Fast Screening of Olfactory Function Using the Q-Sticks Test
Conclusion: We reconfirmed that the Q-Sticks test is a good screening tool for everyday medical practice and in laboratory settings, although it has to be kept in mind that the test can produce false-negative results at a score of 3. The test was relatively sensitive to anosmia and differences between normosmic and hyposmic/anosmic patients.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 28, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Refractory Oral Ulcer Responsive to Infliximab: A Case Report
Conclusions: When a patient has refractory oral ulcers, attention must be paid to digestive symptoms and whether the patient has a systemic disease such as Beh çet disease investigated. Furthermore, administration of infliximab to patients with refractory ulcers can be considered even when they do not fulfill the clinical criteria for a systemic disease.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 28, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of the Effect of the Clinical Pathway Applied to Patients with Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in China
Conclusions: Our systematic review and meta-analysis support the use of the clinical pathway in patients with endoscopic sinus surgery in China.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 26, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Presenting as Unilateral Hearing Loss: Review of the Literature and Case Report
Conclusion: PVNS of the TMJ represents a rare entity that can present with a variety of symptoms including unilateral hearing loss.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 26, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Predictive Significance of Radiographic Density of Sinus Opacity and Bone Thickness in Unilateral Maxillary Sinus Mycetoma
Conclusions: The radiographic density measurement of MS opacification has a high predictive value for the diagnosis of MS mycetoma while radiographic neo-osteogenesis has not.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Advances in Understanding Parosmia: An fMRI Study
Discussion: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are specific patterns in the central processing of olfactory stimuli which differ in hyposmic patients with and without parosmia.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Routine Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection May Not Obviously Reduce Lateral Neck Recurrence for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Conclusion: Routine pCCND was not a protective factor for LRFS in PTMC patients with cN0. The difference in LRFS between pN0 and pN1a was not statistically significant (p #x3e; 0.05).ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 12, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Age-Dependent Calcium-Binding Protein Expression in the Spiral Ganglion and Hearing Performance of C57BL/6J and 129/SvJ Mice
Conclusions: Upregulation of calbindin could serve as a protection to compensate for functional deficits that occur with aging. Expression of both calretinin and parvalbumin seem to be stabilizing factors in murine inner ears up to the age of 12 months in C57BL/6J and 129/SvJ mice.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 6, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA 3,860-bp Deletion Increases with Aging in the Auditory Nervous System of C57BL/6J Mice
Conclusion: These results suggest that the mtDNA 3,860-bp deletion is common in the auditory nervous system of mice and increases with age and may contribute to age-related hearing loss.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 25, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A High Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with Recovery from Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
Conclusions: Patients with RHS who have an elevated NLR have poor outcomes in terms of the H-B grade. Therefore, the NLR may be useful for evaluating the prognosis of patients with RHS.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 23, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Peripheral Inflammation Markers of Chemosensitivity to Induction Chemotherapy in Hypopharyngeal Cancer Patients
Conclusion: Our results showed that low PLC, high NLR, and high PLR are predictors of positive responses to ICT in hypopharyngeal SCC patients.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 22, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Significance of Cytokeratin-1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism and Protein Level in Susceptibility to Vocal Leukoplakia and Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the CK-1 SNP and high protein expression levels are associated with vocal leukoplakia and LSCC and promote the transformation from vocal leukoplakia to LSCC in a Chinese Han population.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 8, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Anatomical Variations of the Superficial Radial Nerve Encountered during Radial Forearm Free Flap Elevation
We present a case where the superficial branch of the radial nerve was in an usual position but remained superficial to the brachioradialis throughout its course. Two previous reports also describe the superficial branch of the radial nerve remaining superficial to the brachioradialis, although, in these reports, the nerve was more medial than is typical. We postulate that one of the most common anatomic variations of the superficial branch of the radial nerve is for it to remain superficial to the brachioradialis. As this variation could potentially be confused with the medial or lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, it ...
Source: ORL - May 5, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Expression of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related mRNAs in Chronic Otitis Media
Conclusions: sXBP1 appears to be involved in chronic otitis media-associated inflammation, including otorrhea. ATF6 is associated with the destruction of ossicles. Our results suggest that certain ER stress-related genes are expressed in chronic otitis media-associated inflammation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 5, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid: Very Close Margins and Adjuvant Radiotherapy
Conclusions: Patients with negative but close ( ≤2 mm) surgical margins without other high-risk histopathological factors have excellent long-term locoregional control with surgery alone. The effects of adjuvant radiotherapy for those who have intermediate-grade disease remain uncertain.ORL 2019;81:55 –61 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 3, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Electro-Natural Stimulation in Partial Deafness Treatment of Adult Cochlear Implant Users: Long-Term Hearing Preservation Results
Conclusions: The use of minimally invasive surgery leads to excellent HP results in PDT-ENS patients, enabling them to enjoy the benefits of good speech discrimination which they would be unable to get from traditional hearing aids. Our findings support extending the inclusion criteria for CI to include this new group of patients who would otherwise obtain only limited benefit from conventional hearing aids.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 31, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Nonpharmacological Relaxation Technology for Office-Based Rhinologic Procedures
Conclusions: A variety of office-based rhinologic procedures are technically feasible and can be performed with adequate patient comfort without the use of oral drugs. Adjuncts to pharmacologic agents may enhance pain control and anxiety management and improve patient tolerance of these procedures.ORL 2019;81:48 –54 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 7, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Rationale for Endoscopic Inferior Meatal Antrostomy
Conclusion: EIMA should be considered for various maxillary sinus pathologies. It provides better access to anteroinferior lesions of the maxillary sinus. EMMA is not mandatory for every maxillary sinus disease.ORL 2019;81:41 –47 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 8, 2019 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Acknowledgment to Reviewers for ORL 2018
ORL 2018;80:345 –346 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 80, 2018
ORL 2018;80:I –IV (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Gene Expression Profiles of Tumor Necrosis Factor- α and Endothelin-1 in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Conclusion: EDN-1 and TNF- α gene expression levels were associated with the occurrence of OSA.ORL 2019;81:16 –23 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Buccal Fat Pad: Report of 24 Cases and Literature Review of 1,635 Cases of Oral Defect Reconstruction
Conclusion: The BFP is worthy of consideration for the reconstruction of selected mouth defects, due to its easy mobilization, excellent blood supply, and minimal donor-site morbidity, where shape and size represent its main limitations, and a defect ’s location influences its pliability.ORL 2019;81:24 –35 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery (TORS) for Bilateral Eagle Syndrome
Eagle syndrome is a rare and poorly understood clinical condition caused by an elongated or disfigured styloid process. The possible managements of Eagle syndrome include conservative medical treatment or surgical intervention. The surgical removal of the elongated styloid process may be efficiently achieved either by an intraoral or a transcervical approach. An effective styloidectomy may be either total or partial, provided the bony residue ’s length is within the range of normality. Here, we report our experience with a bilateral robotic-assisted styloidectomy in a young female patient. Our experience showed that ...
Source: ORL - December 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Prelims
ORL 2018;80:I –IV (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Author Index
ORL 2018;80:220 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Subject Index
ORL 2018;80:221 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Difficult Secondary Tracheoesophageal Puncture: A Technique for Safe Insertion
Conclusions: In patients with anatomical constraints preventing traditional TEP placement through rigid esophagoscopy, fiberoptic guidance through an endotracheal tube stent provides a safe and efficient approach for TEP placement.ORL 2019;81:10 –15 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Cluster Analysis of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Suggests Gender-Based Differences
Conclusion: Long-term patient satisfaction is significantly associated with the subjective symptom severity prior to treatment, i.e., postnasal drip and overall disease severity (SNOT-22 score), but not with the objective severity of the disease (CT score and inflammation).ORL 2019;81:1 –9 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery and the Unknown Primary
Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) comprises approximately 1% –5% of all head and neck malignancies. Primary site detection rates for metastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remain variable, with current diagnostic imaging unable to identify all tumours. Prevailing evidence suggests that most head and neck CUP are located in the oropharynx. Diagnos tic surgical efforts have been directed at sampling the entire oropharynx. Present techniques that make this possible include transoral robotic surgery (TORS). TORS Lingual tonsillectomy or tongue base mucosectomy performed in the setting of head and neck CUP inc...
Source: ORL - November 12, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery Total Laryngectomy
Conclusion: TORS-SL for SCC was performed in a safe, reliable, and smooth manner and was shown to be successful in treating our patients. We thus believe that our step-by-step surgical technique for TORS-SL is efficient and reproducible.ORL 2018;80:171 –177 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 7, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robot-Assisted Reconstruction in Head and Neck Surgical Oncology: The Evolving Role of the Reconstructive Microsurgeon
Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is gaining more widespread use among head and neck surgical procedures. As experience grows with this technique, so do the indications of when and in which patients it can be used. Already established in the treatment of small oral cavity tumours, it is expanding into larger multi-site resections and resections, such as through-and-through-into-the-neck defects, that will require reconstruction. With robot-assisted surgery advancing, so robot-assisted reconstruction (RAR) is evolving. In this paper, we discuss the evolving role of reconstruction in post-TORS defects as well as the role of R...
Source: ORL - November 7, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Next-Generation Robotic Head and Neck Surgery
Following the inception of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) in 2005, the field of robotic head and neck surgery has undergone refinement and innovation. Optimizing patient outcome, preserving function, and limiting morbidity are the key drivers. The next leap forward is another generation of flexible robotic surgical systems. Several such systems are under clinical and preclinical evaluation. A new single-port (Sp) robotic surgical architecture is now available integrating three fully articulating instruments and a flexible three-dimensional high-definition camera delivered through a 25-mm cannula. Preclinical feasibility ...
Source: ORL - November 7, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Sialendoscopy for Definitive Management of a Submandibular Abscess following Radiotherapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: Sialendoscopy should thus, in select patients, be considered as an initial intervention for patients with intraparenchymal salivary gland abscesses in which prior therapy creates an increased risk of complication from an open transcervical approach.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 31, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Combined Growth Factor and Gene Therapy: An Approach for Hair Cell Regeneration and Hearing Recovery
Conclusion: Combining several techniques with a synergic effect (such as growth factor gene therapy and 3D environments) seemed to lead to obtaining the best results as a therapeutic strategy.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Arterial Blood Supply of the Nose: An Angiographic Study
Conclusion: Angiographic study of the nose is a very helpful tool for accurate knowledge of anatomical variations of the arteries with a tremendous effect on our surgical approaches and techniques for the management of different diseases in the nasal region, especially intractable posterior epistaxis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 18, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Nasal Symptom Questionnaire: Our Proposed Scoring System and Prognostic Factors in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Conclusion: Our proposed NSQ scoring system was well verified. The CT score can be helpful for predicting the improvement in nasal symptoms after ESS in CRS patients.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Extension of the Clinical Significance of the “Cog”
Conclusion: Based on endoscopic anatomy and the temporal bone spiral CT 3-D structure reconstruction of the epitympanum, the attic, and the adjacent structures, we found an extension of the clinical significance the cog. Quantification of the adjacent anatomical relationship of this landmark is very important for otology microsurgical operation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 10, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Preoperative Serum Thyroglobulin Level as a Useful Predictive Marker to Differentiate Thyroid Cancer
Conclusion: The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was higher among patients with a preoperative serum Tg value #x3e; 188.5 ng/mL, and this may thus be used as a marker for the diagnosis of this malignancy.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 5, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Anaesthesia and Perioperative Care for Transoral Robotic Surgery
Minimally invasive surgical techniques have gained increasing interest in recent years for their conferred recovery and postoperative advantages. Robot-assisted surgery requires special consideration for anaesthetic and perioperative management. The introduction of robot- assisted intra-oral surgery has important implications on anaesthesia provision, airway management and patient safety. Due to its relatively novel use we explore these considerations alongside our own experience in this field.ORL 2018;80:125 –133 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 5, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Telomerase and Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Mechanisms Regulate Laryngeal Cancer Cell Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway
Conclusions: The inhibition of telomere-related genes inhibited the growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by promoting cell apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt pathway.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - September 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Conservative Treatment versus Surgery for Laryngeal Contact Granuloma: A Prospective Study
Conclusions: This prospective study strengthens the argument for conservative treatment (instead of surgery) as the first choice for laryngeal contact granuloma. The results also suggest that voice abuse, alcohol consumption, and the size of the granuloma may predict treatment outcome.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - September 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes after Performing Tympanoplasty without Mastoidectomy for Active and Inactive Noncholesteatomatous Chronic Otitis Media
Conclusion: With good quality control of the surgical treatment of TWOM, there are no differences in long-term outcomes in noncholesteatomatous COM in different chronic infection conditions.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 21, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Morphological Evaluation of Thyroid Cartilage Invasion in Early Glottic Tumors Involving the Anterior Commissure
Conclusion: The infiltration of thyroid cartilage occurred in 8.3% of tumors and did not change the outcome in patients submitted to frontolateral laryngectomy. The morphological characteristics did not present any statistical significance.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparable Electrode Impedance and Speech Perception at 12 Months after Cochlear Implantation Using Round Window versus Cochleostomy: An Analysis of 40 Patients
Conclusion: The RW approach is comparable to cochleostomy in electrode placement as reflected by impedance and function as reflected by tone, vowel, consonant, disyllable and sentence perception.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Positive Effect of Sialendoscopy with Irrigation Lavage for Sialadenitis without Sialolithiasis or Stenosis
Conclusion: Sialendoscopy with flushing/lavage seems to be a good treatment option for patients with sialodochitis lacking sialolithiasis. The results of this study suggest that the type of irrigation used during sialendoscopy seems to be secondary.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 15, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Correlation between Serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Level and Tumor Volume in Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusions: SCC-Ag moderately correlates with tumor volume in head and neck cancer patients, with statistical significance. We suggest that using tumor volume, rather than a one-dimensional measurement such as tumor size, to analyze correlation with SCC-Ag offers a more accurate means of cancer prognosis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 10, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Eight Items to Check on a Temporal Bone CT-Scan
We present here a sequential checklist which could be employed in a systematic and organized manner, aiming to both develop and practice the know-how of this indispensable and challenging method of evaluation of the temporal bone.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 10, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Congenital Cholesteatoma: The Silent Pathology
Conclusion: CC present with a myriad of clinical manifestations and should be suspected in all patients with unexplained otological signs and symptoms. They must be completely excised and the functional status of the ear rehabilitated either immediately or later. Follow-up must be indefinite as they have a high recurrence rate.ORL 2018;80:108 –116 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 25, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer
Transoral robotic surgery has shown significant promise in the management of oropharyngeal cancer since its description in 2007. The oncological efficacy of this procedure has been proven in several single-centre studies, multicentre collaborative publications and systematic reviews. The rapid take-up of transoral robotic surgery shows greater acceptance by professionals and is associated with a relatively short learning curve. This overview discusses the rationale and principles underlying the use of transoral robotic surgery in primary and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer and the emerging role for this technique in diagnos...
Source: ORL - July 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Mandibular Myalgia and Miniscule Meckel ’s Caves
We present a case of bilateral hypoplastic Meckel ’s caves in an adult patient leading to the clinical symptomology of trigeminal neuralgia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only report of its kind highlighting this anatomic variant.ORL 2018;80:103 –107 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research