Prenatal Lead Exposure and Childhood Executive Function and Behavioral Difficulties in Project Viva.
DISCUSSION: In this cohort with lead levels commonly experienced by U.S. women, there were few statistically significant associations with childhood executive function and behavior. However, there was a trend of worse neurobehavioral scores with increasing prenatal lead concentrations, in particular for childhood emotional problems and capacity to plan/organize and shift. Our results highlight the importance of continuing efforts to eliminate lead exposure in the general population. PMID: 31513824 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fruh V, Rifas-Shiman SL, Amarasiriwardena C, Cardenas A, Bellinger DC, Wise LA, White RF, Wright RO, Oken E, Henn BC Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Proteomic profiling of primary astrocytes and co-cultured astrocytes/microglia exposed to acrylamide.
In this study, the impacts of AA on primary monocultured astrocytes and co-cultured astrocytes with microglia were determined using Orbitrap-based proteomic analysis. The results showed that AA exposure mainly caused disruption of multicellular metabolic processes, biological regulation, and cell development. Furthermore, oxidative stress-related pathways and immune responses were the main regulatory functions influenced by AA-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, Nrf2 and other downstream proteins in the oxidative stress-related pathway were up-regulated. There were significant differences between the protein changes in th...
Source: Neurotoxicology - September 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao M, Dong L, Zhu C, Hu X, Zhao L, Chen F, Chan HM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

MitoPark Transgenic Mouse Model Recapitulates the Gastrointestinal Dysfunction and Gut-Microbiome Changes of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms affecting most patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In many cases, these symptoms are observed years before motor impairments become apparent. Hence, the molecular and cellular underpinnings that contribute to this early GI dysfunction in PD using a relevant animal model has actively been explored. The MitoPark model is a chronic, progressive mouse model recapitulating several key pathophysiological aspects of PD. However, GI dysfunction and gut microbiome changes have not been categorized in this model. Herein, we show that decreased ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - September 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ghaisas S, Langley MR, Palanisamy BN, Dutta S, Narayanaswamy K, Plummer PJ, Sarkar S, Ay M, Jin H, Anantharam V, Kanthasamy A, Kanthasamy AG Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Repeated exposure of cocaine alters mitochondrial dynamics in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a.
Abstract Chronic abuse of psychoactive drugs including cocaine causes addiction, dependence, and brain disorders through the alteration of neuronal plasticity. Mitochondrial fission and fusion, collectively called as mitochondrial dynamics, participates in not only the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis but also reorganization of neuronal circuits. The purpose of this study is to examine effects of direct and repeated exposure of cocaine on mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal cells in vitro. Repeated exposure to 600 µM cocaine (2∼3 times per week) of Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma cells for 3 weeks resulted...
Source: Neurotoxicology - September 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Funakoshi T, Furukawa M, Aki T, Uemura K Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Structure-cytotoxicity relationship profile of 13 synthetic cathinones in differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.
Abstract Synthetic cathinones also known as β-keto amphetamines are a new group of recreational designer drugs. We aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of thirteen cathinones lacking the methylenedioxy ring and establish a putative structure-toxicity profile using differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, as well as to compare their toxicity to that of amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH). Cytotoxicity assays [mitochondrial 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lysosomal neutral red (NR) uptake] performed after a 24-h or a 48-h exposure revealed for all tested drug...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Soares J, Costa VM, Gaspar H, Santos S, de Lourdes Bastos M, Carvalho F, Capela JP Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Gut microbiome: an intermediary to neurotoxicity.
Abstract There is growing recognition that the gut microbiome is an important regulator for neurological functions. This review provides a summary on the role of gut microbiota in various neurological disorders including neurotoxicity induced by environmental stressors such as drugs, environmental contaminants, and dietary factors. We propose that the gut microbiome remotely senses and regulates CNS signaling through the following mechanisms: 1) intestinal bacteria-mediated biotransformation of neurotoxicants that alters the neuro-reactivity of the parent compounds; 2) altered production of neuro-reactive microbia...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dempsey JL, Little M, Cui JY Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Mediating Neurotoxic Outcomes to PCB Exposure.
Abstract A series of complex physiological processes underlie the development of the microbiota, gut, and brain in early life, which together communicate via the microbiota-gut-brain axis to maintain health and homeostasis. Disruption of these processes can lead to dysbiosis of the microbiota, pathophysiology of the gut and behavioral deficits including depression, anxiety and cognitive deficits. Environmental exposures, particularly in early life, can interfere with development and impact these pathways. This review will focus on the role of the microbiome and the gut in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration as ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rude KM, Keogh CE, Gareau MG Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

25-hydroxycholesterol impairs neuronal and muscular development in zebrafish.
In this study, we examined the effects of 25-HC exposure on the nervous system development in the zebrafish. We showed that survival rate of zebrafish embryos/larvae is significantly decreased at doses of 25-HC above 40 μM. 25-HC was found to affect the motility of zebrafish larvae, primary motor axon and muscle morphology. Furthermore, larvae treated with 25-HC showed a reduced neuronal network and number of HuC-positive cells in the brain. An increased cell death was also observed in both the brain and spinal cord of zebrafish treated with 25-HC. Interestingly, administration of 25-HC at later stages of development (2...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jamadagni P, Patten SA Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Hexane exposure and persistent peripheral neuropathy in automotive technicians.
Abstract Automotive technicians are commonly exposed to organic and chlorinated solvents, particularly through use of cleaning products. Mainly during the period 1989 to 2002, n-hexane was a component of some of these products. In other occupational contexts, n-hexane has been shown to be a cause of peripheral neuropathy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether previous exposures to low concentrations of n-hexane were a cause of persistent peripheral neuropathy in automotive technicians. Enrolled in the study were 830 San Francisco Bay Area automotive technicians. Each participant underwent a b...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bates MN, Pope K, So YT, Liu S, Eisen EA, Katharine Hammond S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and neurological effects of glyphosate.
GUT MICROBIOTA AND NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE. Neurotoxicology. 2019 Aug 20;: Authors: Rueda-Ruzafa L, Cruz F, Roman P, Cardona D Abstract There are currently various concerns regarding certain environmental toxins and the possible impact they can have on developmental diseases. Glyphosate (Gly) is the most utilised herbicide in agriculture, although its widespread use is generating controversy in the scientific world because of its probable carcinogenic effect on human cells. Gly performs as an inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phospate synthase (EPSP synthase), not only in plants, but al...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rueda-Ruzafa L, Cruz F, Roman P, Cardona D Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

MPMT-OX up-regulates GABAergic transmission and protects against seizure-like behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.
FAA Abstract The signal transmission in the nervous system operates through a sensitive balance between excitatory (E) inputs and inhibitory (I) responses. Imbalances in this system contribute to the development of pathologies such as seizures. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the locomotor circuit operates via the coordinated activity of cholinergic excitatory (E) and GABAergic inhibitory (I) transmission. Changes in E/I inputs can cause uncontrolled electrical discharges, mimicking the physiology of seizures. Molecules derived from 1,3,4-oxadiazole have been found to exhibit diverse biological activities, including a...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Câmara DF, Machado ML, Arantes LP, da Silva TC, da Silveira TL, Leal JG, Dornelles L, Stefanello ST, Soares FAA Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Cannabidiol (CBD) use in psychiatric disorders: A systematic.
Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the most represented phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa plants. However, CBD may present with a different activity compared with the psychotomimetic THC. Most typically, CBD is reported to be used in some medical conditions, including chronic pain. Conversely, the main aim of this systematic review is to assess and summarise the available body of evidence relating to both efficacy and safety of CBD as a treatment for psychiatric disorders, alone and/or in combination with other treatments. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trial...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bonaccorso S, Ricciardi A, Zangani C, Chiappini S, Schifano F Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin 5 prevents diethylhexyl phthalate-induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting mitochondrial fission in mouse hippocampal HT-22 cells.
Abstract Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is used in many plastic products, such as perfumes, lunch boxes, bags, and building materials. As DEHP is not covalently bound to the plastic, humans can be easily exposed to it. DEHP induces neurobehavioral changes and neuronal cell death; however, the exact mechanism behind this is still unclear. We hypothesized that the neurotoxic mechanism is related to DEHP-induced oxidative stress leading to apoptosis through mitochondrial fission. We demonstrated that DEHP-induced oxidative stress triggers neuronal cell death via mitochondrial fission in mouse hippocampal HT-22 cells. ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gil Lee D, Kim KM, Lee HS, Bae YC, Huh JW, Lee SR, Lee DS Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Survey of drug therapies against acute oral tetramethylenedisulfotetramine poisoning in a rat voluntary consumption model.
Abstract Ingestion of the noncompetitive GABAA receptor antagonist tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) results in arrhythmias, respiratory depression, and life-threatening convulsive status epilepticus. We have previously developed a realistic model of voluntary TETS consumption, in which rats promptly consumed a piece of cereal containing a dose of TETS that led to rapid progression of toxic signs (including convulsions) and profound and enduring behavioral suppression. Recently, this model was used to survey nine different drugs from distinct drug classes over a large range of doses to identify possible therap...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Moffett MC, Rauscher NA, Rice NC, Myers TM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Triclosan induces PC12 cells injury is accompanied by inhibition of AKT/mTOR and activation of p38 pathway.
Abstract Triclosan (TCS) has been widely used as a disinfectant and antiseptic in multiple consumer and healthcare products due to its clinical effectiveness against various bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Recently, several studies have reported the adverse effects of TCS on various nerve cells, arousing concerns about its potential neurotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the neurotoxicity of TCS in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. After differentiation, the stabilized PC12 cells were treated with 1, 10, 50 μM TCS for 12 hr. At the end of the treatment, the generation of reactive oxyge...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li SJ, Chen P, Peres TV, Villahoz BF, Zhang Z, R Miah M, Aschner M Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

The role of zinc, copper, manganese and iron in neurodegenerative diseases.
he EM Abstract Metals are involved in different pathophysiological mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to review the effects of the essential metals zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) on the central nervous system (CNS), as well as the mechanisms involved in their neurotoxicity. Low levels of Zn as well as high levels of Cu, Mn, and Fe participate in the activation of signaling pathways of the inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) respo...
Source: Neurotoxicology - August 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Mezzaroba L, Alfieri DF, Colado Simão AN, Vissoci Reiche EM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of first-line anticonvulsants to treat nerve agent-induced seizures and prevent neuropathology in adult and pediatric rats.
Abstract Risk exists for civilian exposure to nerve agents (NA), and exposure can produce prolonged seizures. Pediatric populations are at greater risk for injury or death due to the central nervous system effects of NAs. To address the need to evaluate the effectiveness of anticonvulsants, pediatric and adult animal models were established to test the effectiveness of anticonvulsant drugs for treating NA-induced seizures in pediatric populations. In this paper, median effective dose (ED50) and neuroprotective effectiveness were determined for the first-line anticonvulsant treatments diazepam and midazolam in pedi...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Matson L, Dunn E, Haines K, Miller-Smith S, Lee-Stubbs R, Whitten K, Ardinger C, McCarren H, McDonough J Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neuroprotection by Luteolin and Gallic acid against cobalt chloride-induced behavioural, morphological and neurochemical alterations in Wistar rats.
Abstract Cobalt (Co) intoxication arising from occupational exposures and ion release from metal implants has been associated with neurological alterations such as cognitive decline, incoordination and depression. The present study evaluated the mechanisms of neuro-protection exerted by Luteolin (Lut; 100 mg/kg) and Gallic acid (GA; 120 mg/kg) in Wistar rats exposed to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) at 150 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days. Results indicate that CoCl2 induced neuro-behavioural deficits specifically by decreasing exploratory activities of CoCl2-exposed rats, increased anxiety, as well as s...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Akinrinde AS, Adebiyi OE Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Methyl jasmonate abrogates rotenone-induced parkinsonian-like symptoms through inhibition of oxidative stress, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and down-regulation of immnopositive cells of NF- κB and α-synuclein expressions in mice.
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound on parkinsonian-like symptoms and the underlying biochemical changes induced by rotenone (Rot) in mice. To this end, the effects of graded doses of MJ (25, 50 and100 mg/kg, i.p.) on motor dysfunctions, cognitive and depressive-like disorders induced by Rot (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated. The specific brain regions (striatum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) of the animals were processed for various biochemical studies. Rot-treated mice showed reduced motor activity, postural instab...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Alabi AO, Ajayi AM, Ben-Azu B, Bakre AG, Umukoro S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

A proteomic approach to investigate enhanced responsiveness in rechallenged adult rats prenat,ally exposed to lindane.
Abstract Proteomic analysis was carried out in substantia nigra (SNi) and hippocampus (Hi) isolated from rat offspring born to mothers exposed to lindane (orally; 0.25 mg/kg) from gestation day 5 (GD5) to GD 21 and subsequently rechallenged (orally; 2.5 mg/kg X 21 days) at adulthood (12 weeks). 2D gel electrophoresis revealed no significant differences in the expression of proteins in brain regions isolated from prenatally exposed offspring at adulthood. Significantly greater magnitude of alterations was observed in the expression of proteins related to mitochondrial and energy metabolism, ubiquitin-...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Srivastava A, Kumar Srivastava A, Mishra M, Shankar J, Agrahari A, Kamthan M, Singh PK, Yadav S, Parmar D Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Impact of Tramadol Abuse on Clinical Outcome of Lumbar Discectomy patients'.
CONCLUSION: Tramadol abuse before lumbar discectomy was found to be associated with continued tramadol abuse after surgery and worse functional outcomes following surgery. Surgeons may want to counsel their patients about the potential for inferior clinical outcomes if narcotics were used before surgery. PMID: 31326535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hassan Hashisha RK, Ali SM, Awad TE Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Strengths and limitations of morphological and behavioral analyses in detecting dopaminergic deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans.
This study focuses on methods of measuring neurodegeneration involving the dopaminergic system and the identification of compounds with actions that disrupt dopamine function in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Several dopamine-mediated locomotory behaviors, Area Exploration, Body Bends, and Reversals, as well as Swimming-Induced Paralysis and learned 2-Nonanone Avoidance, were compared to determine the best behavioral method for screening purposes. These behavioral endpoints were also compared to morphological scoring of neurodegeneration in the dopamine neurons. We found that in adult worms, Area Exploration is...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith LL, Ryde IT, Hartman JH, Romersi RF, Markovich Z, Meyer JN Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Nesfatin-1 protects PC12 cells against high glucose-induced cytotoxicity via inhibiting oxidative Stress, autophagy and apoptosis.
In this study, PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of Nesfatin-1 (1-100 ng/ml) and then co-treated with Nesfatin-1 and glucose (125 mM) for 48 h, and downstream pathways then were evaluated to investigate ROS, apoptosis, and autophagy. RESULTS: Results of this study showed that Nesfatin-1 can not only inhibit from intracellular ROS overproduction-induced by high glucose in PC12 cells (p 
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nazarnezhad S, Rahmati M, Shayannia A, Abbasi Z, Salehi M, Khaksari M Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

The impact of frying aerosol on human brain activity.
Abstract Knowledge on the impact of the exposure to indoor ultrafine particles (UFPs) on the human brain is restricted. Twelve non-atopic, non-smoking, and healthy adults (10 female and 7 male, in average 22 years old) were monitored for brain physiological responses via electroencephalographs (EEGs) during cooking. Frying ground beef meat in sunflower oil using gas stove without ventilation was conducted. UFPs, particulate matter (PM) (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10), CO2, indoor temperature, RH, oil and meat temperatures were monitored continuously throughout the experiments. The UFP peak concentration was recorded to be...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Naseri M, Jouzizadeh M, Tabesh M, Malekipirbazari M, Gabdrashova R, Nurzhan S, Farrokhi H, Khanbabaie R, Mehri-Dehnavi H, Bekezhankyzy Z, Gimnkhan A, Dareini M, Kurmangaliyeva A, Islam N, Crape B, Buonanno G, Cassee F, Amouei Torkmahalleh M Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Perinatal Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure Alters Brain Oxytocin Receptor (OTR) Expression in a Sex- and Region- Specific Manner: a CLARITY-BPA Consortium Follow-up Study.
Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-characterized endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) used in plastics, epoxy resins and other products. Neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure are a major concern with multiple rodent and human studies showing that early life BPA exposure may impact the developing brain and sexually dimorphic behaviors. The CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program was established to assess multiple endpoints, including neural, across a wide dose range. Studies from our lab as part of (and prior to) CLARITY-BPA have shown that BPA disrupts estrog...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Witchey SK, Fuchs J, Patisaul HB Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Bisphenol A and cognitive function in school-age boys: Is BPA predominantly related to behavior?
DISCUSSION: Our findings do not support an association between urinary BPA concentrations and cognitive function or IQ among boys, except for working memory. BPA was previously found to be associated with behavior problems in the same study population, suggesting that BPA may predominantly affect the behavior of children rather than their cognitive function, in line with previous epidemiologic studies. PMID: 31238050 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodríguez-Carrillo A, Mustieles V, Pérez-Lobato R, Molina-Molina JM, Reina-Pérez I, Vela-Soria F, Rubio S, Olea N, Fernández MF Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Maternal glyphosate-based herbicide exposure alters antioxidant-related genes in the brain and serum metabolites of male rat offspring.
Giannocco G Abstract In response to the rapid development of genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crops, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), in agriculture, has increased substantially. Currently, it is estimated that 747 million kg of GBHs are applied per year. Although several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there are health risks associated with GBH exposure, the effects these chemicals have on the oxidative and inflammatory response in the brain are still unclear. In fact, alterations in these processes could contribute to the development of neurological diseases, such as Alzhei...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: de Souza JS, Laureano-Melo R, Herai RH, da Conceição RR, Oliveira KC, da Silva IDCG, Dias-da-Silva MR, Romano RM, Romano MA, de Barros Maciel RM, Chiamolera MI, Giannocco G Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Association between Exposure to Air Pollution and Hippocampal Volume in Adults in the UK Biobank.
CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 at levels found in the United Kingdom was associated with smaller left hippocampal volume. Additional associations between several covariates and hippocampal volumes indicate that hippocampal volume might be associated with several potentially modifiable variables. PMID: 31220475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hedges DW, Erickson LD, Kunzelman J, Brown BL, Gale SD Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Mode of action of sulfoxaflor on α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR1 and nAChR2 subtypes : inhibitory effect of imidacloprid.
Mode of action of sulfoxaflor on α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR1 and nAChR2 subtypes : inhibitory effect of imidacloprid. Neurotoxicology. 2019 Jun 15;: Authors: Houchat JN, Dissanamossi BM, Landagaray E, Mathé-Allainmat M, Cartereau A, Graton J, Lebreton J, Le Questel JY, Thany SH Abstract Cockroach neurosecretory cells, dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, express two distinct α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, nAChR1 and nAChR2 which are differently sensitive to the neonicotinoid insecticides and intracellular calcium pathways. The aim of thi...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Houchat JN, Dissanamossi BM, Landagaray E, Mathé-Allainmat M, Cartereau A, Graton J, Lebreton J, Le Questel JY, Thany SH Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Caregiving and infants' neurodevelopment in rural Costa Rica: Results from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA).
ode B Abstract Early caregiving is one of the strongest influences on children's development, and among the most significant modifiable environmental factor. The aim of this study was to explore the association between quality of caregiver-infant interactions and neurodevelopment of infants living in banana-growing communities in rural Costa Rica characterized as having environmental toxic exposures. Home visits were conducted with 94 caregiver-infant dyads from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA), living within Matina county, Limón province. One-year infant neurodevelopmental outcomes were assess...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Till C, Dudania A, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Green R, Menezes-Filho JA, Schnaas L, Smith DR, Lindh CH, van Wendel de Joode B Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Long-term exposure to fluoride as a factor promoting changes in the expression and activity of cyclooxygenases (COX1 and COX2) in various rat brain structures.
CONCLUSION: Exposure to fluoride in the prenatal and neonatal period result in the increase in COX2 activity and increase in PGE2 concentration in rats brain, which may lead to disturbances in central nervous system homeostasis.‬‬. PMID: 31175943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dec K, Łukomska A, Skonieczna-Żydecka K, Kolasa-Wołosiuk A, Tarnowski M, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Gutowska I Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

M100907 and BD 1047 Attenuate the Acute Toxic Effects of Methamphetamine.
Abstract There are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine (METH) overdose, thus identifying novel drug targets to prevent this devastating adverse event is a public-health imperative. Previous research suggests that serotonin and sigma receptors may contribute to the adverse effects of METH. The present study assessed whether pretreatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 or the sigma 1 (σ1) receptor antagonist BD 1047 attenuated METH-induced lethality, hyperthermia, convulsions, and seizures. Male Swiss Webster mice received intraperitoneal injections of M10...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ray A, Canal CE, Ehlen JC, Rice KC, Murnane KS Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Protective mechanism of Taxifolin for chlorpyrifos neurotoxicity in BV2 cells.
Abstract Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide that can damage the central nervous system in children upon exposure. Taxifolin (Tax) exerts protective effects against neurotoxins; however, the mechanism has not yet been illustrated. The current study used BV2 cells to investigate the protective mechanism underlying the organophosphorus pesticide taxifolin on CPF-induced neurotoxicity, which might present a therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of the nervous system diseases in children. BV2 cells were randomly divided into 4 groups: DMSO, CPF, Tax, and Tax + CPF. The vi...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang C, Zhan J, Zhao M, Dai H, Deng Y, Zhou W, Zhao L Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Changes in Thyroid Hormone Activity Disrupt Photomotor Behavior of Larval Zebrafish.
Abstract High throughput in vitro, in silico, and computational approaches have identified numerous environmental chemicals that interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) activity, and it is posited that human exposures to such chemicals is a contributing factor to neurodevelopmental disorders. However, whether hits in TH activity screens are predictive of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) has yet to be systematically addressed. The zebrafish has been proposed as a second tier model for assessing the in vivo DNT potential of TH active chemicals. As an initial evaluation of the feasibility of this proposal, we determined...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Walter KM, Miller GW, Chen X, Harvey DJ, Puschner B, Lein PJ Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Effects of prenatal cigarette smoke exposure on BDNF, PACAP, microglia and gliosis expression in the young male mouse brainstem.
Abstract Cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy into infancy affects brain growth and development in both short and long term (into adulthood). Using a mouse model of pre- into post- natal cigarette smoke exposure (SE), we aimed to determine the effects on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB, neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptor PAC1, and astrocyte (GFAP) and microglia (Iba-1) immunohistochemical expression, in seven nuclei of the medulla and the facial (FAC) nucleus of the pons. Male pups of dams exposed to two cigarettes (nicotine
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Machaalani R, Thawley M, Huang J, Chen H Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Measuring the middle-ear reflex: A quantitative method to assess effects of industrial solvents on central auditory pathways.
In this study, MER amplitude was measured in anesthetized Brown-Norway rats by monitoring the decrease in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) caused by a contralateral stimulation. Our screening test consisted in measuring the impact of inhalation of solvent vapors at 3000 ppm for 15 minutes on the MER amplitude. We had previously studied a selection of aromatic solvents with this model; here, we extended the analysis to volatile compounds from other chemical families. The results obtained shed light on the mechanisms involved in the interactions between solvents and their neuronal targets. Thus...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wathier L, Venet T, Bonfanti E, Nunge H, Cosnier F, Parietti-Winkler C, Campo P, Pouyatos B Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Time dependent dual effect of anti-inflammatory treatments on sarin-induced brain inflammation: suggested role of prostaglandins.
Abstract A common consequence of exposure to organophosphate nerve agents is the centrally mediated seizure activity that appears even after conventional treatment with atropine and oximes. We have previously demonstrated a major inflammatory response with subsequent brain damage which was correlated with the duration of the sarin-induced seizures (Chapman et al. 2006). In the present work seizures were induced by the nerve agent sarin (1.2 LD50) insufficiently treated 1 min later by atropine and trimedoxime bromide (TA), with additional midazolam treatment either 5 or 30 min after continuous seizure...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chapman S, Grauer E, Gez R, Egoz I, Lazar S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Determination of narcotic potency using a neurobehavioral assay with larval zebrafish.
CONCLUSIONS: The larval zebrafish neurobehavioral assay provides a method capable of estimating the narcotic potency of chemicals and can identify if toxicity contributes to observed neurobehavioral effects in the test organism. PMID: 31085211 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Broening HW, La Du J, Carr GJ, Nash JF, Truong L, Tanguay RL Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Changes in neuronal activity in rat primary cortical cultures induced by illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) following prolonged exposure and washout to mimic human exposure scenarios.
Abstract The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing despite associated health risks and limited pharmacological and toxicological knowledge. Information is available mainly for acute effects on specific targets like monoamine transporters and receptors. Recently, we have shown the ability of several NPS and illicit drugs to modulate neuronal activity during acute exposure. While these acute measurements provide valuable information regarding the potency and possible structure-activity relationships, an exposure scenario more representative of human exposure would increase insight and aid translatio...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zwartsen A, Hondebrink L, Westerink RH Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescent Pesticide Applicators in Egypt.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence of an association between occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos and ADHD symptoms among adolescent pesticide applicators in spite of its limited small sample size. There is a critical need to investigate the susceptibility of children and adolescents to repeated occupational and environmental exposures to pesticides because the developing brain may be uniquely sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of these agents. PMID: 31077682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rohlman DS, Ismail A, Bonner MR, Rasoul GA, Hendy O, Ortega Dickey L, Wang K, Olson JR Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone treatment alleviates the impairments of neurogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and memory performance induced by methamphetamine.
Abstract Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA), a neurotoxic psychostimulant, leads to long-lasting cognitive dysfunctions in humans and animal models. Thyroid hormones (THs) have several physiological actions and are crucial for normal behavioral, intellectual and neurological development. Considering the importance of THs in the cognitive processes, the present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of THs on cognitive and neurological impairments induced by MA. Escalating doses of MA (1-10 mg/kg, IP) were injected twice daily for 10 consecutive days in rats and cognitive functions were eval...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Seyedhosseini Tamijani SM, Beirami E, Ahmadiani A, Dargahi L Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Offerings by Agmatine.
Abstract Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine in CNS, is derived from arginine by dearboxylation. Like polyamines, agmatine has been studied for its neuroprotetive effects. At present, a large body of experimental evidences has been gathered that demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of agmatine. The neuroprotective effects have been observed in various CNS cell lines and animal models against the excitotocity, oxidative damage, corticosteroidid induced neurotoxicity, ischemic/hypoxic or oxygen-glucose deprivation toxicity, spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury. The studies have been extended to rescue of r...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramdas Kotagale N, Gulabrao Taksande B, Najiahmad Inamdar N Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Prolong treatment with Trans-ferulic acid mitigates bioenergetics loss and restores mitochondrial dynamics in streptozotocin-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type.
Abstract Alzheimer disease has been well associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions. Numerous studies have reported changes in the activity of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and mitochondrial dynamics. Recently, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1) has been conceived as a potential therapeutic target as well. We have examined the effect of prolonged treatment of Trans-ferulic acid on streptozocin-induced sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type. We have found the Ferulic Acid (FA,100 mg/kg) can rescue memory and learning problems and also show significant antioxidant effect while preserving morpholo...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zafeer MF, Firdaus F, Anis E, Mobarak Hossain M Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Zinc oxide nanoparticle induced neurotoxic potential upon interaction with primary astrocytes.
Abstract As obvious from the basic prerequisite of any particle in nanoscale, Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) possess numerous tunable properties distinct from their bulk formulations. Emerging innovations in various sectors of nanotechnology are exploiting ZnO NPs largely. This inturn picks up the occasions of human exposure irrespective of the application fields. Although the platform of nanotoxicology has been garnished with nano-bio interaction studies using different cell lines, a few are existing so far comprising primary cells which symbolize realistic in vivo environment. The present study addresses the...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sudhakaran S, Athira SS, Mohanan PV Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

The association between prenatal exposure to phthalates and cognition and neurobehavior of children-evidence from birth cohorts.
CONCLUSION: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, butyl-benzyl phthalate and di-ethyl phthalate exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower cognitive scores and worse behavior in offspring, and sex-specific effects on cognitive, psychomotor, and behavioral development were identified, especially the impact of phthalate exposure on neurobehavior in boys. PMID: 31004626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Q, Chen XZ, Huang X, Wang M, Wu J Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

An in vitro Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening Assay for Retinoic Acid-Induced Neuronal Differentiation Using the Human NT2/D1 Cell Line.
Abstract Traditional approaches (e.g., neurobehavior, neuropathology) can detect alterations in apical endpoints indicative of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). However, there is an increasing desire to understand mode-of-action (MOA) for DNT effects; thus, this short communication describes initial work on a neuronal differentiation assay. Basically, our laboratory used the human NT2/D1 cell line to develop an assay to evaluate toxicants for effects on all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuronal differentiation. Based on literature reports, we selected a neuronal protein, neuronal class III β-tubulin (&be...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Taylor MA, Kan HL, Gollapudi BB, Marty MS Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Nicotine improved the olfactory impairment in MPTP-Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Olfactory impairment is an early feature of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Retrospective epidemiological studies reported lower scores on the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in non-smokers than smokers with PD and showed an inverse correlation between susceptibility to PD and a person's history of smoking. But the mechanisms by which cigarettes affect olfaction in PD are not fully understood. So we investigated the effect of nicotine on the olfactory function in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. We observed that nicotine improved loc...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang J, Lv DJ, Li LX, Wang YL, Qi D, Chen J, Mao CJ, Wang F, Liu Y, Hu LF, Liu CF Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Latent subgroups of cognitive performance in lead- and manganese-exposed Uruguayan children: Examining behavioral signatures.
CONCLUSIONS: A behavioral signature for low-level Pb & Mn exposure was not identified, but the likelihood of membership in low-performing profile was higher at lowest levels of blood Pb. There was no effect measure modification between Pb and Mn. Future research should address how complex environments created by chemical exposures and the social context relate to cognitive performance in young children. PMID: 30978412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Frndak S, Barg G, Canfield RL, Quierolo EI, Mañay N, Kordas K Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Seizures as a complication of recreational drug use: Analysis of the Euro-DEN Plus data-set.
This study examined a large international data set of presentations to Emergency Departments with acute recreational drug toxicity, the European Drug Emergencies Plus (Euro-DEN Plus) Network, to compare presentations with and without seizures and estimate incidence and associated drugs. Amongst 23,947 presentations between January 2014 and December 2017, there were 1013 (4.2%) with reported seizures. Clinical and demographic features were similar between individuals who had a seizure and those who did not, although rates of coma, cardiac arrest, intubation, intensive care admission, and death were significantly higher in t...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wolfe CE, Wood DM, Dines A, Whatley BP, Yates C, Heyerdahl F, Hovda KE, Giraudon I, Euro-DEN Research Group, Dargan PI Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

An urgent need to assess safe levels of inorganic copper in nutritional supplements/parenteral nutrition for subset of Alzheimer's disease patients.
PMID: 30954519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kumar A, Sharma P, Prasad R, Pal A Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research