Morphological Evaluation of Thyroid Cartilage Invasion in Early Glottic Tumors Involving the Anterior Commissure
Conclusion: The infiltration of thyroid cartilage occurred in 8.3% of tumors and did not change the outcome in patients submitted to frontolateral laryngectomy. The morphological characteristics did not present any statistical significance.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparable Electrode Impedance and Speech Perception at 12 Months after Cochlear Implantation Using Round Window versus Cochleostomy: An Analysis of 40 Patients
Conclusion: The RW approach is comparable to cochleostomy in electrode placement as reflected by impedance and function as reflected by tone, vowel, consonant, disyllable and sentence perception.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Positive Effect of Sialendoscopy with Irrigation Lavage for Sialadenitis without Sialolithiasis or Stenosis
Conclusion: Sialendoscopy with flushing/lavage seems to be a good treatment option for patients with sialodochitis lacking sialolithiasis. The results of this study suggest that the type of irrigation used during sialendoscopy seems to be secondary.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 15, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Correlation between Serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Level and Tumor Volume in Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusions: SCC-Ag moderately correlates with tumor volume in head and neck cancer patients, with statistical significance. We suggest that using tumor volume, rather than a one-dimensional measurement such as tumor size, to analyze correlation with SCC-Ag offers a more accurate means of cancer prognosis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Eight Items to Check on a Temporal Bone CT-Scan
We present here a sequential checklist which could be employed in a systematic and organized manner, aiming to both develop and practice the know-how of this indispensable and challenging method of evaluation of the temporal bone.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Congenital Cholesteatoma: The Silent Pathology
Conclusion: CC present with a myriad of clinical manifestations and should be suspected in all patients with unexplained otological signs and symptoms. They must be completely excised and the functional status of the ear rehabilitated either immediately or later. Follow-up must be indefinite as they have a high recurrence rate.ORL 2018;80:108 –116 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 24, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery for Oropharyngeal Cancer
Transoral robotic surgery has shown significant promise in the management of oropharyngeal cancer since its description in 2007. The oncological efficacy of this procedure has been proven in several single-centre studies, multicentre collaborative publications and systematic reviews. The rapid take-up of transoral robotic surgery shows greater acceptance by professionals and is associated with a relatively short learning curve. This overview discusses the rationale and principles underlying the use of transoral robotic surgery in primary and recurrent oropharyngeal cancer and the emerging role for this technique in diagnos...
Source: ORL - July 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Mandibular Myalgia and Miniscule Meckel ’s Caves
We present a case of bilateral hypoplastic Meckel ’s caves in an adult patient leading to the clinical symptomology of trigeminal neuralgia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only report of its kind highlighting this anatomic variant.ORL 2018;80:103 –107 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 11, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Oral Cancer Treatment: Still an Indication for Elective Neck Dissection?
Conclusion: A watchful waiting policy could be applied to selected oral cancer patients who can undergo a very close follow-up. This option would be more cost-effective and less harmful than elective neck dissection.ORL 2018;80:96 –102 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 4, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Radiographic Imaging Does Not Reliably Predict Macroscopic Extranodal Extension in Human Papilloma Virus-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer
Conclusions: Preoperative imaging for HPV-associated OPSCC had a PPV for pENE #x3e; 2 mm of 44 –55%, based on any interruption in the capsule or invasion into the perinodal fat. The PPV is low and equipoise in treatment decision making for patients with HPV-associated OPSCC may require other imaging characteristics.ORL 2018;80:85 –95 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - July 3, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) syndrome constitutes a major health care problem. Surgical modalities for the treatment of OSAH are regaining momentum in view of the increasing prevalence of OSAH and the low compliance rates associated with continuous positive airway pressure. There are several investigations to complement clinical examination in accurately determining the level of airway collapse to ensure correct patient selection and a targeted surgical approach. The most commonly employed include drug-induced sleep endoscopy and imaging with the tongue base and epiglottis often revealed as the major sites of ...
Source: ORL - June 22, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery: Image Guidance and Augmented Reality
Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) is being used increasingly as an alternative to conventional open procedures, as its minimally invasive approach results in significant benefits for the patient. This includes faster recovery times and better functional outcomes, less postoperative pain and morbidity associated with open access, shorter operative times, and a reduction in the risk of infection. However, the confined working spaces and sensory deficit, due to a lack of haptic sensation, and proximity to critical vasculature and other vitally important anatomical structures bestow significant challenges on the surgeon. Recent...
Source: ORL - June 22, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robotic Head and Neck Surgery: History, Technical Evolution and the Future
The first application of robotic technology in surgery was described in 1985 when a robot was used to define the trajectory for a stereotactic brain biopsy. Following its successful application in a variety of surgical operations, the da Vinci ® robot, the most widely used surgical robot at present, made its clinical debut in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery in 2005 when the first transoral robotic surgery (TORS) resections of base of tongue neoplasms were reported. Subsequently, the indications for TORS rapidly expanded, an d they now include tumours of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, parapharyngeal space, a...
Source: ORL - June 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Impact of Two-Stage Subtotal Petrosectomy and Round Window Vibroplasty on Bone Conduction Thresholds
Conclusion: In some cases, SP is the only way to eradicate chronic otitis and to achieve a suitable environment for the implantation of active middle ear implants. The present data demonstrate a relatively small but significant decline in BC thresholds throughout the whole procedure. Knowledge of its extent is mandatory for a correct indication for later implantation of a Vibrant SoundbridgeTM.ORL 2018;80:77 –84 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - June 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Development and Assessment of a Transoral Robotic Surgery Curriculum to Train Otolaryngology Residents
Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a multifaceted TORS curriculum which incorporates robotic cadaveric dissection for otolaryngology residents. Residents demonstrate marked improvement in skills with the TORS curriculum. A TORS curriculum which includes robotic cadaveric dissection can improve surgical skills and serve as a key component of residency TORS education.ORL 2018;80:69 –76 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 30, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robotic Thyroid Surgery: Current Perspectives and Future Considerations
Robotic transaxillary thyroidectomy, pioneered in South Korea, is firmly established throughout the Far East but remains controversial in Western practice. This relates to important population differences (anthropometry and culture) compounded by the smaller mean size of thyroid nodules operated on in South Korea due to a national thyroid cancer screening programme. There is now level 2 evidence (including from Western World centres) to support the safety, feasibility, and equivalence of the robotic approach to its open counterpart in terms of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, haemorrhage, and oncologic...
Source: ORL - May 29, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Robotic Parathyroid Surgery: Current Perspectives and Future Considerations
Robotic parathyroidectomy represents a novel surgical approach in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism when the parathyroid adenoma has been pre-operatively localised. It represents the “fourth generation” in the evolution of parathyroid surgery following a process of surgical evolution from cervicotomy and 4-gland exploration to a variety of minimally invasive, open and endoscopic, targeted approaches. The existing evidence (levels 2–3) supports it as a feasible and safe tec hnique with equivalent results to targeted open parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism in carefully selected pat...
Source: ORL - May 29, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Congenital Pyriform Sinus Fistula: Management of an Extra-Delayed and Atypical Case
Clinical presentations of pyriform sinus fistulas vary, and this sometimes leads to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Recently, we experienced a case of recurrent cervical abscesses occurring after thyroidectomy in an adult affected by a bifidus pyriform sinus fistula. The diagnostic dilemma was related to the timing of events, with a single episode of acute suppurative thyroiditis having occurred 16 years before the onset of the more recent clinical scenario. An endoscopic approach allowed effective management of this clinical case.ORL 2018;80:65 –68 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Vibrant Soundbridge Implantation: Floating Mass Transducer Coupled with the Stapes Head and Embedded in Fat
This study showed that the FMT works well in an obliterated cavity, and the experience acquired through this successful exploration is worth disseminating.ORL 2018;80:159 –164 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 26, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Correlation between Preoperative Auditory Steady-State Response and Postoperative Electrically Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response and T Level in Cochlear Implantation for Child Patients with Inner-Ear Malformations
Conclusion: Before the operation, ASSR results can be used to predict the efficacy of cochlear implantation in patients, and they serve as one of the reference conditions for choosing the ear for implantation. However, the threshold of ASSR is not equivalent to the actual auditory threshold of patients after implantation, and the deviation between these 2 thresholds is more significant at low frequencies.ORL 2018;80:51 –57 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 19, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Low CT Attenuation Values of Sinonasal Benign Tumours Relative to the Brainstem Identify Schwannomas
Conclusion: Low CT attenuation values of sinonasal benign tumours relative to the brainstem could distinguish schwannomas from other benign tumours.ORL 2018;80:41 –50 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 17, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Novel Device for Placement of a Secondary Tracheoesophageal Voice Prosthesis: A Preliminary Feasibility Study
Conclusions: The prototype device offers an alternative method to safely and efficiently perform a secondary TEP without the requirement of rigid esophagoscopy which can sometimes be technically impossible in this patient population.ORL 2018;80:36 –40 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 28, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Reviewers
ORL 2017;79:356 –356 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 6, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Infraorbital Nerve Located Medially to Postoperative Maxillary Cysts: A Risk of Endonasal Surgery
Conclusion: The anatomical relationship between the infraorbital nerve and postoperative maxillary cysts varied among patients, with approximately one-fourth of the patients being at risk of infraorbital nerve injury even during endoscopic procedures.ORL 2018;80:28 –35 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 20, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Intratympanic Injections of Dexamethasone in Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops: A Prospective Clinical Study
Conclusion: ITD is proven to be a valuable and promising alternative modality for the management of ipsilateral DEH.ORL 2018;80:19 –27 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Editorial
ORL 2017;79:I (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 14, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Feasibility of Salvage Selective Neck Dissection after Primary Irradiation of Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Carcinoma
Conclusion: It is well justified to perform a salvage SND (levels II, III, and IV) for pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma after primary radiation. In carefully selected cases of supraglottic and oropharyngeal carcinoma, a superselective ND also appears as an efficient option.ORL 2018;80:10 –18 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 9, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Impact of Skeletal Muscle Depletion on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: The skeletal muscle area at L3 should be calculated when considering treatment options for head and neck cancer.ORL 2018;80:1 –9 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 26, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis in Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Surgical Treatment
Conclusion: Patients with OCSCC who have contralateral lymph node metastasis, tumors with a thickness #x3e;25 mm, angiolymphatic invasion, or locoregional recurrence after surgical treatment have a greater risk of developing distant metastasis.ORL 2017;79:347 –355 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 23, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Systemic Toxicity and Ototoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Rats: Role of TNF- α and Nitric Oxide
Background/Aims: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent. The use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was proposed after the observation that ischemic preconditioning of a cardiac vascular area could protect another completely distinctly.Methods: This is an experimental study. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and they underwent a hearing evaluation via measurement of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BSAEP). Then, cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days to group 1, whereas saline solution was administered IP to group 2. In groups 3 and 4, ischemia of t...
Source: ORL - January 16, 2018 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Body Mass Index and Olfactory Fossa Depth in Patients with and without Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks
Conclusions: The olfactory fossa is deeper and the BMI higher in patients with SCSF leaks than in those without. Differences were statistically significant. Higher BMI may predict deeper olfactory fossa in women but not in men. These findings suggest expansion of weak points in the skull base as precursors to the development of SCSF leaks in response to elevated CSF pressures, particularly in women.ORL 2017;79:331-335 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 5, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

IL-33 Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Its Relationship with Clinical Severity
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by epithelial inflammation and tissue eosinophilic infiltration. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a key inflammatory cytokine that mediates eosinophilic infiltration.Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the expression and role of IL-33 in eosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (ECRSwNP) and in noneosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (nECRSwNP), and to analyze their correlation with clinical severity.Methods: The study enrolled 25 patients with ECRSwNP, 27 patients with nECRSwNP, and 12 control subjects, based on immunohistochemical staining....
Source: ORL - November 29, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Can Early Dissection of Cervical Lymph Nodes Improve Prognosis in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Hard Palate?
We report a series of patients with squamous cell carcinomas and evaluate the rate of lymph node invasion and its impact on survival. This is a retrospective study of 72 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate and maxillary alveolar ridge between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008 in two cancer centres. Using clinical and radiological assessment, tumours were classified as T1-T2 in 25 patients (34.7%) and T3-T4 in 47 patients (65.3%). At diagnosis, 16 (22.2%) patients had clinical and/or radiological nodal involvement and 7 patients (9.7%) distal metastasis. Among N0 patients, 13 (18%) experience...
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery with Sialendoscopy for a Plunging Ranula
Conclusion: The TORS approach with sialendoscopy for plunging ranulas described in this case report shows promise and should be considered for certain clinical presentations. Additional studies evaluating the effectiveness of TORS for plunging ranulas may be indicated.ORL 2017;79:306-313 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Differential Expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps with Allergic Rhinitis
This study aimed to determine the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF- β1) expression levels in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and their possible correlation with allergic state and tissue remodeling.Methods: Patients were enrolled and divided into the following groups: CRS without nasal polyps (NP) without allergic rhinitis (AR) (CRSsNPsAR;n = 20), CRS with NP with AR (CRSwNPwAR;n = 20), CRS with NP without AR (CRSwNPsAR;n = 20), and controls (n = 15). Tissue samples were analyzed by Masson trichrome staining for collagen, while the location and expression of AhR and TGF- β1 ...
Source: ORL - November 28, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Speech Production Quality of Cochlear Implant Users with Respect to Duration and Onset of Hearing Loss
Purpose: To assess whether postlingual onset and shorter duration of deafness before cochlear implant (CI) provision predict higher speech intelligibility results of CI users.Methods: For an objective judgement of speech intelligibility, we used an automatic speech recognition system computing the word recognition rate (WR) of 50 adult CI users and 50 age-matched control individuals. All subjects were recorded reading a standardized text. Subjects were divided into three groups: pre- or perilingual deafness (A), both>2 years before implantation, postlingual deafness2 years before implantation (C).Results: CI users with ...
Source: ORL - November 8, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Videolaryngoscopy during Conscious Sedation in Patients Not Suitable for Phonosurgery by Microlaryngoscopy: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: The results suggest that the method is an effective and safe procedure without relevant local and/or general complications.ORL 2017;79:185-190 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Transoral Robotic Surgery Total Laryngectomy: Evaluation of Functional and Survival Outcomes in a Retrospective Case Series at a Single Institution
Conclusions: TORS-TL is a feasible and safe treatment option with possible advantages for carefully selected patients in experienced hands.ORL 2017;79:191-201 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Thyroid Surgery: To Drain or Not to Drain, That Is the Problem - A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusions: Routine drain emplacement after thyroidectomy is unnecessary.ORL 2017;79:202-211 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Morbidity and Functional Outcomes following Free Jejunal Flap Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer
Conclusion: Postoperative barium swallow examination is helpful to predict long-term anastomotic stenosis. Good functional swallow rehabilitation is achieved following FJF reconstruction after total PLE or a larynx-preserving procedure. However, the speech outcomes are not satisfactory. It raises the demand of enhancement of functional recovery so that quality of life can be improved for these patients in China.ORL 2017;79:212-221 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparison between Primary and Secondary Tracheoesophageal Puncture Prosthesis: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: There is a reduction in the risk of leakage around the prosthesis among TEP2 patients.ORL 2017;79:222-229 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Factors to Consider When Deciding on the Type of Free-Flap Reconstruction of Head and Neck Soft Tissue Defects
Conclusion: Proper selection of the flap is important for the optimization of the aesthetic and functional outcomes. Ultrasound, the surgeon's experience and the extension and nature of the defect play a key role in the selection of the flap.ORL 2017;79:230-238 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

ATF3-Dependent Regulation of EGR1 in vitro and in vivo
Background/Aims: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) are reported to interact, but their use as prognostic factors in cancer is discussed controversially.Methods: We measured ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression changes in human mini-organ cultures (MOCs) of healthy nasal epithelia, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD cells after acid reflux exposure. Next, ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression was analysed in tumour tissues and related to the median expression of autologous reference tissue samples.Results: ATF3 and EGR1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced after consecutive exposure of MOCs at pH (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of & #x03B3; δ T Cell Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Recurrence of Nasal Polyps
Background/Aims: To examine whether #x03B3; δ T cell is expressed in the nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and its potential association with recurrence of nasal polyps.Methods: Thirty-six patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 25 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were recruited. Twenty-six patients with other nasal diseases served as controls. The CRSwNP group was divided into the eosinophilic CRSwNP and noneosinophilic CRSwNP groups. The expression of #x03B3; δ T cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of each subtype of #x03B3;δ T cells was...
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparing Modified with Conventional Parotidectomy for Benign Parotid Tumors
This study retrospectively analyzed 99 patients who had benign parotid lesions and underwent parotidectomy using either conventional or modified parotidectomy. The operation time, cosmetic outcome, great auricular nerve anesthesia, incidence of Frey syndrome, and secretory function with the two techniques were compared.Results: The mean operation time was shorter and the total complication rate was obviously lower in the modified surgery group (p (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Sudden Deafness during Antepartum versus Postpartum Periods
Conclusion: Medication is needed in sudden deafness in antepartum or postpartum women rather than waiting for a natural course. No adverse effects have been identified in any of the mothers or offspring 1 year after delivery.ORL 2017;79:274-281 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - October 25, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Comparing Modified with Conventional Parotidectomy for Benign Parotid Tumors
This study retrospectively analyzed 99 patients who had benign parotid lesions and underwent parotidectomy using either conventional or modified parotidectomy. The operation time, cosmetic outcome, great auricular nerve anesthesia, incidence of Frey syndrome, and secretory function with the two techniques were compared.Results: The mean operation time was shorter and the total complication rate was obviously lower in the modified surgery group (p (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - September 7, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Retrospective Analysis of & #x03B3; δ T Cell Expression in Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Association with Recurrence of Nasal Polyps
Background/Aims: To examine whether #x03B3; δ T cell is expressed in the nasal mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and its potential association with recurrence of nasal polyps.Methods: Thirty-six patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and 25 patients with CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) were recruited. Twenty-six patients with other nasal diseases served as controls. The CRSwNP group was divided into the eosinophilic CRSwNP and noneosinophilic CRSwNP groups. The expression of #x03B3; δ T cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of each subtype of #x03B3;δ T cells was...
Source: ORL - August 31, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

ATF3-Dependent Regulation of EGR1 in vitro and in vivo
Background/Aims: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) are reported to interact, but their use as prognostic factors in cancer is discussed controversially.Methods: We measured ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression changes in human mini-organ cultures (MOCs) of healthy nasal epithelia, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD cells after acid reflux exposure. Next, ATF3 and EGR1 gene expression was analysed in tumour tissues and related to the median expression of autologous reference tissue samples.Results: ATF3 and EGR1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced after consecutive exposure of MOCs at pH (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - August 11, 2017 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research