Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 26, 2020 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

The new MRCOG curriculum
A new RCOG core curriculum for post graduate training in obstetrics and gynaecology was introduced in 2019 and is supported by a new ePortfolio. The curriculum is organized into four professional identities, each of which contains a number of capabilities in practice. There is a significant change in the emphasis of the new curriculum to ensure that there is a better balance between the essential technical skills with the important non technical and professional skills which are fundamental for specialists to work effectively. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 26, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Alastair J. Campbell Tags: Ethics/Education Source Type: research

Fetal macrosomia
Birthweight has increased in the last century partly attributed to increasing maternal obesity and prevalence of gestational diabetes. Although changes in mean birthweight reflect the trends and demography of the population, increased risk of adverse outcomes occurs at the extremes of the distribution (i.e. in small and large infants). The aim of this review is to provide better understanding of definition, epidemiology, prediction and management of large infants. Many definitions of large infants, or fetal overgrowth, have been described in the literature, including macrosomia (weight above 4 kg) or large for gestational ...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 17, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Matias C. Vieira, Srividhya Sankaran, Dharmintra Pasupathy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Self assessment questions
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 15, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Norman Shreeve Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Colposcopy and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
Cervical cancer remains a killer. In the UK it is the third most common gynaecological malignancy with approximately 3200 new cases diagnosed each year and over 900 deaths. The NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) aims to reduce the incidence and mortality associated with cervical cancer. Since its introduction in 1988 there has been a 49% reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer in the UK. Our understanding of cervical cancer has increased dramatically since the inception of the NHSCSP and has resulted in the evolution of the screening programme. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 13, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Alexandra G. Rowland, Jullien Brady Tags: Review Source Type: research

Respiratory disease in pregnancy
Physiological changes to the respiratory system in pregnancy make breathlessness a common symptom. However, it is still important to investigate symptoms of breathlessness to exclude pathological causes. This review illustrates some unusual cases of women presenting with breathlessness in pregnancy. Prompt recognition, investigation and management of these women is essential as delays can impact the mother and the neonate. Investigations should be used appropriately and not withheld or delayed due to pregnancy. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 10, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Himabindu Annamraju, Katherine Robertson, Lucy Mackillop Tags: Case-based learning Source Type: research

Update on termination of pregnancy
One in three women in the UK has had a termination of pregnancy (TOP) by the age of 45. Approximately 200,000 TOPs occur in the UK each year. In 2018 there were 205,295 TOPs in England and Wales, and 13,286 in Scotland. The provision of TOP services is a vital healthcare resource which needs to be provided. Education in this area is an important part of training in obstetrics and gynaecology. Whilst things are improving, there is still stigma attached, and formal teaching is frequently missing from the curriculum of trainees. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - March 4, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Rowena Pykett, Stephen C. Smith Tags: Case-based learning Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 29, 2020 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus
es are ancient small DNA viruses and represent the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. In the majority, HPV infection is cleared by an incompletely understood immune response. HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of cervical cancer, and responsible for a proportion of other anogenital cancers including vulval, vaginal, anal and oropharyngeal. Oncogenesis is likely mediated through viral proteins which hijack host-cell machinery in epithelial keratinocytes and disrupt host tumour-suppressor proteins. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 26, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Sarah J Bowden, Maria Kyrgiou Tags: Review Source Type: research

Caesarean section: techniques and complications
An increasing number of deliveries in the UK are performed by caesarean section. The technique has changed very little over the years but safety rates have improved greatly, mainly due to improved preoperative planning. There is widespread debate regarding the benefits of caesarean section compared with vaginal delivery. Guidance from the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence has aided clinicians in the counselling of patients about the risks and benefits of the procedure. It is essential to maintain good surgical training as the number of difficult procedures is increasing due to the rise in the rate of...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 23, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Mary Ellen Gee, Alice Dempsey, Jenny E. Myers Tags: Review Source Type: research

Insulin pumps and diabetes technologies in pregnancy: an overview for the obstetrician
The use of technologies to support self-management of type 1 diabetes is growing, including in women pursuing pregnancy. Women with type 1 diabetes might use a variety of technologies to manage their diabetes before, during and after pregnancy. Innovations range from sensors that allow real-time monitoring of glucose to insulin pump therapy and to even more sophisticated technologies used by a smaller number of pioneers. Using these technologies during pregnancy requires a working knowledge of some key principles to ensure the safety of the woman and the best possible outcome for her and the baby. (Source: Obstetrics, Gyna...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 21, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Thomas SJ. Crabtree, Anastasios Gazis Tags: Ethics/Education Source Type: research

Modern management of fibroids
Fibroids are uterine smooth muscle tumours which are commonly found. They can vary in their number, location and size. Depending on the location and the size fibroids can be symptomatic. Symptoms can be menstrual dysfunction, pressure or subfertility. The treatment strategies will depend on the patient's characteristics, of which the most important is the wish to preserve the uterus. In this review all treatment modalities will be discussed with their risks. Clinicians need to be aware of the very rare risk of these benign tumours developing into malignancy. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 18, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Miriam N. Baumgarten, Lukasz T. Polanski Tags: Review Source Type: research

Self assessment questions
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 7, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Norman Shreeve Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - February 1, 2020 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Mechanisms and management of normal labour
Normal labour is a complex process involving hormonal, biochemical and mechanical interdependence. There are four phases of parturition: quiescence, activation, stimulation and involution. These reflect the transition from the maintenance of myometrial acontractility and cervical structural integrity, to progressive uterine contractions, cervical effacement and dilatation, delivery of the fetus and placenta, and recovery to the non-pregnant state. Whilst parturition is chiefly controlled by the oestrogen:progesterone ratio, multiple hormones such as prostaglandins, corticotropin-releasing hormone, oxytocin and relaxin play...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - January 18, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Jennifer M Thornton, Brendan Browne, Meenakshi Ramphul Tags: Review Source Type: research

Principles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy
The current management of all gynaecological malignancy requires complex multidisciplinary investigation and discussion, leading to multi-modality treatment. The delivery of systemic therapy or radiotherapy can have different aims depending on the type of cancer, clinical context and patient wishes. This review explores the systemic treatment options and radiotherapy that form part of the standard management of this group of tumours and looks at current research that may help shape the treatment of the future. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - January 13, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Sarah Smith, Sarah Prewett Tags: Review Source Type: research

Gestational diabetes
mellitus (GDM) is the commonest medical condition in pregnancy. It is associated with a range of maternal and infant complications including large-for-gestational-age, stillbirth, pre-term birth, shoulder dystocia, caesarean section, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Increasingly, longer-term metabolic risks are also being recognized for women who have GDM and their children. Because the relationship between maternal glucose and complications is linear, the appropriate thresholds for diagnosis and treatment remain controversial. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - January 13, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Zoe A. Stewart Tags: Review Source Type: research

Self assessment questions
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - January 13, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Norman Shreeve Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

In  vitro fertilisation
Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples. An etiological diagnosis is made to plan treatment. In a quarter no diagnosis can be established, hence a diagnosis of unexplained infertility is made. IF conception does not happen after an etiological diagnosis based treatment or unexplained infertility is diagnosed, in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is the treatment of choice. Over last 4 decades IVF processes have evolved. There are better tests to predict ovarian response and a number of stimulations regimen to choose from. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 30, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Abha Maheshwari Tags: Review Source Type: research

Advancing fetal therapy in the United Kingdom
Fetal therapy is a rapidly advancing sub-specialty, encompassing direct fetal treatment or the administration of substances to the mother to achieve fetal benefit. The goal of all fetal therapies is to improve the prognosis for a condition where there is evidence of pathology developing in utero. In this article we briefly examine all major types of fetal therapy and their current evidence. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 26, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Adalina Sacco, Anna L. David Tags: Ethics/education Source Type: research

Vaginal discharge
This article focuses on the three main causes of vaginal discharge in reproductive age women namely, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 23, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Vanishree L. Rao, Tahir Mahmood Tags: Review Source Type: research

Understanding perinatal mortality
This article explores the causes of perinatal mortality and the recent interventions and their impacts on reducing perinatal mortality. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 22, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Jess McMicking, Matias C Vieira, Dharmintra Pasupathy Tags: Review Source Type: research

The effect of cancer on reproductive health
The incidence of cancer and survival rates are increasing, as is the consequent impact on reproductive health. Delay in childbearing years is also an important factor. It is well documented that a significant number of cancer treatments are gonadotoxic. This can lead to fertility concerns and long term effects for both men and women. Fertility preservation should only take place if the patient is well enough, where there is time and if it will not worsen their oncological condition. In men, fertility preservation is a straightforward procedure, whereas in women it is more invasive, carries more risk and can significantly d...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 18, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Mariam Lokman, Cheryl Fitzgerald Tags: Review Source Type: research

Current challenges in pregnancy-related mortality
Pregnancy is a normal, healthy state that many women are desirous for. Sadly, this life-affirming process carries serious risks of death and disability for both mother and offspring. It is estimated that 830 women die from preventable pregnancy or pregnancy related complications each day. Almost all of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Reducing maternal mortality is an ongoing challenge, and care providers, researchers and policy makers must not only identify the key barriers to accessing quality health care, but commit to making maternal health a priority. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and ...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 12, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Charlotte Oyston, Philip N. Baker Tags: Review Source Type: research

Risk management in gynaecology
Healthcare providers are obliged to reduce the risk of harm to patients using their services. Robust risk management embraces a blame-free reporting culture and learning from clinical errors whilst adopting a proactive approach to the measurement of patient safety indicators. A good safety culture within an organization provides assurance to service users, staff, the public and other partner organisations, that there is commitment to the provision of high quality safe and effective care. Identification of risk and risk management is not simply the remit of designated individuals within hospitals but is everybody's responsi...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 9, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Cathrine Holland Tags: Review Source Type: research

Management of overactive bladder
Overactive bladder is a common and bothersome condition which has a major and measurable impact on sufferers' quality of life. The cardinal symptom of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, frequency and nocturia is thought to be caused by abnormalities in detrusor smooth muscle function and/or sensory pathways. A structured assessment approach is of importance, including a detailed history of symptoms, medical and drug history and lifestyle factors such as fluid intake. Conservative management revolves around the key principles of fluid modification, avoidance of potential triggers and bladder retraining. (Source:...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 7, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Maya Basu Tags: Review Source Type: research

Self assessment questions
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 6, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Norman Shreeve Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Medicolegal issues in gynaecology
Obstetrics and gynaecology is ranked the most litigious of all the medical specialties with 85% of clinicians in the specialty likely to face a malpractice suit by the age of 65. The defence organisations (NHS Litigation Authority, MDU, MPS etc) receive several thousand of claims per year but only 1 –2% ever reach court and most are settled in the pre-trial phase. In many instances cases are successfully defended (70%) however this may be after arduous legal procedures and lengthy discussion. The main reasons for successful litigation relate to accountability, the need for an explanation, con cerns with standards of ...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - December 5, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Holly Vickers, Swati Jha Tags: Review Source Type: research

Operative vaginal birth
Operative Vaginal Birth (OVB) refers to the birth of a baby where the operator assists the delivery using either a forceps or vacuum device. The obstetrician in training needs to develop expertise in both vacuum and forceps for non-rotational delivery and at least one technique for rotational delivery. The aim of a successful operative vaginal birth is to expedite delivery of the baby with a minimum of maternal or neonatal morbidity.The alternatives to operative vaginal birth are expectant management or caesarean section. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - November 21, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Oladayo Oduola, Niamh Garry, Deirdre J. Murphy Tags: Case-based learning Source Type: research

Fetal surgery for spina bifida
This article briefly examines the background, evidence, benefits and risks of fetal surgery for spina bifida. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - November 16, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Adalina Sacco, Dominic N.P. Thompson, Fred Ushakov, Anna L. David, Jan Deprest Tags: Ethics/education Source Type: research

Self assessment questions
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Catherine Aiken Tags: Self-Assessment Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - November 14, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Induction of labour
describes the artificial stimulation of the onset of labour and occurs in up to 20% of pregnancies in the United Kingdom. Both mechanical and pharmacological methods of induction of labour exist. In the vast majority of women, the recommended method of induction of labour is by the use of vaginal prostaglandin E2. Induction of labour is associated with less maternal satisfaction and potentially increased rates of instrumental delivery and caesarean section compared with spontaneous vaginal delivery. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - November 3, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Roisin M. Ryan, Fergus P. McCarthy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - November 1, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Abdominal pain in late pregnancy
is a common presentation and can pose a diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. An acute abdomen affects 1 in 500 pregnancies with approximately 0.5% –2% of pregnant women needing surgical interventions in pregnancy. The majority of acute abdominal complaints will present in a similar manner to the non-pregnant patient, however the anatomical and physiological changes of pregnancy can complicate the diagnosis and management options. Appendiciti s remains the most common cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - October 24, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Chioma Chilaka, Kate F. Walker Tags: Review Source Type: research

Intimate partner violence and women's reproductive health
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among women. An estimated 30% of all women globally report having experienced physical or sexual violence by a husband, intimate partner or ex-partner. It is important for those working in reproductive health settings to be aware that sexual assault can occur in the context of relationships. IPV can also include reproductive and sexual coercion. Reproductive coercion includes behaviours that interfere with contraception use and/or pregnancy, while sexual coercion includes behaviours related to pressuring or coercing a person to have sex without using physical force. (Source: Obstet...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - October 9, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Janet Fanslow, Michelle R Wise, Joy Marriott Tags: Review Source Type: research

Outcomes from extremely preterm births
Extremely preterm birth is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Survival has improved in recent years with 29% of babies admitted for neonatal care at 23 weeks' gestation now surviving to 3 years, increasing to 78% at 26 weeks' gestation. Neurodevelopmental impairment and physical problems do however cause short and long term morbidity in survivors. Risk-lowering strategies which substantially improve outcomes include in utero transfer to a level three centre, antenatal provision of magnesium sulphate and antenatal provision of steroids. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - October 5, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Jane Lawson, Tamanna Williams Tags: Ethics/education Source Type: research

The management of perimenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding
Abnormal uterine bleeding around the time of the menopause is common and may be a sign of premalignancy such as endometrial hyperplasia or even endometrial carcinoma. All such women therefore need uterine assessment, which may include transvaginal scan combined with endometrial biopsy, hysteroscopy or a sonohysterogram. Having excluded (pre) cancer, treatment can then be offered. Medical treatment options include tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss, low-dose contraceptive pills, the levonorgestrel intra-uterine device and cyclic progestins. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - October 4, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: John Eden, Sheila O'Neill Tags: Case-based learning Source Type: research

Management of complications of mesh surgery
Polypropylene mesh (PPM) has been used in abdominal sacrocoplopexies since the 1990's however following a patient led campaign controversy surrounds its use incontinence procedures, midurethral slings (MUS) and vaginal mesh prolapse repairs. The complication rates following mesh surgery may be as high as 10%. NHS England paused the vaginal insertion of polypropylene mesh in July 2018 pending a review by Baroness Cumberledge. This review will outline the assessment and basic management of complications of polypropylene mesh. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 30, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Sonika Misra, Veenu Tyagi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 20, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Neurological disease in pregnancy
Neurological disease encompasses a broad spectrum of conditions which may be affected by pregnancy, present de novo in pregnancy, or are caused by the pregnancy itself. In the UK, 9.8 women in 100,000 died during pregnancy or up to 42 days after delivery (Mothers and Babies Reducing Risk through Confidential Enquiry (MBRRACE) report 2018). Neurological diseases, including epilepsy and stroke, continues to be the second leading indirect cause of maternal mortality and the numbers have not changed since reporting began in 1985, despite the availability of easily accessible Green-top Guidelines on the management of epilepsy t...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 17, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Felicity Coad, Catherine Nelson –Piercy Tags: Review Source Type: research

Menstrual dysfunction
This article reviews the most common causes of menstrual dysfunction using case histories for illustration. The conditions covered in this review include menstrual dysfunction around the time of menarche, ovulatory and anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polycystic ovarian syndrome, uterine fibroids and dysfunctional bleeding around the peri- menopause. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 16, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Montila Ghosh, Gail Busby Tags: Case-based learning Source Type: research

Endocrine disorders in pregnancy
are common. Good outcomes can be achieved with multi-disciplinary care in pregnancy. The primary objective of this review is to provide the reader with an overview of national guidelines and where applicable, recent advances with regard to care of women with endocrine disorders in pregnancy. We have outlined care for a broad range of conditions ranging from diabetes and thyroid disorders, to the rarer conditions such as phaeochromocytoma. In addition to the reading list below, we would encourage the reader to keep up to date with reports from the United Kingdom Obstetric Surveillance Service (UKOSS) which studies a range ...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 11, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Hsu Phern Chong, Halimah Alazzani, Kristien Boelaert Tags: Review Source Type: research

Abortion in Ireland and Northern Ireland
Abortion rights are a controversial topic in Ireland and Northern Ireland, but since the historic Irish abortion referendum in May 2018, the two countries have had vastly different abortion laws. In this article, we provide an overview of the current laws and policies governing abortion rights in both Ireland and Northern Ireland, discuss the ways in which people access abortion in each setting, including both online telemedicine and the particular roles and challenges for healthcare providers, and consider the future trajectory of abortion rights and service provision. (Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 9, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Abigail RA. Aiken, Dana M. Johnson, Kathleen Broussard Tags: Ethics/education Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - September 1, 2019 Category: OBGYN Source Type: research

Self assessment questions
(Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine)
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Catherine Aiken Tags: Self-assessment Source Type: research

Medical and surgical management of chronic pelvic pain
Chronic pelvic pain is common and is estimated to affect over one million women in the UK. It may be a symptom of a number of different conditions and is often multifactorial in nature, caused by a combination of physical, psychological and social factors. For many women, a primary cause cannot be identified. This can make  both diagnosis and management difficult. Gynaecological causes of chronic pelvic pain include endometriosis, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and adhesions. The gynaecologist must also consider non-gynaecological causes of pain related to the gastrointestinal, urinary, neurological, musculoskel ...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - August 13, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Dominique E. Baker, Lydia R. Simpson Tags: Review Source Type: research

Dysmenorrhoea
is a medical condition characterised by severe uterine pain during menstruation manifesting as cyclical lower abdominal pain. It is commonly classified into primary dysmenorrhoea in the absence of co-existent pathology and secondary dysmenorrhoea when there is an identifiable pathological condition. About 40 –70% of women of reproductive age suffer with dysmenorrhoea along with its associated psychological, physical, behavioural and social distress. The exact pathophysiological processes are not fully understood but it probably reflects increased myometrial activity induced by an excessive production of prostaglandi...
Source: Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine - July 26, 2019 Category: OBGYN Authors: Akshatha Kulkarni, Shilpa Deb Tags: Review Source Type: research