Scleral Lens Issues and Complications; Their Recognition, Etiology, and Management
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

Clinical Procedures in Primary Eye Care
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: BOOK REVIEW Source Type: research

Tear Fluid and Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Unilateral Pterygium
CONCLUSIONS Tear fluid and serum vitamin D concentrations do not seem to have a role in pterygium pathogenesis. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Poly 2-methacryloyloxyethyl Phosphorylcholine Protects Corneal Cells and Contact Lenses from Desiccation Damage
CONCLUSIONS Polymer 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine coats and protects corneal epithelial cells and CLs from desiccation damage more efficiently compared with trehalose and as good as other reference compounds. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

High- and Low-contrast Letter Acuity during Image Motion in Normal Observers and Observers with Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome
CONCLUSIONS Reduced high-contrast acuity in observers with INS appears to be attributable primarily to a sensory deficit. On the other hand, the reduction of low-contrast acuity in observers with INS may be accounted for on the basis of retinal image motion. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Comparative Analysis of Tear Proteins in Keratoconic Scleral Lens Wearers with Variation in Limbal Clearance
DISCUSSION Relative changes in the cytokine and protease levels were found when comparing low and high limbal clearance, indicating that the midperipheral lens fit is an important feature that can impact the inflammatory response of the keratoconic eye. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Evaluation of Lamina Cribrosa by Using Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography in Ocular Sarcoidosis during Quiescent Phase
This study aimed to evaluate changes in the LC and anterior LC depth (ALCD) in patients with OS. METHODS Forty-eight eyes of 26 patients with OS who received the treatment of panuveitis and were in the quiescent phase for at least 6 months were included in the study. Thirty healthy subjects' randomly selected eyes were selected as a control group. Eyes with OS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence (OS eyes with glaucoma [OSWG], n = 23) or absence of glaucoma (OS eyes without glaucoma [OSWOG], n = 25). The LC thickness, ALCD, and peripapillary choroidal thickness were measured using enhanced depth...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Comparison of Subjective and Objective Methods of Corneoscleral Limbus Identification from Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Images
CONCLUSIONS Because of high precision and excellent repeatability, the automatic method of limbal points identification may be successfully used for estimation of the dynamic changes in the geometry of the anterior segment of the eye, where the large number of captured OCT images needs to be processed automatically with high precision. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Meibomian Gland Contrast Sensitivity and Specificity in the Diagnosis of Lipid-deficient Dry Eye: A Pilot Study
This study aimed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MG contrast for the diagnosis of lipid-deficient dry eye (LDDE). METHODS This case-control study used demographic data, Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) scores, average tear lipid layer thickness (TLLT), fluorescein tear breakup time (FTBUT), upper eyelid meibography images, and meibum quality and quantity scores for individuals with LDDE (SPEED score ≥10 and TLLT ≤35 interferometric color units) and normal individuals (SPEED ≤2 and TLLT ≥80 interferometric color units). RESULTS Thirty-one eyes of 22 controls (mean ...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Bulbar Redness and Dry Eye Disease: Comparison of a Validated Subjective Grading Scale and an Objective Automated Method
This study aimed to quantify bulbar redness using the validated bulbar redness (VBR) grading scale and an automated objective method (Oculus Keratograph 5M; K5M) in participants with DED and non-DED controls. METHODS Participants with DED (Ocular Surface Disease Index score ≥20 and Oxford scale corneal staining ≥2) and controls (Ocular Surface Disease Index score ≤10 and corneal staining ≤1) attended two study visits. In part 1A of visit 1, baseline bulbar redness was graded with the VBR scale in each conjunctival quadrant of both eyes, followed by automated measurements of temporal and nasal redness wit...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Case Report: Alagille Syndrome Presenting with Angioid Streaks
CONCLUSIONS Alagille syndrome has many ophthalmic manifestations, most of them benign with minimal threat to vision. Herein for the first time, we present a case of Alagille syndrome with angioid streak–related choroidal neovascularization, which resulted in severe vision loss. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CASE REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Endogenous Candida Endophthalmitis in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome: Atypical Stellate Neuroretinitis
CONCLUSIONS This case represents a unique association of stellate neuroretinitis secondary to Candida infection in a patient with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CASE REPORTS Source Type: research

Welcome New Editorial Office Talent
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - February 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Position Statement on the Relationship between Visual Acuity and Refractive Error in the Context of Preschool Vision Screening Using Instrument-based Technology
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: The Power of Consensus for Children's Vision
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research

A Randomized Trial of Objective Spectacle Prescriptions for Adults with Down Syndrome: Baseline Data and Methods
CONCLUSIONS This study seeks to investigate new strategies to determine optical corrections that may reduce commonly observed visual deficits in individuals with Down syndrome. The good intersession repeatability of acuity found in this study (six letters) indicates that, despite the presence of reduced acuity, adults with Down syndrome performed the outcome measure for this clinical trial reliably. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CLINICAL TRIALS Source Type: research

Pre-therapeutic Biomarkers for Ranibizumab Therapy among Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema
CONCLUSIONS The present study postulates that diffuse diabetic macular edema with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and baseline circulatory soluble VEGF receptor 2 may be potential candidates as therapy-stratifying markers for ranibizumab treatment among patients with diabetic macular edema. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Subjective Evaluation of Defocus and Astigmatism Combinations Using Image Simulation in Presbyopes
CONCLUSIONS Accommodation may play a role when comparing optical and simulated defocus and astigmatism combinations. Presbyopic subjects are able to produce a low level of accommodation that may counterbalance a part of the deleterious effect of the astigmatism on image quality. Simulation remains a useful tool if the correct accommodation state is taken into account. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Visual Function in Eyes with Intermediate AMD with and without Retinal Pigment Abnormalities
CONCLUSIONS In the presence of large macular drusen, performance on a shape discrimination task is related to the presence versus absence of abnormal retinal pigmentation, being poorer in the higher-risk group, supportive of the measure's potential to predict progression to advanced AMD. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

In Vivo Human Corneal Shear-wave Optical Coherence Elastography
SIGNIFICANCE A novel imaging technology, dynamic optical coherence elastography (OCE), was adapted for clinical noninvasive measurements of corneal biomechanics. PURPOSE Determining corneal biomechanical properties is a long-standing challenge. Elasticity imaging methods have recently been developed and applied for clinical evaluation of soft tissues in cancer detection, atherosclerotic plaque evaluation, surgical guidance, and more. Here, we describe the use of dynamic OCE to characterize mechanical wave propagation in the human cornea in vivo, thus providing a method for clinical determination of corneal biome...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

High Rates of Uncorrected Vision Conditions among Schoolchildren in Rural Queensland, Australia
CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that high rates of uncorrected vision conditions are present among Australian primary and secondary schoolchildren from a rural area and highlight that Indigenous children are much less likely to have had an eye examination. Understanding factors that affect the rate of eye examinations and compliance with spectacle correction must be addressed given the potential impact of these vision conditions. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

A Comparison of Foveal and Peripheral Contour Interaction and Crowding
CONCLUSION The similarity between foveal contour interaction and crowding and the dissimilarity between peripheral contour interaction and crowding suggest the involvement of different mechanisms at different retinal locations. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Negative Fusional Vergence Is Abnormal in Children with Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency
This study aimed to determine whether NFV is normal in untreated children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency and whether NFV improves after vergence/accommodative therapy. METHODS This secondary analysis of NFV measures before and after office-based vergence/accommodative therapy reports changes in (1) objective eye movement recording responses to 4° disparity divergence step stimuli from 12 children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency compared with 10 children with normal binocular vision (NBV) and (2) clinical NFV measures in 580 children successfully treated in three Convergence Insufficiency T...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Indicators for Assessing the Quality of Refractive Error Care
This study aimed to develop a set of indicators for assessing the quality of refractive error care and test their applicability in a real-world setting using unannounced standardized patients (USPs). METHODS Patient outcomes and three quality of refractive error care (Q.REC) indicators (1, optimally prescribed spectacles; 2, adequately prescribed spectacles; 3, vector dioptric distance) were developed using existing literature, refraction training standards, and consulting educators. Twenty-one USPs with various refractive errors were trained to visit optical stores across Vietnam to have a refraction, observe techn...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Technical Report: A New Device Attached to a Smartphone for Objective Vision Screening
CONCLUSIONS The new device will provide the same functions as conventional streak retinoscopy but examines a child's both eyes simultaneously, so that, in addition to categorizing refractive errors and assessing clarity of refractive media of the eyes, it can also detect anisometropia, strabismus, and anisocoria. In addition to showing the examination results on the smartphone's screen, the device can also store the results electronically. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Successful Corneal Crosslinking in a Patient with Corneal Ectasia Associated with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
CONCLUSIONS Corneal ectasia is a rare but important complication of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Accelerated epithelium-off crosslinking treatment can be considered in patients with a compromised ocular surface after Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Pre-operative optimization of the ocular surface and vigilant monitoring in the early post-operative period are recommended for the prevention of complications. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Uncorrected Refractive Error and Distance Visual Acuity in Children Aged 6 to 14 Years
CONCLUSIONS Higher myopic and/or astigmatic refractive errors were associated with predictable reductions in uncorrected distance visual acuity. The reduction in acuity per diopter of cylindrical error was about half that for spherical myopic error. Although distance acuity may be a useful adjunct to the detection of myopic spherocylindrical refractive errors, accommodation presumably prevents acuity from assisting in the detection of hyperopia. Alternate procedures need to be used to detect hyperopia. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: FEATURE ARTICLE – PUBLIC ACCESS Source Type: research

Be a Mentor
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - January 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIALS Source Type: research

Author's Response
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor: Clear and Single Binocular Vision in Near 3D Displays
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research

Topical Review: Causes of Refractive Error After Silicone-oil Removal Combined with Cataract Surgery
SIGNIFICANCE This review summarizes the main factors of refractive error after silicone oil removal combined with cataract surgery. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REVIEWS Source Type: research

Prevalence of Dry Eye Disease in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
CONCLUSIONS There seems to be a significant dry eye disease burden in Africa. This may pose an important public health problem that requires immediate attention and action. More epidemiological studies in Africa are needed to fully understand this problem to inform policy decisions. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REVIEWS Source Type: research

Altered Expression of GJD2 Messenger RNA and the Coded Protein Connexin 36 in Negative Lens–induced Myopia of Guinea Pigs
CONCLUSIONS That both retinal GJD2 mRNA and Cx36 protein expression levels were decreased after induction of myopia with negative lenses points to retinal circuits involving Cx36 in myopia development in the guinea pig. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

How Do Different Digital Displays Affect the Ocular Surface?
CONCLUSIONS Taking into account the clinical tests for dry eye diagnosis, the smartphone may be considered as the least disturbing display, producing lower dry eye signs and symptoms in comparison with other devices. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study Randomized Clinical Trial: Clinical Outcome Results
This study aimed to report changes in clinical signs and symptoms of convergence insufficiency from a randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of office-based vergence/accommodative therapy for young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency. METHODS In this double-masked, randomized clinical trial, convergence insufficiency patients (n = 50; average age, 21 ± 3 years; range, 18 to 32 years) were randomized to either office-based vergence/accommodative therapy or office-based placebo therapy. Improvements in (1) near point of convergence, (2) positive fusional vergence, and (3) self-repo...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: FEATURE ARTICLE – PUBLIC ACCESS Source Type: research

Technical Report: The Mechanism of Contour Interaction Differs in the Fovea and Periphery
CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that, although the characteristics of foveal contour interaction can be accounted for by the antagonistic structure of neural receptive fields, the same mechanism is not compatible with the characteristics of peripheral contour interaction. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Technical Report: A New Method for Determining Image Distance for Stand Magnifiers
CONCLUSIONS Our method provides an expedient and clinically accurate way to evaluate the divergence and image distance of a stand magnifier. Knowing the image distance is valuable by itself, but the divergence of the emerging light is also critical in determining the stand magnifier's enlargement ratio. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Tropheryma whipplei Infection Presenting with Optic Disc Edema
CONCLUSIONS Whipple disease is a rare cause of infectious optic nerve edema that may present with other rheumatoid and gastrointestinal symptoms. A comprehensive medical approach for investigating unilateral optic nerve edema is paramount in diagnosing and treating Whipple disease. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Effect of Haploscopic Filter on Contrast Sensitivity Function and Color Vision Tests
CONCLUSIONS This report describes an improvement in the ability to resolve color vision plates after using asymmetric haploscopic filters showing a left-eye decrease in logMAR visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function. Subjects with a history of color vision deficiency might benefit from using haploscopic filters that selectively minimize the transmittance within a specific bandwidth to improve the color discrimination in deutan color vision deficiency. The simultaneous analysis of the color vision outcomes and transmittance spectrum of the haploscopic filters might contribute to a better understanding of the mec...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem Treatment of Traumatic Lid Ptosis in a Pediatric Patient
CONCLUSIONS Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem treatment provided support of the ocular surface and mechanical left upper eyelid lift in a traumatic eyelid ptosis, ultimately providing improved visual function during an extensive 8-year period in a pediatric patient. Further studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of this approach in broader ptosis cases. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Effect of a Retinal Prosthesis System on Charles Bonnet Visual Hallucinations
CONCLUSIONS Although this case report confirmed that Argus II retinal prosthesis improves the performance of blind patients in visual tests, the improvement was not associated with a decrease in the symptoms of Charles Bonnet syndrome. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Ocular Tilt Reaction with Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia and Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies
CONCLUSIONS The OTR can be ipsilateral to the lesion if the lesion is before the decussation of the VOR pathway in the pons, or it can be contralateral to the lesion if the lesion is after the decussation. In case of an OTR that is associated with contralateral INO and other contralateral cranial nerves palsy, a pathology in the pons that is contralateral to the OTR should be considered. Neuroimaging study can hence be targeted to identify the possible cause. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

2020: A Memorable Year
No abstract available (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - December 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: EDITORIALS Source Type: research

Case Report: Adult Retinoblastoma Progression in 19 Months
CONCLUSIONS Retinoblastoma in adulthood is very rare. It has different clinical characteristics that need to be differentiated from other retinal tumors, such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor. They can develop very fast, but needle biopsy is not recommended. Eye care practitioners should be aware of the possibility of this malignancy in adults. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

Case Report: Tapioca Iris Melanoma: An Uncommon Presentation of an Uncommon Tumor
CONCLUSIONS Tapioca iris melanomas are uncommon tumors with a presentation/surgical management that differs from other malignant tumors. Ophthalmologists should consider it among the vast differential diagnoses when observing amelanotic lesions, even without the hallmark signs being evident. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: REPORTS Source Type: research

The Effect of Blue-blocking Lenses on Photostress Recovery Times
This study aimed to assess whether BBLs selectively affect photostress recovery times (PSRTs) for chromatic and achromatic stimuli of different Weber contrasts that were viewed on a dark black background. METHODS Photostress recovery times were measured in 12 younger participants (18 to 39 years old) with no history of ocular disease or abnormal vision. Photostress recovery times were evaluated for four brands of BBLs, which were compared with a control lens. In these experiments, after exposure to an intense light source for 5 seconds, the time taken to recover vision and correctly identify a computer-generated let...
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Evidence-based Classification in Track Athletics for Athletes with a Vision Impairment: A Delphi Study
CONCLUSIONS The panel has identified measures of vision and performance that will inform the development of an evidence-based classification system by better understanding the relationship between VI and performance in track athletics. Issues such as the use of guides and whether the current class system was equitable gave rise to differing opinions within the panel, with these varying across the different running distances. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

The Developmental Eye Movement Test in French Children
CONCLUSIONS Cortical and central structures responsible for oculomotor and attentional capabilities are developing until about 10 years of age, and that could explain the improvement of the DEM test score up to this age. Furthermore, values of the DEM test in French children are similar to the American ones that are currently used as norms by French clinicians. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Optometry Compensation Study: Narrowing Down the Unexplained Gender Wage Gap in Optometry
CONCLUSIONS When practice ownership, residency completion, and full-time work are controlled for, there remains a difference in the pay received by men and women in optometry. The salary data presented in this study may help optometrists narrow the wage gap. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research

Pilot Study: Thinking Outside the Square in Cultivating “Soft Skills”—Going beyond the Standard Optometric Curriculum
CONCLUSIONS This is the first pilot study that investigates group work across optometry and nonclinical disciplines in a post-graduate curriculum using museum objects. Our findings, based on students' perceptions, imply that students emerged from the program with the intent to transfer their learning to their future practice. We propose that this purposefully designed-based and creative group work may support the development of professional attributes essential for optometric students. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Source: Optometry and Vision Science - November 1, 2020 Category: Opthalmology Tags: ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS Source Type: research