Clinical Aromatherapy
Clinical aromatherapy is an alternative medicine therapy that can be beneficial in the inpatient or outpatient setting for symptom management for pain, nausea, general well-being, anxiety, depression, stress, and insomnia. It is beneficial for preoperative anxiety, oncology, palliative care, hospice, and end of life. Essential oils can be dangerous and toxic, with some being flammable, causing skin dermatitis, being phototoxic with risk of a chemical burn, or causing oral toxicity or death. The article investigates history, supporting theories, guidelines, plant sources, safety, pathophysiologic responses, and clinical nur...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - September 26, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Ashley J. Farrar, Francisca C. Farrar Source Type: research

Complementary Interventions in the “New Normal?”
The articles of this issue of Nursing Clinics of North America on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Part I: Therapies were begun before the COVID-19 pandemic but were written during the pandemic. As such, some of the information warrants updating when describing how these interventions should be put into practice. It is important to follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Guidelines as well as any local, state, or regional guidelines. As mutable and different as these guidelines are, it would have been impossible to keep up with the standards during the development and publication of this issue. (...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - September 26, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Update on Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infection Treatment and Management in the Adult and Adolescent Population
This article provides updates on pharmacologic treatment as well as patient education and follow-up specific to the primary care setting. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Anna Richmond, Mary Lauren Pfieffer, Queen Henry-Okafor Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnancy
This article provides an overview of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant women in the United States. It discusses screening guidelines and best practices related to treatments. Safety, pharmacology, and monitoring of both the woman and her fetus are detailed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Melissa Glassford, Melissa Davis, Shelza Rivas Source Type: research

Update on Clinical Practice Guidelines for Human Immunodeficiency Virus
It has been more than 38  years since the first reported case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Over this period of time, there has been an evolution in the care, management, and survival of those living with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Current efforts to stabilize HIV incidence have targeted ph armacologic management with antiretroviral therapy (ART) coupled with programs that focus on individual characteristics, social norms, and structural barriers. It is important that clinicians are knowledgeable of prevention efforts and up-to-date clinical practice guidelines in order to best provide...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Courtney J. Pitts Source Type: research

Pharmacoprevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
This article reviews the disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence, presents evidence on the efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP), provides an overview of clinical guidelines for prescribing PrEP and nPEP, discusses strategies to promote efficient use of these effective interventions, and reviews best practices in treatment retention for people at high risk for HIV. Nurses are optimally positioned to prevent new HIV infections. When working with sensitive topics such as sexual practices and substance use, nurses excel at building rapport, making sh...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Charles Yingling, Cindy Broholm, Shirley Stephenson Source Type: research

The Reemergence of Syphilis
This article reviews the history of syphilis, including the unethical studies undertaken in the past; current epidemiology; treatme nt guidelines; and strategies to reduce new infections. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Mary McNamara, Charles Yingling Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Courtney J. Pitts Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Part I: Therapies (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - August 4, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Pharmacology Update for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common infectious disease affecting people worldwide. In the past 10 years, the incidence of HCV has steadily increased in the United States. With the advent of new direct-acting antiviral medications, the treatment of HCV has become important and can cure the infection. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 16, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Leslie Hopkins, Travis Dunlap, Holly Cline Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections Prevalence in the United States and the Relationship to Social Determinants of Health
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) are on the rise in the United States. Some STIs are at an all-time high. Research has shown that there is a higher prevalence of STIs among some racial and ethnic groups as compared with whites. Factors contributing to this endemic have been explored. Although some individual-level risk factors have previously been identified, data overwhelmingly suggest that social determinants of health are key factors in the overall increase in STIs. Additionally, these social factors have contributed to disparities in STI acquisition. Population-specific interventions targeting social fact...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Jannyse Tapp, Tamika Hudson Source Type: research

The Stigma of Sexually Transmitted Infections
This article reviews STI treatment guidelines and examines the impact of stigma and ethical issues on testing, adherence, partner notification, and transmission rates. An understanding of STI-associated ethical issues and controversies is an important step toward eliminating stigma and reducing STI prevalence and morbidity. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Amy S.D. Lee, Shameka L. Cody Source Type: research

Proctitis in Men Who Have Sex with Men
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are diseases that are transmitted from one person to another person through acts of vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse. The increased presence of STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) results in a higher rate of STI-related diagnoses, such as proctitis. Proctitis is a common, but often misdiagnosed condition experienced by MSM who present to primary care, urgent care, and emergency settings. It is important that health care providers be knowledgeable of the pathophysiology, risk factors, and clinical presentation of proctitis among MSM for accurate and timely management. (Source:...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Julia M. Steed, Queen Henry-Okafor, Courtney J. Pitts Source Type: research

Herpes Simplex Virus
Genital herpes simplex virus infections are among the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the United States. It continues to be a public health concern because of its recurrent nature and potential for complications. Treatment is not curative, but rather serves to shorten the duration of symptoms and improve quality of life. Current therapies include episodic treatment and chronic suppressive therapy and are generally well tolerated and effective. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Shannon Cole Source Type: research

The Use of Technology in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections
Several evidence-based resources are available to assist clinicians in screening, diagnosis, and management of sexually transmitted infections. Mobile medical technology can make accessing quality clinical information more efficient for health care professionals. This review focuses on medical information on the Internet and mobile medical applications that provide valuable clinical information for health care professionals caring for individuals with sexually transmitted infections. Appraisal of the quality of medical information on the Internet and mobile applications is also discussed. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Angelina Anthamatten, Nicole Dellise Source Type: research

Decreasing Barriers to Sexual Health in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Community
This article provides interventions to diminish barriers to care and foster provider preparedness for the care of LGBTQ individuals. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Justin M. Waryold, Allyson Kornahrens Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Human Immunodeficiency Virus
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are considered epidemics in the United States. Research on the association between STIs and HIV infectiousness and susceptibility has shown that STIs promote HIV acquisition and transmission via mucosal inflammation and ulceration caused by viral or bacterial pathogens. Some of the most common STIs associated with HIV are chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2. STIs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly if diagnosis or treatment is delayed. Prevention and treatment of both HIV and STIs is essentia...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Robin M. Lawson Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overlooked, Underestimated, and Undiagnosed
For centuries, health care professionals have diligently worked to manage the health and lives of those they serve in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from various diseases. The evolution of evidence-based practices, health policies, and prevention programs has shifted disease management from tertiary preventive methods to more primary preventive methods. Morbidity and mortality, particularly in more developed countries, were historically tied to more infectious disease processes. With the implementation of public health interventions, there was a transition from infectious disease processes to chronic disease p...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - July 14, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Courtney J. Pitts Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Midst of the Coronavirus Pandemic
The inception of this issue of Nursing Clinics of North America occurred prior to the Coronavirus Pandemic, which has taken center stage of the universal health care system. The impact of the pandemic on sexual activity has not been a primary focus, but there is evidence that there has been a change in sexual activity.1 (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 13, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Foreword: Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Midst of the Coronavirus Pandemic
(Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - June 13, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Source Type: research

Pain Management for Orthopedic Patients; Closing the Gap
Total joint replacement (TJR) is one of the most commonly performed and painful surgeries in the United States. Over the past few decades, regulatory changes increased the use of oral narcotics as a first-line treatment of this population. In the current opioid crisis, new pain management techniques and therapies have emerged. Research of current therapies, their effectiveness, and emerging best practices are discussed. Clear, thoughtful, and thorough education is an essential next step for closing the gap of the pain experience. Specifically, education of the frontline nurses, patients, and their caregivers on pain reduct...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Rachel Torani, Debra Byrd Source Type: research

Advances in Sports Medicine and Care of the Adolescent Athlete
This article provides an overview of sport-related injuries in the child and adolescent populations, looking at changes over the past 10 to 15  years. A closer look at frequently seen injuries, including assessment, diagnosis, and management in osteochondritis dissecans, sprains, fractures, anterior cruciate ligament, and meniscus tears, is provided. Current protocols and screening tools for this population are discussed, including prepar ticipation screening. The nursing implications in the clinical and community setting are identified, with ways to incorporate this information into practice. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Heather C. Barnes, Angela C. Vanderpool Source Type: research

Excellence in Patient Education
The patient education process has 4 equal components to be addressed by the nurse: assessment, planning, implement, and evaluation. Excellent patient education is an “art” and “science” using nuances and evidence-based strategies to effectively educate. The assessment and evaluation components often use nuanced approaches (motivational interviewing, teach back) to engage the patient/caregiver respectfully, whereas planning and implementation rely more on evidence-based strategies such as the Patient Education Assessment of Materials. Nurses should provide education that is simple, patient centered, ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Carolyn Crane Cutilli Source Type: research

Emerging Spine Care Trends and Innovations
The spine is an anchoring structure that is the base for mechanical motion of the body and a protector of neuroelements. Spinal disorders continue to plague generations with issues. Management options continue to evolve, allowing for operative and nonoperative pathways to treat underlying causes. Positive patient outcomes and long-term relief are achieved through evidence-based practice and innovative trends. The future of spine care will continue to push boundaries, allowing patients to return to activity at a much faster rate, with decreased restrictions and lower rates of future complications. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Dorothy Pietrowski Source Type: research

Proactive Wellness Care for Patients with Osteoarthritis
Wellness care should start when the diagnosis of osteoarthritis becomes evident. Guidelines from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American College of Rheumatology are the basis of the treatment modalities. Providing patients with intentional strategies to prepare them for possible joint replacement surgery is key to prevent postoperative complications and give them the best opportunity for an optimal outcome after surgical intervention. The Clinical Guidelines for Nonsurgical Management of Osteoarthritis algorithm helps providers with the implementation of these strategies. The primary focus is to help ...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Sally H. Pearson Source Type: research

Innovations in Care of the Elderly Hip Fracture Patient; a Nightmare No More
Hip fractures that occur in the elderly population continue to be a growing problem in communities. In this particular population, people 65  years and older, patients often have multiple comorbidities. These comorbidities cause challenges for a patient’s optimization preoperatively and throughout the continuum of care. Although unplanned and traumatic, hip fracture patients can benefit from care organized in a comprehensive and stand ardized way. Having a hip fracture program that is driven by a multidisciplinary team approach has proved to decrease length of stay and promote positive outcomes for patients. (So...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Kari L. Baerwald Erickson Source Type: research

An Update on Total Joint Arthroplasty
Have you noticed that evolving science, updated evidence-based practice care models, new best practices, and new surgical and insurance guidelines have changed the face of elective joint replacement forever? Recent changes in many insurances, to place total knee arthroplasty in the out-patient category, have put the orthopedic service line into a position of having to streamline the knee arthroplasty process. Your mother ’s total knee arthroplasty is forever gone! (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Adam Stephan Source Type: research

Orthopedic Nursing
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Tandy Gabbert Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Sexually Transmitted Infections (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - May 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Legal Implications in the Care of Orthopedic Patients
To help reduce potentially devastating outcomes from spinal complications and venous thromboembolism, it is essential for the bedside nurse to have a comprehensive understanding of risk factors and assessments. The orthopedic nurse carries a responsibility for accurately assessing, documenting, and mobilizing the team when abnormal changes occur. Nurses act as patient advocates. The bedside nurse must communicate with the physician. If a patient or family sues the health care team, after a careful screening of the case for merit, the legal process begins. A health care provider should never give in to the temptation to alt...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Barbara J. Levin, Patricia Iyer Source Type: research

The Ever-Changing World of Limb Salvage Surgery for Malignant Bone Tumors
This article discusses the progression of surgical treatment of malignant bone cancers. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Kimberly K. Haynes, Howard G. Rosenthal Source Type: research

A Vital Specialty for the Twenty-First Century
Caring for patients in their most vulnerable moments is a sacred trust. Providing the highest-quality nursing care based on current evidence is a compelling responsibility. Today ’s complicated health care landscape mandates a rapid pace of change to accommodate the most up-to-date regulations, evidence, and best practices. Caring for patients with varied musculoskeletal conditions requires a specialized body of knowledge and expertise. Skilled and knowledgeable nurses are empowered to provide excellent care, intervene to prevent injuries and complications, and maintain safety for the staff and for the patient. (Sour...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Tandy Gabbert Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Fighting the Epidemic
Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem that impacts quality of life. Fractures are a common consequence of poor bone health, resulting in enormous health care, personal, and socioeconomic burden. Bone health can be managed, and osteoporosis can be prevented and diagnosed before a fracture or subsequent fracture. Nurses should consider bone health assessment and counseling as part of their standard for all patients. The evidence-based information presented regarding prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment is intended to fight the osteoporosis epidemic, resulting in a reduction of the treatment gap and r...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 11, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Debra L. Sietsema Source Type: research

A Day in the Life
This article describes the preparation, role, and impact that today’s NPs have on orthopedic care delivery. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 9, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Michael E. Zychowicz Source Type: research

Osteoporosis: A Prototype for Orthopedic Degenerative Processes
As our population ages, there are many health care issues that emerge. It is well known that the elderly are more prone to polypharmacy and that prescribed drug-related issues among the US population have been more catastrophic for the elderly, with the exception perhaps of the matters associated with the opioid epidemic. More than half of the individuals who are over the age of 50 have some semblance of bone compromise, be it overall bone health, osteoporosis, or osteopenia. As the prevalence of these issues continues to rise, it is anticipated that fractures related to fragility will increase as the age of the population...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Building Innovative Nurse Leaders at the Point of Care
NURSING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Kelly A. Wolgast Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contributors
STEPHEN D. KRAU, PhD, RN, CNE (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Contents
Stephen D. Krau (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Orthopedic Nursing (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Nurses Leading Innovation
Nurses in today ’s complex health care environment have the knowledge, skill, and ability to lead change through innovation at the point of care. With the demand for greater access, the delivery of health care is now expanded beyond the traditional hospital setting. The point of care is far ranging from a physica l care setting to a virtual encounter using technology-supported communications between nurses and patients. In this issue of Nursing Clinics of North America, the focus is on sharing insights on how nurses are prepared as leaders to provide innovative care for our patients and to present thoughts o n how th...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Kelly A. Wolgast Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Is Emotional Intelligence an Important Trait for Nurse Managers and Leaders?
It has been suggested by Tyczkowski and colleagues1 that stress and lack of support for the role of nurse managers are among the reasons that less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles. 1 They suggest that the trait of resiliency enables one to adapt to adversity, and tension is integral to an effective nurse manager and is a predictor of a manager ’s success. As health care becomes more complex and continues to evolve, the skills, knowledge, and behaviors of nurse managers must also evolve. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - January 29, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Stephen D. Krau Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Clinical Decision Making at the Bedside
The complexity and rapidly changing environment of health care places significant pressure on nurses. How nurses make decisions within this environment has been an area of inquiry in the literature. Clinical decision making is the application of distinct thinking patterns and analysis of data at hand used to make judgements about patient care. Models of clinical decision making provide a foundation for understanding how nurses make decisions. Key factors associated with clinical decision making include experience, intuition, use of information and sources, and environment. Further work is needed to increase understanding o...
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Marie Ann Marino, Katherine Andrews, Julia Ward Source Type: research

Developing Nurses Through Mentoring
This article outlines the benefits and difficulties experienced by 1 faculty member in his crusade to mentor undergraduate nursing students. (Source: Nursing Clinics of North America)
Source: Nursing Clinics of North America - December 24, 2019 Category: Nursing Authors: Michael M. Evans, Kal éi Kowalchik, Kiernan Riley, Lucy Adams Source Type: research