Rotavirus molecular epidemiology in hospitalized patients, Northern Italy, 2015-2018.
Authors: Rovida F, Nepita EV, Giardina F, Piralla A, Campanini G, Baldanti F Abstract About 15,000 hospitalizations due to group A Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVA) are recorded each year in Italy. In the present study, we report the seasonal distribution and molecular characterization of RVA in pediatric and adult hospitalized patients in the period September 2015-April 2018 in Pavia province, Lombardy Region. During the study period, stool samples of 1450 patients with acute gastroenteritis were analyzed and 122 were RVA positive, the majority belonging to pediatric patients (94.0%) while only a minority of patient...
Source: New Microbiologica - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Strongyloides stercoralis: a rare and severe presentation in a pregnant woman.
Authors: Beltrán Rosel A, Sanjoaquín Conde I, Pérez Muñoz A, Alcalá PM, Marta CB, Irigoyen von Sierakowski A Abstract Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasitic nematode with a worldwide distribution. It can go from an asymptomatic infection to a life-threatening hyperinfection syndrome. Here, we report a case of intestinal obstruction due to S. stercoralis in a pregnant woman. This condition, as well as severe strongyloidiasis in pregnant women, is seldomly reported. In this case, Human Tlymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection was confirmed, a well-known risk factor for a more se...
Source: New Microbiologica - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Candida palmioleophila isolation in Italy from two cases of systemic infection, after a CHROMagar and Vitek system mis-identification as C.albicans.
Authors: Casagrande Pierantoni D, Bernardo M, Mallardo E, Carannante N, Attanasio V, Corte L, Roscini L, Di Fiore L, Tascini C, Cardinali G Abstract A correct, fast, reliable identification method is pivotal in nosocomial environments to guide treatment strategies, whereas misidentification might lead to treatment failure. For routine identifications the Vitek system and CHROMagar are widely used but not always reliable, especially now with an increasing number of new emerging fungal pathogens that need careful identification. Here we describe two cases of candidemia, due to Candida palmioleophila previously miside...
Source: New Microbiologica - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Differences between Community- and Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in a tertiary care hospital.
We reported a general increase of unnecessary urine cultures in both community and hospital patients. The most representative microorganism isolated from Community (58.2%) and Hospital (47.6%) was E. coli. UTIs causative bacteria in hospitalized patients was more than twice as resistant to Trimetoprim/sulphamethoxazole (OR 2.26) and Imipenem (OR 2.56), for Gram-positive and Gram-negative, respectively, than in Community patients. Nitrofurantoin was the only agent without differences in resistance rate between community and hospital UTIs. Therefore, physicians could use it as a definitive therapy for uncomplicated cystitis ...
Source: New Microbiologica - December 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Efficacy, Safety, and Predictors of Direct-acting antivirals in Hepatitis C Virus Patients with Heterogeneous Liver Diseases.
Authors: De Pace V, Morelli MC, Ravaioli M, Maggi F, Galli S, Vero V, Re MC, Cescon M, Pistello M Abstract Safety, efficacy, and predictor factors of sustained-virological-response after 24 weeks of new directacting antivirals were evaluated in hepatitis C virus patients with different stages of hepatic disease. 260 patients, median age 60 years, of whom 48.1% cirrhotics, 17.7% liver transplant recipients, and 45.7% naïve were treated with Sofosbuvir+Ribavirine, Sofosbuvir+Simeprevir±Ribavirine, Sofosbuvir+Daclatasvir±Ribavirine, Sofosbuvir+Ledispavir±Ribavirine, Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ri...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from pediatric and adult patients of two Polish hospitals.
Authors: Mrowiec P, Klesiewicz K, Małek M, Skiba-Kurek I, Sowa-Sierant I, Skałkowska M, Budak A, Karczewska E Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae due to the presence of multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms is one of the most threatening human pathogens nowadays. The aim of the study was to characterize antimicrobial susceptibility, presence of resistance mechanisms and the prevalence of selected genes encoding ESBLs in 170 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from children and adults hospitalized in two Polish medical centers from 2008 to 2015. The phenotypic identification of strains was confirmed by amplification o...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Fecal Microbial Transplantation impact on gut microbiota composition and metabolome, microbial translocation and T-lymphocyte immune activation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection patients.
Authors: Bruno G, Gagliardi A, Oliva A, Trancassini M, Macone A, Cicerone C, D'Abramo A, Iebba V, Auria S, Bonfiglio G, Zingaropoli MA, D'Ettorre G, Badiali D, Vullo V, Corazziari ES, Schippa S Abstract This short communication reports the preliminary results of Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT) impact on microbiota, microbial translocation (MT), and immune activation in four recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) patients. After FMT a restore of gut microbiota composition with a significant increase of fecal acetyl-putrescine and spermidine and fecal acetate and butyrate, a decrease of immune activa...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Alloscardovia Omnicolens emerging presence in premature rupture of membranes.
Authors: Cardona-Benavides I, Puertas-Prieto A, Pinilla-Martín FJ, Navarro-Marí JM, Gutiérrez-Fernández J Abstract Alloscardovia omnicolens is a recently-reported microorganism with unknown pathogenic implications. It has been isolated in various clinical localizations but not in the endocervix. We isolated A. omnicolens in an endocervical sample from a 31-yr-old patient with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in week 33+3 of pregnancy. The main risk of PPROM is prematurity and the possibility of developing infectious chorioamnionitis, which can be lethal for the mother and n...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Topical Rifampicin versus Povidone-Iodine for the Prevention of Incisional Surgical Site Infections Following Benign Gynecologic Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Authors: Karuserci ÖK, Sucu S, Özcan HÇ, Tepe NB, Uğur MG, Güneyligil T, Balat Ö Abstract In this prospective, randomized, controlled study we investigated the effect of subcutaneous rifampicin and povidone-iodine irrigation on incisional surgical site infection. Superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI) following gynecologic surgery is a serious problem for both patient and surgeon in terms of increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, anxiety, and costs. Three hundred patients scheduled for abdominal surgery due to various benign gynecological pathologies were randomly as...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Subcutaneous Human Dirofilariosis By D. Repens In South Italy: A Case Report.
Authors: Brindicci G, Santoro CR, Signorile F, Leone A, Di Ciaula G, Monno L, Angarano G Abstract Human dirofilariosis is a zoonosis caused by different Dirofilaria species: D. repens, D. immitis, D. tenuis and D. ursi, thin nematodes belonging to the Onchocercidae family, whose larval stages are generally found in the natural (felines and canids) or accidental (human) definitive host. In Europe, human infection is rare, even in areas considered endemic such as Spain or Italy. In this paper we describe the case of an 82-year-old woman living in Modugno (Bari municipality), who came to our observation for a subcutan...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Plasmodium vivax exflagellated microgametes in human peripheral blood: a potential diagnostic dilemma.
Authors: Camarlinghi G, Parisio EM, Nardone M, Mancini F, Ciervo A, Boccolini D, Mattei R Abstract Both malaria and relapsing fever Borrelia are infectious diseases characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, hepatosplenomegaly and tendency to relapse. Exflagellation of microgametocyte in malarial parasites is seen only in the definitive host, i.e., mosquitoes. Here we report an unusual case of a 23-year-old man who presented Plasmodium vivax infection with multiple exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear. PMID: 31524945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - September 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

H. pylori-miRNA interaction in gastric cancer tissues: First prospective study from Turkey.
Authors: Demiryas S, Kocazeybek B, Demirci M, Caliskan R, Kepil N, Uysal HK, Dinc HO, Saribas S, Ergin S, Erzin Y, Tasci İ, Erdamar S, Demirdag C, Tokman HB Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is involved in the etiology of gastric cancer (GC). miRNAs are short RNAs that regulate gene expression by marking mRNAs for degradation. miRNAs are involved in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cell proliferation. We aimed to investigate the miRNA expression profiles of tissues from H. pylori (+) and (-) GC patients. Forty GC patients, 20 H. pylori (+) and 20 H. pylori (-), and a healthy control group were included. The m...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in HIV-1 infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy: a case-control study.
Authors: Calza L, di Pietro G, Colangeli V, Borderi M, Zaghi I, Malosso P, Bon I, Re MC, Viale P Abstract The aim of our study was to assess risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency among HIV-1-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). A retrospective, case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency among HIV-1-infected adults on stable cART. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-OH vitamin D concentration 600 cells/mmc and current HIV RNA
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Early improvement of glycaemic control after virus clearance in patients with chronic hepatitis C and severe liver fibrosis: a cohort study.
Authors: Lanini S, Bartolini B, Taibi C, Agresta A, Garbuglia AR, Montaldo C, Pisapia R, D'Offizi G, Scognamiglio P, Capobianchi MR, Zumla A, Ippolito G Abstract HCV has been recognized as the cause of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) since 1990. CHC is associated with progressive liver damage and extrahepatic conditions. Direct antiviral agents (DAAs), approved in 2014, have shown effectiveness in eradicating HCV in most patients. However, little is known about the effect of viral eradication on hepatic and extra-hepatic damage. We performed a historical cohort study of patients with HCV-related liver diseases who achiev...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Occurrence of two Norovirus outbreaks in the same cafeteria in one week.
Authors: Monini M, Ostanello F, Vignolo E, Pagani E, Gamper S, Spertini S, Masi E, Rabini M, Stenico A, Poznanski E, Di Bartolo I Abstract In October 2017, two outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE) occurred among patrons of a cafeteria in Italy in one week. Virological and bacteria investigations on stool samples, environment and food were conducted to identify the infectious agents and the possible source of infection. Forty-five cases occurred in the two outbreaks, including 13 laboratory-confirmed cases of norovirus GI. Nine staff members were interviewed, six were confirmed positive for NoV GI and 3 experienced GE ...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

SLAM Project - Second-Level Diagnostic Assessment: Multidisciplinary approach to HIV Patients.
Authors: Di Biagio A, Bonfanti P, Madeddu G, De Socio G, Maggi P, Vichi F, Martinelli C, Menzaghi B, Orofino G, Squillace N, Ricci E, Acone B, Quirino T, C.I.S.A.I. Group Abstract The aim of the study is to propose a multidimensional second-level diagnostic assessment to allow follow-up in the event physicians observe the presence of risk factors and/or active comorbidities in HIV-infected patients. To develop our proposal, we chose the Delphi method that has been used for about 30 years in the healthcare field. The CISAI Group (Coordinamento Italiano per lo Studio dell'Allergia in Infezione da HIV) conducted this ...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic variations in macrolide resistance genes of Ureaplasma spp. isolated in China.
Authors: Song T, Huang J, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Kong Y, Ruan Z Abstract Macrolides are widely used for the treatment of Ureaplasma spp. infection. The aim of this study was to investigate possible genetic resistance determinants in Ureaplasma spp. isolates. A total of eleven macrolide-resistant Ureaplasma spp. isolates, recovered from urogenital specimens, were investigated for genetic mechanisms of macrolide resistance. The 23S rRNA operons, as well as L4 and L22 ribosomal protein genes, were amplified and sequenced. Our study identified that the mutation A2066G in the 23S rRNA and four mutations (G361T, A406G, C422T an...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Cranial nerve palsy: an unusual presentation of a fulminant fungal disease.
We report a case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis, which commenced as cranial nerve palsy, in a woman with ignored diabetes mellitus. Mucormycosis should therefore be taken into consideration during the differential diagnosis of cranial nerve palsy, especially in diabetic or immunocompromised patients. PMID: 31305937 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Uncommon testicular localization of Disseminated TB: a case report from Mozambique.
We reported the case of a 45-year-old male, HIV positive, naïve to antiretroviral treatment, admitted to the Department of Medicine of the Central Hospital of Beira to investigate chronic enlargement of the testicles. PMID: 31305938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Point-of-care testing for hepatitis C virus infection at an Italian dental clinic: portrait of the pilot study population.
This study aimed to determine the socio-demographic profile of subjects screened for HCV virus in a dental clinic to acquire useful information for future campaigns of prevention. An easy, free-of-charge, screen salivary test was offered to patients referred to the dental clinic of San Raffaele Scientific Research Hospital in Milan, Italy for dental procedures. These patients were also asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire on demographics and risk behaviours. A total of 1388 of 2097 (66.19%) questionnaires were evaluable. The demographics of the population responding to this initiative was primarily Italians citizen...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Syphilis in a high-density urban area in the North of Italy.
In this study, we evaluated the presence and characteristics of syphilis in a group of patients attending an STI Clinic in the North of Italy. A retrospective study was carried out, analysing the data from the 5609 subjects who attended the STI Clinic of St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital (Bologna) for syphilis screening from January 2016 to December 2017. Globally, 692 patients (12.3%) were found positive for treponemal tests, with a significant difference between males and females (16.6% vs 4.1%; P
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Predictors of time to sputum smear conversion in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis under treatment.
This study aims to ascertain the time to sputum conversion in patients with smear-positive P-TB under treatment, and the variables associated with time to smear conversion. We retrospectively evaluated the time to sputum smear conversion of 89 patients with smearpositive P-TB undergoing treatment at the S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna (Italy), a referral centre for the diagnosis of TB. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to document variables independently associated with time to conversion. Median time to sputum smear conversion was 24 days (IQR 12-54); the sputum smear converted within the ...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

A Position Paper on IgM-Enriched Intravenous Immunoglobulin Adjunctive Therapy in Severe Acute Bacterial Infections: The TO-PIRO SCORE Proposal.
Authors: De Rosa FG, Corcione S, Tascini C, Pasero D, Rocchetti A, Massaia M, Berlot G, Solidoro P, Girardis M Abstract IgM-enriched immunoglobulins (IgM) may be useful in patients with severe acute bacterial infections. The evidence for the administration of IgM is not extensive and a definitive consensus has never been reached on its best use in patients with acute infections as well as in critically ill patients. However, the official indication in several countries, including Italy, is quite wide and mainly refers to supportive treatment of patients with acute severe bacterial infections. A multidisciplinary me...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Nonstructural Protein NP1 of Human Bocavirus 1 suppresses the growth of A549 cell by promoting autophagy.
This study provides insight into further elucidating the replication mechanism of HBoV1. PMID: 31157401 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Hepatitis A outbreak affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Italy.
Authors: Mauro MV, Greco F, Tenuta R, Apuzzo G, Costantino A, Bruni R, Equestre M, Ciccaglione AR, Giraldi C, Mastroianni A Abstract From April to October 2017, 27 cases of Hepatitis A (HA), 22 male and 5 female, were reported in Cosenza (South Italy). The median age of cases was 32 years (range 3-49 years). Out of 21 male adults, 14 were identified as men who have sex with men (MSM). Phylogenetic analysis was conducted in 15 cases and revealed two distinct sequences of genotype IA linking to clusters recognised in MSM in other European countries in 2016; genotype IB was recognized in only 2 cases. The report confi...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Genomic Characterization of an ST1153 PVL-producing Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolate in Italy.
Authors: Rimoldi SG, Comandatore F, Longhi E, Romeri F, Piazza A, Pagani C, Tamoni A, Longobardi C, Negri C, Bestetti G, Gervasoni C, Perini M, Antinori S, Bandi C, Gismondo MR Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones are rapidly increasing beyond the hospital into the community, livestock farming and environmental settings (Lepuschitz S et al. 2018). An Italian man, a professional diver working in Egypt, was admitted to Infectious Diseases Clinic- ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco for ulcerative skin lesions. An MRSA strain was isolated from the lesions' purulent exudate and the nasal colonizat...
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

CTX-M-15-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Molecular epidemiology and MALDI-TOF MS.
Authors: Pavoni Gomes Chagas T, da Silva Caldeira LF, Vidal Pedinotti Zuma A, Cassiano de Oliveira I, D'Alincourt Carvalho-Assef AP, Dutra Asensi M, Piffano Costa Pellegrino FL Abstract Because of the high prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing urinary tract infections in Rio de Janeiro, we have investigated bla-CTX-M-15 gene presence, as well as CTXM- 15 production, in 32 E. coli isolates recovered from the urine of outpatients assisted at a public hospital located in the west zone of Rio. Molecular epidemiology was assessed by PFGE and phylotyping methods. The work highlights the good ...
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Low prevalence of Gemycircularvirus DNA in immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects.
Authors: Macera L, Spezia PG, Medici C, Falasca F, Sciandra I, Antonelli G, Focosi D, Pistello M, Maggi F Abstract Gemycircularviruses (GemyCV) are a vast array of viruses belonging to the Genomoviridae family. Prevalence and pathogenesis in humans are still poorly understood. Different GemyCV species were investigated in 661 Italian subjects by species-specific PCRs. Only the GemyCV-C1c species was detected, with low prevalence and the highest rate in HIV immunosuppressed patients. PMID: 31034081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Laboratory validation of a KPC-producing strain identification method based on the detection of a specific 11,109 Da peak via Maldi-Tof-Vitek MS in an endemic area.
Authors: Centonze AR, Bragantini M, Lucchini E, Mazzariol A Abstract Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Vitek MS system is a useful technique to identify bacteria strains isolated in clinical samples. In this paper, we applied this method to KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae detection through the determination of a specific 11,109 (±8) Da peak. We assayed the presence, specificity and reliability of this peak on routine workflow through the analysis of 183 Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from clinical samples and characterized by classical approaches. The peak was detec...
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Streptococcus spp. and Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue dorsum biofilm from halitosis patients: a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study.
Authors: Bernardi S, Continenza MA, Al-Ahmad A, Karygianni L, Follo M, Filippi A, Macchiarelli G Abstract The present study involved a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of tongue dorsum biofilms sampled from halitosis patients and healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to quantify the distribution of Streptococcus spp. and Fusobacterium nucleatum within the oral halitosis biofilm in order to highlight the role of these bacterial members in halitosis. Tongue plaque samples from four halitosis-diagnosed patients and four healthy volunteers were analyzed and compared. The visualization and quantification o...
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

First prospective comparison of genotypic versus phenotypic tropism assays in predicting virologic responses to maraviroc in a phase 3 study.
Authors: Heera J, Valluri SR, Craig C, Fang A, Thomas N, Meyer RD, Lewis ME, van der Ryst E, Demarest J Abstract Maraviroc (MVC, a CCR5 antagonist) is only fully active against CCR5 tropic [R5] HIV-1, and tropism testing is required prior to initiating treatment. The MODERN study prospectively compared genotypic (GTT) and phenotypic (Trofile®) tropism testing with treatment-naive HIV-1-infected participants randomized 1:1 to either GTT or Trofile tropism assessments. Participants with R5 virus were randomized 1:1 to receive darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) with either MVC or tenofovir/emtricitabine. Screening sample...
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Efficacy of the "first wave" Direct Acting antivirals against HCV infection: results from the Italian LINA (Liver Network Activity) cohort.
Efficacy of the "first wave" Direct Acting antivirals against HCV infection: results from the Italian LINA (Liver Network Activity) cohort. New Microbiol. 2019 Apr 29;41(2) Authors: Gentile I, Buonomo AR, Coppola C, Staiano L, Amoruso DC, Saturnino MR, Maraolo AE, Portunato F, De Pascalis S, Martini S, Crispo M, Macera M, Pinchera B, Zappulo E, Scotto R, Coppola N Abstract Approximately 71 million people are chronically infected with HCV worldwide. Recently, interferon-free therapies effective against HCV became available and nowadays, therapeutic strategies include a combination of two or th...
Source: New Microbiologica - May 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Acute Community-Acquired Bacterial Meningitis: Update on Clinical Presentation and Prognostic factors.
Authors: Fuentes-Antrás J, Ramírez-Torres M, Osorio-Martínez E, Lorente M, Lorenzo-Almorós A, Lorenzo O, Górgolas M Abstract The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis (CABM) in adults has changed significantly in the past several years. Despite substantial improvement in patient care, CABM remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Thus, new prognostic factors could help improve patient stratification. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to determine the clinical pattern of CABM in an urban area of Western Europe and to identify potential predic...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the LIAISON ®XL and ARCHITECT IgG, IgM, and IgG avidity assays for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, and rubella virus infections.
This study compared the performance of the LIAISON®XL system of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM immunoassays for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and rubella virus infections with that of the ARCHITECT system. Patient serum samples, previously screened and clinically diagnosed with T. gondii, CMV or rubella, were used to compare LIAISON®XL and ARCHITECT IgG and IgM immunoassays. LIAISON®XL Toxo and CMV IgG avidity assays were also compared with equivalent ARCHITECT assays and reference methods. Overall agreement between the LIAISON®XL and ARCHITECT assays was 99% and 92% for the Toxo...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a patient suffering from duodenal ulcer with perforation: First case report from Italy.
We report here the first case of GIB diagnosed in Italy in a patient suffering from a duodenal ulcer with perforation. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole. The absence of non-specific signs and symptoms of GIB may delay a definitive diagnosis and treatment. A microbiological investigation should always be requested in order to reach a rapid and definitive diagnosis and to rule out other intestinal diseases. PMID: 30994179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - April 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Outbreak of Brucella melitensis infection in Eastern Sicily: risk factors, clinical characteristics and complication rate.
Authors: Cama BAV, Ceccarelli M, Venanzi Rullo E, Ferraiolo F, Paolucci IA, Maranto D, Mondello P, Lo Presti Costantino MR, Marano F, D'Andrea G, Di Marco V, Puglisi G, Valenzise M, D'Angelo G, Mondello L, Strano G, Condorelli F, Spicola D, Nunnari G, Pellicanò GF Abstract Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, especially in Southern Italy, where many cases are still recorded every year. 128 cases of brucellosis were observed in Messina (Sicily) in 2016, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cases of brucellosis expected. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of novel synthetic lignan-like compounds.
Authors: Vollaro A, Catania MR, Iesce MR, Sferruzza R, D'Abrosca B, Donnarumma G, De Filippis A, Cermola F, DellaGreca M, Buommino E Abstract Antibiotic resistance and biofilm tolerance are among the principal factors involved in the persistence of chronic infections. The need for new antimicrobials is an ever-increasing challenge in clinical environments and in the control of global health. Arylfurans form a set of structures that have been identified in many natural products, e.g. lignans. Lignans are a sub-group of non-flavonoid polyphenols that play an active role in plants' defense against bacteria and fungi i...
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

A case report of esophageal actinomycosis in an immunocompetent patient and review of the literature.
We report a case of esophageal actinomycosis in an immunocompetent 23-year-old man. The patient was admitted with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), that had subsequently worsened. Histological and microbiological investigations revealed the presence of Actinomyces spp. A review of the literature regarding the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of this infection is also discussed. PMID: 30785207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Neonatal pertussis diagnosis: low procalcitonin level and high lymphocyte count are able to discriminate pertussis from bacterial and viral infections.
We describe the use of procalcitonin (PCT) and lymphocyte count to discriminate among pertussis, bacterial and viral infections. Fourteen infants per group were studied. The decision tree, built considering all available variables, showed a major role of PCT in predicting the different groups. A PCT value equal to or greater than 0.75 ng/ml selected for bacterial infections. A PCT value lower than 0.75 ng/ml and a lymphocyte count equal to or greater than 10,400/mm3 selected the subjects with pertussis, while a lymphocyte count lower than 10,400/mm3 selected for viral etiology. PCT should be used in the diagnosis of infant...
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Italian expert panel consensus statements on two-drug antiretroviral regimens to treat na ïve and virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected patients.
Italian expert panel consensus statements on two-drug antiretroviral regimens to treat naïve and virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected patients. New Microbiol. 2019 Feb 20;42(1) Authors: Antinori A, Santoro MM, Gagliardini R, Marchetti G, Mondi A, Cento V, Perno CF, Andreoni M, Two-Drug Antiretroviral Regimens expert panel Abstract New strategies for HIV treatment able to reduce drug-exposure, medium-long term toxicities and costs are a recognized clinical need. The availability of newer drugs with improved potency and tolerability, as well as high genetic barrier to resistance, makes antiretrov...
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

First Report and In Silico Analysis of Leishmania virus (LRV2) identified in an autochthonous Leishmania major isolate in Turkey.
Authors: Kurt Ö, Mansur N, Çavuş İ, Özcan O, Batir MB, Gündüz C, Sezerman OU, Özbilgin A Abstract Leishmania virus (LRV) has previously been identified in different Leishmania species. Host-LRV interaction is associated with exacerbated clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and may cause poor therapeutic response. CL cases due to L. major with large skin lesions resistant to routine therapy were recently identified in Turkey. Here, we report the first autochthonous case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by LRV-positive Leishmania major, using conventional PCR targ...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection/re-infection: development of a protective HCMV vaccine.
Authors: Gerna G, Lilleri D Abstract In recent years, one of the main objectives in the field of medical virology has been the development of a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) vaccine that can prevent congenital HCMV infection in the offspring of pregnant women as well as systemic and end-organ disease in immunocompromised (AIDS and transplanted) patients. Major obstacles to the development of an efficacious HCMV vaccine are lack of protection provided by immune memory cells against HCMV re-activation (replication relapse of a latent strain following primary infection) and HCMV re-infection (infection of a seropositiv...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Myocarditis requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support following Influenza B infection: a case report and literature review.
Authors: Marchetti L, Gandolfo C, Maglioni E, Contorni M, Arena F, Cusi MG Abstract Seasonal influenza A (IA) and B (IB) viruses co-circulate every year, causing respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages. Recently, the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and acute myocardial infarction has been clearly demonstrated. However, most of the reported cases of fulminant myocarditis had been associated with influenza virus type A infection. Here we report the case of a 44 y/o man who experienced myocarditis with cardiogenic shock [requiring percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygen...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Ultrasound affects minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.
Authors: Selan L, Papa R, Barbato G, Scoarughi GL, Vrenna G, Artini M Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious global public health problems. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to counteract bacterial resistance development. The aim of the present study was to enhance the activity of antibiotics to bacteria by using ultrasound. Ultrasound reduced the dosage of ampicillin required to impair bacterial viability. PMID: 30671583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeting Bacillus cereus cells: increasing efficiency of antimicrobials by the bornylpossessing 2(5 Н)-furanone derivative.
Targeting Bacillus cereus cells: increasing efficiency of antimicrobials by the bornylpossessing 2(5Н)-furanone derivative. New Microbiol. 2019 Jan 23;42(1) Authors: Sharafutdinov IS, Pavlova AS, Khabibrakhmanova AM, Faizova RG, Kurbangalieva AR, Tanaka K, Trizna EY, Baidamshina DR, Bogachev MI, Kayumov AR Abstract Among a variety of antimicrobial compounds, the derivatives of 2(5H)-furanone exhibit different effects on Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. While inhibiting quorum-dependent biofilm formation and virulence factor expression by Gram-negative bacteria through specific interference with the AI-2...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Nasopharingeal bacterial and fungal colonization in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative adults.
Authors: Rossetti B, Lombardi F, Belmonti S, D'Andrea MM, Tordini G, D'Avino A, Borghetti A, Moschese D, De Luca A, Montagnani F Abstract To compare mucosal flora in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects, to assess chemosusceptibility patterns of carriage isolates and to evaluate possible predisposing factors within the two groups. We analyzed microbes isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs in virologically suppressed and immunologically stable HIV-positive adult outpatients (n=105) at baseline and after 12 months and in an age-matched cohort of HIV-negative outpatients (n=100) at baseline. Bacteria and Candida spp st...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Evidence-based renewal of the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons.
Authors: Antinori A, Di Biagio A, Marcotullio S, Sarmati L, Andreoni M, Angarano G, Chirianni A, d'Arminio Monforte A, Di Perri G, Galli M, Gianotti N, Girardi E, Gori A, Mussini C, Perno CF, Lazzarin A Abstract The Italian Society for Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) in collaboration with the Technical Health Committee (Sections L and M) of the Italian Ministry of Health have supported the renewal of the recommendations for the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. This publication summarizes the latest updates to the 2017 ...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Outbreak of Brucella melitensis infection in Eastern Sicily: risk factors, clinical characteristics and complication rate.
Authors: Cama BAV, Ceccarelli M, Venanzi Rullo E, Ferraiolo F, Paolucci IA, Maranto D, Mondello P, Lo Presti Costantino MR, Marano F, D'Andrea G, Di Marco V, Puglisi G, Valenzise M, D'Angelo G, Mondello L, Strano G, Condorelli F, Spicola D, Nunnari G, Pellicanò GF Abstract Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, especially in Southern Italy, where many cases are still recorded every year. 128 cases of brucellosis were observed in Messina (Sicily) in 2016, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cases of brucellosis expected. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Immunovirological outcome and HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of HIV-1-infected patients deintensificated from Abacavir/Lamivudine/Dolutegravir to Lamivudine plus Dolutegravir.
This report investigated the immunovirological outcome and total HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of naïve HIV-1-positive patients treated with this regimen. In the presence of viral suppression and increased lymphocyte T CD4+ cells, the quantitative analysis of total HIV-1 DNA content revealed a significant decay after 12 months of treatment. Subsequently, we deintensificated the treatment of these patients from (ABC/3TC/DTG) to lamivudine plus dolutegravir (3TC/DTG) after 12 months of virological suppression, as a strategy of "induction-maintenance" therapy. The analysis of HIV-1 RNA viral load, total HIV...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Is the Unyvero i60 ITI multiplex PCR system a promising test in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis from heart valves?
Authors: Loïez C, Wallet F Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the new commercial Unyvero i60 ITI multiplex PCR system (Curetis, Holzgerlingen, Germany) on native cardiac valves in comparison with made in-house 16S rRNA PCR amplification (91E/13BS primers) and conventional microbiological techniques. Forty-four patients (30 men, 14 women) with suspected infective endocarditis (IE) were included in this evaluation corresponding to 30 aortic valves and 14 mitral valves. IE was definite for 40 patients using the modified Duke criteria. 16S rRNA PCR amplification was successful in 22 patients (55%). The...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research