Renal Diet
Caring for a patient with renal disease requires an understanding of the basics renal nutritional therapy. The goals of nutritional therapy include maintaining renal function, preventing complications, and providing adequate nutrients. Because cardiovascular disease and hypertension are highly correlated with renal disease, sodium reduction is a major goal of the renal diet. Particularly in early stage renal disease, the Mediterranean diet and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan may help to prevent disease progression. The role of other nutrients such as phosphorous, calcium, protein, and potassi...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Kristen Hershey Source Type: research

Obstructive Kidney Disease
Obstructive kidney disease is a common urologic diagnosis and includes kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease, and renal artery stenosis. Kidney stones are a common emergency department admission in the United States. Men are affected more than women. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic renal disease that may not reveal symptoms until an individual reaches age 30 years. Renal artery stenosis contributes to decreased perfusion to the kidneys, which contributes to hypertension and end-stage renal disease. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Sherri Stevens Source Type: research

Renal Disease: A Complicated Phenomenon
In last 30 years, specialization in renal nursing has become a strong field, requiring special skills, knowledge, and overall expertise. Although a specialty unto itself, renal disease is a complex phenomenon that often emerges as the result of another disease process. As such, it is common for nonspecialized renal nurses to have knowledge and understanding of renal diseases processes, and knowledge of how to assess, monitor, and intervene for patients with renal issues. Simply presented, renal disease occurs when the patient ’s kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood effectively. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 12, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Kidney Influence on Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
The frontline nurse is confronted daily with patients that have some type of kidney dysfunction or disease. Some renal issues resolve themselves, some disorders can be reversed, and others are permanent. Major complications from kidney impairment discussed are fluid and electrolyte disequilibrium with common problems in volume overload, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, and hormonal secretion. Each problem is presented with potential clinical manifestations and management. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Deborah Ellison, Francisca Farrar Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury (AKI) most commonly occurs in the hospital setting, and hospital-acquired AKI accounts for 22% of all AKI cases worldwide. AKI causes 2 million deaths per year, and 50% of critically ill patients develop AKI. AKIs include prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal causes. Treatments include renal replacement therapies and correcting reversible causes. Management of these patients includes medical and social history, laboratory studies, tests such as renal biopsy and ultrasonography, vital signs, volume status, and identifying risk factors. Thus, it is essential to identify high-risk patients, correct any rever...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ashley Farrar Source Type: research

Chronic Renal Therapy
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a most challenging diagnosis for patients and their health care teams. Detection is often delayed because of the insidious nature of kidney failure and symptoms experienced by patients. It is not until later in the disease progression that laboratory test values begin to display values indicative of actual renal damage. Patients are then presented with life-changing alternatives that affect their work, lifestyle, relationships, and well-being. Therapies currently used in CKD and end-stage renal disease are described depicting choices patients have in maintaining and perhaps arresting some as...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Amanda J. Flagg Source Type: research

Recent Innovations in Kidney Transplants
Current donor pool utilization is unable to meet the high demand for kidney transplants. Donor pool expansion using expanded-criteria donors and dual kidney transplantation are viable options. Advances in diagnosing antibody-mediated rejection and targeting immunosuppression increase long-term transplantation success. Further exploration of minimally invasive surgical techniques, kidney bioengineering, and artificial-implantable renal devices hold promise for the future. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Garrett Salmon, Eric Salmon Source Type: research

Infection-Related Glomerular Disease
Glomerular disease results from a complex process. It can occur following acute illnesses or chronic diseases from other organs and body parts that promote bacterial invasion. Assessment and initial identification of the cause of this process is important in order to initiate interventions that promote a return to wellness. Prudent clinician judgment is necessary in client management in order to reduce the potential for long-standing renal disease. Medicinal intervention should be combined with patient education in addressing infection-related glomerular disease. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Maria A. Revell Source Type: research

Clinical Management of Glomerular Diseases
This article discusses the clinical management of the leading conditions associated with glomerular disease, including glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy. Glomerular damage and disease progression may lead to end stage renal disease. Clinical management is individualized, as based on causative factors and clinical manifestations, with the overall goal of limiting glomerular damage. Collaborative and comprehensive care is imperative to improving patient outcomes. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Patty Orr, Bettina Cobb Shank, Shondell Hickson, Jennifer Cooke Source Type: research

Psychosocial Issues and Lifestyle Changes for the Renal Patient
This article provides an overview of the psychosocial issues faced by those with renal disease. The article discusses the physiologic connection between anxiety, depression, and pain —symptoms commonly seen in renal disease and other chronic illnesses. The application of integrative medicine or nonallopathic medicine and its role in the management of anxiety, depression, and pain are presented. Also presented is evidence surrounding several frequently used nonallopathic modali ties appropriate for incorporation into a comprehensive management regimen for renal patients to reduce symptom burden. The article concludes ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Linda C. Cole Source Type: research

Nephrology: Innovations in Clinical Practice
During Dr Farrar ’s senior year of nursing school at Vanderbilt University, a rotation to a chronic hemodialysis outpatient clinic sparked her passion for nephrology. She started her career as a charge nurse at this hemodialysis clinic. In 1975, dialysis machines were hand built by technicians and required 7 to 8 hours of dialysis, and patients experienced complications such as severe leg cramps and seizures with the procedure. Currently, machines are built in factories with dialysis lasting 3 to 5 hours with minimal complications due to the ability to customize treatment. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Deborah Ellison, Francisca Cisneros Farrar Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Roles of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy in  Glomerular Disease
Two autoimmune diseases that can negatively affect kidney function are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. Autoimmune diseases occur when autoantibodies attack intrinsic tissue and generate inflammation in multiple body tissues, sometimes targeting specific organs. There is no cure for either SLE or IgA nephropathy, but both disorders may be medically managed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - September 25, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Stacey G. Browning Source Type: research

Hyperglycemia Syndromes
Diabetes mellitus and its complications are among the leading causes of organ failure around the world. It is imperative that timely, patient-centered care is provided to avoid microvascular and macrovascular damage. People with well-controlled diabetes can live long and healthy lives through interprofessional management, emphasizing optimal, individualized care. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Kathryn Evans Kreider, Angelika A. Gabrielski, Felisa B. Hammonds Source Type: research

Immunosuppressive/Autoimmune Disorders
Autoimmune disorders are a category of diseases in which the immune system attacks healthy cells as a result of a dysfunction of the acquired immune system. Clinical presentation and diagnosis are disease specific and often correspond with the degree of inflammation, as well as the systems involved. Treatment varies based on the specific disease, its stage of presentation, and patient symptoms. The primary goal of treatment is to decrease inflammation, minimize symptoms, and lessen the potential for relapse. Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus eryth...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Angela Richard-Eaglin, Benjamin A. Smallheer Source Type: research

Fat Embolism Syndrome
Fat embolisms are fat globules that enter the circulatory system, typically through trauma, that may or may not lead to the development of fat embolism syndrome (FES), a rare and ill-defined diagnosis that can cause multiorgan failure and death. The exact mechanism of FES remains unknown, although several theories support the involvement of inflammatory response activation that contributes to characteristic clinical findings. There is no gold standard for diagnosis of FES, and treatment at this time remains primarily supportive. Early recognition of FES symptoms is the most beneficial nursing intervention for combating thi...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Lauren E. Fukumoto, Kathryn D. Fukumoto Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Pain Syndromes and Disorders
This article describes these syndromes and presents current treatment options. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Brett Morgan, Steve Wooden Source Type: research

An Overview of Munchausen Syndrome and Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy are complex diseases that are difficult to diagnose and treat. To assist in this process, an overview of diagnostic criteria with common characteristics and red flags are discussed, with case studies illustrating identification and diagnosis of these disorders. Treatment options are addressed within the context of each of these complex syndromes. The provider ’s knowledge of diagnostic criteria and treatment options for Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen syndrome by proxy promotes better outcomes for patients. Without an early diagnosis and intervention, the patien...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Brittany Abeln, Rene Love Source Type: research

Male and Female Hypogonadism
Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results in hormone deficiency in men and women. Primary hypogonadism is caused by gonadal (testicular or ovarian) failure. Secondary hypogonadism is the result of a dysfunction within the hypothalamus and/or pituitary. Diagnosis of hypogonadism requires a comprehensive health history, evaluation of the signs and symptoms, complete physical examination, as well as laboratory and diagnostic testing for both sexes. Hormone replacement is the hallmark of hypogonadism treatment. Restoring and/or maintaining quality of life is a major consideration in the management of patients with hypog...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Angela Richard-Eaglin Source Type: research

Evaluation and Treatment of Adrenal Dysfunction in the Primary Care Environment
Adrenal insufficiency (Addison ’s disease) and Cushing’s syndrome are rare disorders characterized by abnormal secretion of adrenal hormones. All patients with adrenal insufficiency and many with Cushing’s syndrome require life-long therapy with the potential to impact the quality of life. Management requires gain of a sign ificant amount of knowledge related to treatment, self-care, and how to react quickly in critical situations. Knowledge deficits related to management may cause patients to become critically ill and may even cause death. Ongoing patient/family teaching is crucial for proper disease man...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Shannon Cole Source Type: research

Evaluation and Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome in the Primary Care Environment
Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbon disease (RLS/WED) is a common sensorimotor disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move and is associated with an uncomfortable sensation typically in the lower extremities. Dopaminergic neurotransmission abnormalities, genetics, sleep deprivation, and iron deficiency all play key roles in the pathogenesis of primary RLS. Secondary RLS has been associated with other medical conditions and medication usage. A thorough subjective evaluation and complete neurologic examination are key in the diagnosis of RLS/WED. Treatment includes pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches. Re...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Benjamin A. Smallheer Source Type: research

Degenerative or Debilitative Neurologic Syndromes
Neurodegenerative disorders are progressive, debilitating impairments of neurologic function. Dementia affects cognition and function. Persons with cognitive deficits should undergo a full workup and may be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia may be assessed and treated individually. Parkinson disease is a disorder of movement. Levodopa is the standard treatment of dopamine-related movement symptoms. Associated symptoms should be assessed and treated. Other neurodegenerative syndromes are less common but highly debilitating. Currently, there are no cura...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Abby Luck Parish Source Type: research

Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity Syndrome Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a syndrome classified by episodic presentation of abnormal sympathetic and motor symptoms observed in patients with acquired brain injuries. Although the exact physiologic mechanism of PSH is not fully understood, its clinical significance has been well-established. PSH diagnosis depends on the identification of symptom presence, severity, and patterns. Treatment of PSH is rooted in pharmacologic management of targeted symptoms. Although complex, recognition and management of PSH has meaningful implications on the hospitalization and recovery trajectory for adult patients with ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Elizabeth Compton Source Type: research

Syndromes in Organ Failure
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Benjamin A. Smallheer Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Benjamin A. Smallheer (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Nephrology: Innovations in Clinical Practice (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a commonly occurring endocrine disorder characterized by hirsutism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Often comorbid with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity, it also carries significant risk for the development of cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae, including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Traditionally, the treatment of patients with PCOS has focused on relief of symptoms. Here, the criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS are reviewed with an emphasis on the stratification of subtypes by metabolic features. Then treatment options are reviewed according to the management go...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Renate K. Meier Source Type: research

Chest Pain
Noncardiac chest pain is an angina-type discomfort without indication of ischemia. Diagnosis can be difficult because of its heterogeneous nature. Classification varies by specialty; gastroenterology uses the terminology gastroesophageal reflux disease related versus non –gastroesophageal reflux disease related. Other disciplines recognize noncardiac chest pain etiologies as having gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, psychiatric, or pulmonary/other as underlying etiologies. Diagnostics yield a specific cause for effective treatment, which is aimed at the underlying etiology, but it is not always possible. Some patient...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Sharron Rushton, Margaret J. Carman Source Type: research

Malabsorption Syndromes
This article reviews common malabsorption disease processes of the small bowel and the resulting pathophysiology. Diagnostic studies, treatment, and prognosis of various conditions within the malabso rption disease state are discussed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 10, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ricketta Clark, Ragan Johnson Source Type: research

Those Conditions You May Not Be Expecting
Within our current health care environment, citizens are having increased access to health care and are seeking the expertise of primary care providers for preventative medicine and disease maintenance rather than delaying medical attention until acute care services are required. This shift in patient flow from urgent and emergency settings is increasing the need of the primary care provider not only to conduct comprehensive evaluations focused on wellness but also to assess conditions that may present with vague and unclear causes. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 25, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Benjamin A. Smallheer Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Urine Collection Methods in Children
Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants and young children. There are 5 collection methods commonly used to obtain a urine sample from an infant or small child: suprapubic aspiration, urethral catheterization, clean catch void, urine collection bag, and urine collection pad. Although invasive, suprapubic aspiration and urethral catheterization are less likely to cause contamination of the specimen. When deciding which method to use, providers must take into consideration the clinical presentation of a child as well as presenting and past medical history, while weighing benefits ver...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Olivia Windham May Source Type: research

Adolescent Confidentiality and Women ’s Health
This article reviews the history, current practices, and potential challenges to confidentiality, including Title X funding, questions about brain development and ability to make autonomous choices, and meaningful use practic es in electronic records. Resources are provided for professional position statements and individual state regulations. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Naomi A. Schapiro, Jayme Mejia Source Type: research

Integrating Optimal Screening, Intervention, and Referral for Postpartum Depression in Adolescents
This article provides evidence-based clinical best practices for the assessment and early recognition of postpartum depression, specifically in adolescents. In addition, suggestions for integration into practice and recommendations for interprofessional collaboration are discussed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Leigh Booth, Monika Wedgeworth, Adeline Turner Source Type: research

Sexuality and Intimacy in the Older Adult Woman
In the United States, people older than 65 attend approximately 248 million health care visits each year, or 7 visits per older adult annually. One in every 5 older adults reports recent sexual activity, yet health care professionals do not ask, and patients do not tell when it comes to sexuality. The desire to engage in sex and intimate behaviors to meet important quality-of-life needs is present in people of all ages. Because it is important to communicate in a nonjudgmental manner, health care professionals must first examine their own personal attitudes and values regarding sexuality in older women. (Source: Nursing Cl...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Alice L. March Source Type: research

Person-Centered Care for Patients with Pessaries
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting women of any age but more likely to occur in the aging woman. Prolapse has a significant impact on quality of life, sexuality, and body image. Vaginal support pessaries have been used since ancient times and are a safe and effective nonsurgical treatment option. Fitting a pessary results in immediate symptom improvement. A comprehensive evaluation for pessary fitting is time intensive but necessary. Nurse providers perform direct pessary care and have a role in caring for women with prolapse expanding access to care. Caregiver and family involvement is important for pes...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Gwendolyn L. Hooper Source Type: research

The Psychosocial and Clinical Well-Being of Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS
This study examined factors impacting the psychological well-being of women living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS and the impact of depression on clinical outcomes. Nearly two-thirds of participants in this cross-sectional study reported significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS without depressive symptoms, those with depression reported significantly poorer health outcomes. Health care providers should regularly screen these women for and adequately treat depression, and must collaborate with mental health providers and pastoral care counselors to address th...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Safiya George Dalmida, Kyle R. Kraemer, Stephen Ungvary, Elizabeth Di Valerio, Harold G. Koenig, Marcia McDonnell Holstad Source Type: research

Helping Mothers Reach Personal Breastfeeding Goals
This article focuses on the importance of prenatal messaging and goal setting to ensure that mothers are able to optimize their milk supply during the critical window of opportunity in first 2 we eks after delivery. Research data in the United States indicate that the largest categories of why women stopped breastfeeding were for reasons related to milk supply or concerns that the infant was not getting enough nutrition or gaining enough weight. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Diane L. Spatz Source Type: research

Common Sexually Transmitted Infections in Women
The spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a significant public health issue in the United States. Social, economic, and behavioral implications affecting the spread of STIs have been identified. The most important social factor in the United States is the stigma associated with discussing sex and STI screening. In this article, specific recommendations for women are included regarding screening, diagnosing, and treating common vaginal and cervical infections. Screening women for infections of the vagina and cervix is essential because untreated infections may result in complications that have current and...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Ashley L. Hodges, Aimee Chism Holland Source Type: research

Female Health Across the Lifespan
In the United States, more women than men seek health care each year. In 2015, 89.2% of women reported a visit to a health care professional within the past 12  months, as opposed to 77.8% of men.1 Before the age of 65 years, women also spend more on health care annually than men ($4673 vs $3835, respectively). Yet, after age 65, the numbers are reversed (women = $9859 vs men = $10,471).2 Even though women in the United States are seen more often and spen d more health care dollars, the health-spending efficiency by gender in the United States ranks 25th out of 27 high-income countries in reducing women’s death ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Alice L. March Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Female Health Across the Lifespan
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Alice L. March Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Alice L. March (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Syndromes in Organ Failure (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 18, 2018 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Preconception Care for the Patient and Family
This article offers a reflective and holistic perspective of how health care providers frame, prioritize, and engage with the patient and family during the preconception consultation. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 7, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Elizabeth Hall, Robingale Panepinto, Elizabeth Keeley Bowman Source Type: research

Menopause Symptom Management in the United Kingdom
This article covers the main presenting complaints and treatments, from lifestyle to hormone replacement therapy, by drawing on guidelines from national bodies. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Debra Holloway Source Type: research

Intimate Partner Violence
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a health epidemic. Health care professionals have a unique and critical role to play. It is expected that health care providers have the ability to engage in an informed response to IPV, which is crucial to the safety of the woman, improving health outcomes, and preventing further violence. Screening procedures for IPV, along with the awareness of abuse indicators, have the potential to significantly identify women who have been exposed to IPV. Identification of IPV will enable the health care provider to offer support, build trust, validate concerns, and offer community resources. (Sourc...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Anne McKibbin, Kathy Gill-Hopple Source Type: research

Health Care of Sexual Minority Women
Sexual minority women may be invisible in health care settings unless practitioners ask every patient about sexual attractions/behaviors and identity. Sexual minority women need to feel comfortable and able to share information about their sexual identity, partners, and lives. No medical diagnoses are found more commonly in sexual minority women, but problems such as overweight/obesity, increased tobacco and alcohol use, increased mental health problems, and a past history of childhood sexual abuse are common. These factors intertwine when treating sexual minority women. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 6, 2018 Category: Nursing Authors: Susan Jo Roberts Source Type: research