PCSK9 modulates phenotype, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB
Introduction: Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) represents the most recent pharmacological target for the treatment of severe hypercholesterolemia, due to its action on hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) [1, 2]. Secreted PCSK9 derives mainly from the liver, but other tissues, such as intestine, pancreas, kidney and brain express PCSK9 at significant levels [3]. PCSK9 is also found in Smooth Muscle Cells (SMC) present in human atherosclerotic plaques [4]. In addition, the absence of PCSK9 determines a partial protection to neointimal formation in response to perivascular manipulation in mice...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: S. Marchian ò, A.L. Catapano, A. Corsini, N. Ferri Source Type: research

Correlation between carotid atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease: A retrospective study of 1067 patients
Background and aim: Several studies have shown that the risk of cardiovascular events is higher in subjects with ultrasound evidence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of carotid atherosclerosis evaluated by Doppler ultrasound with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with typical chest pain undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography during hospitalization. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: D. Migliorino, A. Mignano, S. Evola, G. Polizzi, G. Novo, E. Corrado, S. Novo Source Type: research

Sleeve-gastrectomy efficacy on metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction with a focus on the role of comorbidities
Background and aims: Little is known about pathogenesis of sleeve-gastrectomy (SG) benefits. The endpoints of our study were to evaluate the effect of SG on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters on the basis of weight loss, visceral fat area (VFA) and HOMA decrease, and to study the influence of comorbidities (diabetes/hypertension). (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: S. Ministrini, M.A. Ricci, S. De Vuono, M. Camilli, F. Di Filippo, A. Gentili, G. Daviddi, F. Rondelli, M. Boni, G. Lupattelli Source Type: research

Effects of diabetes mellitus on myelin lipid profile in the rat cerebral cortex
Introduction: Due to the emerging association of diabetes with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative events, the evaluation of the effects of this pathology on the brain function has now a high priority in biomedical research. In particular, the effects of diabetes on myelin compartment have been poorly taken into consideration. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: N. Mitro, G. Cermenati, M. Audano, S. Giatti, M. Pesaresi, R. Spezzano, R.C. Melcangi, D. Caruso Source Type: research

The epidemiological method in health management: Strategies of prescriptive appropriateness and prevention in the diagnosis and treatment for cardiovascular disease pathways in hospital
The regulatory statement of prescriptive autonomy (Article 3, c 2 l 94 ∖98) can not constitute recognition of the patient's right to the provision of medicines reimbursed by the NHS unless specifically provided. Primary objective of European national health systems is to provide pharmaceutical care of good quality at sustainable costs for public spending. In the last 20-30 years the increase in pharmaceutical supply rates were higher than the growth rates of PIL. The strategies for prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the hospital setting provide setting process and outcomes focus. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: E. Montella, G. d'Onofrio, R. Egidio, A. Barbarino, T. de Pascale, P. Cuccaro, D. Schiavone, M. Triassi, F. Rubba Source Type: research

Statins and risk of new-onset diabetes: A meta-analysis of observational studies
Background: Several previous meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating the association between incidence of diabetes and statin use showed an increased risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD) from 9% to 13% associated with statins. However, short follow-up period, unpowered sample size, and lack of pre-specified diagnostic criteria for diabetes detection could be responsible of an underestimation of this risk. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: F. Mozzanica, M. Casula, L. Scotti, A. Pirillo, E. Tragni, G. Corrao, A.L. Catapano Source Type: research

Interaction of LCAT and apoA-I on lipid metabolism in human LCAT x human apoA-I double transgenic mice
Aim: Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the esterification of free cholesterol in plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) but its role in atherosclerosis has not been clearly established. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: A. Ossoli, B. Vaisman, S. Gordon, M. Amar, A. Zarzour, L. Calabresi, A.T. Remaley Source Type: research

Treatment with lomitapide in homozygous hypercholesterolemia: A case report
Background: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH), an inherited lipid disorder due to genes mutations involved in cholesterol metabolism, is characterized by accelerated and premature atherosclerosis. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: C. Pagano, G. Marotta, I. Calcaterra, M. Tripaldella, F. Jossa, G. Fortunato, M.D. Di Taranto, C. Giacobbe, M. Gentile, P. Rubba Source Type: research

Comparison between Mediterranean and Vegetarian diets for cardiovascular prevention: The cardiveg study
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Incidence and/or mortality from cardiovascular disease can be easily prevented with adequate changes in lifestyle. The optimal dietary strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases remains a challenging and a highly relevant preventive health issue. Several models of diet have been imposed on public attention, but those that got the most interest are certainly Mediterranean and Vegetarian diets. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: G. Pagliai, M. Dinu, A. Mangino, F. Cesari, B. Giusti, A.M. Gori, R. Marcucci, A. Casini, F. Sofi Source Type: research

Relationship between sleep pattern and efficacy of calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in overweight/obese subjects
Background: An adequate sleep pattern is essential to maintain a good health. Short sleep duration and/or poor sleep quality has been associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, as well as weight gain and obesity. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: G. Pagliai, M. Dinu, A. Casini, F. Sofi Source Type: research

Dysregulated expression of Ankyrin repeat domain 1 in the developing myocardium causes anomalous venous return and morphogenetic defects by impairing cardiac remodelling
Introduction: Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a severe congenital heart disease characterized by failure of pulmonary veins to connect exclusively to the left atrium. Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein (CARP), encoded by the Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) gene, is a mechanosensor protein, involved in physiological and pathological remodelling of myocardium. Recently, we have identified Ankrd1 as a candidate gene for TAPVR in isolated patients. Our reported TAPVR patients presented either increased Ankrd1 transcript levels or a missense T116M mutation, resulting in greater protein stability. (Source: Nutrit...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: C. Parolini, G.S. Ganzetti, S. Manzini, L. Monti, G. Chiesa, M. Busnelli, F. Dellera, I. Badi, M. Campione, F. Acquati Source Type: research

Cholesterol efflux capacity modulation by the nutraceutical compound “Oleactive®”
Aim: In the last decades, the use of nutraceutical compounds to support or replace medical therapies is spreading, due to fewer side effects, and more tolerability by patients compared to traditional drugs. Nutraceutical compounds may contribute to the qualitative and quantitative modulation of lipid and lipoprotein profile. HDL are the responsible of cholesterol efflux from the atherosclerotic plaque, through the interaction with cholesterol transporters expressed in macrophages composing the atheroma. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: A. Piemontese, S. Battista, C. Romain, F. Bernini, J. Cases, I. Zanotti Source Type: research

Phenotypic expression and genotype analysis of eleven patients with cholesteryl ester storage disease and identification of a novel lipa gene variant
Background: Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is a recessive disorder due to a defect of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) that hydrolyses cholesteryl esters and triglycerides derived from internalized apoB containing lipoproteins. The disease is characterized by a multi-organ involvement including liver, spleen, intestine and cardiovascular system inducing premature atherosclerosis. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: L. Pisciotta, G. Tozzi, Travaglini, R. Taurisano, T. Lucchi, G. Indolfi, F. Papadia, M. Di Rocco, L. D'Antiga, H. Michelakakisi, A. Garoufij, S. Bertolini, S. Calandra Source Type: research

Visceral fat evaluated by ultrasound is associated with insulin resistance and liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been regarded as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Insulin resistance is a hallmark of MetS and is considered to play a pivotal role in NAFLD progression. Visceral adiposity tissue (VAT) evaluated by TC has been reported to be independently associated with liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Ultrasonography (US) is an easy and safe technique able to detect steatosis and VAT. NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) has been proposed as a non-invasive tool for the assessment of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: L. Polimeni, F. Baratta, D. Pastori, M. Del Ben, F. Angelico Source Type: research

ANGPTL3 facilitates β-adrenergic-dependent lipolysis in adipocytes: Evidence from in vitro studies
Background: ANGPTL3 deficiency is associated with decreased plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA). The molecular mechanism underlying this effects remains unclear. The inter-prandial lipolysis of TG contained in adipose tissue is considered to be the major source of FFA. Therefore, we hypothesized that ANGPTL3 may play a role in modulating the β-adrenergic-dependent lipolysis in adipocytes. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: L. Polito, M. Arca Source Type: research

Anthropometric assessment and ultra-elasto-sonographic evaluation of liver steato-fibrosis in hypercholesterolemic patients on treatment
Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a condition often associated with other metabolic disorders, including liver steatosis (LS). Treatment of hypercholesterolemia includes the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors statins, while the nutraceutic monacolin K (equivalent to lovastatin low dose) and diet might confer additional benefits. LS might also improved upon treatment. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: P. Portincasa, O. de Bari, L. Bonfrate Source Type: research

Smoking status and Type D personality affect the clinical outcome in patients with recent myocardial infarction undergone to primary percutaneous coronary intervention
Background: Smoking cessation is correlated to several psychological, social, biological, and pharmacological aspects. It's important to identify differences concerning personality traits in order to increase chances to discontinue cigarette smoking. The combined tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression of these emotions is indicated as “Type D personality”, already known as an independent risk marker for worse clinical outcome in cardiac diseases. Despite this effect of Type D personality on cardiovascular diseases, it is still unclear whether this trait of personality may influen...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: S. Quartuccio, M. Vatrano, P. Rotella, C.O. Aragona, G. Trapani, A. Lo Gullo, E. Imbalzano, G. Mandraffino, A. Saitta Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of primary hypertriglyceridemias by next generation sequencing (NGS): Preliminary results and open questions
Objective: Molecular characterization of patients with severe primary hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) (plasma triglyceride> 10 mmol/L) with plasma accumulation of chylomicrons in the fasting state (familial chylomicronemia). This disorder may be due to mutations in genes involved in the lipolytic cascade, the process of hydrolysis of triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL mediated by Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL). (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: C. Rabacchi, E. Tenedini, I. Bernardis, M.L. Simone, E. Tagliafico, P. Tarugi Source Type: research

PCSK9 and resistin: Not only a structural sharing
Chronic inflammation is directly linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and obesity, where inflammatory cells infiltrate adipose tissue and release pro-inflammatory mediators, contributing to generate a state of chronic low-grade sub-clinical inflammation. Resistin is an adipokine, secreted primarily by monocytes and macrophages in humans and it interacts with adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1) receptor, with its carboxy-terminal region, leading to an increase of cAMP intracellular levels and, consequently, to the activation of NF-kB. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: C. Ricci, A. Corsini, M.R. Accomazzo, G. Rovati, M. Camera, L. Rossetti, N. Ferri Source Type: research

Determinants of low levels of brain natriuretic peptide in morbid obesity
Background& aims: Morbid obesity is associated with cardiovascular comorbidity. A noteworthy feature of this relationship could regard low levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). The study investigates the relationship between BNP and obesity-related markers in a morbid obese population, along with echocardiographic and vascular parameters. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: M.A. Ricci, S. De Vuono, G. Pucci, F. Di Filippo, S. Berisha, A. Gentili, G. Daviddi, S. Ministrini, F. Rondelli, M. Boni, G. Lupattelli Source Type: research

Coronary artery disease and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9: A new platelet activator
Introduction: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) plays a role in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) homeostasis, increasing hepatic degradation of LDL receptor (LDLR), thus leading to an increase in LDLC levels. Levels of PCSK9 predict recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with stable angina (SA) even in those with well-controlled LDL-C level. Experimental studies have suggested that PCSK9 contribution to cardiovascular events might be mediated by mechanisms occurring via LDL-dependent and LDL-independent pathways, but the understanding of these pathways is limited. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolis...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: L. Rossetti, N. Ferri, C. Ricci, B. Canciani, D. Trabattoni, F. Santilli, G. Dav ì, E. Tremoli, M. Camera Source Type: research

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines regulate PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells
Background and aim: Clinical, genetic and experimental evidence indicates that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) may be either a cause or an effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We have recently demonstrated that PCSK9 is regulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF- α in a SOCS3-dependent manner (Ruscica et al., JBC, 2016). Thus, the present work aimed to further extend this observation and studied the possible molecular mechanisms linking the effects of cytokines (TNF-α) and adipokines (leptin and resistin) on de novo lipogenesis and PCSK9 expression. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovas...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: M. Ruscica, M. Botta, M. Garzone, C. Macchi, S. Marchiano, A. Corsini, P. Magni, N. Ferri Source Type: research

Effect of soy on metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the commonest cause of death worldwide. Different strategies for their primary prevention have been planned, taking into account the main known risk factors, which include an atherogenic lipid profile and visceral fat excess. Functional foods and nutraceuticals have been assessed in several clinical studies and meta-analytical have indicated these as effective approaches for the management of primary CVD risk in the MetS. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: M. Ruscica, C. Pavanello, S. Gandini, M. Gomaraschi, C. Vitali, C. Macchi, G. Aiello, R. Bosisio, L. Calabresi, A. Arnoldi, C.R. Sirtori, P. Magni Source Type: research

Usefulness of the Dutch lipid score to drive genetic testing in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The Verona experience in the lipigen study
Background: Heterozigous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is a genetically determined disease (1:250 estimated prevalence in the general population) characterized by high LDL-cholesterol levels and an increased risk of early-onset cardiovascular diseases (CVD). (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: V. Sanga, A. Altomari, M. Casula, K. Garlaschelli, A.L. Catapano, G. Ceradini, E. Bonora, M. Dauriz, M.G. Zenti Source Type: research

A case of “anaphylactic like” reaction during LDL apheresis: A pathophysiological hypothesis on white wine containing metabisulphite
This report regards a 60-year-old man affected by heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia associated with high levels of lipoprotein (a), coronary and polidistrectual atherosclerotic disease. Patient has been treated with Atorvastatin 20 mg OD and LDL-apheresis (Heparin mediated LDL precipitation system every 2 weeks treating 4000 ml of plasma for session) for eight years. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: F. Sbrana, G. Cardinali, B. Dal Pino, F. Bigazzi, L. Sabatino, M. Pianelli, R. Luciani, T. Sampietro Source Type: research

Role of the cycle ergometer stress test in chest pain with low-intermediate risk
Aim of the study: Chest pain is one of the main reasons of admission to the Emergency Department. The aim of the study is to analyse the short-medium term diagnostic and predictive value of the cycle ergometer stress test for major adverse cardiac events in the evaluation of chest pain in subjects with low-intermediate risk of ACS that were admitted in Clinica Medica 1 (CM1). Moreover, to identify clinical features in this population in order to find cardiovascular risk factors that may affect test's sensibility and specificity. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: P. Scarinzi, C. Panzavolta, M. Biolo, L. Benvegn ù, A. Saller, S. Bertocco, S. Zambon, F. Fabris, E. Manzato, A. Zambon, L. Previato Source Type: research

HbA1c increase is associated with higher coronary and peripheral atherosclerotic burden in non diabetic patients
Background and aims: Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular (CV) risk profile of nondiabetic patients with and without prediabetes according to HbA1c using macroangiopathic imaging biomarkers. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: R. Scicali, A. Di Pino, A. Gallo, D. Rosenbaum, A.M. Rabuazzo, P. Giral, E. Bruckert, F. Purrello Source Type: research

Role of Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA thrombolysis: The magic study
Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a member of phospholipase A2 proteins family that plays a key role in the metabolism of pro-inflammatory phospholipids, as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and in the generation of pro-atherogenic metabolites, including lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids which may affect vessel walls. Several studies have demonstrated that LpPlA2 is an independent risk marker for ischemic stroke. However, scarce data exist in IS patients treated with tPA. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: A. Sereni, A.M. Gori, B. Giusti, B. Piccardi, P. Tonelli, E. Innocenti, P. Nencini, M. Nesi, V. Palumbo, G. Pracucci, R. Abbate, D. Inzitari Source Type: research

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 circulating levels in the general population of the Montignoso Study
Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a member of phospholipase A2 proteins family that plays a key role in the metabolism of pro-inflammatory phospholipids, as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and in the generation of pro-atherogenic metabolites, including glysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized free fatty acids which may affect vessel walls. Several studies have demonstrated that LpPlA2 is an independent risk marker for cardiovascular disease. However, few data about the relationship between LpPlA2, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and calcium score exist in the general population. (Source: Nutrition, Meta...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: A. Sereni, A.M. Gori, A. Kura, R. Marcucci, B. Giusti, F. Sofi, D. Chiappino, D. Della Latta, R. Abbate, G.F. Gensini Source Type: research

Differences in cardiovascular risk factors between men and women in the Acute Coronary Syndromes
We investigated the different control of cardiovascular risk factors such as total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio and Lp (a) at the onset of atherosclerotic disease in male and females. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: F. Simonelli, S. Abbolito, C. Miotti, E. Mencarelli, S. Burocchi, V. Presta, G. Gallo, G. Salerno, M. Volpe, L. De Biase Source Type: research

Investigation of barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in primary cardiovascular prevention
Background: The prevalence of sedentarism is increasing in Italy (PASSI data: from 29% in 2008 to 34% in 2015) and is higher in immigrants and in people with low educational level and/or socio-economic status. The identification of barriers to and facilitators of physical activity (PA) could aid to adopt personalized strategies of intervention. This information may be obtained through Motivational Interviewing (MI), a collaborative style of human interaction aimed to motivate and to elicit commitment toward positive changes in personal behavior. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: N. Simonelli, A. Gorini, M. Giroli, M. Amato, L. Vigo, E. Tremoli, J.P. Werba Source Type: research

Causative mutations and premature cardiovascular disease in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia
Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common lipid disorder, caused by mutations affecting the clearance of LDL cholesterol. FH patients have elevated LDL cholesterol and if untreated develop premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Young adults, attending our Lipid Clinic, with LDL> 190mg/dL, after excluding Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia, were included in the study. Search for causative mutations, MedPed/WHO score and non-invasive ultrasound examination of carotid arteries were performed. Among the 225 patients there were 179 with LDLR mutations, 2 with apo B gene Mutations, 1 PCSK9 gene mutation, and 43 patients w...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: M. Sodano, M. Gentile, F. Jossa, G. Marotta, G. Fortunato, M.D. Di Taranto, C. Giacobbe, A. Iannuzzi, G. Covetti, G. Chiariello, P. Rubba Source Type: research

Identification of a novel LMF1 nonsense mutation responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia by targeted next-generation sequencing
Background: Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) may result from mutations in genes affecting the intravascular lipolysis of triglyceride rich lipoproteins. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: R. Spina, A.B. Cefalu', D. Noto, V. Ingrassia, V. Valenti, A. Giammanco, F. Fayer, G. Misiano, C. Scrimali, G.I. Altieri, A. Ganci, C.M. Barbagallo, M.R. Averna Source Type: research

Bicuspid aortic valve and Lipoprotein (a)
Background: In bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most frequent congenital cardiopathy, the presence of calcification and stenosis (SAo) predicts a worse prognosis. In our study, we investigated the association between Lp(a) levels, kringle IV type 2 (KIV2) repeat number polymorphism, and the presence of calcification in BAV patients. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: E. Sticchi, A. Cordisco, B. Giusti, S. Nistri, A. Sereni, R. De Cario, R. Di Carlo, A. Kura, A.M. Gori, M.G. D'Alfonso, V. Mecarocci, N. Marchionni, G. Pepe, F. Mori, R. Marcucci Source Type: research

Relationships between arterial stiffness and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women
Background: Although osteoporosis and Cardiovascular disease have always been considered as separate entities, there is accumulated evidence that they have several pathological mechanisms in common. However, little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between arterial stiffness and bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: A. Tafa, A. Giambelluca, C. Caffarelli, C. Pondrelli, S. Cappelli, S. Gonnelli Source Type: research

Metabolomics by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance identifies patients with high risk of death within two years after a cardiovascular event: The case of the amiflorence II study
Background: Risk stratification and management of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is challenging. Aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of metabolomics in the prognostic stratification of ACS patients. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: L. Tenori, B. Giusti, A. Vignoli, A.M. Gori, C. Luchinat, E. Grifoni, A. Barchielli, D. Balzi, N. Marchionni, R. Marcucci Source Type: research

Use of evolocumab in a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia
Introduction: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a rare (1:160.000-360.000) but serious disorder with a substantial reduction in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) function, severely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), cardiovascular disease, and often death in early decades of life. Response to conventional lipid-lowering agents is modest. Novel monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) have shown ability to substantially reduce LDL-C in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: C. Trenti, E.A. Negri, M.C. Leone, A. Muoio, D. Galimberti, T.A. Pertinhez, D. Farioli, N. Romano, R. Baricchi, L. Vecchia, C. Rabacchi, S. Calandra, T. Fasano Source Type: research

Association between Lp (a) and small dense LDL in menopausal women without Metabolic Syndrome
The association between Lipoprotein (a) (Lp [a]) and small dense LDL (sd-LDL) has been evaluated in 129 menopausal women, without Metabolic Syndrome (MS), living in the area of Naples (Italy) participating to a large (N=5.062) epidemiological Study from 1993 (Progetto Atena). Lp (a) was measured by an ELISA, solid phase two-site enzyme immunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies raised against purified Lp(a) (Mercodia Diagnostics, Uppsala, Sweden), LDL particle separation was performed by Lipoprint System: seven LDL subfractions were obtained and LDL score (% of sd-LDL particles) calculated. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, an...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: M. Tripaldella, M. Gentile, F. Jossa, G. Marotta, G. Iannuzzo, A. Buonaiuto, E.L. Fata, S. Panico, A. Mattiello, P. Rubba Source Type: research

The PREDIMED score: Index of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the general population: the PLIC study
Introduction: Interventional randomized studies have demonstrated the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and a reduced risk of cardiovascular events. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: C. Visinoni, L. Redaelli, A. Baragetti, K. Garlaschelli, L. Grigore, G.D. Norata, A.L. Catapano Source Type: research

Familial hypercholesterolemia: Development of a research and diagnostic approach to the disease
Background: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) due to life-long elevated plasma LDL cholesterol levels. FH is caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes found in 80%, 5%, and 1%, respectively, of FH subjects. However, many subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia did not demonstrate functional mutations in any of these genes. In a substantial proportion of FH patients without a known mutation, their high LDL-C concentrations might have a polygenic cause. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: A. Volta, E. Sticchi, A.M. Gori, E. Grifoni, R. Marcucci, B. Giusti Source Type: research

Risk awareness in ProSALUTE, a new community program for cardiovascular health in Milan, Italy
Background: Awareness of the own cardiovascular (CV) risk is a prerequisite to follow preventive actions. Risk awareness requires health literacy and self-knowledge, and both depend on many context-specific factors. ProSALUTE is an experimental CV health program for the medium/low-income and multi-ethnic community of the Ponte Lambro district, Milan, Italy (n=3600 adults). CV risk domains are assessed through an assisted questionnaire and objective anthropometric and laboratory measures are obtained to estimate CV risk and to propose personalized interventions. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: J.P. Werba, M. Giroli, N. Simonelli, L. Vigo, M. Amato, A. Gorini, A. Bonomi, F. Veglia, E. Tremoli Source Type: research

Early adopters of a free-access primary cardiovascular prevention program in a multiethnic community in North Italy
Background: Primary cardiovascular prevention programs (PPP) may be more effective by addressing disadvantaged people. Yet, their participation in PPP is low. Shift to multi-ethnicity and deprivation in populations call for inclusive strategies to reduce CVD. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: J.P. Werba, L. Vigo, A. Bonomi, N. Simonelli, M.G. Giroli, M. Amato, A. Gorini, F. Veglia, E. Tremoli Source Type: research

ProSalute: A new community program for cardiovascular health
The largest benefit of Community programs for cardiovascular health may be obtained by addressing high-risk, disadvantaged and traditionally hard-to-reach groups. Effective actions include health promotion, timely screening of modifiable risk factors, application of evidence-based targets and interventions, broad access to heart-friendly environments/facilities and dissemination of favorable social norms. Thus, community prevention is a multifaceted task that requires multidisciplinary collaboration. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: J.P. Werba, M. Giroli, N. Simonelli, L. Vigo, M. Amato, A. Gorini, F. Veglia, E. Tremoli Source Type: research

Health system barriers and facilitators to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A systematic review
Background: Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is cost-effective, but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention of CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: J.P. Werba, S. Khandelwal, L. Nambiar, M. Saxena, V. Peck, M. Moniruzzaman, J. Rocha Faria Neto, K. Curi Quinto, D. Leong, A. Banerjee Source Type: research

Role of Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptor S1P3 in the reverse cholesterol transport
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) exerts multiple functions in the cardiovascular system with potential impact on atheroprotection. However, molecular mechanisms accounting for this effect are still under-investigated. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that the antiatherogenic activity of S1P is associated, at least in part, to the modulation of lipid metabolism. Core tool of this work is the mouse model modified to amplify S1P signaling over the receptor S1P3 in macrophages (S1P3-Lyz mice). (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: I. Zanotti, D. Greco, S. Battista, L.B. Giva, M.P. Adorni, G.D. Norata, M. Simoni, F. Bernini, J.R. Nofer, F. Pot ì Source Type: research

Case report: Evolocumab in association with lipoprotein apheresis improves lipid profile in a 49-years old woman with familial hypercholesterolemia and statin intolerance
A 49-years old woman, affected by HeFH, (mutation on LDLR gene: c.1646G>A exon 11; p.Gly528 Asp – aminoacid change) and statin intolerance characterized by myositis and rhabdomyolysis (in 2010 after initiation of atorvastatin), was admitted to the outpatient Lipid Clinic of Verona. She was also affected by Cogan's Syndrome and ostheoporosis. Hypercholesterolemia was diagnosed in her adolesce nce, and, in the absence of specific lipid lowering therapy, the plasma lipid levels were: total cholesterol=522 mg/dL, LDL-C=434 mg/dL, HDL-C=84 mg/dL, triglycerides=120 mg/dL, Lp(a)=11 mg/dL. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, ...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Authors: M.G. Zenti, A. Altomari, V. Sanga, G. Ceradini, A. Fabris, A. Lupo, M. Dauriz, E. Bonora Source Type: research

The 30th National Congress of the Societ à Italiana per lo Studio dell'Arteriosclerosi
The 30th National Congress of the Societ à Italiana per lo Studio dell'Arteriosclerosi was held in Rome on November 20–22 2016, gathering numerous physician and researchers that operate in the field of cardiovascular prevention across the national territory. In this way, as is customary, the Congress mixed both clinical and basic resear ch focusing on many themes of current interest in the scientific society and, therefore, represented a success with regards to their scientific degree. New advancements in different fields were discussed, by integrating physio-pathological and genetic aspects with translational...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Tags: Conference Report Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Professor Giuseppe Schillaci
The premature departure of Prof. Giuseppe Schillaci on December 21st 2016 at the age of 55 years was a tremendous shock for science in both the national and international communities. (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - January 1, 2017 Category: Nutrition Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

Serum uric acid is not independently associated with plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone in hypertensive adults
In experimental investigations conducted in rats, raising serum uric acid (SUA) levels resulted in stimulation of intrarenal renin expression. Studies in humans exploring the association of SUA with plasma renin activity (PRA) yielded conflicting results. Moreover, little is known about the relationship of SUA with plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC). (Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD)
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD - December 27, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Giuseppe Mul è, Antonella Castiglia, Massimiliano Morreale, Giulio Geraci, Claudia Cusumano, Laura Guarino, Dario Altieri, Marcella Panzica, Francesco Vaccaro, Santina Cottone Source Type: research