Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly occurring endocrine disorder characterized by hirsutism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Often comorbid with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity, it also carries significant risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Traditionally, the treatment of patients with PCOS has focused on relief of symptoms. Here, the criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS are reviewed with an emphasis on the stratification of subtypes by metabolic features. Then treatment options are reviewed according to the management go...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Renate K. Meier Source Type: research

Chest Pain
Noncardiac chest pain is an angina-type discomfort without indication of ischemia. Diagnosis can be difficult because of its heterogeneous nature. Classification varies by specialty; gastroenterology uses the terminology gastroesophageal reflux disease related versus non –gastroesophageal reflux disease related. Other disciplines recognize noncardiac chest pain etiologies as having gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, psychiatric, or pulmonary/other as underlying etiologies. Diagnostics yield a specific cause for effective treatment, which is aimed at the underlying etiology, but it is not always possible. Some patient...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Sharron Rushton, Margaret J. Carman Source Type: research

Malabsorption Syndromes
This article reviews common malabsorption disease processes of the small bowel and the resulting pathophysiology. Diagnostic studies, treatment, and prognosis of various conditions within the malabso rption disease state are discussed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ricketta Clark, Ragan Johnson Source Type: research

Those Conditions You May Not Be Expecting
Within our current health care environment, citizens are having increased access to health care and are seeking the expertise of primary care providers for preventative medicine and disease maintenance rather than delaying medical attention until acute care services are required. This shift in patient flow from urgent and emergency settings is increasing the need of the primary care provider not only to conduct comprehensive evaluations focused on wellness but also to assess conditions that may present with vague and unclear causes. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 25, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Benjamin A. Smallheer Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Urine Collection Methods in Children
Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants and young children. There are 5 collection methods commonly used to obtain a urine sample from an infant or small child: suprapubic aspiration, urethral catheterization, clean catch void, urine collection bag, and urine collection pad. Although invasive, suprapubic aspiration and urethral catheterization are less likely to cause contamination of the specimen. When deciding which method to use, providers must take into consideration the clinical presentation of a child as well as presenting and past medical history, while weighing benefits ver...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Olivia Windham May Source Type: research

Adolescent Confidentiality and Women ’s Health
This article reviews the history, current practices, and potential challenges to confidentiality, including Title X funding, questions about brain development and ability to make autonomous choices, and meaningful use practic es in electronic records. Resources are provided for professional position statements and individual state regulations. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Naomi A. Schapiro, Jayme Mejia Source Type: research

Integrating Optimal Screening, Intervention, and Referral for Postpartum Depression in Adolescents
This article provides evidence-based clinical best practices for the assessment and early recognition of postpartum depression, specifically in adolescents. In addition, suggestions for integration into practice and recommendations for interprofessional collaboration are discussed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Leigh Booth, Monika Wedgeworth, Adeline Turner Source Type: research

Sexuality and Intimacy in the Older Adult Woman
In the United States, people older than 65 attend approximately 248 million health care visits each year, or 7 visits per older adult annually. One in every 5 older adults reports recent sexual activity, yet health care professionals do not ask, and patients do not tell when it comes to sexuality. The desire to engage in sex and intimate behaviors to meet important quality-of-life needs is present in people of all ages. Because it is important to communicate in a nonjudgmental manner, health care professionals must first examine their own personal attitudes and values regarding sexuality in older women. (Source: Nursing Cl...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Alice L. March Source Type: research

Person-Centered Care for Patients with Pessaries
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting women of any age but more likely to occur in the aging woman. Prolapse has a significant impact on quality of life, sexuality, and body image. Vaginal support pessaries have been used since ancient times and are a safe and effective nonsurgical treatment option. Fitting a pessary results in immediate symptom improvement. A comprehensive evaluation for pessary fitting is time intensive but necessary. Nurse providers perform direct pessary care and have a role in caring for women with prolapse expanding access to care. Caregiver and family involvement is important for pes...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Gwendolyn L. Hooper Source Type: research

The Psychosocial and Clinical Well-Being of Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS
This study examined factors impacting the psychological well-being of women living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS and the impact of depression on clinical outcomes. Nearly two-thirds of participants in this cross-sectional study reported significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS without depressive symptoms, those with depression reported significantly poorer health outcomes. Health care providers should regularly screen these women for and adequately treat depression, and must collaborate with mental health providers and pastoral care counselors to address th...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Safiya George Dalmida, Kyle R. Kraemer, Stephen Ungvary, Elizabeth Di Valerio, Harold G. Koenig, Marcia McDonnell Holstad Source Type: research

Helping Mothers Reach Personal Breastfeeding Goals
This article focuses on the importance of prenatal messaging and goal setting to ensure that mothers are able to optimize their milk supply during the critical window of opportunity in first 2 we eks after delivery. Research data in the United States indicate that the largest categories of why women stopped breastfeeding were for reasons related to milk supply or concerns that the infant was not getting enough nutrition or gaining enough weight. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Diane L. Spatz Source Type: research

Common Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women
The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a significant public health issue in the United States. Social, economic, and behavioral implications affecting the spread of STIs have been identified. The most important social factor in the United States is the stigma associated with discussing sex and STI screening. In this article, specific recommendations for women are included regarding screening, diagnosing, and treating common vaginal and cervical infections. Screening women for infections of the vagina and cervix is essential because untreated infections may result in complications that have current and...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ashley L. Hodges, Aimee Chism Holland Source Type: research

Female Health Across the Lifespan
In the United States, more women than men seek health care each year. In 2015, 89.2% of women reported a visit to a health care professional within the past 12  months, as opposed to 77.8% of men.1 Before the age of 65 years, women also spend more on health care annually than men ($4673 vs $3835, respectively). Yet, after age 65, the numbers are reversed (women = $9859 vs men = $10,471).2 Even though women in the United States are seen more often and spen d more health care dollars, the health-spending efficiency by gender in the United States ranks 25th out of 27 high-income countries in reducing women’s death ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Alice L. March Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Female Health Across the Lifespan
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Alice L. March Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Alice L. March (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Syndromes in Organ Failure (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Preconception Care for the Patient and Family
This article offers a reflective and holistic perspective of how health care providers frame, prioritize, and engage with the patient and family during the preconception consultation. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 7, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Elizabeth Hall, Robingale Panepinto, Elizabeth Keeley Bowman Source Type: research

Menopause Symptom Management in the United Kingdom
This article covers the main presenting complaints and treatments, from lifestyle to hormone replacement therapy, by drawing on guidelines from national bodies. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Debra Holloway Source Type: research

Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a health epidemic. Health care professionals have a unique and critical role to play. It is expected that health care providers have the ability to engage in an informed response to IPV, which is crucial to the safety of the woman, improving health outcomes, and preventing further violence. Screening procedures for IPV, along with the awareness of abuse indicators, have the potential to significantly identify women who have been exposed to IPV. Identification of IPV will enable the health care provider to offer support, build trust, validate concerns, and offer community resources. (Sourc...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Anne McKibbin, Kathy Gill-Hopple Source Type: research

Health Care of Sexual Minority Women
Sexual minority women may be invisible in health care settings unless practitioners ask every patient about sexual attractions/behaviors and identity. Sexual minority women need to feel comfortable and able to share information about their sexual identity, partners, and lives. No medical diagnoses are found more commonly in sexual minority women, but problems such as overweight/obesity, increased tobacco and alcohol use, increased mental health problems, and a past history of childhood sexual abuse are common. These factors intertwine when treating sexual minority women. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Susan Jo Roberts Source Type: research

High-Risk Pregnancy
Any unexpected or unanticipated medical or obstetric condition associated with a pregnancy with an actual or potential hazard to the health or well-being of the mother or fetus is considered a high-risk pregnancy. There is no exact definition of risk in pregnancy, as risk may be perceived in different ways by the woman and her health care provider. Women with complicated pregnancies may require lifestyle changes, medication regimens, technical support, and even hospitalization. Nurses can foster an environment of security and trust during preconception, antenatal, intrapartal, and postnatal care to enhance the health and w...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Nola Holness Source Type: research

Menopause Symptom Management in the United Kingdom
This article covers the main presenting complaints and treatments, from lifestyle to hormone replacement therapy, by drawing on guidelines from national bodies. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Debra Holloway Source Type: research

Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a health epidemic. Health care professionals have a unique and critical role to play. It is expected that health care providers have the ability to engage in an informed response to IPV, which is crucial to the safety of the woman, improving health outcomes, and preventing further violence. Screening procedures for IPV, along with the awareness of abuse indicators, have the potential to significantly identify women who have been exposed to IPV. Identification of IPV will enable the health care provider to offer support, build trust, validate concerns, and offer community resources. (Sourc...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Anne McKibbin, Kathy Gill-Hopple Source Type: research

Health Care of Sexual Minority Women
Sexual minority women may be invisible in health care settings unless practitioners ask every patient about sexual attractions/behaviors and identity. Sexual minority women need to feel comfortable and able to share information about their sexual identity, partners, and lives. No medical diagnoses are found more commonly in sexual minority women, but problems such as overweight/obesity, increased tobacco and alcohol use, increased mental health problems, and a past history of childhood sexual abuse are common. These factors intertwine when treating sexual minority women. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Susan Jo Roberts Source Type: research

High-Risk Pregnancy
Any unexpected or unanticipated medical or obstetric condition associated with a pregnancy with an actual or potential hazard to the health or well-being of the mother or fetus is considered a high-risk pregnancy. There is no exact definition of risk in pregnancy, as risk may be perceived in different ways by the woman and her health care provider. Women with complicated pregnancies may require lifestyle changes, medication regimens, technical support, and even hospitalization. Nurses can foster an environment of security and trust during preconception, antenatal, intrapartal, and postnatal care to enhance the health and w...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Nola Holness Source Type: research

Management of Coinfections in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
In addition to chronic use of antiretrovirals to maintain suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many persons living with HIV are coinfected with tuberculosis, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. These coinfections can be successfully treated or managed alongside HIV infection. Clinicians should follow practice guidelines to appropriately screen patients with HIV for these coinfections and initiate treatment when necessary. The most significant concern when treating any of these coinfections is to avoid drug-drug interactions with the patient ’s antiretrovirals. Several excellent practice guidelines exist for tr...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Sabra S. Custer Source Type: research

The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Education, Support, and Services for Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Faith-based organizations are in a unique position to provide resilience-enhancing efforts for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Many persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS report having a strong faith or religious affiliation, with a large percentage attending church services on a regular basis. Faith-based organizations can use these factors to reach out to these individuals and effectively promote health, well-being, education, and support. Faith-based organizations can contribute to the reduction of stigma and isolation for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. (Sour...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Teresa M. Stephens Source Type: research

Substance Use Disorders in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS
Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS have a substantial burden of co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs); untreated alcohol and drug use disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS contribute to worse HIV care outcomes. SUDs are associated with key health behaviors and outcomes, including delays in seeking medical care, poor engagement in treatment, reduced adherence to medical treatment and antiretroviral therapy, immunosuppression, increased HIV transmission through risky sexual behaviors, and increased burdens on health care systems. HIV infection comorbid with SUD and a psychiatric disorder ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Priyanka Amin, Antoine Douaihy Source Type: research

A Therapeutic Perspective of Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in  2017
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS live a far different life today compared with those who were infected in the 1980s and 1990s. Antiretroviral therapy has evolved from a once poorly tolerated, heavy pill burden to the availability of many once-daily single-tablet regimens. The improvements in therapy have necessitated the need to be cognizant of comorbidities as well as drug-drug interactions. Despite the tremendous advances in therapy, newer therapies are in the pipeline and continue to emerge, making care for patients burdened by HIV perhaps easier than it has ever been. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: David B. Cluck, Roxanne F. Underwood Source Type: research

Management of Coinfections in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
In addition to chronic use of antiretrovirals to maintain suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many persons living with HIV are coinfected with tuberculosis, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C. These coinfections can be successfully treated or managed alongside HIV infection. Clinicians should follow practice guidelines to appropriately screen patients with HIV for these coinfections and initiate treatment when necessary. The most significant concern when treating any of these coinfections is to avoid drug-drug interactions with the patient ’s antiretrovirals. Several excellent practice guidelines exist for tr...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Sabra S. Custer Source Type: research

The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Education, Support, and Services for Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Faith-based organizations are in a unique position to provide resilience-enhancing efforts for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Many persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS report having a strong faith or religious affiliation, with a large percentage attending church services on a regular basis. Faith-based organizations can use these factors to reach out to these individuals and effectively promote health, well-being, education, and support. Faith-based organizations can contribute to the reduction of stigma and isolation for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. (Sour...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Teresa M. Stephens Source Type: research

Substance Use Disorders in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS
Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS have a substantial burden of co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs); untreated alcohol and drug use disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS contribute to worse HIV care outcomes. SUDs are associated with key health behaviors and outcomes, including delays in seeking medical care, poor engagement in treatment, reduced adherence to medical treatment and antiretroviral therapy, immunosuppression, increased HIV transmission through risky sexual behaviors, and increased burdens on health care systems. HIV infection comorbid with SUD and a psychiatric disorder ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Priyanka Amin, Antoine Douaihy Source Type: research

A Therapeutic Perspective of Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in  2017
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS live a far different life today compared with those who were infected in the 1980s and 1990s. Antiretroviral therapy has evolved from a once poorly tolerated, heavy pill burden to the availability of many once-daily single-tablet regimens. The improvements in therapy have necessitated the need to be cognizant of comorbidities as well as drug-drug interactions. Despite the tremendous advances in therapy, newer therapies are in the pipeline and continue to emerge, making care for patients burdened by HIV perhaps easier than it has ever been. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 9, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: David B. Cluck, Roxanne F. Underwood Source Type: research

Management of Lipids in Patients with Diabetes
This article examines the pathophysiology of abnormal lipids, the management of abnormal lipids, and the lipid goals for patients with diabetes. Lastly, this article discusses pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies and the role of primary care providers and nurses in the management of abnormal lipids. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Ngozi D. Mbue, John E. Mbue, Jane A. Anderson Source Type: research

Review of 2017 Diabetes Standards of Care
This article discusses the current diabetes screening, diagnostic criteria, and treatment recommendations for patients with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and prediabetes. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Kate Crawford Source Type: research

Glucose Regulation
Nursing plays an important role in the care and education of the patient with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a costly chronic disease affecting millions worldwide. The cost of diabetes is measured not only in terms of money but also in terms of acute and chronic diabetes-related complications, and quality and quantity of life. Diabetes not only affects the patient, but also affects the patient ’s significant others. Diabetes is largely a self-managed disease; therefore, the patient must learn how to correctly perform self-care. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Celia Levesque Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Diabetes: A Health Threat on the Rise
The content in this issue provides nurses with an essential “handbook” on glucose regulation and diabetes. The prevalence and predicted growth of diabetes are well supported. Currently, diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide, and the incidence among adults in the United States continues to grow. There is clear evidence that the incidenc e of diabetes will continue to grow worldwide. Along with the disease itself, the associated health burden is expected to grow substantially as well. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Glucose Regulation
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Celia Levesque Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Positive Living with HIV/AIDS (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 26, 2017 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Management of Type 1 Diabetes
Comprehensive type 1 diabetes management requires understanding of the pathophysiology of disease and the ability to contrast this process with type 2 diabetes. Nurses are often the first contact with patients and must be aware of the advancements in detection, therapies, and signs of complications in these patients. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for glycemic complications caused by potentially preventable errors in medication administration, which can be mitigated with appropriate education. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 6, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Anne Kay Brinkman Source Type: research

The How-To for Type 2
This article presents an overview of type 2 diabetes diagnosis and management. A brief discussion of epidemiology, including incidence, prevalence, and etiology, provides the basis for the importance of the discussion. The review then proceeds to outline diagnostic criteria and follow-up monitoring guidelines. Recommendations for evidence-based lifestyle measures and current pharmacologic options are addressed. A priority on individualized, holistic care with patient-specified goals and the management of comorbidities is emphasized. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 6, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Seliece Dodds Source Type: research

Noninsulin Diabetes Medications
Pharmacotherapy for diabetes has changed greatly owing to drugs and drug classes available. There are 11 classes of noninsulin diabetes medications available in the United States. With the use of 1 drug alone or in combination with different drugs, it is possible to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Important properties of antidiabetic agents play a role in the choice of that particular medication for individual patients. Prescribing a diabetes medication regimen is based careful assessment of patient needs, and consideration of the medication ’s efficacy, impact on weight, hypoglycemia risk, potent...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 6, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Sigi Varghese Source Type: research

Insulin Therapy
Since its development, insulin therapy has been a mainstay in the arsenal of every practitioner battling against diabetes. For patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, insulin is essential for survival, and for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the disease progresses, it may become a necessary addition to treatment. The goal of this article is to discuss insulin therapies that are currently available for use in the management of diabetes, from the old to the new and novel, and briefly discuss insulin use in special populations. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 6, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Veronica J. Brady Source Type: research

A Primer on Insulin Pump Therapy for Health Care Providers
This article will help the medical professional understand the reasons why the insulin pump helps the user to achieve better glycemic control, have more flexibility, and enjoy a better quality of life. Additionally, this article discusses the advantages, disadvantages, candidate selection, contraindications, basic functions, and troubleshooting of the insulin pump. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 6, 2017 Category: Nursing Authors: Deborah L. McCrea Source Type: research