Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome A Postmenopausal Disorder?
Authors: BaHammam AS, Almeneessier AS Abstract Previous studies have assessed the role of gender and menopause in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). It is well known that menopause is a major risk factor for OSA. However, analogous studies on obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) are limited. Recent studies have suggested that OHS is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Moreover, women with OHS seem to have excess comorbidities, including hypothyroidism, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, compared to men. In the present perspective, we discuss recent data on the prevalence and comorbiditie...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 22, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Asbestos Bodies Burden in the Autopsy Lung Tissue from General Thai Population.
Conclusion: The prevalence of AB in autopsy lung tissue from general Thai population is 48.5% and the AB level ranges from 0-14.4 AB/g wet lung in consistent with non-occupational asbestos exposure level regarding several reference reports. PMID: 31929836 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Sonographically Measured Improvement in Diaphragmatic Mobility and Outcomes Among Patients Requiring Prolonged Weaning from the Ventilator.
Conclusion: Survival and outcome of prolonged weaning were significantly better when sonographically measured the mobility of left hemidiaphragm improved. PMID: 31929837 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 15, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Healthcare Workers in a Low Incidence Country.
Conclusion: LTBI was relatively uncommon in our population, however, given the potential risk of reactivation and progression to overt disease, the screening of healthcare workers and students is recommended in the hospital of low-incidence countries. PMID: 31908683 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Changes in Clinical Markers During A Short-Term Transfer Program of Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients from Pediatric to Adult Care.
This study investigated the impact of a short-term transfer program on clinical markers in an adult CF cohort still being managed by pediatricians. Methods: Clinically relevant data from the year before (T-1), the time of Transfer (T) and the year after the transfer (T+1) were analysed retrospectively. Results: 39 patients (median age 29.0 years; 64% male) were transferred between February and December 2016. Lung function had declined significantly in the year before transfer (in % predicted: Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV), 62.8 vs. 57.7, p
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Prevalence and Predictors of Ocular Complications in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: A Cross-sectional Case-control Study.
Conclusion: The risk of vision-threatening and non-threatening ocular disorders is higher among OSA cases. The lowest oxygen saturation index was the only significant predictor of vision-threatening disorders. These findings support the recommendation that a full ophthalmic examination should be carried out on patients with confirmed OSA. PMID: 31908685 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Serum CYFRA 21-1 but not Vimentin is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients.
Conclusion: An elevated serum CYFRA 21-1 concentration was associated with shorter overall survival in advanced lung cancer patients. However, serum vimentin was not as useful as a tumor marker of lung cancer. The vimentin positivity in tumor samples might not predict patients' prognosis in patients with advanced lung cancer. PMID: 31908686 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Use of Noninvasive Ventilation with Volume-Assured Pressure Support in Neuralgic Amyotrophy with Bilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis.
We present the case of a 52-year-old man with neuralgic amyotrophy with phrenic nerve involvement and bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis with marked respiratory symptoms and sleep hypoventilation, who was treated with non-invasive ventilation with volume assured pressure support mode. By 21 months post disease onset, the patient had experienced marked improvement in orthopnea, sleep quality and functional status. This is the first reported case of the use of this mode of noninvasive ventilation in neuralgic amyotrophy. PMID: 31908687 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Is it Time to Replace Direct Laryngoscopy with Video Laryngoscopy in Airway Management in Training Facilities?
Authors: Surani S, Varon J PMID: 31908688 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - January 9, 2020 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Effect of Montelukast 10 mg in Elderly Patients with Mild and Moderate Asthma Compared with Young Adults. Results of a Cohort Study.
Conclusion: In this cohort of patients, treated with montelukast 10 mg/day for 12 weeks, there was a reduction of broncho-obstructive symptoms and exacerbations of the disease. In older adults compared to young adults, a greater reduction in the use of beta2 agonists rescue medications and in the concomitant use of inhaled corticosteroid schemes was documented. PMID: 30988828 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - April 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Imaging In Acute Bronchiolitis: Evaluation of The Current Practice In a Kuwaiti Governmental Hospital and Its Possible Impact on Hospitalization Period.
Conclusion: The implementation of acute bronchiolitis guidelines regarding imaging in admitted cases with acute bronchiolitis is highly recommended in Al-Adan hospital. Clear documentation for the reasons behind ordering X-Rays is needed for those cases. A decrease in the X-Ray utilization and subsequent unnecessary antibiotic use can help in decreasing the costs and hazards of hospitalization for patients with acute bronchiolitis. PMID: 30988829 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - April 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Validation of a Clinical Instrument for Measuring the Severity of Acute Bronchitis in Children - The BSS-ped.
Authors: Lehrl S, Kardos P, Matthys H, Kamin W PMID: 30988830 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - April 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Gastric Aspiration and Its Role in Airway Inflammation.
Authors: Hunt EB, Sullivan A, Galvin J, MacSharry J, Murphy DM PMID: 30988831 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - April 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Validation of a Clinical Instrument for Measuring the Severity of Acute Bronchitis in Children - The BSS-ped.
Conclusion: The BSS-ped is a valid procedure for measuring the severity of acute bronchitis in children. PMID: 30505368 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - December 7, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

The Effect of Comprehensive Medical Care on the Long-Term Outcomes of Children Discharged from the NICU with Tracheostomy.
Conclusion: CC significantly decreased mortality, total number of hospital admissions and length of time-to-mechanical ventilation liberation. PMID: 30197702 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - September 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Spirometric Values of Greek People and Comparison with ECSC and GLI Values in COPD People.
Conclusion: It is shown that the 3 sets of predicted values are almost identical, despite the fact that they have been collected from different study populations.Αccording to the study, there is no need in recalculating values for Greek population. PMID: 30159096 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 31, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Characteristics and Outcomes of Children with Clinical History of Atopic Versus Non-atopic Asthma Admitted to a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
Conclusion: A clinical history of atopic asthma in children admitted to the PICU with status asthmaticus was associated with longer length of stays The longest LOS was observed when atopic patients required intubation. PMID: 30008967 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - July 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Central Venous Oxygen Saturation as a Predictor of a Successful Spontaneous Breathing Trial from Mechanical Ventilation: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.
Authors: Georgakas I, Boutou AK, Pitsiou G, Kioumis I, Bitzani M, Matei K, Argyropoulou P, Stanopoulos I Abstract Background: Weaning from mechanical ventilation is a key element in the care of critically ill patients, and Spontaneous Breathing Trial (SBT) is a crucial step in this procedure. This nested case-control study aimed to evaluate whether central oxygen saturation (ScvO2) values and their changes could independently predict the SBT outcome among mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: A prospective cohort of patients who were mechanically ventilated for at least 48hours and fulfilled the criteria o...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - April 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Gastric Aspiration and Its Role in Airway Inflammation.
Authors: Hunt EB, Sullivan A, Galvin J, MacSharry J, Murphy DM Abstract Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) has been associated with chronic airway diseases while the passage of foreign matter into airways and lungs through aspiration has the potential to initiate a wide spectrum of pulmonary disorders. The clinical syndrome resulting from such aspiration will depend both on the quantity and nature of the aspirate as well as the individual host response. Aspiration of gastric fluids may cause damage to airway epithelium, not only because acidity is toxic to bronchial epithelial cells but also due to the effect of diges...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Evaluation of Breath-Holding Test in Assessment of Peripheral Chemoreflex Sensitivity in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.
Conclusion: Breath-holding test is a reliable and safe method for assessing the sensitivity of peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in patients with heart failure. PMID: 29387285 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Prolonged Cough in Pediatric Population First Line Care, Belgian Guidelines.
CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to provide evidence on the clinical pathway on prolonged cough for primary care. Cough duration of more than eight weeks and prolonged wet cough are the most useful cough characteristics. Regarding a specific cough treatment, no medication has proved any effect greater than placebo. Attention to environmental triggers and patient-centered care remain the keystones of interventions. PMID: 29081858 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - October 31, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Survival of Hypercapnic Patients with COPD and Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Treated with High Intensity Non Invasive Ventilation in the Daily Routine Care.
CONCLUSION: High intensity NIV within routine care is effective in reducing blood CO2 levels in COPD- and in OHS- related chronic respiratory insufficiency. The survival rates obtained here are comparable to data from controlled clinical trials on COPD. PMID: 28839495 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 27, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Use of Nasal Non-Invasive Ventilation with a RAM Cannula in the Outpatient Home Setting.
CONCLUSION: Outpatient use of Nasal NIV/RAM Cannula may prove to be a feasible and save treatment alternative for children with chronic respiratory failure, chest wall weakness, dyspnea and traditional nasal/face mask intolerance to avoid tracheostomy. PMID: 28839496 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 27, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Bronchodilator Response Assessment of the Small Airways Obstructive Pattern.
CONCLUSION: A significant reversibility, mainly assessed on IC increase, is frequent in Small Airways Obstructive Pattern. Impulse oscillometry is of limited value in this context because of its low sensitivity. PMID: 28839497 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 27, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

The Emerging Role of The Eosinophil and Its Measurement in Chronic Cough.
Authors: Sadeghi MH, Morice AH Abstract Although the aetiology of chronic cough in guidelines is clearly stated as asthma and related syndromes, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), and upper airways disease, the inflammatory mechanisms underlying these conditions differ. Recent studies on asthma have increasingly focused on its molecular phenotypes instead of clinical characteristics. Here, we proposed the hypothesis that divides cough into two groups; the eosinophilic and neutrophilic. This division will enhance our ability to recognise the type of airway inflammation which, as a consequence will lead us to ...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

24-Hour Hypoxia and Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: Percent time of SpO2 below 90% and 88% in 24 hours revealed periods of severe hypoxia even in patients with borderline-normal resting PaO2. However, none of the present hypoxia variables was capable of predicting PH. PMID: 28659997 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - July 1, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Analysis of the Literature on Chronic Cough in Children.
Authors: Bergamini M, Kantar A, Cutrera R, Interest Group IPC Abstract Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology. Th...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - May 30, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Effect of Short-Term Exposure to High Particulate Levels on Cough Reflex Sensitivity in Healthy Tourists: A Pilot Study.
CONCLUSION: We tentatively concluded that short-term exposure to high PM concentrations may have adverse effects on cough reflex and urge-to-cough thresholds, pulmonary function, and cough-related quality of life. PMID: 28217195 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 22, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Effect of Ivacaftor on Objective and Subjective Measures of Cough in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.
CONCLUSION: We have observed early subjective and objective improvement in cough measures on treatment with ivacaftor. We suggest that this improvement could be attributed to improvement of gastro-intestinal function and that cough metrics could be used as early and accurate end points of drug efficacy. PMID: 28217196 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 22, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Predicted Values for Spirometry may Underestimate Long-Standing Asthma Severity.
CONCLUSION: FEV1 decline calculation may show how severe asthma actually is, avoiding a bronchial obstruction underestimation and a possible under-treatment in lots of apparent "well-controlled" LSA with GLI2012-normal-range lung function values. PMID: 28144365 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Evaluation of Pulmonary Nodules Using the Spyglass Direct Visualization System Combined With Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound: A Clinical Feasibility Study.
CONCLUSION: Spyglass can be used in combination with p-EBUS to obtain images of the distal bronchial mucosa and peripheral pulmonary nodules. More patients will be needed to confirm whether mucosal appearance can be predictive of malignancy. PMID: 28144366 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Determinants of Restrictive Spirometric Pattern in a Sub-Saharan Urban Setting: A Cross-sectional Population-based Study.
Authors: Pefura-Yone EW, Balkissou AD, Kengne AP Abstract BACKGROUND: Restrictive spirometric pattern is a risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the prevalence of restrictive pattern and investigated its determinants in a major sub-Saharan Africa city. METHODS: Participants were adults (≥ 19 years) who took part in a population-based survey in Yaounde (Cameroon) between December 2013 and April 2014. Restrictive pattern was based on a FVC below the lower limit of the normal (LLN) and a ratio forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/FVC ≥ LLN (LLN-based rest...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 2, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Association Between Health Symptoms and Particulate Matter from Traffic and Residential Heating - Results from RHINE III in Tartu.
CONCLUSION: Traffic-related PM10 and all sources induced PM2.5 associated with cardiac disease; whereas residential heating induced particles did not. PMID: 27843509 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - November 17, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Patterns of Drug Resistance Among Tuberculosis Patients in West and Northwestern Iran.
Authors: Sahebi L, Ansarin K, Mohajeri P, Khalili M, Monfaredan A, Farajnia S, Zadeh SK Abstract BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among chronic infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this cross-sectional study (2011-2013;2013) was to examine the patterns of TB drug resistance among HIV-negative pulmonary TB patients in regions near the Iranian border. METHOD: To this end, MTB isolates were harvested from 300 HIV-negative, pulmonary smear-positive TB patients from the northwest and west Iranian border provinces. Isolates were subjected to first and second-lin...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - September 2, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Lung Function Monitoring; A Randomized Agreement Study.
CONCLUSION: The present study confirms that measurements obtained by the same device at different times can be compared; however, measured lung function values may differ depending on spirometers used. PMID: 27583055 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - September 2, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Pilot Study of a New Adjustable Thermoplastic Mandibular Advancement Device for the Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea Syndrome: A Brief Research Letter.
Authors: El Ibrahimi M, Laabouri M Abstract BACKGROUND: Prefabricated adjustable thermoplastic mandibular advancement devices (PAT-MADs) are a practical short-term treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) in patients who have failed or refused continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a new professionally-fitted PAT-MAD in patients with OSAHS in Morocco. METHOD: Twenty-four adults with mild, moderate or severe OSAHS were fitted with the PAT-MAD (BluePro(®); BlueSom, France). Respiratory parameters (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI),...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 10, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Relationship Between Lung Cancer and Mycobacterium Avium Complex Isolated Using Bronchoscopy.
CONCLUSION: MAC culture-positive bronchial washing is positively associated with lung cancer. Female sex and advanced age, but not lung cancer characteristics, were found to be associated with MAC infection in patients with lung cancer. PMID: 27335625 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - June 24, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Pulmonary Arterial Pressure Response During Exercise in COPD: A Correlation with C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP).
Authors: Varga J, Palinkas A, Lajko I, Horváth I, Boda K, Somfay A Abstract BACKGROUND: The non-invasive assessment of pulmonary haemodynamics during exercise provides complementary data for the evaluation of exercise tolerance in patients with COPD. METHODS: Exercise echocardiography in the semi-supine position was performed in 27 patients with COPD (C) with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 36±12% predicted and 13 age and gender-matched non-COPD subjects (NC). COPD patients also underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with gas exchange detection (CPET). Furthermore, serum hig...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - March 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Physiotherapy Intervention During Level I of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSION: It is possible to infer that physiotherapy's techniques used in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation, based on this review, were the high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) on the chest; relaxing massage and active exercises, electrical stimulation via electro-acupuncture; strengthening of the quadriceps; the ELTGOL bronchial drainage technique (expiration with the glottis open in the lateral posture) and an incentive spirometer. PMID: 27014377 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - March 26, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Prevalence of Work-Related Asthma in Primary Health Care: Study Rationale and Design.
DISCUSSION: The results will show the prevalence of OA and work-aggravated asthma, and shall provide valuable information to set out and apply the necessary personal and technical measures, either in the public or in the occupational health services. No studies evaluating the costs generated by the OA in the Primary Healthcare system have been carried out. PMID: 26865884 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - February 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Acute Respiratory Failure: Pathophysiological Basis From A Multidisciplinary Clinical Approach.
Authors: Castillo RL PMID: 26312098 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Pathophysiological Approaches of Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome: Novel Bases for Study of Lung Injury.
Authors: Castillo RL, Carrasco Loza R, Romero-Dapueto C Abstract Experimental approaches have been implemented to research the lung damage related-mechanism. These models show in animals pathophysiological events for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), such as neutrophil activation, reactive oxygen species burst, pulmonary vascular hypertension, exudative edema, and other events associated with organ dysfunction. Moreover, these approaches have not reproduced the clinical features of lung damage. Lung inflammation is a relevant event in the develop of ARDS as component of the host immune response to various...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injured (TRALI): Current Concepts.
Authors: Álvarez P, Carrasco R, Romero-Dapueto C, Castillo RL Abstract Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening intervention that develops within 6 hours of transfusion of one or more units of blood, and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality resulting from transfusion. It is necessary to dismiss other causes of acute lung injury (ALI), like sepsis, acute cardiogenic edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or bacterial infection. There are two mechanisms that lead to the development of this syndrome: immune-mediated and no immune- mediated TRALI. A common theme ...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Pathophysiological Basis of Acute Respiratory Failure on Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation.
Authors: Romero-Dapueto C, Budini H, Cerpa F, Caceres D, Hidalgo V, Gutiérrez T, Keymer J, Pérez R, Molina J, Giugliano-Jaramillo C Abstract Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) was created for patients who needed noninvasive ventilator support, this procedure decreases the complications associated with the use of endotracheal intubation (ETT). The application of NIMV has acquired major relevance in the last few years in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF), in patients with hypoxemic and hypercapnic failure. The main advantage of NIMV as compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Humidification on Ventilated Patients: Heated Humidifications or Heat and Moisture Exchangers?
Authors: Cerpa F, Cáceres D, Romero-Dapueto C, Giugliano-Jaramillo C, Pérez R, Budini H, Hidalgo V, Gutiérrez T, Molina J, Keymer J Abstract The normal physiology of conditioning of inspired gases is altered when the patient requires an artificial airway access and an invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The endotracheal tube (ETT) removes the natural mechanisms of filtration, humidification and warming of inspired air. Despite the noninvasive ventilation (NIMV) in the upper airways, humidification of inspired gas may not be optimal mainly due to the high flow that is being created by the lea...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Volutrauma and Molecular Effects.
Authors: Carrasco Loza R, Villamizar Rodríguez G, Medel Fernández N Abstract Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition secondary to a variety of insults leading to a severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality in critically ill patients. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which is another important factor that may increase the ALI (acute lung injury) by a series of pathophysiological mechanisms, whose common element is the initial volutrauma in the alveolar units, and forming part of an entity known clinically as ventilator-induced lung injury...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients: A Respiratory Therapist Perspective.
Authors: Hidalgo V, Giugliano-Jaramillo C, Pérez R, Cerpa F, Budini H, Cáceres D, Gutiérrez T, Molina J, Keymer J, Romero-Dapueto C Abstract Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - August 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

The Three A's in Asthma - Airway Smooth Muscle, Airway Remodeling & Angiogenesis.
The Three A's in Asthma - Airway Smooth Muscle, Airway Remodeling & Angiogenesis. Open Respir Med J. 2015;9:70-80 Authors: Keglowich LF, Borger P Abstract Asthma affects more than 300 million people worldwide and its prevalence is still rising. Acute asthma attacks are characterized by severe symptoms such as breathlessness, wheezing, tightness of the chest, and coughing, which may lead to hospitalization or death. Besides the acute symptoms, asthma is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and airway wall remodeling. The term airway wall remodeling summarizes the structural changes in the...
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Giant Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and Trauma in a 9 Year-Old Child: A Case Report.
In conclusion, giant hydatid cysts are probably misdiagnosed with massive pleural effusion in the endemic area. And, because of the risk of allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock and dissemination, it should not be aspirated. PMID: 26089993 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - June 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Editorial inhaled corticosteroids: the endocrine and metabolic complications.
Authors: Pappachan JM PMID: 25674174 [PubMed] (Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal)
Source: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal - June 3, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research