Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of novel synthetic lignan-like compounds.
Authors: Vollaro A, Catania MR, Iesce MR, Sferruzza R, D'Abrosca B, Donnarumma G, De Filippis A, Cermola F, DellaGreca M, Buommino E Abstract Antibiotic resistance and biofilm tolerance are among the principal factors involved in the persistence of chronic infections. The need for new antimicrobials is an ever-increasing challenge in clinical environments and in the control of global health. Arylfurans form a set of structures that have been identified in many natural products, e.g. lignans. Lignans are a sub-group of non-flavonoid polyphenols that play an active role in plants' defense against bacteria and fungi i...
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

A case report of esophageal actinomycosis in an immunocompetent patient and review of the literature.
We report a case of esophageal actinomycosis in an immunocompetent 23-year-old man. The patient was admitted with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), that had subsequently worsened. Histological and microbiological investigations revealed the presence of Actinomyces spp. A review of the literature regarding the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of this infection is also discussed. PMID: 30785207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Neonatal pertussis diagnosis: low procalcitonin level and high lymphocyte count are able to discriminate pertussis from bacterial and viral infections.
We describe the use of procalcitonin (PCT) and lymphocyte count to discriminate among pertussis, bacterial and viral infections. Fourteen infants per group were studied. The decision tree, built considering all available variables, showed a major role of PCT in predicting the different groups. A PCT value equal to or greater than 0.75 ng/ml selected for bacterial infections. A PCT value lower than 0.75 ng/ml and a lymphocyte count equal to or greater than 10,400/mm3 selected the subjects with pertussis, while a lymphocyte count lower than 10,400/mm3 selected for viral etiology. PCT should be used in the diagnosis of infant...
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Italian expert panel consensus statements on two-drug antiretroviral regimens to treat na ïve and virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected patients.
Italian expert panel consensus statements on two-drug antiretroviral regimens to treat naïve and virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected patients. New Microbiol. 2019 Feb 20;42(1) Authors: Antinori A, Santoro MM, Gagliardini R, Marchetti G, Mondi A, Cento V, Perno CF, Andreoni M, Two-Drug Antiretroviral Regimens expert panel Abstract New strategies for HIV treatment able to reduce drug-exposure, medium-long term toxicities and costs are a recognized clinical need. The availability of newer drugs with improved potency and tolerability, as well as high genetic barrier to resistance, makes antiretrov...
Source: New Microbiologica - February 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

First Report and In Silico Analysis of Leishmania virus (LRV2) identified in an autochthonous Leishmania major isolate in Turkey.
Authors: Kurt Ö, Mansur N, Çavuş İ, Özcan O, Batir MB, Gündüz C, Sezerman OU, Özbilgin A Abstract Leishmania virus (LRV) has previously been identified in different Leishmania species. Host-LRV interaction is associated with exacerbated clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and may cause poor therapeutic response. CL cases due to L. major with large skin lesions resistant to routine therapy were recently identified in Turkey. Here, we report the first autochthonous case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by LRV-positive Leishmania major, using conventional PCR targ...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection/re-infection: development of a protective HCMV vaccine.
Authors: Gerna G, Lilleri D Abstract In recent years, one of the main objectives in the field of medical virology has been the development of a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) vaccine that can prevent congenital HCMV infection in the offspring of pregnant women as well as systemic and end-organ disease in immunocompromised (AIDS and transplanted) patients. Major obstacles to the development of an efficacious HCMV vaccine are lack of protection provided by immune memory cells against HCMV re-activation (replication relapse of a latent strain following primary infection) and HCMV re-infection (infection of a seropositiv...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Myocarditis requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support following Influenza B infection: a case report and literature review.
Authors: Marchetti L, Gandolfo C, Maglioni E, Contorni M, Arena F, Cusi MG Abstract Seasonal influenza A (IA) and B (IB) viruses co-circulate every year, causing respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages. Recently, the association between laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and acute myocardial infarction has been clearly demonstrated. However, most of the reported cases of fulminant myocarditis had been associated with influenza virus type A infection. Here we report the case of a 44 y/o man who experienced myocarditis with cardiogenic shock [requiring percutaneous extracorporeal membrane oxygen...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Ultrasound affects minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.
Authors: Selan L, Papa R, Barbato G, Scoarughi GL, Vrenna G, Artini M Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious global public health problems. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to counteract bacterial resistance development. The aim of the present study was to enhance the activity of antibiotics to bacteria by using ultrasound. Ultrasound reduced the dosage of ampicillin required to impair bacterial viability. PMID: 30671583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Targeting Bacillus cereus cells: increasing efficiency of antimicrobials by the bornylpossessing 2(5 Н)-furanone derivative.
Targeting Bacillus cereus cells: increasing efficiency of antimicrobials by the bornylpossessing 2(5Н)-furanone derivative. New Microbiol. 2019 Jan 23;42(1) Authors: Sharafutdinov IS, Pavlova AS, Khabibrakhmanova AM, Faizova RG, Kurbangalieva AR, Tanaka K, Trizna EY, Baidamshina DR, Bogachev MI, Kayumov AR Abstract Among a variety of antimicrobial compounds, the derivatives of 2(5H)-furanone exhibit different effects on Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. While inhibiting quorum-dependent biofilm formation and virulence factor expression by Gram-negative bacteria through specific interference with the AI-2...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Nasopharingeal bacterial and fungal colonization in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative adults.
Authors: Rossetti B, Lombardi F, Belmonti S, D'Andrea MM, Tordini G, D'Avino A, Borghetti A, Moschese D, De Luca A, Montagnani F Abstract To compare mucosal flora in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects, to assess chemosusceptibility patterns of carriage isolates and to evaluate possible predisposing factors within the two groups. We analyzed microbes isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs in virologically suppressed and immunologically stable HIV-positive adult outpatients (n=105) at baseline and after 12 months and in an age-matched cohort of HIV-negative outpatients (n=100) at baseline. Bacteria and Candida spp st...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Evidence-based renewal of the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons.
Authors: Antinori A, Di Biagio A, Marcotullio S, Sarmati L, Andreoni M, Angarano G, Chirianni A, d'Arminio Monforte A, Di Perri G, Galli M, Gianotti N, Girardi E, Gori A, Mussini C, Perno CF, Lazzarin A Abstract The Italian Society for Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) in collaboration with the Technical Health Committee (Sections L and M) of the Italian Ministry of Health have supported the renewal of the recommendations for the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. This publication summarizes the latest updates to the 2017 ...
Source: New Microbiologica - January 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Outbreak of Brucella melitensis infection in Eastern Sicily: risk factors, clinical characteristics and complication rate.
Authors: Cama BAV, Ceccarelli M, Venanzi Rullo E, Ferraiolo F, Paolucci IA, Maranto D, Mondello P, Lo Presti Costantino MR, Marano F, D'Andrea G, Di Marco V, Puglisi G, Valenzise M, D'Angelo G, Mondello L, Strano G, Condorelli F, Spicola D, Nunnari G, Pellicanò GF Abstract Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, especially in Southern Italy, where many cases are still recorded every year. 128 cases of brucellosis were observed in Messina (Sicily) in 2016, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cases of brucellosis expected. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Immunovirological outcome and HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of HIV-1-infected patients deintensificated from Abacavir/Lamivudine/Dolutegravir to Lamivudine plus Dolutegravir.
This report investigated the immunovirological outcome and total HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of naïve HIV-1-positive patients treated with this regimen. In the presence of viral suppression and increased lymphocyte T CD4+ cells, the quantitative analysis of total HIV-1 DNA content revealed a significant decay after 12 months of treatment. Subsequently, we deintensificated the treatment of these patients from (ABC/3TC/DTG) to lamivudine plus dolutegravir (3TC/DTG) after 12 months of virological suppression, as a strategy of "induction-maintenance" therapy. The analysis of HIV-1 RNA viral load, total HIV...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Is the Unyvero i60 ITI multiplex PCR system a promising test in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis from heart valves?
Authors: Loïez C, Wallet F Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the new commercial Unyvero i60 ITI multiplex PCR system (Curetis, Holzgerlingen, Germany) on native cardiac valves in comparison with made in-house 16S rRNA PCR amplification (91E/13BS primers) and conventional microbiological techniques. Forty-four patients (30 men, 14 women) with suspected infective endocarditis (IE) were included in this evaluation corresponding to 30 aortic valves and 14 mitral valves. IE was definite for 40 patients using the modified Duke criteria. 16S rRNA PCR amplification was successful in 22 patients (55%). The...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida and Candida albicans in oral cancer patients.
Authors: Nawaz A, Mäkinen A, Pärnänen P, Meurman JH Abstract Oral Candida infections can be life-threatening in medically compromised patients. In particular non-albicans Candida strains are virulent. However, our knowledge is sparse on how proteolytic these strains are in patients with oral cancer. Our study aimed to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida and Candida albicans isolated from oral cancer patients. The hypothesis was based on anticipated different invasive capacity of the strains. Clinical and reference yeast samples from our laboratory were used for ana...
Source: New Microbiologica - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

HPV infection and pre-neoplastic cervical lesions among 321 HIV+ women in Florence, Italy, 2006-2016: prevalence and associated factors.
Authors: Fusco FM, Vichi F, Bisanzi S, Sani C, Degli Esposti A, Blè C, Rossi R, Pompeo G, Carozzi F, Blanc P Abstract Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at higher risk for HPV-related malignancies. To estimate the factors associated to HPV infection and to pre-neoplastic cervical lesions, we observed 321 WLWH in an HIV care-centre in Florence, Italy. In 2006-2016, WLWH followed at S.Maria Annunziata Hospital underwent to gynaecological examination including HPV-test, Pap-smear, colposcopy and, if needed, cervical biopsy. Demographical and clinical information were collected and linear logistic regression was p...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Glomerular filtration rate estimated by cystatin C formulas in HIV-1 patients treated with dolutegravir, rilpivirine or cobicistat.
Authors: Galizzi N, Galli L, Poli A, Spagnuolo V, Castagna A, Gianotti N Abstract As dolutegravir (DTG), rilpivirine (RPV) and cobicistat affect creatinine, but not cystatin C, tubular transport or serum concentration, the aim of the study was to compare estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) calculated by means of a standard creatinine formula with those calculated by means of the cystatin C formula in patients receiving these drugs. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected patients with eGFR
Source: New Microbiologica - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori infection: antibiotic resistance and eradication rate in patients with gastritis showing previous treatment failures.
Authors: Mascellino MT, Oliva A, De Angelis M, Pontone S, Porowska B Abstract Forty patients infected by Helicobacter pylori were studied. The treatment was based on the positivity or negativity of cultures (tailored therapy or empiric therapy). The eradication rate was 68% and 82% respectively. Genotypic susceptibility testing proved very useful in case of heteroresistance or mixed infections that represent a real problem possibly leading to a resistance underestimation. Real-time PCR detected the resistant population at a very low concentration not detectable by phenotypic tests. Bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI, b...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates resistant to last-line antibiotics in an Italian general hospital.
Authors: Ferranti M, Schiaroli E, Palmieri MI, Repetto A, Vecchiarelli A, Francisci D, Mencacci A, Monari C Abstract The global dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is of great concern for public health. These bacteria have the potential for rapid dissemination in healthcare settings and cause infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A total of 221 carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from patients admitted to an Italian general hospital from January 2016 to March 2017. Among these isolates, 78.3% were carbapenemase producers: 96...
Source: New Microbiologica - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Tuberculosis transmission among children and adolescents in schools and other congregate settings: a systematic review.
Authors: Schepisi MS, Motta I, Dore S, Costa C, Sotgiu G, Girardi E Abstract Children, especially those aged
Source: New Microbiologica - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Distribution of different HBV DNA forms in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronically infected patients with low or undetectable HBV plasma viremia.
Authors: Vicenti I, Rossetti B, Mariano S, Saladini F, Montagnani F, Zazzi M, De Luca A Abstract Few studies have documented hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We developed real-time PCR methods for differential amplification of covalently closed circular (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA (tDNA). The different distribution of cccDNA and tDNA in plasma and PBMCs was evaluated in 37 patients with low or undetectable viremia. Plasma tDNA measured by the Abbott reference system and the in-house assay correlated well (Spearman rho = 0.804; P
Source: New Microbiologica - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the T-cell response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as detected by cytokine flow cytometry and QuantiFERON-CMV assay in HCMV-seropositive kidney transplant recipients.
Authors: Gabanti E, Lilleri D, Scaramuzzi L, Zelini P, Rampino T, Gerna G Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) helps to identify patients at risk for severe infection. To assess the T-cell response, this study compared our in-house developed reference test, based on T-cell (both CD4+ and CD8+) stimulation by autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) and subsequent detection by cytokine flow cytometry (CFC-iDC), with the QuantiFERON-CMV (QF-CMV) assay. Fifty-three HCMVseropositive KTR were enrolled. At the DNAemia peak, 33 (62%) had low viral load ...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

A first molecular characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates circulating in humans from 2009 to 2014 in the Italian Veneto region.
Authors: Salata C, Lisotto P, Boldrin C, De Canale E, Piccirillo A, Calistri A, Palù G Abstract Listeriosis is a disease usually associated with the consumption of low-processed ready-to-eat food products contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. In Italy, listeriosis has an incidence of 0.19-0.27 cases per 100 000 persons. Since detailed information concerning the molecular characterization of listeriosis in the Italian Veneto region is currently lacking, we analyzed 36 L. monocytogenes clinical isolates collected between 2009 and 2014. Results show that the serotype 1/2a was the most represented among the te...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of ST1702 Escherichia coli blaNDM-5 and blaCMY-42 genes positive isolates from a Northern Italian hospital.
We describe two multi drug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates from an acute hospital in Milan. Both strains, isolated from a surgical wound sample and a surveillance rectal swab respectively, were positive for a blaNDM-type gene by Xpert Carba-R test. The whole-genome sequence characterization disclosed several resistance determinants: blaNDM-5, blaCMY-42, blaTEM-198, rmtB, mphA. The two isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A, sequence type (ST) 1702 and serotype O89:H9. PCR-based replicon typing and conjugation assay demonstrated an IncI1 plasmid localization for both blaNDM-5 an...
Source: New Microbiologica - July 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial biofilm associated with a case of capsular contracture.
Authors: Conte MP, Superti F, Moio M, Ammendolia MG, Longhi C, Aleandri M, Marazzato M, Goldoni P, Parisi P, Borab Z, Palamara AT, Carlesimo B Abstract Capsular contracture is one of the most common complications of implant-based breast augmentation. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of capsular contracture remains controversial although the surface texture of the breast implant, the anatomical position of the prosthesis and the presence of bacterial biofilm could be considered trigger factors. In fact, all medical implants are susceptible to bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. The present study demons...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens in mycobacteria growth indicator tube medium.
In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a technique capable of performing accurate, rapid, cost-effective, and easy identification of NTM isolates. PMID: 29874386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. extract inhibits the early step of herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 replication.
Authors: Bonvicini F, Lianza M, Mandrone M, Poli F, Gentilomi GA, Antognoni F Abstract Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause several clinically relevant syndromes in both adults and neonates. Despite the availability of efficient anti-HSV agents, the search for new therapeutic approaches is highly encouraged due to the increasing drug resistance of virus strains. Medicinal plants represent a source of potential bioactive compounds. In this context we evaluated the anti-herpetic activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., a plant widely used in traditional Indian medicine. The hydroalcoholic extra...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections: data analysis from clinical practice.
This study aimed to analyse the correlation and combination of diagnostic results obtained from direct and indirect assays (Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA by PCR and serology) in use at a first level diagnostic laboratory. Samples from patients with respiratory infections tested for M. pneumoniae during routine clinical practice were retrospectively analysed. In pediatric patients
Source: New Microbiologica - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Thymol, eugenol and lactobacilli in a medical device for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Authors: Murina F, Vicariotto F, Di Francesco S Abstract The aim of this non-interventional, observational, multicentre, open-label study was to assess the effectiveness of a vaginal gel containing extracts of Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllus in conjunction with two specific lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP02) specifically formulated in slow-release vaginal capsules, in treating bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis disease (RVVC) [Estromineral Probiogel (EPB) in Italy, or Saugella Probiogel; Meda Pharm...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus vaccine preclinical and clinical development: current state of the art.
Authors: Redi D, Raffaelli CS, Rossetti B, De Luca A, Montagnani F Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in both community and hospital settings. It is a significant etiological agent to treat in healthcare-related infections due to both its ability to cause invasive infection as well as to form biofilm on biomaterials and the high prevalence of resistance to first line antibiotics. The most challenging preventive strategy is vaccine development to guarantee a full and durable protection from staphylococcal diseases in all different high-risk populations, even if the lack of a known correlate of protec...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Managing the long surviving HIV patient: a proposal for a multidimensional first-level diagnostic assessment.
Authors: Borderi M, Angarano G, Antinori A, Chirianni A, Cinque P, D'Arminio Monforte A, Di Biagio A, Di Perri G, Galli M, Gori A, Lazzarin A, Mussini C, Perno CF, Quirino T, Rizzardini G, Calza L, Viale P, Acone B, Andreoni M Abstract We propose a multidimensional first-level diagnostic assessment easy to use in routine clinical practice to allow infectious disease specialists to have a general and complete overview of persons living with HIV. Following the Delphi method, articles published from January 1, 2011 on controlled trials, clinical reports and observational studies dealing specifically with HIV and its c...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Nocardia infection over 5 years (2011-2015) in an Italian tertiary care hospital.
This study was conducted reviewing clinical records of 14 patients affected by nocardiosis over 5 years in a tertiary care hospital. Nocardia abscessus was responsible for one third of infections, deviating significantly from the results reported by other epidemiological investigations and highlighting the key role of molecular identification tests. Indeed, a precise identification of species is crucial for the determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and, consequently, for the choice of antibiotic treatment. Noteworthy, 40% of isolates of N. abscessus (formerly N. asteroides complex) showed resistance to carbapene...
Source: New Microbiologica - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Distribution of genital Mollicutes in the vaginal ecosystem of women with different clinical conditions.
Authors: Foschi C, Salvo M, D'Antuono A, Gaspari V, Banzola N, Cevenini R, Marangoni A Abstract Ureaplasma urelayticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are the most common Mollicutes of the female genital tract. Although many studies have addressed their possible role in the vaginal ecosystem, many aspects remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaginal presence of ureaplasmas/mycoplasmas in women with different clinical conditions. By means of quantitative PCR assays, the prevalence and load of each Mollicute were assessed in different ...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to colistin.
Authors: Sorlózano-Puerto A, Carrillo-Ávila JA, Gutiérrez-Soto M, Navarro-Marí JM, Gutiérrez-Fernández J Abstract Campylobacter spp. are one of the most frequent causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Although severe diarrhea is not highly prevalent, the risk of a fatal outcome is increased when infection is caused by strains resistant to macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and/or tetracyclines. It is therefore necessary to test the susceptibility of these bacteria to other antibiotics such as colistin, which may serve as an alternative therapeutic option in these situations. Th...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Infectious meningitis/encephalitis: evaluation of a rapid and fully automated multiplex PCR in the microbiological diagnostic workup.
This study evaluated the analytical performance and clinical utility of a fully automated multiplex PCR test to improve the microbiological diagnostic workup of ME. Seventy-seven cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 77 patients with suspected ME were studied. The samples were tested by FilmArray™ (FA) ME Panel test and the results were compared with those obtained using conventional microbiological procedures (CMP). Furthermore, the assay's validity was evaluated testing 5 pooled CSF samples positive for different pathogens. 2 The data showed a good concordance (90.9%) between the FA ME panel test and CMP results. ...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

John Cunningham virus: an overview on biology and disease of the etiological agent of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Authors: Pietropaolo V, Prezioso C, Bagnato F, Antonelli G Abstract John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is the first human polyomavirus described. After asymptomatic primary infection which occurs in childhood, the virus spreads by the hematogenous route from the primary site of infection to secondary sites including kidneys, lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain to establish latent infection. During immunosuppression the virus undergoes molecular rearrangements that allow it to replicate in glial tissues causing PML. PML occurs ...
Source: New Microbiologica - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Feasibility of all-oral anti-HCV treatment during DHAP chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for T-cell lymphoma.
We describe two oncologic cirrhotic patients treated with DAAs who underwent ASCT achieving cure for both diseases. Co-administration of sofosbuvir with cisplatin led an unexpected severe kidney impairment that did not resolve 30 weeks after drug exposure. The optimal timing of DAA administration in the ASCT setting has yet to be defined: our experience shows that co-administration is feasible, but requires close monitoring for adverse events. PMID: 29620791 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - April 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

IS1598 (IsPg4) distributed to abscess-forming strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis may enhance virulence through upregulation of nrdD-like gene expression.
Authors: Sonoi N, Maeda H, Murauchi T, Yamamoto T, Omori K, Kokeguchi S, Naruishi K, Takashiba S Abstract An insertion sequence, IS1598 (IsPg4) has been found in virulent strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis in a murine abscess model. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of genetic rearrangements by IS1598 on the phenotypic characteristics of the virulent strains. For this purpose, we searched for a common insertion site of IS1598 among the virulent strains. Through cloning and database search, a common insertion site was identified beside an nrdD-like gene in the virulent FDC 381, W83 and W50 ...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Ageing with HIV - a periodontal perspective.
Authors: Toljić B, Trbovich AM, Petrović SM, Kannosh IY, Dragović G, Jevtović D, De Luka SR, Ristić-Djurović JL, Milašin J Abstract The importance of oral microflora composition in HIV-infected patients is well recognized. However, no studies so far have dealt with age-related changes in periodontal pathogens occurrence in HIV+ individuals. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare temporal changes of bacteria frequency in younger (≤35 years) and older (≥50 years) HIV-infected and non-infected individuals. Bacterial DNA was isolated from buccal swabs of 30 younger and 30 older subjec...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Real Time PCR Aspergillus spp. in bronchoalveolar lavage samples.
Authors: Grancini A, Orlandi A, Lunghi G, Consonni D, Pozzi C, Rossetti V, Palleschi A, Fracchiolla N, Melada E, Savioli M, Arghittu M, Maiavacca R, Prigitano A Abstract The present study investigated the improvement in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) adding a molecular test on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to the routine diagnostic approach including microscopy, culture and galactomannan (GM) immunoassay. A total of 133 BAL samples were retrospectively tested for the Aspergillus DNA: 112 samples were from immunocompromised patients at risk of invasive fungal infection and 21 were from patien...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergence of novel recombinant GII.P16_GII.2 and GII. P16_GII.4 Sydney 2012 norovirus strains in Italy, winter 2016/2017.
Authors: Medici MC, Tummolo F, Martella V, De Conto F, Arcangeletti MC, Pinardi F, Ferraglia F, Chezzi C, Calderaro A Abstract In the winter season 2014/15, the GII.P17_GII.17 norovirus strain Kawasaki 2014 emerged in Italy, cocirculating with pandemic GII.4 strains. In March 2016, molecular investigation identified novel GII.P16 recombinant noroviruses in children with gastroenteritis in Italy. In 43.10% of the genotyped noroviruses GII.P16 strains were identified: 12 were characterized as GII.2 and 13 as GII.4 Sydney 2012 capsid genotypes. The GII.P16 genotype became predominant in January- February 2017 along wi...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Regional spread of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis in Italy.
This report describes the detection by Real Time PCR assay of six T4 and one T3 Acanthamoeba infections, as the first reported cases in Tuscany, Italy. PMID: 29505068 [PubMed - in process] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - March 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Blastocystis hominis transmission by non-potable water: a case report in Italy.
Authors: Angelici MC, Nardis C, Scarpelli R, Ade P Abstract In the reported case, a 41-year-old Italian man came to the clinician's observation reporting cramps, bloating and watery diarrhoea a few days after drinking water indicated as unpotable from a fountain in a farm area. The medical suspicion was directed at both gluten intolerance and enteric infection, eventually of waterborne origin. Gluten intolerance was investigated by intestinal biopsy and excluded, while stool analyses ruled out infective bacteriological or viral agents and parasites. Subsequently, a persistent eosinophilia was revealed and a parasit...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of genital Mollicutes in Italy over a two-year period.
Authors: Foschi C, Salvo M, Galli S, Moroni A, Cevenini R, Marangoni A Abstract Knowledge of the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of genital Mollicutes is crucial to offer guidelines for empirical treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the resistance profile of Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Ureaplasma urealyticum/Ureaplasma parvum (UU/UP) in genital samples over a two-year period in Bologna, Italy. From January 2015 to December 2016, data on all the subjects providing uro-genital specimens for Mollicutes detection by culture were analyzed. A total of 4660 subjects (84.4% fe...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Varicella-zoster virus infection: natural history, clinical manifestations, immunity and current and future vaccination strategies.
This article briefly describes the natural history and pathophysiology of VZV infection and its current epidemiology and provides an overview of current and future vaccine options to protect against varicella and/or zoster. PMID: 29498740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Microbiologica)
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community in a travertine depositing hot spring.
Authors: Valeriani F, Crognale S, Protano C, Gianfranceschi G, Orsini M, Vitali M, Spica VR Abstract Several factors influence bacteria biodiversity in hot springs. The impact of biotic and abiotic pathways on travertine deposition plays a key role in microbial ecology and in the final composition of the waterborne microbiota. The metabolism of some bacterial groups such as photoautotrophs or lithoautotrophs influences water chemistry, favoring carbonate precipitation processes. The role of microbial mats in mineral precipitation processes is not fully clarified. For the first time, a comprehensive metagenomic anal...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Potential associations between atazanavir exposure and clinical outcome: a pharmacokinetic sub-study from the MODAt randomized trial.
Authors: Colella E, Cattaneo D, Galli L, Baldelli S, Clementi E, Galli M, Lazzarin A, Castagna A, Rusconi S, Spagnuolo V Abstract The 96-week results of the Monotherapy Once a Day with Atazanavir/r (MODAt) study [NCT01511809] showed an inferior virological efficacy of atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir monotherapy versus triple therapy, which was promptly retrieved by the reintroduction of nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors of reverse transcriptase [N(n)RTIs]. We aimed to identify potential relationships between ATV exposure and clinical outcome in HIV-1 subjects treated with ATV/ritonavir monotherapy [ATV/r 300/100mg] versu...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Amiodarone affects Ebola virus binding and entry into target cells.
Authors: Salata C, Munegato D, Martelli F, Parolin C, Calistri A, Baritussio A, Palù G Abstract Ebola Virus Disease is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate. Several research studies have aimed to identify effective antiviral agents. Amiodarone, a drug used for the treatment of arrhythmias, has been shown to inhibit filovirus infection in vitro by acting at the early step of the viral replication cycle. Here we demonstrate that amiodarone reduces virus binding to target cells and slows down the progression of the viral particles along the endocytic pathway. Ove...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Behaviour of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the presence of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.
Authors: Pantanella F, Iebba V, Mura F, Dini L, Totino V, Neroni B, Bonfiglio G, Maria T, Passariello C, Schippa S Abstract The present study aimed to characterize the behavior of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. B. bacteriovorus was co-cultured with S. aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus mutans, in planktonic and sessile conditions. Co-cultures were studied by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), turbidimetry, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and sequencing of gene Bd0108 of B. bacteriovorus. Results indicat...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular typing of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolated from patients attending an Italian Cystic Fibrosis Centre.
This study investigates the species of the Bcc strains recovered from chronically infected CF subjects by means of: isolation, identification methods and complete recA nucleotide sequences of 151 samples. Molecular typing showed that B. cenocepacia III is the dominant strain found in the group of subjects being treated at the Milan CF Centre (Italy) and that the infection is chronically maintained by the same species. Defining species by means of molecular analysis yields important information for the clinician in order to establish the most appropriate therapy and implement correct measures for prevention of transmission ...
Source: New Microbiologica - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research