Transoral Robotic Surgery and the Unknown Primary
Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) comprises approximately 1% –5% of all head and neck malignancies. Primary site detection rates for metastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remain variable, with current diagnostic imaging unable to identify all tumours. Prevailing evidence suggests that most head and neck CUP are located in the oropharynx. Diagnos tic surgical efforts have been directed at sampling the entire oropharynx. Present techniques that make this possible include transoral robotic surgery (TORS). TORS Lingual tonsillectomy or tongue base mucosectomy performed in the setting of head and neck CUP inc...
Source: ORL - November 12, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery Total Laryngectomy
Conclusion: TORS-SL for SCC was performed in a safe, reliable, and smooth manner and was shown to be successful in treating our patients. We thus believe that our step-by-step surgical technique for TORS-SL is efficient and reproducible.ORL 2018;80:171 –177 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 7, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robot-Assisted Reconstruction in Head and Neck Surgical Oncology: The Evolving Role of the Reconstructive Microsurgeon
Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is gaining more widespread use among head and neck surgical procedures. As experience grows with this technique, so do the indications of when and in which patients it can be used. Already established in the treatment of small oral cavity tumours, it is expanding into larger multi-site resections and resections, such as through-and-through-into-the-neck defects, that will require reconstruction. With robot-assisted surgery advancing, so robot-assisted reconstruction (RAR) is evolving. In this paper, we discuss the evolving role of reconstruction in post-TORS defects as well as the role of R...
Source: ORL - November 7, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Next-Generation Robotic Head and Neck Surgery
Following the inception of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in 2005, the field of robotic head and neck surgery has undergone refinement and innovation. Optimizing patient outcome, preserving function, and limiting morbidity are the key drivers. The next leap forward is another generation of flexible robotic surgical systems. Several such systems are under clinical and preclinical evaluation. A new single-port (Sp) robotic surgical architecture is now available integrating three fully articulating instruments and a flexible three-dimensional high-definition camera delivered through a 25-mm cannula. Preclinical feasibility ...
Source: ORL - November 7, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Sialendoscopy for Definitive Management of a Submandibular Abscess following Radiotherapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: Sialendoscopy should thus, in select patients, be considered as an initial intervention for patients with intraparenchymal salivary gland abscesses in which prior therapy creates an increased risk of complication from an open transcervical approach.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 31, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Combined Growth Factor and Gene Therapy: An Approach for Hair Cell Regeneration and Hearing Recovery
Conclusion: Combining several techniques with a synergic effect (such as growth factor gene therapy and 3D environments) seemed to lead to obtaining the best results as a therapeutic strategy.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Arterial Blood Supply of the Nose: An Angiographic Study
Conclusion: Angiographic study of the nose is a very helpful tool for accurate knowledge of anatomical variations of the arteries with a tremendous effect on our surgical approaches and techniques for the management of different diseases in the nasal region, especially intractable posterior epistaxis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 18, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Nasal Symptom Questionnaire: Our Proposed Scoring System and Prognostic Factors in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Conclusion: Our proposed NSQ scoring system was well verified. The CT score can be helpful for predicting the improvement in nasal symptoms after ESS in CRS patients.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Extension of the Clinical Significance of the “Cog”
Conclusion: Based on endoscopic anatomy and the temporal bone spiral CT 3-D structure reconstruction of the epitympanum, the attic, and the adjacent structures, we found an extension of the clinical significance the cog. Quantification of the adjacent anatomical relationship of this landmark is very important for otology microsurgical operation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 10, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Preoperative Serum Thyroglobulin Level as a Useful Predictive Marker to Differentiate Thyroid Cancer
Conclusion: The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was higher among patients with a preoperative serum Tg value #x3e; 188.5 ng/mL, and this may thus be used as a marker for the diagnosis of this malignancy.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 5, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Anaesthesia and Perioperative Care for Transoral Robotic Surgery
Minimally invasive surgical techniques have gained increasing interest in recent years for their conferred recovery and postoperative advantages. Robot-assisted surgery requires special consideration for anaesthetic and perioperative management. The introduction of robot- assisted intra-oral surgery has important implications on anaesthesia provision, airway management and patient safety. Due to its relatively novel use we explore these considerations alongside our own experience in this field.ORL 2018;80:125 –133 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 5, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Telomerase and Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Mechanisms Regulate Laryngeal Cancer Cell Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway
Conclusions: The inhibition of telomere-related genes inhibited the growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by promoting cell apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt pathway.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - September 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Conservative Treatment versus Surgery for Laryngeal Contact Granuloma: A Prospective Study
Conclusions: This prospective study strengthens the argument for conservative treatment (instead of surgery) as the first choice for laryngeal contact granuloma. The results also suggest that voice abuse, alcohol consumption, and the size of the granuloma may predict treatment outcome.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - September 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes after Performing Tympanoplasty without Mastoidectomy for Active and Inactive Noncholesteatomatous Chronic Otitis Media
Conclusion: With good quality control of the surgical treatment of TWOM, there are no differences in long-term outcomes in noncholesteatomatous COM in different chronic infection conditions.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 21, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Morphological Evaluation of Thyroid Cartilage Invasion in Early Glottic Tumors Involving the Anterior Commissure
Conclusion: The infiltration of thyroid cartilage occurred in 8.3% of tumors and did not change the outcome in patients submitted to frontolateral laryngectomy. The morphological characteristics did not present any statistical significance.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparable Electrode Impedance and Speech Perception at 12 Months after Cochlear Implantation Using Round Window versus Cochleostomy: An Analysis of 40 Patients
Conclusion: The RW approach is comparable to cochleostomy in electrode placement as reflected by impedance and function as reflected by tone, vowel, consonant, disyllable and sentence perception.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Positive Effect of Sialendoscopy with Irrigation Lavage for Sialadenitis without Sialolithiasis or Stenosis
Conclusion: Sialendoscopy with flushing/lavage seems to be a good treatment option for patients with sialodochitis lacking sialolithiasis. The results of this study suggest that the type of irrigation used during sialendoscopy seems to be secondary.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 15, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Correlation between Serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Level and Tumor Volume in Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusions: SCC-Ag moderately correlates with tumor volume in head and neck cancer patients, with statistical significance. We suggest that using tumor volume, rather than a one-dimensional measurement such as tumor size, to analyze correlation with SCC-Ag offers a more accurate means of cancer prognosis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Eight Items to Check on a Temporal Bone CT-Scan
We present here a sequential checklist which could be employed in a systematic and organized manner, aiming to both develop and practice the know-how of this indispensable and challenging method of evaluation of the temporal bone.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Congenital Cholesteatoma: The Silent Pathology
Conclusion: CC present with a myriad of clinical manifestations and should be suspected in all patients with unexplained otological signs and symptoms. They must be completely excised and the functional status of the ear rehabilitated either immediately or later. Follow-up must be indefinite as they have a high recurrence rate.ORL 2018;80:108 –116 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 24, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer
Transoral robotic surgery has shown significant promise in the management of oropharyngeal cancer since its description in 2007. The oncological efficacy of this procedure has been proven in several single-centre studies, multicentre collaborative publications and systematic reviews. The rapid take-up of transoral robotic surgery shows greater acceptance by professionals and is associated with a relatively short learning curve. This overview discusses the rationale and principles underlying the use of transoral robotic surgery in primary and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer and the emerging role for this technique in diagnos...
Source: ORL - July 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Mandibular Myalgia and Miniscule Meckel ’s Caves
We present a case of bilateral hypoplastic Meckel ’s caves in an adult patient leading to the clinical symptomology of trigeminal neuralgia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only report of its kind highlighting this anatomic variant.ORL 2018;80:103 –107 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Oral Cancer Treatment: Still an Indication for Elective Neck Dissection?
Conclusion: A watchful waiting policy could be applied to selected oral cancer patients who can undergo a very close follow-up. This option would be more cost-effective and less harmful than elective neck dissection.ORL 2018;80:96 –102 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 4, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Radiographic Imaging Does Not Reliably Predict Macroscopic Extranodal Extension in Human Papilloma Virus-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer
Conclusions: Preoperative imaging for HPV-associated OPSCC had a PPV for pENE #x3e; 2 mm of 44 –55%, based on any interruption in the capsule or invasion into the perinodal fat. The PPV is low and equipoise in treatment decision making for patients with HPV-associated OPSCC may require other imaging characteristics.ORL 2018;80:85 –95 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 3, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) syndrome constitutes a major health care problem. Surgical modalities for the treatment of OSAH are regaining momentum in view of the increasing prevalence of OSAH and the low compliance rates associated with continuous positive airway pressure. There are several investigations to complement clinical examination in accurately determining the level of airway collapse to ensure correct patient selection and a targeted surgical approach. The most commonly employed include drug-induced sleep endoscopy and imaging with the tongue base and epiglottis often revealed as the major sites of ...
Source: ORL - June 22, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery: Image Guidance and Augmented Reality
Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is being used increasingly as an alternative to conventional open procedures, as its minimally invasive approach results in significant benefits for the patient. This includes faster recovery times and better functional outcomes, less postoperative pain and morbidity associated with open access, shorter operative times, and a reduction in the risk of infection. However, the confined working spaces and sensory deficit, due to a lack of haptic sensation, and proximity to critical vasculature and other vitally important anatomical structures bestow significant challenges on the surgeon. Recent...
Source: ORL - June 22, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robotic Head and Neck Surgery: History, Technical Evolution and the Future
The first application of robotic technology in surgery was described in 1985 when a robot was used to define the trajectory for a stereotactic brain biopsy. Following its successful application in a variety of surgical operations, the da Vinci ® robot, the most widely used surgical robot at present, made its clinical debut in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery in 2005 when the first transoral robotic surgery (TORS) resections of base of tongue neoplasms were reported. Subsequently, the indications for TORS rapidly expanded, an d they now include tumours of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, parapharyngeal space, a...
Source: ORL - June 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Impact of Two-Stage Subtotal Petrosectomy and Round Window Vibroplasty on Bone Conduction Thresholds
Conclusion: In some cases, SP is the only way to eradicate chronic otitis and to achieve a suitable environment for the implantation of active middle ear implants. The present data demonstrate a relatively small but significant decline in BC thresholds throughout the whole procedure. Knowledge of its extent is mandatory for a correct indication for later implantation of a Vibrant SoundbridgeTM.ORL 2018;80:77 –84 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Development and Assessment of a Transoral Robotic Surgery Curriculum to Train Otolaryngology Residents
Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a multifaceted TORS curriculum which incorporates robotic cadaveric dissection for otolaryngology residents. Residents demonstrate marked improvement in skills with the TORS curriculum. A TORS curriculum which includes robotic cadaveric dissection can improve surgical skills and serve as a key component of residency TORS education.ORL 2018;80:69 –76 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 30, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robotic Thyroid Surgery: Current Perspectives and Future Considerations
Robotic transaxillary thyroidectomy, pioneered in South Korea, is firmly established throughout the Far East but remains controversial in Western practice. This relates to important population differences (anthropometry and culture) compounded by the smaller mean size of thyroid nodules operated on in South Korea due to a national thyroid cancer screening programme. There is now level 2 evidence (including from Western World centres) to support the safety, feasibility, and equivalence of the robotic approach to its open counterpart in terms of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, haemorrhage, and oncologic...
Source: ORL - May 29, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robotic Parathyroid Surgery: Current Perspectives and Future Considerations
Robotic parathyroidectomy represents a novel surgical approach in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism when the parathyroid adenoma has been pre-operatively localised. It represents the “fourth generation” in the evolution of parathyroid surgery following a process of surgical evolution from cervicotomy and 4-gland exploration to a variety of minimally invasive, open and endoscopic, targeted approaches. The existing evidence (levels 2–3) supports it as a feasible and safe tec hnique with equivalent results to targeted open parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in carefully selected pat...
Source: ORL - May 29, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Congenital Pyriform Sinus Fistula: Management of an Extra-Delayed and Atypical Case
Clinical presentations of pyriform sinus fistulas vary, and this sometimes leads to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Recently, we experienced a case of recurrent cervical abscesses occurring after thyroidectomy in an adult affected by a bifidus pyriform sinus fistula. The diagnostic dilemma was related to the timing of events, with a single episode of acute suppurative thyroiditis having occurred 16 years before the onset of the more recent clinical scenario. An endoscopic approach allowed effective management of this clinical case.ORL 2018;80:65 –68 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation: Floating Mass Transducer Coupled with the Stapes Head and Embedded in Fat
This study showed that the FMT works well in an obliterated cavity, and the experience acquired through this successful exploration is worth disseminating.ORL 2018;80:159 –164 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 26, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Correlation between Preoperative Auditory Steady-State Response and Postoperative Electrically Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response and T Level in Cochlear Implantation for Child Patients with Inner-Ear Malformations
Conclusion: Before the operation, ASSR results can be used to predict the efficacy of cochlear implantation in patients, and they serve as one of the reference conditions for choosing the ear for implantation. However, the threshold of ASSR is not equivalent to the actual auditory threshold of patients after implantation, and the deviation between these 2 thresholds is more significant at low frequencies.ORL 2018;80:51 –57 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 19, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Low CT Attenuation Values of Sinonasal Benign Tumours Relative to the Brainstem Identify Schwannomas
Conclusion: Low CT attenuation values of sinonasal benign tumours relative to the brainstem could distinguish schwannomas from other benign tumours.ORL 2018;80:41 –50 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Novel Device for Placement of a Secondary Tracheoesophageal Voice Prosthesis: A Preliminary Feasibility Study
Conclusions: The prototype device offers an alternative method to safely and efficiently perform a secondary TEP without the requirement of rigid esophagoscopy which can sometimes be technically impossible in this patient population.ORL 2018;80:36 –40 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 28, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers
ORL 2017;79:356 –356 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 6, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Infraorbital Nerve Located Medially to Postoperative Maxillary Cysts: A Risk of Endonasal Surgery
Conclusion: The anatomical relationship between the infraorbital nerve and postoperative maxillary cysts varied among patients, with approximately one-fourth of the patients being at risk of infraorbital nerve injury even during endoscopic procedures.ORL 2018;80:28 –35 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Intratympanic Injections of Dexamethasone in Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops: A Prospective Clinical Study
Conclusion: ITD is proven to be a valuable and promising alternative modality for the management of ipsilateral DEH.ORL 2018;80:19 –27 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Editorial
ORL 2017;79:I (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Feasibility of Salvage Selective Neck Dissection after Primary Irradiation of Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Carcinoma
Conclusion: It is well justified to perform a salvage SND (levels II, III, and IV) for pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma after primary radiation. In carefully selected cases of supraglottic and oropharyngeal carcinoma, a superselective ND also appears as an efficient option.ORL 2018;80:10 –18 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Impact of Skeletal Muscle Depletion on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: The skeletal muscle area at L3 should be calculated when considering treatment options for head and neck cancer.ORL 2018;80:1 –9 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 26, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis in Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Surgical Treatment
Conclusion: Patients with OCSCC who have contralateral lymph node metastasis, tumors with a thickness #x3e;25 mm, angiolymphatic invasion, or locoregional recurrence after surgical treatment have a greater risk of developing distant metastasis.ORL 2017;79:347 –355 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 23, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Systemic Toxicity and Ototoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats: Role of TNF- α and Nitric Oxide
Background/Aims: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent. The use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was proposed after the observation that ischemic preconditioning of a cardiac vascular area could protect another completely distinctly.Methods: This is an experimental study. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and they underwent a hearing evaluation via measurement of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BSAEP). Then, cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days to group 1, whereas saline solution was administered IP to group 2. In groups 3 and 4, ischemia of t...
Source: ORL - January 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Body Mass Index and Olfactory Fossa Depth in Patients with and without Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks
Conclusions: The olfactory fossa is deeper and the BMI higher in patients with SCSF leaks than in those without. Differences were statistically significant. Higher BMI may predict deeper olfactory fossa in women but not in men. These findings suggest expansion of weak points in the skull base as precursors to the development of SCSF leaks in response to elevated CSF pressures, particularly in women.ORL 2017;79:331-335 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 5, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

IL-33 Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Its Relationship with Clinical Severity
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by epithelial inflammation and tissue eosinophilic infiltration. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a key inflammatory cytokine that mediates eosinophilic infiltration.Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and role of IL-33 in eosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP) and in noneosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (nECRSwNP), and to analyze their correlation with clinical severity.Methods: The study enrolled 25 patients with ECRSwNP, 27 patients with nECRSwNP, and 12 control subjects, based on immunohistochemical staining....
Source: ORL - November 29, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Can Early Dissection of Cervical Lymph Nodes Improve Prognosis in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Hard Palate?
We report a series of patients with squamous cell carcinomas and evaluate the rate of lymph node invasion and its impact on survival. This is a retrospective study of 72 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolar ridge between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008 in two cancer centres. Using clinical and radiological assessment, tumours were classified as T1-T2 in 25 patients (34.7%) and T3-T4 in 47 patients (65.3%). At diagnosis, 16 (22.2%) patients had clinical and/or radiological nodal involvement and 7 patients (9.7%) distal metastasis. Among N0 patients, 13 (18%) experience...
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery with Sialendoscopy for a Plunging Ranula
Conclusion: The TORS approach with sialendoscopy for plunging ranulas described in this case report shows promise and should be considered for certain clinical presentations. Additional studies evaluating the effectiveness of TORS for plunging ranulas may be indicated.ORL 2017;79:306-313 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Differential Expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps with Allergic Rhinitis
This study aimed to determine the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF- β1) expression levels in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and their possible correlation with allergic state and tissue remodeling.Methods: Patients were enrolled and divided into the following groups: CRS without nasal polyps (NP) without allergic rhinitis (AR) (CRSsNPsAR;n = 20), CRS with NP with AR (CRSwNPwAR;n = 20), CRS with NP without AR (CRSwNPsAR;n = 20), and controls (n = 15). Tissue samples were analyzed by Masson trichrome staining for collagen, while the location and expression of AhR and TGF- β1 ...
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Speech Production Quality of Cochlear Implant Users with Respect to Duration and Onset of Hearing Loss
Purpose: To assess whether postlingual onset and shorter duration of deafness before cochlear implant (CI) provision predict higher speech intelligibility results of CI users.Methods: For an objective judgement of speech intelligibility, we used an automatic speech recognition system computing the word recognition rate (WR) of 50 adult CI users and 50 age-matched control individuals. All subjects were recorded reading a standardized text. Subjects were divided into three groups: pre- or perilingual deafness (A), both>2 years before implantation, postlingual deafness2 years before implantation (C).Results: CI users with ...
Source: ORL - November 8, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research