Prevalence and incidence of dry eye disease in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Dry eye disease (DED) is the most common ocular surface disease, which severely affects the quality of life. An overall estimate of the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of DED in Asia would help in planning and implementing appropriate public health strategies. Objectives: The present study aimed to study the epidemiology of DED in Asia. Methods: A comprehensive and systematic search was performed using several databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, in January 2021. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on logit-transformed prevalence and incidence rates to calculate ...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 27, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular biologic milieu in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a literature review
Multiple lines of evidence support an immunologic response along with inflammation to be implicated in the pathophysiology of primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the signaling molecules into the vitreous and subretinal fluid (SRF) involved in these processes. A detailed literature search was performed in PubMed database until November 2021. We identified all papers referring to inflammatory and immunological mediators in the context of primary RRD and in cases complicated by PVR. We analyzed prosp...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 23, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

7-Methylxanthine Influences the Behavior of ADORA2A-DRD2 Heterodimers in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
Conclusions: ADORA2A and DRD2 heterodimers were present in RPE cells. 7-MX may affect the behaviors of RPE cel ls through the ADORA2A-DRD2 receptor pathway. 7-MX is an inhibitor of ADORA2A receptors that can prevent inhibition of the D2 receptor pathway and increase D2 receptor pathway activity. This phenomenon may explain the mechanism of action through which 7-MX can control myopia progression. (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 20, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Reference Database of Inner Retinal Layer Thickness and Thickness Asymmetry In Healthy Thai Adults as Measured by The Spectralis Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography
Conclusion: The reference database of the macular thickness and thickness asymmetry from this study would be beneficial in determining physiologic variations of the OCT parameters in the healthy Thai population. (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 16, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Corneal and Retinal Toxicity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Hydroxychloroquine
Introduction: To assess the ocular toxicity of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) by confocal microscopy, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative case series study was retrospectively conducted on 61 patients under HCQ treatment for RA without fundoscopic anomalies (Group 1), 65 RA patients with no HCQ treatment (Group 2), and 27 normal subjects (Group 3). A comprehensive ophthalmological examination, including confocal microscopy, mfERG, and GDxVCC, was performed in the thre...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 15, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Hyperrefective foci in diabetic macular edema with subretinal fluid: association with visual outcomes after anti-VEGF treatment
Introduction. To describe the hyperreflective foci (HRF) on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in diabetic macular edema (DME) with subretinal fluid (SRF) and explore the association of HRF in the outer retina with photoreceptor integrity and visual outcomes after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 46 eyes (36 patients) with DME treated with anti-VEGF drugs. The following parameters, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), the height of subretinal fluid (SRF), the number of HRF in the superficial capillary...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - June 13, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Implications for Treatment
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, multifactorial, progressive retinal disease that affects millions of people worldwide and has become the leading cause of visual impairment in developed countries. The disease etiopathogenesis is not understood fully, although many triggers and processes that lead to dysfunction and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) already have been identified. Thus, the lack of cellular control of oxidative stress, altered proteostasis, dysfunction of lipid homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction form an internal feedback loop that causes the RPE to fail and allow...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 25, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A Potential Research Target for Scleral Remodeling: Effect of MiR-29a on Scleral Fibroblasts
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether miR-29a rugulates cell survival and apoptosis and the expression of PTEN, MMP-2, and collagen I on scleral fibroblasts. Methods: We transfected scleral fibroblasts with miR-29a mimic and inhibitor. The effects of miR-29a on cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using the CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine whether miR-29a regulates the mRNA levels of PTEN, MMP-2, and collagen I. The protein expression of PTEN, MMP-2, and collagen I was also assessed by western blot analysis. ...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 23, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells regulates oxidative stress and angiogenesis of retinal pigment epithelial cells.
Conclusion: Our results show potential therapeutic effects of hUCESC-CM on RPE, such as protection from damage by oxidative stress, stimulation of detoxifying genes and a better vascularization. (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 18, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Macular Morphologic and Microvascular Analysis in Pseudophakic Children with Previous Pediatric Cataract Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography
Introduction: The macular morphologic and microvascular changes in children with pseudophakia after pediatric cataract surgery remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze macular morphologic and microvascular remodeling in children with pseudophakia after pediatric cataract surgery using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Consecutive cases between December 1, 2018, and November 31, 2020 were recruited. Sixty-one participants (31 pseudophakic children and 30 healthy controls) met the inclusion criteria and were included for final analysis. OCTA was used to measure macular vascular density, ...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 9, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Prevalence of myopia and influencing factors among high school students in Nantong, China: A cross-sectional study
Introduction: Myopia is an increasingly serious health problem in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of myopia and the factors associated with it among students in Nantong, China, to show the current status of myopia prevention. Methods: This school-based, cross-sectional study examined students from all high schools in an urban area of Nantong, China. At least two classes were randomly selected from each grade of each school. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect the required information.Univariate analyses were performed to identify associations between myopia and various paramete...
Source: Ophthalmic Research - May 2, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effects of vitrectomy with primary epiretinal membrane peel on optical quality using double-pass aberrometry
Conclusion: Reduced light scattering measured by OSI indicates improved optical quality following vitrectomy with E RM peel among patients with primary ERM. OSI measurement could thus be a new parameter of interest in the pre-operative assessment of primary ERM and other pre-vitrectomy assessments. (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 27, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Effect of interleukin 6 on scleral fibroblast proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis involved in myopic scleral remodeling
Conclusion: HO caused HSFs to overexpress IL-6. IL-6 has a role in scleral remodeling in myopic eyes through affecting the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of HSFs. (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 11, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Nonhomogenous Hyperreflectivity in the Choriocapillaris Layer on Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Implies Early Treatment with Anti-VEGF for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Conclusion: This study suggested that the nonhomogenous hyperreflectivity on OCTA could be served as a diagnostic biomarker for putative CNV in CSCR, implying early treatment with anti-VEGF.Ophthalmic Res (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 11, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Non-homogenous hyperreflectivity in choriocapillaris layer on OCTA implies early treatment with anti-VEGF for central serous chorioretinopathy
Conclusion: This study suggested that the non-homogenous hyperreflectivity on OCTA could be served as a diagnostic biomarker for putative CNV in CSCR, implying early treatment with anti-VEGF. (Source: Ophthalmic Research)
Source: Ophthalmic Research - April 11, 2022 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research