Seasonal Influenza (Flu)
Seasonal influenza, or flu, is an airborne respiratory virus that occurs every year in the fall to early spring in the United States. The virus is highly contagious and symptoms can run from mild to severe. In some populations (very young, individuals with chronic comorbid conditions, immunocompromised individuals of all ages, pregnant women, and frail older adults), the virus can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In a majority of cases, seasonal influenza is preventable through safe and readily available vaccinations. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Linda J. Keilman Source Type: research

Ancient History and New Frontiers: Infectious Diseases
As defined by the World Health Organization, “infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.”1 Zoonotic diseases are those that may be spread to humans by animals.1 The ongoing history, saga, of infec tious diseases is a long one. While the concept of infectious disease may be as old as humankind, the idea of what is infectious has changed, considerably, beginning with what was visually unacceptable and moving to what was foul-smelling, until the discovery of microorganism...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Randolph F.R. Rasch Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Examining Infectious Diseases Through a Social Epidemiologic Perspective
When considering infectious diseases, there are many statistics and many pieces of data to consider in relation to trends, incidence, outbreaks, prevention, and the advent of new disease pathogens, to name a few. One recent study by el Bcheraoui and Mokdad identifies that between 1980 and 2014, there were 4,081,546 deaths due to infectious diseases recorded in the United States.1 It was determined that, in 2014, 113,650 deaths, or a rate of 34.10 deaths per 100,000 persons, were the result of infectious diseases in the United States compared with a total of 72,220 deaths, or a rate of 41.95 deaths per 100,000 persons, in 1...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Infectious Diseases
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Randolph F.R. Rasch Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Transitions of Care for Patients with Neurological Diagnoses (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Zika Virus and Pregnancy Concerns
Understanding Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission and the risk of birth defects associated with infection during the childbearing years is imperative. Current knowledge helps guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts between health care providers and female patients of childbearing age. Providers must follow updated data and implement ongoing rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and diagnostic testing for ZIKV. Surveillance of infants with known, in utero ZIKV exposure or infection must be maintained to gain a broader understanding of potential defects or injuries that are not immediately obvious at birth and in...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 28, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Karen DeCocker Source Type: research

Tuberculosis
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is one of the greatest challenges facing the elimination of TB. In the United States, persons born outside the United States account for 70% of new TB cases. Nucleic acid amplification testing has greatly reduced the amount of time needed for diagnosis of TB, down to 1 to 2 days, compared with waiting 21 days for culture results. The shorter treatment regimen for latent TB infection with weekly isoniazid and rifabutin for 12 weeks provides treatment as effective as the traditional daily isoniazid for 6 months, but with better adherence from patients. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 28, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Ana M. Kelly Source Type: research

Recognition and Management of Malaria
Pretravel consultation is important and effective in preventing the spread of malaria. Travelers to high-risk malaria-endemic areas should receive antimalarial advice: a combination of mosquito avoidance measures and chemoprophylaxis. Malaria prevention can be complex owing to the individual characteristics of the traveler, travel destination, duration of stay, and type of travel. Health care providers need to obtain a complete travel history on all returned travelers with clinical infectious features and with a history of travel or migration from malaria-endemic areas. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in febrile trave...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 28, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Cynthia Gerstenlauer Source Type: research

Ebola Virus Disease
The 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak response resulted in many lessons learned about biocontainment patient care, leading to enhanced domestic capabilities for highly infectious and hazardous communicable diseases. However, additional opportunities for improvement remain. The article identifies and describes key considerations and challenges for laboratory analysis, clinical management, transportation, and personnel management during the care of patients infected with Ebola or other special pathogens. Dedication to maintaining preparedness enables biocontainment patient care teams to perform at the highest levels of safety and ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 26, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Elizabeth L. Beam, Michelle M. Schwedhelm, Kathleen C. Boulter, Angela M. Vasa, LuAnn Larson, Theodore J. Cieslak, John J. Lowe, Jocelyn J. Herstein, Christopher J. Kratochvil, Angela L. Hewlett Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among US Adolescents and Young Adults
This article describes prevalence and recent trends in the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among young people in the United States. Common clinical presentations and best practices related to screening and treatment of these conditions are summarized. Clinical considerations for working with adolescents and young adults in the area of sexual and reproductive health are highlighted. Key approaches for sexually transmitted disease prevention with adolescents and young adults are presented. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 26, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Renee E. Sieving, Janna R. Gewirtz O ’Brien, Melissa A. Saftner, Taylor A. Argo Source Type: research

Lyme Disease
Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is increasing in incidence in the United States. Patient education and early recognition and treatment of the disease are critical to reduce the impact of chronic long-term infection. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 26, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Amber Carriveau, Hanna Poole, Anne Thomas Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Hepatitis B and C
Hepatitis B and C are complex and dynamic viral infections. An infected individual spreads the viruses to an uninfected individual in contaminated blood and body fluids. Acute hepatitis B and C infections may or may not produce mild symptoms and spontaneously resolve. Some individuals will progress to chronic hepatitis B and C, which can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and possibly death. Choosing medications available to treat chronic hepatitis B and C is based on individual serology results, including genotype and level of liver damage. Treatment has been successful in inducing remission and ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 26, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Michelle Pardee Source Type: research

Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging infectious diseases (EID) and reemerging infectious diseases are increasing globally. Zoonotic diseases are transmitted from animals to humans through direct contact or through food, water, and the environment. Vector-borne diseases are major sources of mortality and morbidity globally. Three mosquito-borne viruses are yellow fever, chikungunya virus, and dengue virus. Recent EIDs include Candida auris, Elizabethkingia anopheles, The Lone Star tick, and avian influenza H7N2. In addition, mcr-1 may contribute to the dissemination of drug resistance to gram-negative bacteria. Nurses play a major role in the identifi...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 26, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Donna Behler McArthur Source Type: research

Lymphatic Filariasis
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a parasitic infection that is spread by mosquitos infected with worm larvae. Several factors will affect the global prevalence of LF in the future. A growing body of evidence suggests that climate change will influence the spread of parasitic diseases and their vectors. Lymphatic filariasis is the leading cause of permanent disfigurement and the second most common cause of long-term disability in the world. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - March 26, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Gayle B. Lourens, Denise K. Ferrell Source Type: research

Barriers to the Implementation of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity Guidelines in a School-Based Health Center
This project applied a quality improvement design to assess perceived barriers to pediatric overweight and obesity guideline implementation in school-based health centers. An electronic survey was administered to nurse practitioners and licensed practical nurses working in school-based health centers in New York. The most commonly cited primary care –based barriers were lack of patient compliance, family lifestyle, and the poor dietary practices and sedentary behaviors common in America. The most commonly cited school-based barriers were that children have little control over the groceries purchased and foods cooked ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Lydia J. Yeager, Sharon M. Karp, Treasa ‘Susie’ Leming-Lee Source Type: research

Reducing Pressure Injuries in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
This quality improvement project used the Model for Improvement including the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle of change framework to educate pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) nurses on risk factors for pediatric pressure injuries and prevention strategies, improve turning compliance for PICU patients, and implement an electronic trigger to order nutrition consultations on all patients with a Braden Q score less than 16. The quality improvement project decreased preventable patient harm to PICU patients by decreasing the pressure injury incidence rate from 8% to 3% in the 6-week time period. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Kristin A. Cummins, Richard Watters, Treasa ’Susie‘ Leming-Lee Source Type: research

Translation of Evidence-Based Practice
Using knowledge gained from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, health care management, and medical and health services research, the quality improvement movement attempts to mobilize people within the health care system to work together in a systematic way using evidence based strategies and tactics to improve the care they provide. In this valuable work, discipline-specific knowledge is combined with experiential learning and discovery to make improvements. Quality improvement provides a knowledge-based framework and methods for the change agent to work toward a more predictable, effective, efficient, reliable, equitab...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Treasa ‘Susie’ Leming-Lee, Richard Watters Source Type: research

The Application of the Toyota Production System LEAN 5S Methodology in the Operating Room Setting
The purpose of the Toyota Production System (TPS) Lean 5S methodology project is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in a process by eliminating identified process waste of (1) defects (errors), (2) overproduction, (3) waiting, (4) confusion, (5) motion/travel, (6) excess inventory, (7) overprocessing, and (8) human potential. The specific aim of this quality improvement project was to evaluate the impact of the TPS 5S tool process, a problem-solving, space-organizing tool, on distractions and interruptions in the neurosurgery operating room (OR) workflow with a goal to decrease neurosurgery craniotomy infection ra...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Treasa ‘Susie’ Leming-Lee, Shea Polancich, Bonnie Pilon Source Type: research

Diabetes Self-management Education Provision by an Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Team
Please note that citations/references numbers are not included in abstracts; please modify if needed: Diabetes is a major health problem and requires patients with diabetes to gain knowledge to manage their care effectively. The shift in diabetes care is to focus teaching on self-management to engage and empower patients with diabetes to live the best quality of life. Health care providers may not always be aware of diabetes self-management education available to patients. The American Association of Diabetes Educators has identified 7 essential self-care behaviors known as AADE7. The focus of this quality improvement proj...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Adelaide N. Harris Source Type: research

Quality Improvement
Before we introduce you to the March 2019 issue of the Nursing Clinics of North America devoted to quality improvement in the delivery of health care, we would like you to think about quality improvement and its impact on the health care industry and health services organizations during the last 1 to 3 years. How do we translate “best practice” to our health care organizations? (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Treasa ‘Susie’ Leming-Lee, Richard Watters Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Quality Improvement
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Treasa ‘Susie’ Leming-Lee, Richard Watters Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Infectious Diseases (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - February 1, 2019 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

The Effects of a Targeted History Question on Patient-Triage Nurse Communication
This article discusses the effects of QuickLook on patient placement, reviews the role of past medical history in triage, and discusses the impact of integrating a targeted history question into the QuickLook process of an emergency department in Arizona. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 26, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Kristyn C. Huffman Source Type: research

Quality Improvement: Evolution or Revolution?
Is Quality Improvement (QI) the result of evolution or the result of evolution? This question has been the focus of discussion in nursing and health care for decades. In retrospect, it seems to have been both, but in hindsight, the current phenomenon has been the result of evolution. Quality management in the United States can be traced to the 1920s and to the initiatives of Edward Deming, Walter A. Shehart, and Joseph Juran, who laid the groundwork for health care initiatives. 1 Not many decades ago, what we now consider Quality Improvement was called “Quality Assurance” or “Quality Management.” Qu...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 23, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Evaluation of Telemetry Utilization on Medical-Surgical Units
Alarm fatigue is the most common contributing factor in alarm-related sentinel events. Researchers have demonstrated a 35% overuse of telemetry, a key factor in alarm fatigue. This project evaluates practice patterns for the ordering and discontinuation of telemetry on medical-surgical units. Practice patterns were reviewed to determine if they aligned with the American Heart Association evidence-based practice guidelines for telemetry monitoring and whether the order indication was congruent with the patient ’s clinical status. Nurse’s attitudes and practices related to alarm safety were evaluated. (Source: Nu...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 17, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: JoAnne Phillips, Rosemary C. Polomano, Treasa ”Susie“ Leming-Lee, Terri Davis Crutcher Source Type: research

Screening for Social Determinants of Health at Well-Child Appointments
Children living in poverty are vulnerable to the adverse effects associated with unmet basic needs, such as food and housing. Poverty threatens the overall growth and development of children placing them at risk for poor cognitive, behavioral, and psychological outcomes. Addressing social determinants of health in the pediatric primary care setting is within the role of the pediatric primary care provider. The Model for Improvement guided this quality improvement project in the implementation of food and housing insecurity screening during well-child appointments in a rural health clinic. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 17, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Kimberly Higginbotham, Terri Crutcher, Sharon M. Karp Source Type: research

Implementation of a Nurse-Driven CAUTI Prevention Algorithm
The cardiovascular thoracic step-down unit of an urban academic medical center had 4 catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in 2  months compared with 5 in the previous year. The nursing literature showed that the implementation of nurse-driven algorithms for early removal of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) decreased the catheter days and risk of CAUTIs. Using the Model for Improvement, the nurse leader performed daily I UC rounds to enforce the removal algorithm and visual management tools to identify IUC removal barriers. The quality improvement project resulted in fewer catheter days, the impleme...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 17, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Jensine A. Russell, Susie Leming-Lee, Rick Watters Source Type: research

Impact of Nurse-Led Interprofessional Rounding on Patient Experience
Interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) was recommended to improve siloed and fragmented patient care. The Institute of Medicine recommended nurses lead this change through innovative models of patient-centered care and IPCP participation. One strategy to improve patient experience is rounding. This project presents a nurse-led interprofessional bedside rounding model to improve communication and collaboration between providers and with patients on a complex inpatient unit. Outcomes were analyzed using Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores to examine patient experience. Po...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Denise K. Gormley, Amy J. Costanzo, Jane Goetz, Jahmeel Israel, Jessica Hill-Clark, Tracy Pritchard, Katherine Staubach Source Type: research

Chart It to Stop It
The purpose of this quality improvement study was to describe the process for workplace aggression (WPA) reporting and the potential failures for this process in a pediatric emergency department. Interviews were conducted with 10 interdisciplinary employees. Findings yielded 7 tasks following WPA: contact security, contact police, contact clinical manager, notify emergency department director, call safety hotline, complete electronic safety form, and complete paper safety form. Focusing actions to prevent failure modes and causes for (1) notification of the emergency department director and (2) completion of an electronic ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 3, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Gordon Lee Gillespie, Treasa “Susie” Leming-Lee Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Renal Therapy
This article discusses some of the recommended pharmacologic treatments for patients with renal drug toxicity, acute kidney injury (AKI), and chronic kidney injury (CKI). The treatment of AKI often consists of treating patients in emergency departments. Renal pharmacologic management in an acute care setting consists of identifying the cause of AKI, reviewing serum creatinine levels, administration of crystalloids, and the elimination of nephrotoxic agents. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Tasha Ruffin Source Type: research

Complications of Kidney Disease
Understanding the physiology of the kidney and the pathophysiology of common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is essential. The rise of CKD across the United States demands that nurses be prepared to care for these patients. Cardiovascular complications, anemia, and bone formation issues are the most common complications. Approximately 30 million people (15% of adults) are reported to have CKD. By 2020 there will be a 14.4% increase in the prevalence of CKD, and by 2030, the increase will be up by 16.7%. Nurses are integral to providing care that can slow or halt the progression of CKD. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Sandy Murabito, Beth Fentress Hallmark Source Type: research

Nephrology: Innovations in Clinical Practice
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Deborah Ellison, Francisca Cisneros Farrar Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Nursing Clinics of North America
Quality Improvement (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 31, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Renal Diet
Caring for a patient with renal disease requires an understanding of the basics renal nutritional therapy. The goals of nutritional therapy include maintaining renal function, preventing complications, and providing adequate nutrients. Because cardiovascular disease and hypertension are highly correlated with renal disease, sodium reduction is a major goal of the renal diet. Particularly in early stage renal disease, the Mediterranean diet and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan may help to prevent disease progression. The role of other nutrients such as phosphorous, calcium, protein, and potassi...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Kristen Hershey Source Type: research

Obstructive Kidney Disease
Obstructive kidney disease is a common urologic diagnosis and includes kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease, and renal artery stenosis. Kidney stones are a common emergency department admission in the United States. Men are affected more than women. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic renal disease that may not reveal symptoms until an individual reaches age 30 years. Renal artery stenosis contributes to decreased perfusion to the kidneys, which contributes to hypertension and end-stage renal disease. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Sherri Stevens Source Type: research

Renal Disease: A Complicated Phenomenon
In last 30 years, specialization in renal nursing has become a strong field, requiring special skills, knowledge, and overall expertise. Although a specialty unto itself, renal disease is a complex phenomenon that often emerges as the result of another disease process. As such, it is common for nonspecialized renal nurses to have knowledge and understanding of renal diseases processes, and knowledge of how to assess, monitor, and intervene for patients with renal issues. Simply presented, renal disease occurs when the patient ’s kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood effectively. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Kidney Influence on Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
The frontline nurse is confronted daily with patients that have some type of kidney dysfunction or disease. Some renal issues resolve themselves, some disorders can be reversed, and others are permanent. Major complications from kidney impairment discussed are fluid and electrolyte disequilibrium with common problems in volume overload, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and hormonal secretion. Each problem is presented with potential clinical manifestations and management. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Deborah Ellison, Francisca Farrar Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury (AKI) most commonly occurs in the hospital setting, and hospital-acquired AKI accounts for 22% of all AKI cases worldwide. AKI causes 2 million deaths per year, and 50% of critically ill patients develop AKI. AKIs include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes. Treatments include renal replacement therapies and correcting reversible causes. Management of these patients includes medical and social history, laboratory studies, tests such as renal biopsy and ultrasonography, vital signs, volume status, and identifying risk factors. Thus, it is essential to identify high-risk patients, correct any rever...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ashley Farrar Source Type: research

Chronic Renal Therapy
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a most challenging diagnosis for patients and their health care teams. Detection is often delayed because of the insidious nature of kidney failure and symptoms experienced by patients. It is not until later in the disease progression that laboratory test values begin to display values indicative of actual renal damage. Patients are then presented with life-changing alternatives that affect their work, lifestyle, relationships, and well-being. Therapies currently used in CKD and end-stage renal disease are described depicting choices patients have in maintaining and perhaps arresting some as...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Amanda J. Flagg Source Type: research

Recent Innovations in Kidney Transplants
Current donor pool utilization is unable to meet the high demand for kidney transplants. Donor pool expansion using expanded-criteria donors and dual kidney transplantation are viable options. Advances in diagnosing antibody-mediated rejection and targeting immunosuppression increase long-term transplantation success. Further exploration of minimally invasive surgical techniques, kidney bioengineering, and artificial-implantable renal devices hold promise for the future. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Garrett Salmon, Eric Salmon Source Type: research

Infection-Related Glomerular Disease
Glomerular disease results from a complex process. It can occur following acute illnesses or chronic diseases from other organs and body parts that promote bacterial invasion. Assessment and initial identification of the cause of this process is important in order to initiate interventions that promote a return to wellness. Prudent clinician judgment is necessary in client management in order to reduce the potential for long-standing renal disease. Medicinal intervention should be combined with patient education in addressing infection-related glomerular disease. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Maria A. Revell Source Type: research