Utilization of bone mineral density testing among breast cancer survivors in British Columbia, Canada
AbstractSummaryBreast cancer survivors are at high osteoporosis risk. Bone mineral density testing plays a key role in osteoporosis management. We analyzed a historical utilization of bone mineral density testing in breast cancer survivors. The utilization remained low in the 1995 –2008 period. Lower socio-economic status and rural residency were associated with lower utilization.IntroductionTo evaluate the utilization of bone mineral density (BMD) testing for female breast cancer survivors aged 65+ surviving ≥ 3 years in British Columbia, Canada.MethodsA retrospecitve population-based data linkage study. Tre...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 9, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Two-year cortical and trabecular bone loss in CKD-5D: biochemical and clinical predictors
AbstractSummaryThis prospective two-year study of patients on chronic dialysis measured changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Patients with higher baseline BMD and shorter dialysis vintage lost more bone. Treatment with anti-hypertensives acting on the central nervous system was protective against bone loss. Baseline serum levels of sclerostin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase predicted bone loss.IntroductionThis prospective 2-year study of chronic kidney disease on dialysis (CKD-5D) patients assessed trabecular and cortical bone loss at the hip and spine and examined potential demographic, clinical, and serum bioche...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 9, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Administrative health data: guilty until proven innocent. Response to comments by Levy and Sobolev
(Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Comments on Li et al.: Meta-analysis of hypertension and osteoporotic fracture risk in women and men
(Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Administrative health data: guilty until proven innocent
(Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of hypertension and osteoporotic fracture risk in women and men: response to comments by Rodr íguez et al.
(Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Effects of endogenous hypercortisolism on bone mRNA and microRNA expression in humans
AbstractSummaryHypercortisolism in humans suppresses osteoblastogenesis and osteoblast function through the upregulation of Wnt-signaling antagonists (sclerostin, Dkk1) and changes in microRNAs levels (miR-125b-5p, miR-218-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-188-3p, miR-199a-5p) which are associated with mesenchymal stem-cell commitment to adipocytes or cartilage cells over the osteoblasts.IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the responses of bone to chronic glucocorticoid (GC) excess by measuring the levels of selected mRNA and microRNA (miR) in bone samples of patients with Cushing ’s disease (CD).MethodsBone samp...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 4, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Significant bone loss after stopping long-term denosumab treatment: a post FREEDOM study
ConclusionOur results describe the rapid bone loss occurring after cessation of denosumab treatment. Further studies are needed to assess if patients have a higher risk of fracture after stopping DMAb and if so, which patients have the highest risk, and assess the role of transitioning to bisphosphonates in the long term. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 3, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A novel dominant COL11A1 mutation in a child with Stickler syndrome type II is associated with recurrent fractures
ConclusionThis case highlights the phenotypic variability of Stickler type II, broadens the list of differential diagnosis of increased bone fragility in childhood, and highlights utility of unbiased genetic testing towards establishing the correct diagnosis in children with frequent fractures. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 3, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Standards of reporting: the use of CONSORT PRO and CERT in individuals living with osteoporosis
AbstractThe Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials for Patient-Reported Outcomes (CONSORT PRO) and the Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT) have been developed to improve the quality and transparency of reporting standards in scientific research. The purpose of this study was to provide evidence for the adoption of CONSORT PRO and CERT by researchers examining the link between exercise and quality of life in individuals living with osteoporosis. A systematic search was conducted to identify randomized control trials published in English evaluating exercise interventions on quality of life in individuals livi...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 2, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The effect of exercise on bone mineral density in adult cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsFrom the evidence available, exercise may not be sufficient to improve bone health in cancer survivors, but given the heterogeneity in the participant characteristics and several exercise programs which may not have been designed to specifically optimise bone health, these findings should be interpreted with caution. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 2, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Gender-specific association between dietary acid load and total lean body mass and its dependency on protein intake in seniors
AbstractSummaryDiet-related mild metabolic acidosis may play a role in the development of sarcopenia. We investigated the relationship between dietary acid load and total lean body mass in male and female seniors age ≥ 60 years. We found that a more alkaline diet was associated with a higher %TLM only among senior women.IntroductionThe aim of this study was to determine if dietary acid load is associated with total lean body mass in male and female seniors age ≥ 60 years.MethodsWe investigated 243 seniors (mean age 70.3  ± 6.3; 53% women) age ≥ 60 years who participat...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 2, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Effect of implementation of guidelines on assessment and diagnosis of vertebral fractures in patients older than 50  years with a recent non-vertebral fracture
AbstractSummaryWe evaluated the impact of a new Dutch guideline on systematic implementation of densitometric Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) in patients with a recent non-vertebral fracture. Systematic implementation resulted in a significant increase of VFA, diagnosis of vertebral fractures (VFs), and percentage of patients eligible for treatment.IntroductionVFs are underdiagnosed although they are important predictors of fracture risk, independent of age and bone mineral density (BMD). The Dutch guideline on osteoporosis and fracture prevention recommends VFA in all patients aged>50  years with a recent non-...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Estimating the long-term functional burden of osteoporosis-related fractures
This study documents evidence of an association between fractures and significant declines and functional health and activities that persist but attenuate beyond two  years.IntroductionAlthough fractures are associated with short-term reductions in functional status and may have other short-term effects on healthcare utilization (hospitalization and follow-up care), there is limited information on long-term burden of fracture beyond 12 to 24  months post-fracture. Analysis of the long-term health burden can inform policymakers, health care practitioners, and payers.MethodsWe acquired a data set containing the 199...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Intake of omega-3 fatty acids contributes to bone mineral density at the hip in a younger Japanese female population
ConclusionAdequate total n-3 fatty acid intake may help maximize PBM at the hip. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Barriers to secondary fracture prevention in primary care
This study of current osteoporosis management patterns in general practice found that the majority of patients presenting to their local health practitioner with a recent low-trauma fracture was not managed appropriately. The analysis demonstrated that failure to investigate was highly predictive of failure to treat and that one of the major barriers to effective osteoporosis management is a lack of specific knowledge about who to investigate and treat.IntroductionOsteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The current study aimed (i) to determine the number of patients with osteoporotic...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Effect of denosumab on trabecular bone score in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
AbstractSummaryTrabecular bone score (TBS) assesses bone quality in the lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, denosumab significantly improved TBS independently of bone mineral density (BMD). This practical technique may have a role in managing patients with osteoporosis.IntroductionTBS, a gray-level texture index determined from lumbar spine DXA scans, correlates with bone microarchitecture and enhances assessment of vertebral fracture risk independently of BMD. In the FREEDOM study, denosumab increased BMD and reduced new vertebral fractures in postmen...
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Adverse bone effects of medications used to treat non-skeletal disorders
AbstractThere is a growing list of medications used to treat non-skeletal disorders that cause bone loss and/or increase fracture risk. This review discusses glucocorticoids, drugs that reduce sex steroids, antidiabetic agents, acid-reducing drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and heparin. A number of drugs are known to cause bone loss, increase fracture risk, or both. These drugs should be used in the lowest dose necessary to achieve the desired benefit and for the shortest time necessary, but in many cases, long-term treatment is required. Effective countermeasures are available for some. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - October 1, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Danish, national cross-sectional observational study on the prevalence of prior major osteoporotic fractures in adults presenting with hip fracture —limitations and scope for fracture liaison services in prevention of hip fracture
ConclusionThe majority of hip fractures —and in particular hip fractures in men—occur without a previously treated MOF that could have resulted in early detection and treatment of osteoporosis. With current treatment modalities, a maximum of one in six hip fractures in Denmark can be prevented through FLS initiatives. Identification o f patients with vertebral fractures for assessment and treatment is therefore critical for successful prevention of hip fractures using this strategy. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 30, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The effect of social deprivation on hip fracture incidence in England has not changed over 14  years: an analysis of the English Hospital Episodes Statistics (2001–2015)
We examined the effect of area-level deprivation on hip fracture incidence in England over 14  years to determine whether inequalities have changed over time.MethodsWe used English Hospital Episodes Statistics (2001/2002 –2014/2015) to identify hip fractures in adults aged 50+ years and mid-year population estimates (2001–2014) from the Office for National Statistics. The Index of Multiple Deprivation measured local area deprivation. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) for hip fracture, strati fied by gender and deprivation quintiles.ResultsOver 14  years, we identified 747,369 hosp...
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 30, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Subsequent fracture risk of women with pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis after a median of 6  years of follow-up
ConclusionsAlmost a quarter of patients with PAO will sustain a subsequent fracture, and this fracture risk correlates with the number of fractures at time of diagnosis. Patients with PAO need to be informed about their potential subsequent fracture risk before deciding for further pregnancies. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 30, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Strontium ranelate stimulates trabecular bone formation in a rat tibial bone defect healing process
ConclusionsSrRan affects bone formation differently in normal mature bone or in the bone healing process. Despite this selective action, this led to similar increased bone volume in both compartments without deleterious effects on the newly bone-formed quality. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 28, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Melatonin at pharmacological concentrations suppresses osteoclastogenesis via the attenuation of intracellular ROS
ConclusionMelatonin at pharmacological doses directly inhibited osteoclastogenesis of BMMs by a ROS-mediated but not a SIRT1-independent pathway. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 27, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Prediction of major osteoporotic and hip fractures in Australian men using FRAX scores adjusted with trabecular bone score
ConclusionsPrediction of fractures by MOF or hip FRAX was not substantially improved by TBS adjustment. There was no difference in AUROCs or diagnostic indexes for cut-off points of ≥20 for MOF and ≥3% for hip FRAX. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 23, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The impact of the new National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA) diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of osteoporosis in the United States: supplementary presentation
AbstractWe evaluated the prevalence of osteoporosis using the osteoporosis diagnostic criteria developed by the National Bone Health Alliance (NBHA), which includes qualified fractures, FRAX score in addition to BMD. The expanded definition increases the prevalence compared to BMD alone definitions; however, it may better identify those at elevated fracture risk. Recently an NBHA working Group published a paper in OI with recommendations for expanding the criteria that would constitute an osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women and in men over age 50 for use in the US – Siris et al., Osteoporosis International...
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 21, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Precision of bone density and micro-architectural properties at the distal radius and tibia in children: an HR-pQCT study
ConclusionsHR-pQCT precision errors were between 1 and 8% (LSC 3 –21%) for trabecular bone outcomes and 1 and 11% (LSC 2–30%) for cortical bone outcomes at the radius and tibia in children. Cortical bone outcomes obtained using the advanced cortical evaluation appeared to have lower precision errors than cortical outcomes derived using the standard evaluation . These findings, combined with better-defined cortical bone contours with advanced cortical evaluation, indicate that metrics from advanced cortical evaluation should be utilized when monitoring cortical bone properties in children. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 18, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The effect of high-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation on bone mineral density in subjects with prediabetes
ConclusionsVitamin D3 supplementation alone may be beneficial in males with prediabetes, but confirmatory studies are needed. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 18, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Longevity of daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation: differences in 25OHD and 24,25(OH)2D observed 2  years after cessation of a 1-year randomised controlled trial (VICtORy RECALL)
AbstractSummaryTo determine how long vitamin D lasts after supplementation ceases, the marker of status was measured 2 and 3  years after a 1-year trial. Compared to placebo, the proportion of vitamin D-deficient women was still lower, if they had taken daily vitamin D3, after 2 years, indicating its longevity.IntroductionThe purpose of this study was to determine longevity of vitamin D status following cessation of vitamin D3 supplementation, 2 and 3  years after a 1-year randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial and to investigate possible predictive factors.MethodsCaucasian non-smoking postmenopausal w...
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 15, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Inflammatory diseases and bone fragility
AbstractSystemic osteoporosis and increased fracture rates have been described in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most of these patients receive glucocorticoids, which have their own deleterious effects on bone. However, the other main determinant of bone fragility is the inflammation itself, as shown by the interactions between the inflammatory mediators, the actors of the immune system, and the bone remodelling. The inflammatory disease activity is thus on top of the other w...
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 15, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A novel COL1A2 C-propeptide cleavage site mutation causing high bone mass osteogenesis imperfecta with a regional distribution pattern
We report two cases of a 56-year-old woman and her 80-year-old mother who suffered from multiple vertebral and non-vertebral fractures with onset in early childhood. A full osteologic assessment including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and serum analyses pointed to a high bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip (DXA Z-score +  3.7 and + 3.9) but low to normal bone mass in the spine and preserved bone microstructure in the distal tibia. Serum markers of bone formation and bone resorption were elevated. Using whole exome sequencing, we id...
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 15, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Effects of obesity and diabetes on rate of bone density loss
We examined the rate of BMD loss in women with diabetes and/or obesity in a population-based BMD registry for Manitoba, Canada. We identified 4960 women aged ≥ 40 years undergoing baseline and follow-up BMD assessments (mean interval 4.3 years) without confounding medication use or large weight fluctuation. We calculated annualized rate of BMD change for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in relation to diagnosed diabetes and body mass in dex (BMI) category.ResultsBaseline age-adjusted BMD was greater in women with diabetes and for increasing BMI category (allP 
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 15, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Low physical activity is related to clustering of risk factors for fracture —a 2-year prospective study in children
ConclusionLow PA in children is related to clustering of risk factors for fracture, and the pre-pubertal years seem to be a period when PA positively affects the composite score. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 15, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Equal treatment: no evidence of gender inequity in osteoporosis management in a coordinator-based fragility fracture screening program
ConclusionNeeds-based analyses show no difference by gender in treatment of high-risk fragility fracture patients. An intensive coordinator-based fracture prevention model adopted in Ontario, Canada was not associated with gender inequity in OP treatment of fragility fracture patients after fracture risk adjustment. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 10, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change of the “Osteoporosis and You” knowledge scale
ConclusionsIn the PAADRN population, theO&Y knowledge scale had psychometric properties similar to those previously reported. Over 12 and 52  weeks, participants did not demonstrate significant changes in knowledge, but those with higher knowledge at baseline were more likely to accurately recall their baseline DXA result. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 7, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Pregnancy-related fractures: a retrospective study of a French cohort of 52 patients and review of the literature
ConclusionsPregnancy-related osteoporosis gives rise to multiple vertebral fractures. It is often promoted by risk factors before or during pregnancy. Its mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with bisphosphonates or teriparatide appears to improve the recovery of bone mineral density. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Sedentary behaviour and bone health in children, adolescents and young adults: a systematic review –supplementary presentation
Conclusion: This review highlights the heterogeneity of the available evidence and emphasizes the need for well-designed studies. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Erratum to: Determinants of bone mineral density in young Australian women; results from the Safe-D study
(Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 6, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bisphosphonate drug holidays in postmenopausal osteoporosis: effect on clinical fracture risk
ConclusionsAfter first-line BP therapy in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, the risk of new clinical fractures was 40% higher in subjects who took a bisphosphonate drug holiday. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 5, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Non-participation in systematic screening for osteoporosis —the ROSE trial
ConclusionsBarriers to population-based screening for osteoporosis appear to be both psychosocial and physical in nature. Women who decline are older, have lower self-perceived fracture risk, and more often live alone compared to women who accept the program. Dropping out after primary acceptance is associated not only with aging and physical impairment but also with current smoking and alcohol consumption. Measures to increase program participation could include targeted information and reducing physical barriers for attending screening procedures. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 5, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Hip fracture risk in patients with burn injury: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan
ConclusionBurn injury is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. Diabetes and osteoporosis are associated with an enhanced risk. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 5, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Excess risk of venous thromboembolism in hip fracture patients and the prognostic impact of comorbidity
ConclusionsHip fracture patients were at increased excess risk of VTE up to 1  year following their fracture. During the first year, interaction between hip fracture and comorbidity was observed among patients with severe and very severe comorbidity. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 5, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Maternal vitamin D and offspring trabecular bone score
ConclusionsWe speculate that maternal 25(OH)D in early pregnancy may be associated with TBS in offspring at age 11 in boys. These hypothesis-generating findings warrant confirmation with larger interventional and long-term follow-up studies. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 3, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Clinical and biochemical response to neridronate treatment in a patient with osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG)
We report on a patient with OPPG due to an LRP5 gene mutation, who showed an encouraging response after a 36-month period of neridronate therapy. We report a case of a patient treated with bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates should be administered in OPPG patients as a first-line therapy during early childhood. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - September 2, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Childhood growth predicts higher bone mass and greater bone area in early old age: findings among a subgroup of women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study
We examined the associations between childhood growth and bone properties among women at early old age. Early growth in height predicted greater bone area and higher bone mineral mass. However, information on growth did not improve prediction of bone properties beyond that predicted by body size at early old age.IntroductionWe examined the associations between body size at birth and childhood growth with bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early old age.MethodsA subgroup of women (n = 178, mean 60.4 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–1944,...
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 10, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Excess of all-cause mortality after a fracture in type 2 diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study
ConclusionsT2DM patients have a 30% increased post-fracture mortality compared to non-diabetics and a remarkable excess in absolute mortality risk. More research is needed on the causes underlying such excess risk, and on the effectiveness of measures to reduce post-fracture morbi-mortality in T2DM subjects. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 10, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal health in newly diagnosed children with Crohn ’s disease
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures and the impact of CD on muscle and bone mass, strength, density, and geometry in children with n ewly diagnosed CD.MethodsSeventy-three children (26 girls) aged 7.0 to 17.7  years were examined within 35 days following CD diagnosis by lateral spine radiograph for vertebral fractures and by jumping mechanography for muscle strength. Bone and muscle mass, density, and geometry were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomogr aphy (pQCT).ResultsDisease activity was moderate to severe in 66 ...
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 8, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Comparison of spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers
This study compared spinal alignment, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) between women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and healthy volunteers. The results indicated that lower QOL in osteoporosis patients may be associated with increased thoracic kyphosis, reduced lean muscle mass, and generalized muscle weakness.IntroductionIncreased spinal kyphosis is common in patients with osteoporosis and negatively impacts quality of life (QOL). Muscular strength is also important for QOL in patients with osteoporosis. However, spinal kyphosis and muscle weakness also occur in healthy individuals with advancing age. The pu...
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 7, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Erratum to: Identification and management of patients at increased risk of osteoporotic fracture: outcomes of an ESCEO expert consensus meeting
(Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 7, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

FRAX- vs. T-score-based intervention thresholds for osteoporosis
ConclusionIntervention thresholds based on BMD alone do not optimally target women at higher fracture risk than those on age-matched individuals without clinical risk factors, particularly in the elderly. In contrast, intervention thresholds based on fracture probabilities equivalent to a ‘fracture threshold’ consistently target women at higher fracture risk, irrespective of age. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 7, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Interventions for humeral shaft fractures: mixed treatment comparisons of clinical trials
ConclusionsWe recommended MIPO as the optimal treatment for humeral shaft fractures after taking all outcomes into consideration; IMN was also recommended for its relatively good performance, but its complication still needed to be noticed. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
Source: Osteoporosis International - August 5, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research