Biodegradation of antibiotics: the new resistance determinants - part I.
Abstract History shows that the discovery of, and the resistance to, antibiotics go hand in hand. While knowledge of resistance mechanisms, their impact and distribution is vast, over the years, the topic of antibiotic degradation has often been overlooked and regarded as being discrete from the research on resistance. As a result, understanding of the degradation of antibiotics and the impact of antibiotic degraders on the environment and human health are, for most classes, neither thoroughly documented nor understood. Current information on the biodegradation of antibiotics is described in two review articles. T...
Source: New Biotechnology - August 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Reis AC, Kolvenbach BA, Nunes OC, Corvini PFX Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Combined approach for characterization and quality assessment of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells intended for gene banking.
rth M, Hubmann R, Shehata M, Makarevich AV, Chrenek P Abstract Rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) are promising agents for the preservation of genetic biodiversity in domestic rabbit breeds. However, rMSCs must meet certain requirements to be used for cryopreservation in animal gene banks. Currently, there are numerous discrepancies in the published data regarding the rMSC phenotype, which may complicate efforts to evaluate their purity and suitability for reuse after cryopreservation in gene and tissue banks. We propose a combined approach (flow cytometry, PCR, differentiation and ultrastructure studies) for t...
Source: New Biotechnology - August 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vašíček J, Kováč M, Baláži A, Kulíková B, Tomková M, Olexíková L, Čurlej J, Bauer M, Schnabl S, Hilgarth M, Hubmann R, Shehata M, Makarevich AV, Chrenek P Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Standardization of the preanalytical phase of DNA extraction from fixed tissue for next-generation sequencing analyses.
Abstract Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analyses on DNA derived from archived Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) clinical material can provide a powerful tool in oncology research and clinical diagnostics. Although several studies have established that NGS can be performed using DNA from FFPE tissue, the accuracy and reproducibility of such analyses, as well as their robustness to the biomolecular quality of the samples used, remains a matter of debate. Excellent reviews have recently been published, providing evidence-based best practices for FFPE DNA extraction. Alternative fixatives exist, although their...
Source: New Biotechnology - August 6, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Kofanova O, Bellora C, Garcia Frasquilho S, Antunes L, Hamot G, Mathay C, Mommaerts K, Muller A, DeWitt B, Betsou F Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Thermostable lyoprotectant-enhanced cell-free protein synthesis for on-demand endotoxin-free therapeutic production.
Abstract Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a promising platform for the production of therapeutic proteins due to its inherently open reaction environment, flexible reaction conditions and rapid protein synthesis capabilities. In recent years, lyophilized cell-free systems have widened the application space of cell-free technology by improving reagent stability outside of cold-chain storage. Current embodiments of the system, however, demonstrate poor stability at elevated temperatures. Lyoprotectants have long been recognized for the ability to preserve the activity of biological molecules during drying ...
Source: New Biotechnology - July 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wilding KM, Long Zhao E, Earl CC, Bundy BC Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Structure solution and analyses of the first true lipase obtained from metagenomics indicate potential for increased thermostability.
This article reports the structure of a new lipase, belonging to family I.1, obtained by means of metagenomics. Its structure presents a fold typical of α/β hydrolases, with the lid in closed conformation. The protein was previously shown to present high thermostability and to be stable in aqueous solutions of polar organic solvents at high concentrations [30% (V/V)]. Molecular dynamics studies showed that the protein maintains its structure well in organic solvents. They also suggested that its thermostability might be enhanced if it were mutated to present a disulfide bond similar to that typically found in li...
Source: New Biotechnology - July 12, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Martini VP, Krieger N, Glogauer A, de Souza EM, Iulek J Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Co-production of 1,3 propanediol and long-chain alkyl esters from crude glycerol.
In this study, the properties of two phylogenetically distinct bacteria, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 and Clostridium butyricum, were coupled in a one-pot batch process to co-produce 1,3 propanediol (PDO) and long-chain alkyl esters (wax esters, WEs) from crude glycerol. In the process, A. baylyi deoxidized the growth medium allowing glycerol fermentation and PDO production by C. butyricum. Reaeration of the co-cultivations enabled A. baylyi to metabolize the fermentation by-products, acetate and butyrate, and synthesize intracellular WEs. To improve PDO production and A. baylyi growth, carbon and macronutrients in the growth...
Source: New Biotechnology - July 11, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Mangayil R, Efimova E, Konttinen J, Santala V Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

A novel thermostable GH5 β-xylosidase from Thermogemmatispora sp. T81.
A novel thermostable GH5 β-xylosidase from Thermogemmatispora sp. T81. N Biotechnol. 2019 Jul 09;: Authors: Tomazini A, Higasi P, Manzine LR, Stott M, Sparling R, Levin DB, Polikarpov I Abstract A glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) subfamily 22 gene, designated T81Xyl5_22A, was identified in the genome of the aerobic thermophilic bacterium, Thermogemmatispora sp. T81 (locus A4R35_07040). The gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the gene product characterized biochemically. The recombinant enzyme had an optimal catalytic activity at pH5.0 and 65 °C, and w...
Source: New Biotechnology - July 9, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tomazini A, Higasi P, Manzine LR, Stott M, Sparling R, Levin DB, Polikarpov I Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Thermophilic production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydrovalerate) by a mixed methane-utilizing culture.
This study reports the first thermophilic PHA-producing culture grown on methane at 55 °C in fill-and-draw batch reactors. Harvested cells were incubated with various combinations of methane, propionic acid and valeric acid to assess their capacity for the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). Only PHB was produced when fed with methane alone. The addition of odd-carbon-number fatty acids resulted in higher PHA content with 3 HV fractions in the range of 15-99 mol%, depending on the types of fatty acids added. Acetic acid addition enhanc...
Source: New Biotechnology - July 2, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Luangthongkam P, Laycock B, Evans P, Lant P, Pratt S Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bioelectrochemical treatment of groundwater containing BTEX in a continuous-flow system: substrate interactions, microbial community analysis, and impact of sulfate as a co-contaminant.
Abstract Microbial electrochemical technologies (MET) are increasingly being considered for in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. However, their application potential for the simultaneous treatment of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic contaminants, has been only marginally explored. Here we have analyzed the performance of the 'bioelectric well', a previously developed bioelectrochemical reactor configuration, in the treatment of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX) mixtures. Although to different extents, all BTEX were found to be degraded in the bioelectrochemical system, operate...
Source: New Biotechnology - June 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Palma E, Tofalos AE, Daghio M, Franzetti A, Tsiota P, Cruz Viggi C, Papini MP, Aulenta F Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Development and characterization of vectors for tunable expression of both xylose-regulated and constitutive gene expression in Saccharomyces yeasts.
Abstract Synthetic hybrid promoters for xylose-regulated gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have recently been developed. However, the narrow range of expression level from these new hybrid promoters limits their utility for pathway optimization in engineered strains. To expand the range of xylose-regulated gene expression, a series of expression vectors was created using a xylose derepressible promoter (PXYL) and varied termination regions from several S. cerevisiae genes. The new set of vectors showed a 26-fold range of gene expression under inducing conditions and a 13-fold average induction ...
Source: New Biotechnology - June 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hector RE, Mertens JA, Nichols NN Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

How standardization of the pre-analytical phase of both research and diagnostic biomaterials can increase reproducibility of biomedical research and diagnostics.
r U Abstract Comparison of published biomedical studies shows that a large proportion are irreproducible, causing severe damage to society and creating an image of wasted investments. These observations are of course damaging to the biomedical research field, which is currently full of future promise. Precision medicine and disease prevention are successful, but are progressing slowly due to irreproducible study results. Although standardization is mentioned as a possible solution, it is not always clear how this could decrease or prevent irreproducible results in biomedical studies. In this article more insight i...
Source: New Biotechnology - June 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Riegman PHJ, Becker KF, Zatloukal K, Pazzagli M, Schröder U, Oelmuller U Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Rational development of bioprocess engineering strategies for recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffi) using the methanol free GAP promoter. Where do we stand?
ute; JL, Valero F Abstract The increasing demand for recombinant proteins for a wide range of applications, from biopharmaceutical protein complexes to industrial enzymes, is leading to important growth in this market. Among the different efficient host organism alternatives commonly used for protein production, the yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffi) is currently considered to be one of the most effective and versatile expression platforms. The promising features of this cell factory are giving rise to interesting studies covering the different aspects that contribute to improving the bioprocess efficienc...
Source: New Biotechnology - June 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: García-Ortega X, Cámara E, Ferrer P, Albiol J, Montesinos-Seguí JL, Valero F Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biochemical composition and in vitro digestibility of Galdieria sulphuraria grown on spent cherry-brine liquid.
In conclusion, G. sulphuraria has a valuable nutritional profile and could become a valuable source of phytochemicals, depending on the cultivation media. Cultivation on sCBL would allow an environmentally and economically sustainable process, valorising the food by-product and producing a microalgal biomass rich in cherry anthocyanins with high AA released at the intestinal level. PMID: 31195159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - June 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Massa M, Buono S, Langellotti AL, Martello A, Russo GL, Troise DA, Sacchi R, Vitaglione P, Fogliano V Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Intensifying ethanol production from brewer's spent grain waste: use of whole slurry at high solid loadings.
ues L Abstract This work targets the valorization of brewer's spent grain (BSG) waste by ethanol production, providing strategies for increasing titers in the multiple process steps involved. High solid loadings and use of whole slurry from the pretreatment were evaluated, aiming to achieve high ethanol concentration and yield. As variability in BSG chemical composition presents a challenge for their valorization, six different BSGs were chemically characterized, which allowed the selection of two with high polysaccharide content. High solid loadings (up to 25%) were employed for the pretreatment of selected BSGs ...
Source: New Biotechnology - June 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pinheiro T, Coelho E, Romaní A, Domingues L Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Validation of a novel 3D flow model for the optimization of construct perfusion in radial-flow packed-bed bioreactors (rPBBs) for long-bone tissue engineering.
In conclusion, tracer experiments validate the use of the 3D flow model for optimizing construct perfusion in rPBBs to engineer long-bone substitutes. PMID: 31173925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - June 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Fragomeni G, Iannelli R, Falvo D'Urso Labate G, Schwentenwein M, Catapano G Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Tissues under-vacuum to overcome suboptimal preservation.
ino A Abstract The accuracy of histopathological diagnosis is strictly reliant on adequate tissue preservation, which is completely dependent on pre-analytical variables. Among these variables, the time interval between the end of surgical excision to the onset of fixation (the cold ischemia time) may adversely affect preservation of tissue morphology, influencing the interpretation and reproducibility of diagnosis. During this time interval, the activation of enzymes may produce autolysis and degradation of antigens and nucleic acids, thus potentially affecting immunocytochemical and molecular results. Several st...
Source: New Biotechnology - May 28, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Annaratone L, Marchiò C, Sapino A Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment: Addressing emerging organic contaminants and antibiotic resistant bacteria.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a CW system, planted with the halophyte Juncus acutus, to eliminate bisphenol A (BPA) and two antibiotics, namely ciprofloxacin (CIP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under different operating conditions. The behavior of Escherichia coli and enterococcal populations in terms of changes in their resistance profile for the selected antibiotics and the abundance of two resistance genes (qnrA and sul1) were also examined. BPA and CIP were significantly removed by the CW, with an overall removal of 76.2% and 93.9% respectively and with the plants playing a vital role. In contrast, SMX wa...
Source: New Biotechnology - May 27, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Christofilopoulos S, Kaliakatsos A, Triantafyllou K, Gounaki I, Venieri D, Kalogerakis N Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Soluble substrate removal determination through intracellular storage in high-rate activated sludge systems using stoichiometric mass balance approach.
Abstract In high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) systems, extracellular adsorption and intracellular storage have been referred to as the dominant mechanisms for capturing organic carbon from wastewater. However, the quantification of storage products under short sludge retention time (SRT) of HRAS systems has rarely been studied. Since the measurement of storage products is complex and dependent on several variables, alternative solutions for substrate removal through storage are required to understand the high-rate system's carbon capture efficiency. To overcome the complexity of storage quantification experimental...
Source: New Biotechnology - May 21, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Nogaj TM, Rahman A, Miller MW, Jimenez JA, Bott C, Randall AA Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Pre-analytical processes in medical diagnostics: new regulatory requirements and standards.
oukal K Abstract In April 2017, the European In Vitro Diagnostic Regulation (IVDR) entered into force and will apply to in vitro diagnostics from May 26th, 2022. This will have a major impact on the in vitro diagnostics (IVD) industry as all devices falling under the scope of the IVDR will require new or re-certification. The IVDR also has implications with respect to product performance validation and verification including the pre-analytics of biological samples used by IVD developers and diagnostic service providers. In parallel to the IVDR, a series of standards on pre-analytical sample processing has been pub...
Source: New Biotechnology - May 15, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dagher G, Becker KF, Bonin S, Foy C, Gelmini S, Kubista M, Kungl P, Oelmueller U, Parkes H, Pinzani P, Riegman P, Schröder U, Stumptner C, Turano P, Sjöback R, Wutte A, Zatloukal K Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Modification of bacterial nanocellulose properties through mutation of motility related genes in Komagataeibacter hansenii ATCC 53582.
Abstract Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) produced by Komagataeibacter hansenii has received significant attention due to its unique supernetwork structure and properties. It is nevertheless necessary to modify bacterial nanocellulose to achieve materials with desired properties and thus with broader areas of application. The aim here was to influence the 3D structure of BNC by genetic modification of the cellulose producing K. hansenii strain ATCC 53582. Two genes encoding proteins with homology to the MotA and MotB proteins, which participate in motility and energy transfer, were selected for our studies. A disrupt...
Source: New Biotechnology - May 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Jacek P, Kubiak K, Ryngajłło M, Rytczak P, Paluch P, Bielecki S Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

The impact of crosslinking and non-crosslinking fixatives on antigen retrieval and immunohistochemistry.
We report results from systematic studies on distinct pre-analytical conditions in IHC, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Parameters investigated are the impact of crosslinking and non-crosslinking fixatives (comparing formalin and PAXgene Tissue fixation) on whole tissue, subcellular structures and organelles, as well as on ultrastructure. The results generated show that minor changes in antigen retrieval conditions may have a major impact on IHC results and that protocols optimized for crosslinking fixatives may not be used for other fixatives without re-validation. Key antigen retrieval parameters such as buff...
Source: New Biotechnology - May 10, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Stumptner C, Pabst D, Loibner M, Viertler C, Zatloukal K Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Methodological and statistical issues in developing an External Quality Assessment scheme in laboratory medicine: focus on biomarker research.
This article summarizes the key features of an EQA scheme, including designing the study, identifying reference values and control limits for qualitative and quantitative data, and graphically reporting laboratory performance statistics. These steps are illustrated with examples taken from the authors' experience in national and international quality assessment schemes for biomarker research. PMID: 31059865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - May 3, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Verderio P, Pizzamiglio S, Ciniselli CM Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Polyvinyl chloride biodegradation by Pseudomonas citronellolis and Bacillus flexus.
Abstract The accumulation of high amounts of petroleum-derived plastics in the environment has raised ecological and health concerns. The aim of this work was to study the biodegradative abilities of five bacterial strains, namely Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas citronellolis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus flexus and Chelatococcus daeguensis, towards polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride films under aerobic conditions. Preliminary screening resulted in the selection of P. citronellolis and B. flexus as potential PVC film degraders. Both strains were able to form a biofilm on the plast...
Source: New Biotechnology - April 23, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Giacomucci L, Raddadi N, Soccio M, Lotti N, Fava F Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

NMR for sample quality assessment in metabolomics.
Abstract The EU Framework 7 project SPIDIA was the occasion for development of NMR approaches to evaluate the impact of different pre-analytical treatments on the quality of biological samples dedicated to metabolomics. Systematic simulation of different pre-analytical procedures was performed on urine and blood serum and plasma. Here we review the key aspects of these studies that have led to the development of CEN technical specifications, to be translated into ISO/IS in the course of the EU Horizon 2020 project SPIDIA4P. Inspired by the SPIDIA results, follow-up research was performed, extending the analysis to...
Source: New Biotechnology - April 22, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ghini V, Quaglio D, Luchinat C, Turano P Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Improved Lovastatin Production by Inhibiting (+)-Geodin Biosynthesis in Aspergillus terreus.
This study thus shows that suppression of the (+)-geodin pathway increases lovastatin yield and demonstrates a practical approach of manipulating carbon flux by modulating enzyme activity. PMID: 30995533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - April 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hasan H, Rahim MHA, Campbell L, Carter D, Abbas A, Montoya A Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins: a novel class of biopharmaceuticals for the therapy of cancer and of chronic inflammation.
Abstract Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins represent a novel class of biopharmaceuticals, with the potential to increase the therapeutic index of cytokine 'payloads' and to promote leukocyte infiltration at the site of disease. In this review, we present a survey of immunocytokines that have been used in preclinical models of cancer and in clinical trials. In particular, we highlight how antibody format, choice of target antigen and cytokine engineering, as well as combination strategies, may have a profound impact on therapeutic performance. Moreover, by using anti-inflammatory cytokines, antibody fusion strategi...
Source: New Biotechnology - April 13, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Murer P, Neri D Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Experimental and theoretical tools to elucidate the binding mechanisms of solid-binding peptides.
Abstract The interactions between biomolecules and solid surfaces play an important role in designing new materials and applications which mimic nature. Recently, solid-binding peptides (SBPs) have emerged as potential molecular building blocks in nanobiotechnology. SBPs exhibit high selectivity and binding affinity towards a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. Although these peptides have been widely used in various applications, there is a need to understand the interaction mechanism between the peptide and its material substrate, which is challenging both experimentally and theoretically. This review...
Source: New Biotechnology - April 4, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Bansal R, Care A, Lord MS, Walsh TR, Sunna A Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

High Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for the characterisation of enzymatic processing of commercial lignin.
Abstract Lignin and lignin components of woody biomass have been identified as an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. However, the complex composition of this plant polymer is one of the drawbacks that limits its exploitation. Biocatalysis of lignin to produce platform chemicals has been receiving great attention as it presents a sustainable approach for lignin valorisation. Aligned with this area of research, in the present study we have applied ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to identify the preferred lignin substrates of a ligninolytic enzyme, a ...
Source: New Biotechnology - March 25, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Echavarri-Bravo V, Tinzl M, Kew W, Cruickshank F, Logan Mackay C, Clarke DJ, Horsfall LE Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Pichia pastoris as a host for production and isolation of mutagenic AID/APOBEC enzymes involved in cancer and immunity.
Abstract AID/APOBEC3 enzymes are cytidine deaminases that mutate antibody and retroviral genes and also mediate extensive tumor genome mutagenesis. The study of purified AID/APOBEC3 proteins is challenged by difficulties with their expression and purification arising from genotoxicity in expression hosts, extensive non-specific protein-protein/DNA/RNA interactions and haphazard oligomerization. To date, expression hosts for purification of AID/APOBEC3 enzymes include bacteria, insect and mammalian cells. Here the establishment and optimization of a yeast expression/secretion system for AID/APOBEC3s are reported, f...
Source: New Biotechnology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Borzooee F, Larijani M Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

The presence of trace components significantly broadens the molecular response of Aspergillus niger to guar gum.
In this study, transcriptome, exoproteome and enzyme activity analyses were employed to decipher the complete enzymatic arsenal for guar gum depolymerization by Aspergillus niger. This multi-omic analysis revealed a set of 46 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) responding to the presence of guar gum, including CAZymes not only with preferred activity towards galactomannan, but also towards (arabino-)xylan, cellulose, starch and pectin, likely due to trace components in guar gum. This demonstrates that the purity of substrates has a strong effect on the resulting enzyme mixture produced by A. niger and prob...
Source: New Biotechnology - February 20, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Coconi Linares N, Di Falco M, Benoit-Gelber I, Gruben BS, Peng M, Tsang A, Mäkelä MR, de Vries RP Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cost-effective production of recombinant peptides in Escherichia coli.
Abstract Among bioactive peptides, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also referred to as host defence peptides (HDPs), are valuable tools to treat infections, being able to kill a wide variety of microbes directly and/or modulate host immunity. HDPs have great therapeutic potential against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, viruses and even parasites. However, high manufacturing costs have greatly limited their development as drugs, thus highlighting the need to develop novel and competitive production strategies. Here, a cost-effective procedure was established to produce the high amounts of peptides required f...
Source: New Biotechnology - February 18, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Gaglione R, Pane K, Dell'Olmo E, Cafaro V, Pizzo E, Olivieri G, Notomista E, Arciello A Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Certain new plant breeding techniques and their marketability in the context of EU GMO legislation - recent developments.
Abstract The comparatively low adoption rate of GMO products in the European Union (EU) market seems to be connected with the strictness of authorization regulations and inefficiency of the authorization process itself. These problems will apply to any product deemed to be a GMO that could potentially be marketable in the EU. Since modern methods of plant breeding involving oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODMs) or site-directed nucleases (SDNs), including Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), are becoming ever more popular, it is crucial to establish whether the products of such...
Source: New Biotechnology - February 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zimny T, Sowa S, Tyczewska A, Twardowski T Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Biofilm dynamics and EPS production of a thermoacidophilic bioleaching archaeon.
This report provides insight into EPS and biofilm characteristics of thermophilic archaea and improves understanding of the mineral-microbial-biofilm interfacial interactions in extreme environments. Moreover, the results on interaction dynamics of archaeal microbial consortia will facilitate the understanding of thermophilic bioleaching. PMID: 30743061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - February 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zhang R, Neu TR, Blanchard V, Vera M, Sand W Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Using agro-industrial wastes for mixotrophic growth and lipids production by the green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.
igara J, Raposo S Abstract There has been growing interest in the use of microalgae for the production of biofuels, but production costs continue to be too high to compete with fossil fuel prices. One of the main limitations for photobioreactor productivity is light shielding, especially at high cell densities. The growth of the green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana, a robust industrial species, has been evaluated under different trophic conditions with traditional carbon sources, such as glucose and sucrose, and alternative low cost carbon sources, such as carob pod extract, industrial glycerol and acetate-rich o...
Source: New Biotechnology - February 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: León-Vaz A, León R, Díaz-Santos E, Vigara J, Raposo S Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbial production of high value molecules using rayon waste material as carbon-source.
In this study, rayon fibers were enzymatically hydrolyzed to allow recovery of glucose and valuable additives. The glucose was successfully used as carbon source for the production of high value compounds such as itaconic acid, lactic acid and chitosan. 14.2 g/L of itaconic acid, 36.5 g/L of lactic acid and 39.2 g/L of chitosan containing biomass were produced from Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Aspergillus niger, respectively, comparable to yields obtained when using commercial glucose as carbon source. PMID: 30716417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vecchiato S, Skopek L, Russmayer H, Steiger MG, Aldrian A, Beer B, Acero EH, Guebitz GM Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Microbial co-culturing strategies for fructo-oligosaccharide production.
Abstract Fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) mixtures produced by fermentation contain large amounts of non-prebiotic sugars. Here we propose a mixed culture of Aureobasidium pullulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to produce FOS and consume the small saccharides simultaneously, thereby increasing FOS purity in the mixture. The use of immobilised A. pullulans in co-culture with encapsulated S. cerevisiae, inoculated after 10 hours fermentation, enhanced FOS production in a 5 L bioreactor. Using this strategy, a maximal FOS concentration of 119 g L-1, and yield of 0.59 gFOS gsucrose-1, wer...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 29, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Castro CC, Nobre C, De Weireld G, Hantson AL Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Directed evolution of the type C feruloyl esterase from Fusarium oxysporum FoFaeC and molecular docking analysis of its improved variants.
CMGA, Faraco V Abstract The need to develop competitive and eco-friendly processes in the cosmetic industry leads to the search for new enzymes with improved properties for industrial bioconversions in this sector. In the present study, a complete methodology to generate, express and screen diversity for the type C feruloyl esterase from Fusarium oxysporium FoFaeC was set up in a high-throughput fashion. A library of around 30,000 random mutants of FoFaeC was generated by error prone PCR of fofaec cDNA and expressed in Yarrowia lipolytica. Screening for enzymatic activity towards the substrates 5-bromo-4-chloroin...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 24, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Cerullo G, Varriale S, Bozonnet S, Antonopoulou I, Christakopoulos P, Rova U, Gherbovet O, Fauré R, Piechot A, Jütten P, Brás JLA, Fontes CMGA, Faraco V Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Production of lignin-modifying enzymes by Trametes ochracea on high-molecular weight fraction of olive mill wastewater, a byproduct of olive oil biorefinery.
Abstract The high-molecular weight fraction of olive mill wastewater (HMW-OMW), a byproduct of olive oil biorefinery, was used at the reactor level as the basal medium for production of laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP) by Trametes ochracea. Three reactor systems, namely stirred tank reactors equipped with either Rushton turbines or marine impeller and draft tube (STR and STR-MD, respectively) and an air-lift reactor (ALR) were compared for this purpose. Although inocula were supplied as intact pellets, in both STR-based systems fungal growth evolved rapidly into a dispersed form while the ALR enabled the ...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 19, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Vaidya V, Carota E, Calonzi D, Petruccioli M, D'Annibale A Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Glycerol metabolism of Pichia pastoris (Komagataella spp.) characterised by 13C-based metabolic flux analysis.
P, Albiol J Abstract Metabolic flux analysis based on 13C-derived constraints has proved to be a powerful method for quantitative physiological characterisation of one of the most extensively used microbial cell factory platforms, Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.). Nonetheless, the reduced number of carbon atoms and the symmetry of the glycerol molecule has hampered the comprehensive determination of metabolic fluxes when used as the labelled C-source. Moreover, metabolic models typically used for 13C-based flux balance analysis may be incomplete or misrepresent the actual metabolic network. To circumvent t...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 16, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tomàs-Gamisans M, Rosenkrans Ødum AS, Workman M, Ferrer P, Albiol J Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Hydrocarbonoclastic Ascomycetes to enhance co-composting of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated dredged sediments and lignocellulosic matrices.
Abstract Four new Ascomycete fungi capable of degrading diesel oil were isolated from sediments of a river estuary mainly contaminated by shipyard fuels or diesel oil. The isolates were identified as species of Lambertella, Penicillium, Clonostachys, and Mucor. The fungal candidates degraded and adsorbed the diesel oil in suspension cultures. The Lambertella sp. isolate displayed the highest percentages of oxidation of diesel oil and was characterised by the capacity to utilise the latter as a sole carbon source. This isolate showed extracellular laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities in the presence of diesel oil. ...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 14, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Becarelli S, Chicca I, Siracusa G, La China S, Gentini A, Lorenzi R, Munz G, Petroni G, Levin D, Di Gregorio S Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Application of dissolved oxygen (DO) level control for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation with concurrent nitrification in surplus municipal activated sludge.
This study suggests a method for PHA accumulation using nitrifying activated sludge, while feeding ammonia-containing organic feedstocks by means of DO level control where: (1) NOB activity and growth are both mitigated, (2) nitrogen removal is facilitated, (3) alkalinity is controlled through simultaneous denitrification, and (4) energy demand for aeration is reduced. PMID: 30633999 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - January 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Wang X, Bengtsson S, Oehmen A, Carvalho G, Werker A, Reis MAM Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Combination of ribosome display and next generation sequencing as a powerful method for identification of affibody binders against β-lactamase CTX-M15.
Combination of ribosome display and next generation sequencing as a powerful method for identification of affibody binders against β-lactamase CTX-M15. N Biotechnol. 2019 Jan 08;: Authors: Lagoutte P, Lugari A, Elie C, Potisopon S, Donnat S, Mignon C, Mariano N, Troesch A, Werle B, Stadthagen G Abstract CTX-M15 is one of the most widespread, extended spectrum β-lactamases, a major determinant of antibiotic resistance representing urgent public health threats, among enterobacterial strains infecting humans and animals. Here we describe the selection of binders to CTX-M15 from a combinatorial ...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 8, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Lagoutte P, Lugari A, Elie C, Potisopon S, Donnat S, Mignon C, Mariano N, Troesch A, Werle B, Stadthagen G Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Overexpression of the nitroreductase NfsB in an E. coli strain as a whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of chlorinated analogues of the natural herbicide DIBOA.
Abstract Benzohydroxamic acids, such as DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-2 H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one), are plant products that exhibit interesting herbicidal, fungicidal and bactericidal properties. A feasible alternative to their purification from natural sources is the synthesis of analogous compounds such as D-DIBOA (2-deoxy-DIBOA) and their chlorinated derivatives. Their chemical synthesis has been simplified into two steps. However, the second step is an exothermic reaction and involves hydrogen release, which makes this methodology expensive and difficult to scale up. The study reported here concerns th...
Source: New Biotechnology - January 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: de la Calle ME, Cabrera G, Cantero D, Valle A, Bolivar J Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Impact of temperature and pH on recombinant human IgM quality attributes and productivity.
In conclusion, the results showed that for the chosen IgM model, IgM012_GL, variation in quality attributes is not caused by the environmental conditions of temperature and pH. PMID: 30630093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: New Biotechnology)
Source: New Biotechnology - January 7, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Hennicke J, Reinhart D, Altmann F, Kunert R Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Physiological characterization of a pyrimidine auxotroph exposes link between uracil phosphoribosyltransferase regulation and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.
Abstract The blockage of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway at the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase level was previously demonstrated to affect riboflavin production in the industrial producer fungus Ashbya gossypii. However, the molecular basis for the unusual sensitivity to uracil displayed by the pyrimidine auxotroph A. gossypii Agura3 was unknown. Here, uridine was shown to be the only intermediate of the pyrimidine salvage pathway able to fully restore this mutant's growth. Conversely, uracil, which is routinely used to rescue pyrimidine auxotrophs, had a dose-dependent growth-inhibitory effect. ...
Source: New Biotechnology - December 24, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Silva R, Aguiar TQ, Oliveira C, Domingues L Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

SpyTag/SpyCatcher molecular cyclization confers protein stability and resilience to aggregation.
Abstract The capacities for thermal and inhibitor tolerance are critical for industrial enzymes and loss of activity is a major challenge in deploying natural enzymes for commercial applications. Protein engineering approaches, such as site-directed mutagenesis and directed evolution, have been devoted to modifying natural enzymes. Recently, a post-translation protein engineering strategy, the SpyTag/SpyCatcher system, was introduced. Here, we have generated a thermo- and ion-tolerant cyclized xylanase (C-TFX) by fusing the SpyTag and SpyCatcher peptides to its N- and C- terminus respectively. Compared with the li...
Source: New Biotechnology - December 17, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Sun XB, Cao JW, Wang JK, Lin HZ, Gao DY, Qian GY, Park YD, Chen ZF, Wang Q Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Response surface statistical optimization of bacterial nanocellulose fermentation in static culture using a low-cost medium.
ama M Abstract This work aimed at the optimization of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) production by static culture, using Komagataeibacter xylinus BPR 2001 (K. xylinus). Response surface methodology - central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of inexpensive and widely available nutrient sources, namely molasses, ethanol, corn steep liquor (CSL) and ammonium sulphate, on BNC production yield. The optimized parameters for maximum BNC production were % (m/v): molasses 5.38, CSL 1.91, ammonium sulphate 0.63, disodium phosphate 0.270, citric acid 0.115 and ethanol 1.38 % (v/v). The experimental and predict...
Source: New Biotechnology - December 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rodrigues AC, Fontão AI, Coelho A, Leal M, Soares da Silva FAG, Wan Y, Dourado F, Gama M Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

A novel thermophilic laccase-like multicopper oxidase from Thermothelomyces thermophila and its application in the oxidative cyclization of 2',3,4-trihydroxychalcone.
Abstract Laccase-like multicopper oxidases (LMCOs) are a heterogeneous group of oxidases, acting mainly on phenolic compounds and which are widespread among many microorganisms, including Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Here, we report the cloning, heterologous expression, purification and characterization of a novel LMCO from the thermophilic fungus Thermothelomyces thermophila. The 1953 bp lmco gene sequence comprises 3 exons interrupted by 2 introns and according to the LccED database the translated sequence belongs to superfamily 6 of multicopper oxidases. After removal of the introns, the gene was transformed...
Source: New Biotechnology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Zerva A, Koutroufini E, Kostopoulou I, Detsi A, Topakas E Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Oil reservoirs, an exceptional habitat for microorganisms.
RU Abstract Microorganisms are present in oil reservoirs around the world where they degrade oil and lead to changes in oil quality. Unfortunately, our knowledge about processes in deep oil reservoirs is limited due to the lack of undisturbed samples. In this review, we discuss the distribution of microorganisms at the oil-water transition zone as well as in water saturated parts of the oil leg and their possible physiological adaptations to abiotic and biotic ecological factors such as temperature, salinity and viruses. We show the importance of studying the water phase within the oil, because small water inclus...
Source: New Biotechnology - November 28, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Pannekens M, Kroll L, Müller H, Mbow FT, Meckenstock RU Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research

Sustainable PHA Production in Integrated Lignocellulose Biorefineries.
Abstract In emerging bioeconomies, the compostable biopolymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are desirable products due to their similarity to petropolymers. While industrial PHA production has been growing rapidly, obtaining a cheap and sustainable carbon source is still a challenge. Among biobased feedstocks, lignocellulose is a cheap, abundant and potentially sustainable carbon source. However, because of its recalcitrance, separation and depolymerization processes that have not reached industrial maturity are usually required. Integrated biorefineries utilize a holistic approach to conversion processes to minim...
Source: New Biotechnology - November 19, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dietrich K, Dumont MJ, Del Rio LF, Orsat V Tags: N Biotechnol Source Type: research