Considerations for the Care of Transgender Individuals
Transgender individuals are at an increased risk of experiencing health inequalities, such as anxiety, depression, and HIV. It is important that providers and staff in the health care setting are prepared to care for this population to ensure best patient outcomes. An understanding of transgender terminology and the experience of gender dysphoria is key. In addition, a transinclusive environment should be created to reduce the likelihood of transgender-related discrimination. Developing an understanding of potential gender-affirming treatments and surgeries also optimizes patient care. Improving the quality care will reduc...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Brittany Abeln, Rene Love Source Type: research

A Brief Overview of Identification and Management of Opiate Use Disorder in the Primary Care Setting
This article offers a brief review geared toward primary care providers of the most critical aspects of the management of opiate use disorder, including screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment as well as medication-assisted treatment and the alarming trends and dangers of illicitly produced fentanyl. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Ian Thomas Source Type: research

Psychiatric Mental Health Issues Within Healthcare
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Rene Love Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Building Innovative Nurse Leaders at the Point of Care (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - November 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Concordant Actions in Suicide Assessment Model
This article offers an alternative conceptualization from which a health care provider can consider and respond to client-based suicidal ideation and behavior. Pragmatically explored through the prism of locus of control, Rogerian psychotherapy principles, Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations, and the work of Kay Redfield Jamison, the Concordant Actions in Suicide Assessment (CASA) model frames clinical decision making along a continuum defined by concordant and state-based action. Therein, cognitive reframes are offered to illustrate how to apply the CASA model in clinical practice. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 14, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Sean P. Convoy, Richard J. Westphal, Dana W. Convoy Source Type: research

Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary Care
This article examines risk factors and treatment considerations in the United States for evidence-informed care, with a focus on affordable and readily accessible treatment in primary care settings. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Kathleen T. McCoy, Kirsten Pancione, Linda Sue Hammonds, Christine B. Costa Source Type: research

Delirium Superimposed on Dementia
Delirium superimposed on dementia is an acute medical illness that is difficult to diagnose because of the similarities of the symptoms to dementia. Delirium can contribute to the suffering of the patient as well as the family and caregiver. An initial holistic assessment of the patient is critical in establishing the cognitive baseline symptoms of delirium. Prevention of delirium can be assisted by ongoing reassessment of the patient for symptoms of delirium. The goal of treatment is to treat the underlying cause of the delirium. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Evelyn Parrish Source Type: research

Evidence-based Care of the Human Trafficking Patient
Human trafficking is the intentional exploitation of vulnerable individuals for the personal gain of the exploiter and is now recognized as an emerging public health care priority. Health care providers are well positioned to identify and assist trafficked individuals as well as those who may be at risk for exploitation. Trauma informed care is essential to identify victims and evaluate the impact of traumatic stress while highlighting survivors ’ strengths and supporting their resiliency. Human trafficking demographics, including mental and physical health problems, health considerations, risk factors, screening, im...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Christine B. Costa, Kathleen T. McCoy, Gayle J. Early, Cathleen M. Deckers Source Type: research

Military Service –Related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Finding a Way Home
This article explores the pathophysiology, identification, and treatment of military service –connected trauma-related and stressor-related disorders. Particular attention is given to trauma informed care, evidence-based practice recommendations, and the sequencing of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pursuit of optimal patient outcomes. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Pamela Herbig Wall, Sean P. Convoy, Connie J. Braybrook Source Type: research

Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care Settings
Although anxiety disorders are extremely prevalent in primary care settings, barriers such as a lack of knowledge, time constraints, and lack of common presentation can lead to misdiagnosis and ineffective treatment. Optimal treatment of anxiety disorders includes both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions. The purpose of this article is to assist primary care providers in quick identification of anxiety disorders so that proper treatment can be initiated and appropriate referrals can be made. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 10, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Ashley S. Love, Rene Love Source Type: research

Postpartum Depression
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects10% to 20% of women within the first year after birth and 25% beyond the first year. PPD, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, remains underdiagnosed and misunderstood. Women do not always display signs of PPD while in care for delivery of the infant and may not discuss mood changes to their primary care provider at discharge and first post-delivery appointment. Identifying screening and treatment options for non –mental health providers was the purpose of this article. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 10, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Sophia D. Falana, Jane M. Carrington Source Type: research

Compassion Fatigue in Advanced Practice Registered Nurses
Compassion fatigue (CF) can be detrimental to health care providers ’ mental and physical health, efficiency, and quality of patient care. Although many studies explore CF in physicians and nurses, there is currently limited published research regarding how advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) develop and address CF. APRNs may be at high risk for developing CF due to their work responsibilities, patient interaction, and personal characteristics. Because of its impact on health care providers, patients, and organizations, APRNs should be aware of the potential causes, symptoms, and negative effects of this phen...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 10, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Lindsay Bouchard Source Type: research

Implications of Antipsychotic Use
Antipsychotics can be life changing, but like all medications, they can also have unwanted effects, including drug-induced movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD). More patients are receiving antipsychotic treatment from non-psychiatry health care providers, including primary care and general practitioners. Despite misconceptions to the contrary, recent analyses suggest that the risk of drug-induced movement disorders such as TD has not been eliminated. Nurses across all care settings will increasingly encounter patients treated with antipsychotics. Nurses are critical for ensuring that patients exposed to antip...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 10, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Sattaria Dilks, Rose Mary Xavier, Crystal Kelly, Jessica Johnson Source Type: research

Developmental Issues and Mental Health
The trajectory of human development follows a predictable course of milestones. As genomic research has brought us more understanding of the brain, the etiology of mental illness is progressing from psychodynamic origins postulated by Freud in 1960 to organic pathways and epigenetic derivations. Humans develop on normal pathways that can be derailed by poverty, illness, and trauma. When infants begin life from a healthy perspective, conditions that may follow such as a mental disorder may be moderated by healthy starts. In this paper, selected developmental theories and mental disorders are presented; then their interface ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Elizabeth Bonham Source Type: research

Understanding Culture in Context
The impact of culture on health has gained considerable importance in care delivery. This review discusses the complex interaction of culture and social determinants, and the combined impact of these on emotional well-being. Examples of this interaction are presented and recommendations for change within nursing to improve care are discussed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Vicki Hines-Martin, Shaquita Starks, Carla Hermann, Montray Smith, Jade Montanez Chatman Source Type: research

Psychiatric Mental Health Issues Within Primary and Acute Care Settings
As the landscape in health care is changing, more patients are being seen by their primary care providers and in hospitals for psychiatric mental health disorders. This is due in part to an increase in demand for psychiatric mental health services. As stigma decreases around mental health disorders in combination with the lack of access to Psychiatric Mental Health providers, primary care and acute care providers are addressing these disorders in their practice setting. In addition, patients may also be more comfortable talking with their established providers about their mental health concerns. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 9, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Rene Love Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Psychiatric Disorders
Mental Health emerges to the forefront of everyone ’s mind when certain violent atrocities occur. In a feeble effort to logically explain horrible behaviors, mental health becomes a topic and is called to reconcile the illogical and perverse behaviors to logic. This holds not only for the violent outrages but also for many social struggles for whi ch there is no easy comprehension. Among those readily encountered include but are not limited to the “opioid epidemic,” homeless persons, and the myriad of violent behaviors readily conveyed in all forms of media. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - September 28, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Anticipating Changes for Depression Management in Primary Care
This article attempts to succinctly examine the evidence in identifying and treating this in the United States in an expedient, evidence-informed manner to assist those in need of have care that is patient centered, of high quality, affordable, and readily accessible across the lifespan. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - September 13, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Kathleen T. McCoy, Christine B. Costa, Kirsten Pancione, Linda Sue Hammonds Source Type: research

Transitions of Care for Patients with Neurological Diagnoses
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 20, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Sonja E. Stutzman Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 20, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 20, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 20, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Psychiatric Disorders (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 20, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Transitions of Care: A New Wave of Research for Patients with Neurologic Diagnoses
Transition is something that everyone experiences. Some transitions can be easy, smooth, and even exciting, like the transition to becoming a new parent or lessening the frequency of your doctor ’s appointments after being declared in a state of remission. Other transitions are scary, traumatic, or burdensome, like saying good-bye to a loved one, or going to a rehabilitation setting when you were hoping to go home. Whether it’s in a medical or nonmedical setting, support and “knowing what to expect” can ease the transition for all involved. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 27, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Sonja E. Stutzman Tags: Preface Source Type: research

I Think, Therefore I Am
When Descartes, the French philosopher and mathematician, first proposed this philosophical stance, his tenet was to provide a foundational stance in the face of radical doubt. In essence, it is an explanation of how we prove beyond a reasonable doubt that something exists. We use our senses of what we see, smell, and hear to provide evidence that something empirically exists. In order to do this, we place our beliefs under the examination of radical doubt. Rather than trying to prove anything beyond reasonable doubt, Descartes proposes that every belief that can be doubted, even beyond conventional reason, does not necess...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 27, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Understanding the Experience of Early Supported Discharge from the Perspective of Patients with Stroke and Their Carers and Health Care Providers
A systematic review of qualitative studies that examined the experience of early supported discharge (ESD) from the perspective of patients with stroke and their caregivers and health care providers revealed an emphasis on psychosocial aspects —the patient-provider relationship, the value of the home environment, and the ability to tailor treatment to meet patient-oriented goals. Patients, caregivers, and providers stressed the importance of clear and systematic communication throughout the ESD process to support transitions, prevent du plication of services, foster trust in relationships, and ensure that patients an...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 15, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Candice L. Osborne, Marsha Neville Source Type: research

The Transition Trajectory for the Patient with a Traumatic Brain Injury
The trajectory status of patients with mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury from emergency room evaluation, through acute care (intensive care if severe) and discharge is discussed. Additional considerations for elderly population and common complications associated with severe traumatic brain injury are also covered. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 15, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Ava M. Puccio, Maighdlin W. Anderson, Anita Fetzick Source Type: research

Transitions of Care for Patients with Neurologic Diagnoses Transition from the Intensive Care Unit to the Floor
Transition of care from the intensive care unit to acute care units after critical neurologic injury includes the consideration of a variety of factors to ensure safe and effective care, and promote ongoing neurologic recovery. Assessment of effectiveness of deescalation techniques, agitation management, and risk factor mitigation are important strategies to enhance the success of transitions. Clear and consistent interdisciplinary communication between teams during hand-off between units is imperative to decrease the risk of complications and errors, and to streamline discharge processes. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 12, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Molly McNett, Diane McLaughlin Source Type: research

The Projected Care Trajectory for Persons with Epilepsy
This article reviews key transitions for people with epilepsy and discusses strategies for improving these transitions. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 12, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Wendy R. Miller Source Type: research

The Hospital to Home Transition Following Acute Stroke
This article examines TOC interventions in stroke populations published after the 2011 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report. Early supported discharge is the leading TOC intervention. Diversity of outcome measures and use of poorly defined comparators limits generalizability. There is no clear best practice to define interventions targeted at the hospital to home transition. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 8, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: DaiWai M. Olson, Shannon B. Juengst Source Type: research

The Projected Transition Trajectory for Survivors and Carers of Patients Who Have Had a Stroke
Survivors of stroke require long-term follow-up with a focus on rehabilitation, prevention of depression and anxiety, and support for carer. Research is needed in many areas of poststroke care to identify interventions that may ameliorate the sequelae. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 8, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Norma D. McNair Source Type: research

Understanding Frontotemporal Disease Progression and Management Strategies
Dementia is defined as loss of intellectual functions, including thinking, remembering, and reasoning. Cognitive deficits are severe enough to interfere with an individual ’s daily functioning. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a result of degeneration of the frontal and/or temporal lobes of the brain. FTD is a leading cause of early-onset dementia in approximately 10% of dementia cases. FTD presents in the fourth and fifth decades as progressive changes in personali ty, affect, and behavior. The etiology of FTD is unknown; treatment focuses on behavioral and symptom management. Early recognition of FTD and knowledge ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 8, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Malissa Mulkey Source Type: research

An International Perspective of Transition of Neurological Disease
There are roughly 600 million people in the Latin America and the Caribbean region, of whom approximately 36% are living at or below the poverty line. According to this, neurologic injury disorders disproportionately affect this population, which faces not only most risk factors, but also has less developed health systems to deal with illness recovery. Further, most of the risk factors can be attributed to classic preventable cardiovascular risk factors, although there are important differences in demographics, socioeconomic status, and injury mechanisms that may influence the patient's outcome. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 8, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Stefany Ortega-Perez, Lorena Sanchez-Rubio, Roxana De las Salas, Juana Borja-Gonzalez Source Type: research

Time is Brain
This article provides an overview of strategies used to assist the ED care team in managing a smooth transition to the next level of care. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 6, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Meg Zomorodi, Megan A. Brissie Source Type: research

Activation to Arrival
The burden of neurologic disease in the United States continues to increase due to a growing older population, increased life expectancy, and improved mortality after cancer and cardiac disease. Emergency medical services (EMS) providers are responding to more patients with stroke, traumatic neurologic injury, neuromuscular weakness, seizure, and spontaneous cardiac arrest. Efficient prehospital care and triage to facilities with specialized services improve outcomes. Effective handoff from EMS to an emergency department ensures continuity of care and patient safety. Although advancements in prehospital cardiopulmonary res...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Christine Picinich, Lori Kennedy Madden, Kellie Brendle Source Type: research

Handoff from Operating Room to Intensive Care Unit
Handoff of patients from the operating room to the intensive care unit is a complex process. It involves 2 teams of caregivers, the physical relocation of the patient and monitoring equipment, and tight time constraints. Research and quality projects have focused on checklists and protocols to standardize handoff processes and content. Interventions also include requiring all team members be present, a team leader identified, and prehandoff communication. Outcome evaluation is limited by lack of standardized outcomes to define a good handoff. Instead, handoff content is often used as a proxy. Studies with larger sample siz...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Lori M. Rhudy Source Type: research

The Transition from the Hospital to an Inpatient Rehabilitation Setting for Neurologic Patients
Transitions of care from acute hospitalization to postacute rehabilitation settings evolved as a function of cost-saving changes to the Medicare Prospective Payment System. Restricted criteria for inpatient rehabilitation facility admission limited access for patients with severe physical and cognitive deficits. Once used as a resource-intense supplement to hospital care, skilled nursing facilities have metamorphosed into rehabilitation settings with limited nursing staff, lower intensity of therapies, and decreased community discharge rates. A collaborative approach to care transitions, using acute and postacute health ca...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Lalita R. Thompson, Nneka L. Ifejika Source Type: research

Seasonal Influenza (Flu)
Seasonal influenza, or flu, is an airborne respiratory virus that occurs every year in the fall to early spring in the United States. The virus is highly contagious and symptoms can run from mild to severe. In some populations (very young, individuals with chronic comorbid conditions, immunocompromised individuals of all ages, pregnant women, and frail older adults), the virus can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In a majority of cases, seasonal influenza is preventable through safe and readily available vaccinations. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Linda J. Keilman Source Type: research

Ancient History and New Frontiers: Infectious Diseases
As defined by the World Health Organization, “infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.”1 Zoonotic diseases are those that may be spread to humans by animals.1 The ongoing history, saga, of infec tious diseases is a long one. While the concept of infectious disease may be as old as humankind, the idea of what is infectious has changed, considerably, beginning with what was visually unacceptable and moving to what was foul-smelling, until the discovery of microorganism...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Randolph F.R. Rasch Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Examining Infectious Diseases Through a Social Epidemiologic Perspective
When considering infectious diseases, there are many statistics and many pieces of data to consider in relation to trends, incidence, outbreaks, prevention, and the advent of new disease pathogens, to name a few. One recent study by el Bcheraoui and Mokdad identifies that between 1980 and 2014, there were 4,081,546 deaths due to infectious diseases recorded in the United States.1 It was determined that, in 2014, 113,650 deaths, or a rate of 34.10 deaths per 100,000 persons, were the result of infectious diseases in the United States compared with a total of 72,220 deaths, or a rate of 41.95 deaths per 100,000 persons, in 1...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Infectious Diseases
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Randolph F.R. Rasch Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Transitions of Care for Patients with Neurological Diagnoses (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Zika Virus and Pregnancy Concerns
Understanding Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission and the risk of birth defects associated with infection during the childbearing years is imperative. Current knowledge helps guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts between health care providers and female patients of childbearing age. Providers must follow updated data and implement ongoing rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and diagnostic testing for ZIKV. Surveillance of infants with known, in utero ZIKV exposure or infection must be maintained to gain a broader understanding of potential defects or injuries that are not immediately obvious at birth and in...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 28, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Karen DeCocker Source Type: research

Tuberculosis
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is one of the greatest challenges facing the elimination of TB. In the United States, persons born outside the United States account for 70% of new TB cases. Nucleic acid amplification testing has greatly reduced the amount of time needed for diagnosis of TB, down to 1 to 2 days, compared with waiting 21 days for culture results. The shorter treatment regimen for latent TB infection with weekly isoniazid and rifabutin for 12 weeks provides treatment as effective as the traditional daily isoniazid for 6 months, but with better adherence from patients. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 28, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Ana M. Kelly Source Type: research