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Intratympanic Injections of Dexamethasone in Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops: A Prospective Clinical Study
Conclusion: ITD is proven to be a valuable and promising alternative modality for the management of ipsilateral DEH.ORL 2018;80:19 –27 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Editorial
ORL 2017;79:I (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Feasibility of Salvage Selective Neck Dissection after Primary Irradiation of Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Carcinoma
Conclusion: It is well justified to perform a salvage SND (levels II, III, and IV) for pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma after primary radiation. In carefully selected cases of supraglottic and oropharyngeal carcinoma, a superselective ND also appears as an efficient option.ORL 2018;80:10 –18 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Impact of Skeletal Muscle Depletion on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: The skeletal muscle area at L3 should be calculated when considering treatment options for head and neck cancer.ORL 2018;80:1 –9 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 26, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis in Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Surgical Treatment
Conclusion: Patients with OCSCC who have contralateral lymph node metastasis, tumors with a thickness #x3e;25 mm, angiolymphatic invasion, or locoregional recurrence after surgical treatment have a greater risk of developing distant metastasis.ORL 2017;79:347 –355 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 23, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Systemic Toxicity and Ototoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats: Role of TNF- α and Nitric Oxide
Background/Aims: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent. The use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was proposed after the observation that ischemic preconditioning of a cardiac vascular area could protect another completely distinctly.Methods: This is an experimental study. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and they underwent a hearing evaluation via measurement of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BSAEP). Then, cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days to group 1, whereas saline solution was administered IP to group 2. In groups 3 and 4, ischemia of t...
Source: ORL - January 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Body Mass Index and Olfactory Fossa Depth in Patients with and without Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks
Conclusions: The olfactory fossa is deeper and the BMI higher in patients with SCSF leaks than in those without. Differences were statistically significant. Higher BMI may predict deeper olfactory fossa in women but not in men. These findings suggest expansion of weak points in the skull base as precursors to the development of SCSF leaks in response to elevated CSF pressures, particularly in women.ORL 2017;79:331-335 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 5, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

IL-33 Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Its Relationship with Clinical Severity
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by epithelial inflammation and tissue eosinophilic infiltration. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a key inflammatory cytokine that mediates eosinophilic infiltration.Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and role of IL-33 in eosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP) and in noneosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (nECRSwNP), and to analyze their correlation with clinical severity.Methods: The study enrolled 25 patients with ECRSwNP, 27 patients with nECRSwNP, and 12 control subjects, based on immunohistochemical staining....
Source: ORL - November 29, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Can Early Dissection of Cervical Lymph Nodes Improve Prognosis in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Hard Palate?
We report a series of patients with squamous cell carcinomas and evaluate the rate of lymph node invasion and its impact on survival. This is a retrospective study of 72 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolar ridge between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008 in two cancer centres. Using clinical and radiological assessment, tumours were classified as T1-T2 in 25 patients (34.7%) and T3-T4 in 47 patients (65.3%). At diagnosis, 16 (22.2%) patients had clinical and/or radiological nodal involvement and 7 patients (9.7%) distal metastasis. Among N0 patients, 13 (18%) experience...
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery with Sialendoscopy for a Plunging Ranula
Conclusion: The TORS approach with sialendoscopy for plunging ranulas described in this case report shows promise and should be considered for certain clinical presentations. Additional studies evaluating the effectiveness of TORS for plunging ranulas may be indicated.ORL 2017;79:306-313 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Differential Expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps with Allergic Rhinitis
This study aimed to determine the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF- β1) expression levels in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and their possible correlation with allergic state and tissue remodeling.Methods: Patients were enrolled and divided into the following groups: CRS without nasal polyps (NP) without allergic rhinitis (AR) (CRSsNPsAR;n = 20), CRS with NP with AR (CRSwNPwAR;n = 20), CRS with NP without AR (CRSwNPsAR;n = 20), and controls (n = 15). Tissue samples were analyzed by Masson trichrome staining for collagen, while the location and expression of AhR and TGF- β1 ...
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Speech Production Quality of Cochlear Implant Users with Respect to Duration and Onset of Hearing Loss
Purpose: To assess whether postlingual onset and shorter duration of deafness before cochlear implant (CI) provision predict higher speech intelligibility results of CI users.Methods: For an objective judgement of speech intelligibility, we used an automatic speech recognition system computing the word recognition rate (WR) of 50 adult CI users and 50 age-matched control individuals. All subjects were recorded reading a standardized text. Subjects were divided into three groups: pre- or perilingual deafness (A), both>2 years before implantation, postlingual deafness2 years before implantation (C).Results: CI users with ...
Source: ORL - November 8, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Videolaryngoscopy during Conscious Sedation in Patients Not Suitable for Phonosurgery by Microlaryngoscopy: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: The results suggest that the method is an effective and safe procedure without relevant local and/or general complications.ORL 2017;79:185-190 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery Total Laryngectomy: Evaluation of Functional and Survival Outcomes in a Retrospective Case Series at a Single Institution
Conclusions: TORS-TL is a feasible and safe treatment option with possible advantages for carefully selected patients in experienced hands.ORL 2017;79:191-201 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Thyroid Surgery: To Drain or Not to Drain, That Is the Problem - A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusions: Routine drain emplacement after thyroidectomy is unnecessary.ORL 2017;79:202-211 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Morbidity and Functional Outcomes following Free Jejunal Flap Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusion: Postoperative barium swallow examination is helpful to predict long-term anastomotic stenosis. Good functional swallow rehabilitation is achieved following FJF reconstruction after total PLE or a larynx-preserving procedure. However, the speech outcomes are not satisfactory. It raises the demand of enhancement of functional recovery so that quality of life can be improved for these patients in China.ORL 2017;79:212-221 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparison between Primary and Secondary Tracheoesophageal Puncture Prosthesis: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: There is a reduction in the risk of leakage around the prosthesis among TEP2 patients.ORL 2017;79:222-229 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Factors to Consider When Deciding on the Type of Free-Flap Reconstruction of Head and Neck Soft Tissue Defects
Conclusion: Proper selection of the flap is important for the optimization of the aesthetic and functional outcomes. Ultrasound, the surgeon's experience and the extension and nature of the defect play a key role in the selection of the flap.ORL 2017;79:230-238 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

ATF3-Dependent Regulation of EGR1 in vitro and in vivo
Background/Aims: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) are reported to interact, but their use as prognostic factors in cancer is discussed controversially.Methods: We measured ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression changes in human mini-organ cultures (MOCs) of healthy nasal epithelia, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD cells after acid reflux exposure. Next, ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression was analysed in tumour tissues and related to the median expression of autologous reference tissue samples.Results: ATF3 and EGR1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced after consecutive exposure of MOCs at pH (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of & #x03B3; δ T Cell Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Recurrence of Nasal Polyps
Background/Aims: To examine whether #x03B3; δ T cell is expressed in the nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and its potential association with recurrence of nasal polyps.Methods: Thirty-six patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 25 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were recruited. Twenty-six patients with other nasal diseases served as controls. The CRSwNP group was divided into the eosinophilic CRSwNP and noneosinophilic CRSwNP groups. The expression of #x03B3; δ T cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of each subtype of #x03B3;δ T cells was...
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparing Modified with Conventional Parotidectomy for Benign Parotid Tumors
This study retrospectively analyzed 99 patients who had benign parotid lesions and underwent parotidectomy using either conventional or modified parotidectomy. The operation time, cosmetic outcome, great auricular nerve anesthesia, incidence of Frey syndrome, and secretory function with the two techniques were compared.Results: The mean operation time was shorter and the total complication rate was obviously lower in the modified surgery group (p (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Sudden Deafness during Antepartum versus Postpartum Periods
Conclusion: Medication is needed in sudden deafness in antepartum or postpartum women rather than waiting for a natural course. No adverse effects have been identified in any of the mothers or offspring 1 year after delivery.ORL 2017;79:274-281 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparing Modified with Conventional Parotidectomy for Benign Parotid Tumors
This study retrospectively analyzed 99 patients who had benign parotid lesions and underwent parotidectomy using either conventional or modified parotidectomy. The operation time, cosmetic outcome, great auricular nerve anesthesia, incidence of Frey syndrome, and secretory function with the two techniques were compared.Results: The mean operation time was shorter and the total complication rate was obviously lower in the modified surgery group (p (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - September 7, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of & #x03B3; δ T Cell Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Recurrence of Nasal Polyps
Background/Aims: To examine whether #x03B3; δ T cell is expressed in the nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and its potential association with recurrence of nasal polyps.Methods: Thirty-six patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 25 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were recruited. Twenty-six patients with other nasal diseases served as controls. The CRSwNP group was divided into the eosinophilic CRSwNP and noneosinophilic CRSwNP groups. The expression of #x03B3; δ T cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of each subtype of #x03B3;δ T cells was...
Source: ORL - August 31, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

ATF3-Dependent Regulation of EGR1 in vitro and in vivo
Background/Aims: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) are reported to interact, but their use as prognostic factors in cancer is discussed controversially.Methods: We measured ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression changes in human mini-organ cultures (MOCs) of healthy nasal epithelia, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD cells after acid reflux exposure. Next, ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression was analysed in tumour tissues and related to the median expression of autologous reference tissue samples.Results: ATF3 and EGR1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced after consecutive exposure of MOCs at pH (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Factors to Consider When Deciding on the Type of Free-Flap Reconstruction of Head and Neck Soft Tissue Defects
Conclusion: Proper selection of the flap is important for the optimization of the aesthetic and functional outcomes. Ultrasound, the surgeon's experience and the extension and nature of the defect play a key role in the selection of the flap.ORL 2017;79:230-238 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 3, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparison between Primary and Secondary Tracheoesophageal Puncture Prosthesis: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: There is a reduction in the risk of leakage around the prosthesis among TEP2 patients.ORL 2017;79:222-229 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Morbidity and Functional Outcomes following Free Jejunal Flap Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusion: Postoperative barium swallow examination is helpful to predict long-term anastomotic stenosis. Good functional swallow rehabilitation is achieved following FJF reconstruction after total PLE or a larynx-preserving procedure. However, the speech outcomes are not satisfactory. It raises the demand of enhancement of functional recovery so that quality of life can be improved for these patients in China.ORL 2017;79:212-221 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 26, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Thyroid Surgery: To Drain or Not to Drain, That Is the Problem - A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusions: Routine drain emplacement after thyroidectomy is unnecessary.ORL 2017;79:202-211 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 14, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery Total Laryngectomy: Evaluation of Functional and Survival Outcomes in a Retrospective Case Series at a Single Institution
Conclusions: TORS-TL is a feasible and safe treatment option with possible advantages for carefully selected patients in experienced hands.ORL 2017;79:191-201 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 13, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Videolaryngoscopy during Conscious Sedation in Patients Not Suitable for Phonosurgery by Microlaryngoscopy: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: The results suggest that the method is an effective and safe procedure without relevant local and/or general complications.ORL 2017;79:185-190 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 1, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Decrease of Horizontal Canal Vestibulo-Oculomotor Reflex Gain in the Elderly with Dysequilibrium without Lifetime Vertigo
Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis of a decrease of VOR gain in the elderly. The decrease of canal function may therefore play a role in the risk of falls in the elderly.ORL 2017;79:178-184 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 10, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Adoptive Cellular Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Polychondritis Ear Disease
In the past, the clinical therapy for autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune polychondritis ear disease, was mostly limited to nonspecific immunosuppressive agents, which could lead to variable responses. Currently, gene therapy aims at achieving higher specificity and less adverse effects. This concept utilizes the adoptive transfer of autologous T cells that have been retrovirally transduced ex vivo to express and deliver immunoregulatory gene products to sites of autoimmune inflammation. In the animal model of collagen-induced autoimmune polychondritis ear disease (CIAPED), the adoptive transfer of IL-12p40-expressing ...
Source: ORL - May 2, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Radiologic Differences between Human Papillomavirus-Related and Human Papillomavirus-Unrelated Oropharyngeal Carcinoma on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
ORL 2017;79:164-165 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 26, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Role of the Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1-Modulated Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Auditory Cortex Senescence
Conclusion: The results suggest that UCHL1 may modify the aging process in the auditory cortex by regulating UPS- related proteins.ORL 2017;79:153-163 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 13, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Modified Tracheal Transaction Approach for the Repair of Nonmalignant Tracheoesophageal Fistulas: A Report of 5 Cases
Conclusion: Based on our primary experience, this modified tracheal transection approach can be considered an appropriate choice for the reconstruction of nonmalignant tracheal fistulas.ORL 2017;79:147-152 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Clinical and Radiological Approach to the Management of Benign Mesenchymal Sinonasal Tumors
Conclusion: Understanding and recognizing the spectrum of appearances of benign mesenchymal sinonasal tumors will improve patient assessment and clinical management. The pathognomonic neuroradiological signs of a particular tumor entity should be actively sought as the neuroradiological features may be the diagnostic clues. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play complementary roles in identifying the morphological details and locoregional staging of benign mesenchymal sinonasal tumors.ORL 2017;79:131-146 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers
ORL 2016;78:361 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 78, 2016
ORL 2016;78:I-IV (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contribution of Hyoid and Tonsillar Procedures to Outcome in Multilevel Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Conclusion: The patients having undergone multilevel surgery without tonsillectomy showed significantly poorer postoperative results, suggesting that the effectiveness of hyoid procedures at the level of the hypopharynx may be limited. However, removal of the tonsils is a major predictive factor for postoperative success.ORL 2016;78:353-360 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 24, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Predictive Success Factors in Selective Upper Airway Stimulation
Obstructive sleep apnea is one of the most common diseases in Western industrialized countries. A variety of conservative and surgical treatment options are available for its treatment. In recent years, selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) has been shown to be effective and safe. Different biomarkers have been investigated as predictive clinical success factors in a number of clinical trials. Age does not matter in sUAS, as compared to its predictive role in other therapies. Weight seems to play a limited role, depending on drug-induced sleep endoscopy to rule out a complete concentric collapse with an increased body ...
Source: ORL - March 7, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Vibration-Induced Nystagmus: A Biomarker for Vestibular Deficits - A Synopsis
A review of more than 20 years of experience with vibratory stimulation in vestibular diseases is given. Vibrations in a frequency frame of 30-60 Hz are applied on the mastoid during 20 s. Eye movements are recorded by video-oculography to detect a vibration-induced nystagmus (VIN). A VIN occurs in cases of a side difference between the peripheral vestibular receptors beating to the side of better excitability. In patients with central lesions, a VIN does not appear generally, only exceptionally if the lesion is located laterally in the brain stem. In healthy subjects, a VIN does not occur. The VIN can be considered as an ...
Source: ORL - March 7, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Radiologic Differences between Human Papillomavirus-Related and Human Papillomavirus-Unrelated Oropharyngeal Carcinoma on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
Conclusion: ADC values were significantly lower in both the primary tumors and lymph node metastases in HPV+ OPCs compared to HPV- OPCs. These results confirm the results of prior studies.ORL 2016;78:344-352 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Potential Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema
Conclusions: In this small patient population, it could be shown that determination of 6-keto-PGF1 α is feasible. It may prove to be a valuable blood marker for assessing the risk of developing ACEi-AE.ORL 2017;79:85-92 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 23, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Endotypes in Chronic Rhinosinusitis: Biomarkers Based on a Mechanistic Insight for Targeted Treatment?
Chronic rhinosinusitis is an umbrella term for several phenotypes and mechanistically distinct inflammatory diseases of the nose and the paranasal sinuses affecting around 11% of the population in Europe and the USA. Approximately 20% of the patients present with uncontrolled disease despite adequate treatment, and revision surgery is common. While a clinical characterization alone does not improve treatment results, novel but expensive biologics have increasingly become available, but they require a better understanding of the mechanism. Mechanistic markers of disease may help to allocate the optimal drug to a patient, th...
Source: ORL - February 23, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Biomarkers in Allergic Airway Disease: Simply Complex
Clinical diagnoses of allergic airway disease need confirmation of a relevant sensitization to allergens. Serum-based component-resolved diagnosis has become increasingly popular and allows the precise assessment of specific IgE to molecular allergens. Molecular allergen diagnosis has improved our understanding of disease phenotypes in allergic patients, including cross-reactive patterns and food allergy. Beyond sensitization profiles, characterization of the (endo-)type and severity of a local allergic disease is useful for targeted therapy with biologics in advanced allergic airway disease. Surrogate markers of treatment...
Source: ORL - February 23, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Radiomics in Head and Neck Cancer: Extracting Valuable Information from Data beyond Recognition
In oncology, biomarkers that describe the characteristics of a malignancy on different levels (clinical, histological, molecular) and the patient's outcome and treatment response are increasingly integrated into the clinical routine. Extensive screening tools, “omics,” offer incredible opportunities and vast amounts of data. During the last years, the field of “omics” gained a new promising partner, the “radiomics.” Based on radiological imaging, multiple features can be extracted and linked to clinical, genomic, and histopathological data fro m other sources. Extracted traits describe r...
Source: ORL - February 23, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Ultrasound Elastography in Diffuse and Focal Parotid Gland Lesions
In Europe, ultrasound (US) is the diagnostic gold standard for the visualisation of parotid gland disorders. While high-resolution B-mode US reliably visualises focal lesions, its diagnostic capacity to distinguish tumour entities or to characterise diffuse lesions remains poor. Strain elastography (SE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) are novel imaging techniques that provide additional information about tissue elasticity. SE analyses the strain or displacement in response to force or compression and, therefore, shows the relative tissue elasticity within a selected region of interest (ROI). Recent studies suggest that S...
Source: ORL - February 23, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Biomarkers in Autoimmune Salivary Gland Disorders: A Review
Salivary glands are frequent sites of manifestations of autoimmune disorders in the head and neck. Sj ögren syndrome, sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and IgG4-related sialadenitis represent the most important autoimmune salivary gland disorders. Due to the lack of specific symptoms, diagnosis of these conditions remains a challenge. Diagnosis is usually based on classification criter ia involving clinical tests, histopathological evaluation, and serological examinations. Depending on the disease, biomarkers are of different value and have to be interpreted carefully. In Sjögren syndrome, antibodies...
Source: ORL - February 23, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research