Patient Experiences of Postinfectious Olfactory Dysfunction
Conclusion: There appears to be a need to encourage greater use of guidelines for olfactory disorders amongst medical practitioners and also to develop more effective treatments for patients with PIOD, where there is clearly an unmet need.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 10, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Brimonidine against Facial Nerve Crush Injury in Rats via Suppressing GFAP/PAF Activation and Neuroinflammation
Conclusions: Brimonidine could promote the recovery of facial nerve crush injury in rats via suppressing of GFAP/PAF activation and neuroinflammation and increasing neurotrophic factors. Brimonidine may be apromising candidate agent for the treatment of facial nerve injury.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 7, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Efficacy of Selective Vidian Neurectomy for Allergic Rhinitis Combined with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Conclusion: Endoscopic selective vidian neurectomy is an effective and safe technique for the management of moderate to severe persistent ARwCRSwNP.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 5, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Dynamic Study of Oesophageal Function during Phonation: Simple but Effective
We describe the new use of a barium bolus as a diagnostic tool for identifying neopharynx disorders. Appropriately selected patients with pharynx-oesophageal segment disorders could benefit from a neurotoxin-blocking treatment to improve oesophageal speech.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - May 5, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Adult Transglottic Haemangioma with Upper Airway Obstruction: Preservation of Airway and Voice
Adult laryngeal haemangioma is normally seen in the supraglottic or glottic region. Transglottic haemangioma is unusual, and treatment with primary endolaryngeal surgical excision may lead to undesirable bleeding and poor voice outcomes. A 25-year-old female presented with hoarseness and progressive upper airway obstruction symptoms. Videoendoscopy showed haemangioma involving all unilateral subunits of the larynx obstructing half of the subglottis. The transglottic haemangioma was treated with endolaryngeal ethanol injection with prior tracheostomy under local anaesthesia. Endolaryngeal laser surgery was performed later o...
Source: ORL - May 5, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Pemphigus Vulgaris and Bullous Pemphigoid of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Review Article and Novel Approaches to Management
Background: Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare conditions characterized by blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. The 2 commonest forms are pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The oral cavity or oropharynx may be the initial site of presentation or often the only site involved.Summary: These conditions are often misdiagnosed or overlooked leading to poorer patient outcomes. Due to the chronic nature of these conditions and the systemic effects of treatment, there is a significant associated morbidity and mortality. As such, an understanding of the fundamentals of autoimmune bullous diseases is vital to those...
Source: ORL - April 26, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Distinct Patterns of Tissue Remodeling and Their Prognostic Role in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Conclusions: Tissue eosinophilia was commonly associated with BM thickening and stromal edema. Subepithelial gland proliferation predicted a poor surgical prognosis in CRS. These findings imply that tissue remodeling provides additional information not only on the CRS endotype but also on the postsurgical prognosis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 14, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Thyroid Dysfunction in M énière’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review
Conclusions: Despite a potential correlation in the medical literature between thyroid disorders and MD, there is currently no definitive causal relationship. Although most of the present medical literature focuses on autoimmunity, dysregulated thyroid hormone levels may also be implicated in the association of MD with thyroid disorders.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 14, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA NEAT1: A Potential Biomarker in the Progression of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: Together, these results suggested that NEAT1 involved in the progress of LSCC and might act as a tumor oncogenic gene. This study provides a potential new marker and target for gene therapy in the treatment of LSCC.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 8, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Sphenoid Sinus: Pneumatization and Septation Patterns in a Hispanic Population
Conclusion: Differences regarding anatomical variants and septations of the SS were observed in our study when compared with findings reported in other ethnic groups. Preoperative assessment of the anatomical variants of the SS in Mexican patients is imperative to select the most optimal surgical approach and prevent iatrogenic injuries to related neurovascular structures.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - April 1, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Pediatric Malignant Mandibular Tumors: Personal Experience and Literature Options Discussion
Conclusions: Free flaps mandibular reconstruction in children needs to be better assessed and proximal fibular epiphyseal free flap indication might deserve further studies. Osteochondral grafts find indication for lateral defects, 50 –55 mm in maximum length and located in the mandibular ramus, without massive teeth or soft tissue defect. Condyle involvement does not represent an absolute contraindication to rib graft use.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 31, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Sustained Chemosensory Dysfunction during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Conclusion: Rates of improvement and recovery of chemosensory function decreased after 2 –4 months after initial chemosensory loss, possibly indicating that prolonged and perhaps permanent chemosensory loss may be a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infections. High subjective severity of CD may worsen the prognosis for improvement and recovery of chemosensory function.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 31, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Cochlear Implantation in Chronic Otitis Media with and without Cholesteatoma: Surgical Considerations and Auditory Outcomes
Conclusion: Postoperative complications like device failure and skin breakdown are increased in cases of COM compared to standard CI surgeries. However, that increase is not associated with staging the surgeries, presence or absence of cholesteatoma, and type of ear surgery performed. It is advocated to close the external ear canal and eustachian tube without mastoid obliteration in the presence of a radical mastoidectomy cavity, which will decrease the postoperative complication rates and allow for radiological follow-up with computed tomography for the possibility of cholesteatoma recurrence. The auditory benefits of CI ...
Source: ORL - March 30, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Augmented Reality with HoloLens ® in Parotid Tumor Surgery: A Prospective Feasibility Study
Conclusion: This pilot study offers a first proof of concept of the clinical feasibility of the HoloLens for parotid tumor surgery. Workflow is not affected, but additional information is provided. The surgical performance could become safer through the navigation-like application of reality-fused 3D holograms, and it improves ergonomics without compromising sterility. Superimposition of the 3D holograms with the surgical field was possible, but further invention is necessary to improve the accuracy.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 30, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Association of Conductive Hearing Loss with the Structural Changes in the Organ of Corti
Conclusion: CHL may be associated with an inner ear damage. The severity of damage appears to be associated with severity and duration of CHL. Early correction of CHL is advocated in order to reverse or prevent progression of the inner ear damage, which will enhance the success rates of hearing restoration surgeries. Subjective differences and compliance of the hearing aid users may be due to the impact of CHL on inner ear structures.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 30, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Symptoms of Depression in Patients with Chemosensory Disorders
Conclusion: Simultaneously decreased input of olfaction and gustation seems to have an additive effect on the exacerbation of emotional dysfunction. Early intervention should be considered for depression symptoms in patients with mixed olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in clinical practice.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 23, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Does Submandibular Gland Sacrificing Neck Dissection Decrease Salivary Output and Quality of Life?
Conclusion: Results indicate unilateral or bilateral resection of SMG does not reduce SSO to a significant extent. Adjuvant radiotherapy and SMG resection are additive risk factors for xerostomia and the related loss in quality of life. SMG sparing may be necessary in HNC patients with higher risk for the need of adjuvant radiation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 23, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Genetic Screening for 35delG Mutation in Egyptian Patients with Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss Scheduled for Cochlear Implantation: A Population-Based Study
Conclusion: The prevalence of the 35delG mutation in nonsyndromic children in this sample was 31% which is different from previous studies in the Egyptian population but close to the values found in other populations in the Mediterranean basin.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 23, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Association between Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Vocal Fold Leukoplakia
Conclusion: Our study confirms the importance of LPR in VFL. Heavy drinking patients with VFL, particularly those with acidic LPR, should undergo intensive treatment. Meanwhile, weakly acidic LPR may play a critical role in the pathological changes in VFL.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 23, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Applying the Exoscope to Lacrimal Surgery: Preliminary Experience
Conclusions: The exoscope is a new tool that may support e-DCR. It has no effects on symptom outcomes (epiphora/dacryocystitis) and time for surgery compared to classic DCR. Based on self-perception, this new technology was accepted by all team members.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 18, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Time Series Behavior of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Thyroid Cancer Patients on Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy
Conclusion: A substantial percentage of patients received TKIs in the last month of life. The NLR increased according to tumor progression and predicted survival after TKI initiation. We might refer the patients with NLR #x3e;11.43 in DTC and those with NLR #x3e;31.67 in ATC to a hospice/palliative care program.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 18, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Machine Learning to Predict Treatment in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Conclusion: This study created a ML model utilizing clinical variables to predict primary treatment modality for T1 –2, N0–N1 OPSCC. This study demonstrates how ML can be used for prediction modeling while also highlighting that tumor and facility realted variables impact the decision making process on a national level.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 17, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Evaluation of Patients with Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops by Videonystagmography, Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials, and Electrocochleography
Conclusion and Significance: The probability of a hypofunction VNG test in a normal-hearing ear might be greater when the VEMPs results of the contralateral deaf ear are normal. In patients with a normal-hearing ear, the distribution of abnormal VEMPs in the contralateral deaf ear is greater, although the intact side may also manifest abnormality in VEMPs tests. The initial evaluation should begin in a deaf ear as well as for the normal-hearing ear ere utilizing ablation surgery.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 17, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Radical versus Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Osteitis in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Conclusions: There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in age, gender, and complicated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. The preoperative symptom VAS score and endoscopy Lund-Kennedy score were higher in the RESS group than in the FESS group, and the Lund-Mackay score and GOSS score were similar in the 2 groups. One year after surgery, symptom VAS scores, endoscopy Lund-Kennedy score, and Lund-Mackay score were significantly lower in the 2 groups. The endoscopy Lund-Kennedy score and Lund-Mackay score were lower in the RESS group than in the FESS group 1 year after surgery. RESS was more effective in reduci...
Source: ORL - March 17, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Microsurgical Management of the Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysms: An Anatomic Feasibility Study
Conclusions: The head positioning in middle cerebral bifurcation aneurysms surgery is a critical step. It should be tailored according to the projection and its relationship with the parent vessels of the middle cerebral bifurcation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

IgG4 Expression in Patients with Eosinophilic Otitis Media
Conclusion: Local IgG4 expression was observed in patients with EOM in comparison to those without EOM, suggesting that IgG4 contributes to EOM pathogenesis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 10, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Neutrophilic Dermatosis of Hands as Oncological Finding: Importance of Follow-Up
This article reports the NFD findings of a patient with pharyngeal cancer, which was developed 2 years after the occurrence of NFD. The development of NFD in patient with alcohol and tobacco consumption should lead otolaryngologists and dermatologists to suspect head and neck malignancy. In cases of normal otolaryngological examination, patients have to be followed.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 10, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Nasal Cytology in Radiofrequency Turbinate Volume Reduction
Conclusion: RFTVR represents a safe and effective treatment for turbinate hypertrophy of various etiology. It is not responsible for a worsening of inflammatory infiltrate of the nasal mucosa.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 5, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Prolapsed Nasal Polyp Causing Acute Airway Obstruction: An Exceptional Presentation
We present the first case report to our knowledge of a patient without any preceding sinonasal symptoms or history of anticoagulation who experienced acute upper airway obstruction due to sudden hemorrhage and prolapse of a large nasal polyp. Based on our experience treating this patient, we discuss special considerations in all phases of care to ensure safe and effective management of such an exceptional clinical scenario.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 3, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Impact of Allergic Rhinitis on Voice in Children
Conclusion: The study ’s results revealed that AR can have an effect on fundamental frequency and voice quality in children. The diagnostic process should include AR as a potential cause of voice disorders in children.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - March 2, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Relationship between Endolymphatic Hydrops and Symptoms of Meniere Disease in Acoustic Hearing
Conclusion: The EH cannot be a sufficient condition for Meniere disease, whereas the hydrops can cause the diplacusis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 24, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

On the Nature of Hearing Loss in M éniere’s Disease
We describe this here in 5 representative MD patients. We feel that the most likely explanation for the outcome is the removal of viral nucleic acids (NA) from the organ o f Corti.Summary: A likely explanation for the sensorineural hearing loss in MD is paralysis of the cochlear amplifier function of the outer hair cells due to the toxicity ofNA. These NA are released from neurotropic viruses located in the vestibular nerve ganglion.Key Messages: (1) Viruses (Herpes family) are the cause of the symptoms in MD. (2) Hearing loss is the result of viral NA in the organ of Corti. (3) A short history of MD symptoms (#x3c;2 years...
Source: ORL - February 17, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Is the Conductive Hearing Loss in < b > < i > NOG < /i > < /b > -Related Symphalangism Spectrum Disorder Congenital?
We describe a dominant Japanese patient with progressive conductive hearing loss who was diagnosed withNOG-related symphalangism spectrum disorder (NOG-SSD), a spectrum of congenital stapes fixation syndromes caused byNOG mutations. Based on the clinical features, including proximal symphalangism, conductive hearing loss, hyper ­opia, and short, broad middle, and distal phalanges of the thumbs, his family was diagnosed with stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes syndrome (SABTT). Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous substitution in theNOG gene, c.645C#x3e;A, p.C215* in affected family individuals. He had norma...
Source: ORL - February 15, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Patient-Reported Outcomes of Split-Thickness Skin Grafts for Floor of Mouth Cancer Reconstruction
Conclusion: STSG reconstructions for pathologic T1 –T2 FOM-CA appear to result in acceptable PROM QOL outcomes with the exception of A-FOM tumors having worse chewing outcomes.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 12, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Tubed Temporalis Fascia for Nasal Dorsal Contouring: A Novel Technique
Conclusions: Our novel technique of using the TF graft in a tubed form was easy to perform. Furthermore, the tubed TF covers all irregularities, is good for dorsal augmentation, and improves dorsal contouring and definition.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 12, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection in Patients with Atrophic Rhinitis
Conclusion: PRP injections can improve nasal symptoms and nasal mucociliary function in patients with atrophic rhinitis.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 9, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Is Septal Cartilage Graft via Transmastoid Approach Safe Enough in the Repair of Large Tegmen Defects?
Conclusion: Extradural grafting with the septal cartilage in the large TD up to 25 mm can be repaired efficiently via the TM approach without application of a lumbar drainage.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 8, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Rare Case of Pneumomediastinum after Eustachian Tube Dilation
Eustachian tube dilation (ETD) is a relatively new intervention for the treatment of eustachian tube dysfunction. Though it previously had no assigned billing code, the American Medical Association recently accepted a new Category I Current Procedural Terminology code application for ETD to be effective in January 2021. Reported complications are uncommon and usually minor. Herein, we present a rare case of massive pneumomediastinum following this procedure. Such major complications are critical to report as ETD becomes a more commonly practiced procedure.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - February 5, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Role of Keratin-8 and Keratin-18 Polymorphisms and Protein Levels in the Occurrence and Progression of Vocal Leukoplakia
Conclusions: Keratin-8 and keratin-18 polymorphisms and protein levels are associated with the occurrence and progression of vocal leukoplakia.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 20, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

3D Technique-Based Nonsurgical Correction of Deformational Congenital Auricular Deformities
Conclusion: 3D-NSC provided a significant nonsurgical clinical treatment for CAD patients, with younger patients getting better clinical outcomes with shorter correction time.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 13, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Clinical Efficacy and Possible Mechanism of Endoscopic Vidian Neurectomy for House Dust Mite-Sensitive Allergic Rhinitis
Conclusion: The short-term efficacy of bilateral EVN is more effective than SCIT in treating HDM-sensitive AR. This may be because the surgery reduced the tIgE and sIgE levels. TNF- α may be involved in the therapeutic mechanism.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - January 4, 2021 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

The Long-Term Stability of Fat-Graft Myringoplasty in the Closure of Tympanic Membrane Perforations and Hearing Restoration
Conclusion: Our FGM technique had a favorable tympanic closure rate for small to large perforations, and yielded relatively good hearing improvement in the mid-size perforation cases over long-term follow-up periods. According to the topographic evaluation of FGM, this procedure resulted in a reliable perforation closure rate and audiological results regardless of the perforation site.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 18, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Office-Based Sinus Surgery for Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Conclusion: This prospective pilot study is the first to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of performing comprehensive revision endoscopic sinus surgery for CF patients in the outpatient office setting using only local anesthesia.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 17, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

A Rare Case of Temporal Bone Pneumocephalus Tracking through the Internal Auditory Canal
A 39-year-old male with chronic hydrocephalus requiring biventricular shunts presented with progressive pneumocephalus over several years. He showed no improvement following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt revision and anterior skull base repair for a sphenoid dehiscence. Imaging continued to show worsening pneumocephalus with air tracking along the right facial nerve from the geniculate ganglion to the internal auditory canal (IAC). The patient then underwent tympanomastoidectomy and skull base reconstruction. Based on a search of published literature, this appears to be the first reported case of temporal bone pneumoceph...
Source: ORL - December 15, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Tracheal Injuries: Case Series and Review of the Literature
This report addresses the critical diagnostic evaluation and management of iatrogenic tracheal injuries resulting from endotracheal intubation.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 9, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Decrease and Recovery of Olfactory and Gustatory Function in a Case of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
We present a case of reversible smell loss in a young patient with mild coronavirus disease 2019 infection assessed with established testing methods over a period of 8 weeks.ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - December 2, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Publisher's Note
ORL (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 30, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Content Vol. 82, 2020
ORL 2020;82:I –VI (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 27, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Acknowlegement to Reviewers
ORL 2020;82:351 –352 (Source: ORL)
Source: ORL - November 27, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research

Apparently Minor Head Trauma Can Lead to Anosmia: A Case Report
We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who suffered from anosmia following an apparently mild head trauma when bumping into a door at her home. She reported no other accompanying symptoms after the injury that day. Olfactory function was completely lost, which was noted the day after the trauma. Gustatory function remained normal. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated lesions/bleeding in the right frontal lobe and in the area of the olfactory sulcus/bulb. The present case indicates that in case of apparently mild head trauma with anosmia, an MRI scan of the head should be performed because of suspect brain damag...
Source: ORL - November 11, 2020 Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research