors demonstrate the benefits and the constrai...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Emad Kandil, Abdallah S. Attia, Deena Hadedeya, Areej Shihabi, Ahmad Elnahla Source Type: research

Domo Arigato, Mister Roboto
The word “robot” was introduced into the English language and into science fiction in 1920 by the Czech playwright Karel Capuk in his work, Rossum’s Universal Robots, which appeared about 3 years after his brother introduced the concept of an automaton1,2 (Figs. 1 and 2). The word robot comes from the Czech word robota, which means forced labor or activity. The robots in his play were humanoid in appearance with artificial intelligence and learning capabilities and, like the Terminators of the movie franchise, attempt to overthrow their human controllers and make their own destinies. (Source: Otolaryngolo...
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Sujana S. Chandrasekhar Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Robotics in Otolaryngology
OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Arun Sharma, Erica R. Thaler Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contributors
SUJANA S. CHANDRASEKHAR, MD, FACS, FAAOHNS (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contents
Sujana S. Chandrasekhar (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America - October 28, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research