Correlation between Basal Macular Circulation and Following Glaucomatous Damage in Progressed High-Tension and Normal-Tension Glaucoma
Conclusion: The progressed HTG and NTG patients showed an impaired vascular intake before significant disease development compared to well-controlled cases.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 17, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bleb Needling with Mitomycin C as Adjunctive Therapy in Failing Blebs: A Retrospective Study
Conclusions: Needling bleb revision augmented with the use of MMC appears to be a more useful tool in the management of failing bleb.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 10, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Single-Field Non-Mydriatic Fundus Photography for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Single-field NMFP is inadequate to detect DR. Additionally, it showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity when 7SF was used as reference standard, as compared to slit-lamp biomicroscopy, suggesting that different reference standards used in DR screening might have affected the diagnostic results.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 8, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Role of Steroids in the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema
Inflammation is substantially contributing to the development and worsening of diabetic retinopathy in general and diabetic macular edema (DME) in particular, which provides the rationale to treat DME with corticosteroids. While anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are mostly chosen as a first-line treatment, there is an important role for steroids in the treatment algorithm for DME. A slow-release bioerodible dexamethasone implant and an extended-release nonbioerodible fluocinolone acetonide insert are both approved for the treatment of DME and provide the advantage of sustained drug delivery and reduced ...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 5, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Role of Disorganization of Retinal Inner Layers as Predictive Factor of Postoperative Outcome in Patients with Epiretinal Membrane
Conclusions: Baseline DRIL has been shown to be predictive of postoperative visual outcome in patients with iERM, treated with PPV.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcome of Patients Operated with Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Primary Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment
Conclusion: The majority of patients operated for primary RRD achieved a reasonable long-term visual outcome. Notably, female gender was associated with poor visual outcome, indicating a need for closer follow-up.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Characterization of Initial Stages of Diabetic Macular Edema
Conclusions: Eyes from diabetic patients in the initial stages of DR with different Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study gradings show similar prevalence of SCME and CIME, independent of the severity of the retinopathy. Retinal edema is located mainly in the INL and appears to be mostly extracellular except in the earliest stages of diabetic retinal disease where intracellular edema predominates.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Protective Roles of Folic Acid in Preventing Diabetic Retinopathy Are Potentially Associated with Suppressions on Angiogenesis, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of folic acid (FA) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a genetic mouse model of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). C57BL/KsJ-db/db(db/db) T2D mice were divided into control, FA, metformin (MET), and FA plus MET groups (n = 10/group). Serum levels of glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin were determined weekly. The retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 4 weeks after treatments. The retinal expression and serum levels of vascular formation, inflammation, and oxidative stress-associated molecules were examined. Our results demonstrated...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 24, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 61
Ophthalmic Res 2019;61:I –IV (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Examination of Kynurenine Toxicity on Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelium: In vitro and in vivo Studies
We examined the effects on cellular metabolism, viability, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10 secretion, cytoskeleton organization and transwell migration ability. Following a bilateral corneal de-epithelialization, the rabbits received drops containing 1% KYN and a sa line solution to the contralateral control eye, 5 times daily. Digital images were analyzed using the EPCO 2000 software. The metabolic activity of cells was slightly decreased by KYN in the corneal but not in the conjunctival epithelium. The viability of both epithelia was improved by KYN; it cause d alterations in the secretion of IL-6 and IL-10...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cortical Cataract and Refractive Error
Conclusion: Emmetropes and hyperopes tend to develop more cortical cataract than myopes. These cortical cataracts might be caused by shear stress inside the crystalline lens due to accommodation efforts at the time of onset of presbyopia.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - March 31, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Real-World Outcomes with Ranibizumab 0.5 mg in Patients with Visual Impairment due to Diabetic Macular Edema: 12-Month Results from the 36-Month BOREAL-DME Study
Conclusions: The BOREAL study confirms the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab for the treatment of DME-related visual impairment in routine clinical practice with fewer injections than reported in clinical trials.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - March 31, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Clinical Evaluation of a New Swept-Source Optical Coherence Biometer That Uses Individual Refractive Indices to Measure Axial Length in Cataract Patients
Conclusions: In eyes with long axial length, when the conventional IOL calculation was optimized with the equivalent refractive index-based instrument, we need to consider that IOL calculation using OCTB1 tends to cause slightly myopic refractive prediction error.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Age of Onset of Diabetes and Its Comparison with Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy in a Rural Population of India
Conclusion: Control of risk factors in people with younger age of onset of diabetes may reduce both the prevalence and impact of retinopathy in rural populations.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Central Region of Portugal: The Coimbra Eye Study – Report 5
Conclusion: The early AMD incidence in a coastal town of central Portugal was found to be similar to that of major epidemiological studies of European-descent populations; however, the incidence of late AMD was lower, and further analysis on risk factors will be conducted.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Measurement of Structural Parameters of the Lamina Cribrosa in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Chronic Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma by Optical Coherence Tomography and Its Correlations with Ocular Parameters
Conclusion: LCT is thinner in POAG compared to CPACG eyes. This is compatible with less deformation and compression of the LC in CPACG eyes, implying that the mechanisms of glaucomatous damage are different between POAG and CPACG eyes. Furthermore, VF MD and RNFL thickness were related to LCT and ALCSD in all patients.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - February 15, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

European Network of Clinical Research in Ophthalmology Information Update – December 2018
Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Topical 3% Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution for the Treatment of Multifactorial Dry Eye Disease: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Conclusions: Topical diquafosol could be an effective treatment for DED, and also for DED after cataract surgery. Further randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes for the different clinical types of DED are warranted to determine the efficacy and limitations of diquafosol for these different clinical types of DED.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - January 17, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

< b > < i > Ophthalmic Research < /i > < /b > : Striving for Excellence in Serving the Community
Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - January 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Lamellar Macular Hole: State of the Art
Lamellar macular hole (LMH) is a vitreoretinal disorder characterized by an irregular foveal contour, a break in the inner fovea, dehiscence of the inner foveal retina from the outer retina, and the absence of a full-thickness foveal defect with intact foveal photoreceptors. The pathogenesis is only partially known. The advent of high-resolution optical coherence tomography has allowed distinguishing between two types of epiretinal membrane (ERM) associated with LMH: a conventional ERM (commonly found in macular pucker) and an atypical ERM (known by varied names: dense, epiretinal proliferation, or degenerative). These two...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - January 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital Retinal Fundus Image Analysis in Detecting Diabetic Maculopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Conclusions: Despite the low negative predictive value, the good specificity and sensitivity of DRFI in detecting DME make it a useful tool in a routine clinical setting, and its potential in diabetic eye screening is yet to be realized.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - December 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession for the Treatment of Recurrent Exotropia after Bilateral Medial Rectus Resection
Conclusion: Based on our results, BLR could be an effective and safe method for treating recurrent exotropia after a moderate to large amount of BMR.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - December 6, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 60, 2018
Ophthalmic Res 2018;60:I –VI (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - November 30, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Contents
Ophthalmic Res 2018;60:I –VI (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - November 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Proposed Classification System for Retinal Capillary Angiomatosis
Retinal angiomas are rare tumors that develop within the vascular bed of the retina. Their occurrence may be sporadic or as part of the multisystem disorder called von Hippel-Lindau disease. It is well established in literature that retinal angiomas have a natural history of evolving as small aneurysmal dilatations and progressing to vision-threatening retinal detachments. Several approaches to the management of these angiomas have been reported in the literature, but it is difficult to decipher which modality is best suited for which type of angioma. A classification of retinal angiomas is proposed herein. A classificatio...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - November 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Vitrectomy Outcomes in Eyes with Tractional Diabetic Macular Edema
Conclusions: In our series, PPV for tDME induced an improvement in retinal thickening and visual outcome in more than 50% of the cases, with low recurrence rates and a low number of postoperative complications.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - November 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of 2 ex vivo Bovine Cornea Storage Protocols for Drug Delivery Applications
This study highlights the limitations of curre ntly available corneal tissue storage approaches for ex vivo drug permeation studies.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - November 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Short-Term Progression of Diabetic Hard Exudates Monitored with High-Resolution Camera
Conclusion: Diabetic hard exudate changes occurred over a short period of time but were not assessable clinically. Adaptive optics was able to document these subtle changes precisely. Further studies using this imaging modality may improve our understanding of the natural history of exudates and eventually help assess the efficacy of the various treatments available such as lipid-lowering drugs and anti-VEGFs injections.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - November 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Preoperative Timing of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients
Conclusions: IVB injection may lead to a decrease in the intraocular concentrations of VEGF after 2 –5 days and induce the formation of proliferation after 21 days, which suggests that PPV in PDR patients should take place within 1 week of the administration of preoperative IVB.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 31, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dry-Eye Disease in Recurrent Pterygium
Conclusion: Pterygium recurrence is associated with a greater severity of dry eye, possibly by perpetuating ocular surface inflammation in the postoperative period.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 31, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Structural and Functional Analyses of Retinal Ischemia in Eyes with Retinal Vein Occlusion: Relationship with Macular Edema or Microaneurysm Formation
Conclusion: Deep retinal thinning in NPAs was correlated significantly with a decreased retinal sensitivity, which might be a negative predictor of ME and MA in eyes with RVO.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Quantification of Eccentric Fixation Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography
Conclusions: Compared with a fixation ophthalmoscope, our method using OCT seems to be superior both in quantification and detection of eccentric fixation in amblyopic patients, without the need for mydriasis.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 16, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Relationship between Macular Pigment and Vessel Density in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Conclusions: There was a reduction in macular pigment and in OCTA vessel density in T1DM patients with retinopathy, which may have prognostic value in determining disease progression.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of Leaking Foveal Microaneurysms on the Treatment of Center-Involving Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: A combination therapy of short-pulse focal/grid laser and reduced IVR injections appeared noninferior to previous reports of IVR monotherapy. Further large-scale investigations are warranted.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 10, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Abstracts 18th ESASO Retina Academy
Ophthalmic Res 2018;60:1 –26 (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Title Page/ Table of Contents
Ophthalmic Res 2018;60:I –IV (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Is Thicker Choroid a Risk Factor for Malignant Glaucoma?
Conclusions: Thicker foveal CT is an anatomic risk factor for MG. The results of our study were consistent with the hypothesis that choroidal expansion may play a significant role for the development of MG.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - September 7, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Vascular Changes with Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography after Plaque Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma
Conclusions: OCT-A is a noninvasive, reliable method with which to quantify the vessel changes in radiation maculopathy and, given the association between vascularization and malignancy, this procedure may be an aid in treatment decision-making and in monitoring the efficacy of treatment.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - August 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The Progression of the Stargardt Disease Type 4 (ProgStar-4) Study: Design and Baseline Characteristics (ProgStar-4 Report No. 1)
Conclusions: Data on disease progression inPROM1-related retinopathy from this study will contribute to the characterization of the natural history of disease and the exploration of the utility of several modalities to track progression and therefore to potentially be used in future interventional clinical trials.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - August 15, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Multimodal Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Cone-Rod Dystrophy Caused by Novel < b > < i > CRX < /i > < /b > Variant
Conclusions: Multimodal study allowed the characterization of a peculiar form of CRD. The novel pathogenic variant seems to have a different effect on the phenotype if compared with a previously described similar one, giving an insight into the pathogenic mechanism ofCRX-related retinal dystrophies and offering valuable information that could lead to the development of possible future therapies.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - August 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinopathy of Type 1 Diabetes in Arab Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Almost one fifth of T1D patients in 15 Arab countries have diabetic retinopathy, therefore it is important to improve the care of patients with T1D and in Arab countries to avoid the development of such a devastating complication.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Methodologic Assessment of the Systematic Reviews of Ophthalmic Adverse Drug Reactions Published in Ophthalmology Journals: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: The systematic reviews reporting ophthalmic adverse drug reactions diverged in some methodological aspects. Such an issue deserves further investigation, since discrepancies may lead to biased conclusions and, consequently, impact clinical and/or regulatory decisions.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - July 5, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Topical Eugenol Successfully Treats Experimental < b > < i > Candida albicans < /i > < /b > -Induced Keratitis
Conclusions: Eugenol can act as a natural, safe, and effective treatment for fungal keratitis, regardless of whether treatment is started immediately or after 4 days of keratitis induction.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - July 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

SIREV-OFTARED Joined Congress Abstracts
Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Ability and Discriminant Values of OCT-Angiography Parameters in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis
Conclusions: Vessel densities in POAG eyes are significantly lower than in healthy eyes, and they show good discriminatory abilities. A diminished microvascular network is associated with RNFL thinning more strongly in POAG than in PPG eyes.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 28, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Scotopic Microperimetric Assessment of Rod Function in Stargardt Disease (SMART) Study: Design and Baseline Characteristics (Report No. 1)
Conclusions: Rod function is impaired in STGD1 and can be assessed by sMP. Testing rod function may serve as a potential outcome measure for future clinical treatment trials. This is evaluated in the SMART study.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

One-Year Results after Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Transposition for Surgical Repair of Macular Holes with Respect to Microperimetry
Conclusions: Beside visual acuity, foveal and perifoveal macular sensitivity improved, underlining the functional success of surgery after ILM peeling with ILM flap transposition.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 22, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Age-Related Dry Eye Lactoferrin and Lactobionic Acid
Dry eye is the most prominent pathology among those involving the ocular surface: a decrease of the aqueous (less frequent) or the lipid (more frequent) component of the tear film is the cause of the diminished stability of tears that is observed in this pathology. Dry eye shows a clear distribution linked to both sex (being more frequent among women) and age (increasing with aging). Therefore, specific treatments taking into account the etiology of the disease would be desired. The role of lactoferrin and its functional mimetic lactobionic acid are reported here as a possible remedy for age-related dry eye.Ophthalmic Res ...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Association between the Frequency of Optic Disk Hemorrhage and Progression of NTG Related with the Initial Location of RNFL Defect
Conclusions: More careful examination and caution are required when NTG patients show recurrent DH in the inferior hemifield related to the initial RNFL defect.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Plasma Rich in Growth Factors for the Treatment of Dry Eye after LASIK Surgery
Conclusions: These results suggest that PRGF eye drops are effective for the improvement of dry eye symptoms in patients who underwent LASIK surgery in comparison to the conventional therapy. The treatment with PRGF is an alternative for patients who suffer from postoperative dry eye.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 8, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research