Neuroprotective effects of melatonin against neurotoxicity induced by intranasal sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate administration in mice.
Abstract Exposure to fungicide ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) has been associated with increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently demonstrated that the intranasal (i.n.) administration of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDMDC, a more soluble salt than ziram) induces PD-like behavioral and neurochemical alterations in mice. We now investigated the putative neuroprotective effects of melatonin on behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by i.n. NaDMDC. Melatonin treatment (3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 1 h before NaDMDC administration (1 mg/nostril) during 4 co...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mack JM, de Menezes Moura T, Bobinski F, Martins DF, Cunha RA, Walz R, Fernandes PA, Markus RP, Dafre AL, Prediger RD Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Developmental exposure to methylmercury and resultant muscle mercury accumulation and adult motor deficits in mice.
In this study we examined a potential role for muscle in influencing MeHg developmental toxicity in offspring of female mice exposed to MeHg via drinking water. Dams had access to 0, 0.5 or 5.0 ppm MeHg chloride in drinking water from two weeks prior to mating through weaning. Blood, brain and muscle tissue was harvested from dams at weaning and pups at postnatal days (PND) 6, 21 and 60 for analysis of total Hg. Muscle tissue sections were examined with histological stains. Behavioral testing of offspring was conducted at PND 60 and included locomotor activity, inverted screen, grip strength and rotarod tests to ass...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rand MD, Conrad K, Marvin E, Harvey K, Henderson D, Tawil R, Sobolewski M, Cory-Slechta DA Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Methylmercury, Attention, and Memory: Baseline-Dependent Effects of Adult d-Amphetamine and Marginal Effects of Adolescent Methylmercury.
Abstract Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental neurotoxicant known to disrupt behavior related to dopamine neurotransmission in experimental models. Such disruptions are sensitive to dopamine agonists when administered acutely after exposure to MeHg has ended or when administered concurrently with MeHg exposure. Sustained attention and short-term remembering, components of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are partially mediated by dopamine neurotransmission. In order to observe MeHg-related alterations in sustained attention and short-term memory, as well as determine sensitivity of MeHg exposed...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kendricks DR, Boomhower SR, Newland MC Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Effects of chronic methamphetamine abuse on the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and Bruch's membrane opening minimum rim width.
CONCLUSION: We found a statistically significant adverse association in meth abusers with RNFL thickness and MRW. These two parameters were also statistically associated with the meth dose as measured by daily dose of Meth. Although we found a decrease in the GCL thickness, it did not reach statistical significance. PMID: 32726659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Talebnejad M, Khazaei P, Jahanbani-Ardakani H, Moghimi-Sarani E, Khalili ZM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Power spectrum analysis of EEG in a translational nonhuman primate model after chronic exposure to low levels of the common marine neurotoxin, domoic acid.
Abstract Domoic acid (DA), the focus of this research, is a marine algal neurotoxin and epileptogen produced by species in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. DA is found in finfish and shellfish across the globe. The current regulatory limit for DA consumption (20 ppm in shellfish) was set to protect humans from acute toxic effects, but there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that regular consumption of DA contaminated seafood at or below the regulatory limit may lead to subtle neurological effects in adults. The present research uses a translational nonhuman primate model to assess neurophysiological chang...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Petroff R, Murias M, Grant KS, Crouthamel B, McKain N, Shum S, Jing J, Isoherranen N, Burbacher TM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Multifunctional roles of zinc in Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract Zinc is the second abundant trace element in the human central nervous system (CNS). Zinc homeostasis is impaired in the elderly population and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Due to the failures of β-amyloid (Aβ)- and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, tau)-targeting drugs, many researchers consider AD as a multifactorial disease. Emerging evidence demonstrates that zinc is also widely associated with the development of AD. Zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of AD has been proposed. In this review, we summarize the role of zinc in Aβ production, protein quality control, redox home...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xie Z, Wu H, Zhao J Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Sarcophine and (7S, 8R)-Dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine from the Red Sea Soft Coral Sarcophyton glaucum as in vitro and in vivo Modulators of Glycine Receptors.
We examined the glycinergic activity of sarcophine (SN), a marine terpenoid known for its various biological activities, and its trans-diol derivative (7S, 8R)-dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine (DSN). SN was isolated from the Red Sea soft coral Sacrophyton glaucum, DSN was semisynthesized by hydrolysis of the epoxide ring. In cytotoxicity tests against HEK293 cells, SN and DSN had LD50 values of 29.3 ± 3.0 mM and 123.5 ± 13.0 mM, respectively. Both compounds were tested against recombinant human α1 glycine receptors in HEK293 cells using whole-cell recording techniques...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Saleh HA, Raafat KM, Temraz TA, Noureldin N, Breitinger HG, Breitinger U Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Dietary glutamate and the brain: in the footprints of a Jekyll and Hyde molecule.
Abstract Glutamate is a crucial neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, a molecular component of our diet, and a popular food-additive. However, for decades, concerns have been raised about the issue of glutamate's safety as a food additive; especially, with regards to its ability (or otherwise) to cross the blood-brain barrier, cause excitotoxicity, or lead to neuron death. Results of animal studies following glutamate administration via different routes suggest that an array of effects can be observed. While some of the changes appear deleterious, some are not fully-understood, and the impact o...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Metal-induced neurotoxicity in a RAGE-expressing C. elegans model.
Abstract Environmental and occupational metal exposure poses serious global concerns. Metal exposure have severally been associated with neurotoxicity and brain damage. Furthermore, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is also implicated in neurological disorders, particularly those with altered glucose metabolism. Here, we examine potential compounding effect of metal exposure and RAGE expression on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (SER) neurons in C. elegans. In addition, we evaluate the effect of RAGE expression on DA and SER neurons in hyperglycemic conditions. Newly generated RAGE-expressing C. eleg...
Source: Neurotoxicology - July 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lawes M, Pinkas A, Frohlich BA, Iroegbu JD, Ijomone OM, Aschner M Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

The bioavailability of ingested 26Al-labelled aluminium and aluminium compounds in the rat.
Abstract The fractional uptake of ingested aluminium and aluminium compounds (aluminium citrate, aluminium nitrate, aluminium chloride, aluminium sulphate, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium oxide, aluminium metal, powdered aluminium pot electrolyte, acidic sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP), basic sodium aluminium phosphate (Kasal), sodium aluminium silicate and FD&C red 40 aluminium lake) from the gastro-intestinal tract of adult female rats was measured. This was determined by comparing retained body burden of 26Al at seven days post-admistration of an i.v. injection of 26Al-labelled aluminium citrate with that ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Priest ND, Skybakmoen E, Jackson G Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms for the antidepressant-like effects of a low-dose ketamine treatment in a DFP-based rat model for Gulf War Illness.
In this study, DFP-exposed rats treated with ketamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited antidepressant-like effect on the Forced Swim Test at 1-h. This effect persisted at 24-h post ketamine, a time-point by which it is eliminated from the brain suggesting involvement of mechanisms that affect long-term synaptic plasticity. Western blot analysis showed significantly lower Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels in DFP rat brains. Ketamine produced a nonsignificant increase in BDNF expression at 1-h but produced a larger, significant (2.2-fold) increase at 24-h in DFP rats. We previously reported chronic hippocampal...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ribeiro ACR, Zhu J, Kronfol MM, Jahr FM, Younis RM, Hawkins E, McClay JL, Deshpande LS Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Elevated serum neurofilament light chain in children autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to investigate whether they are related to the severity of disease. METHODS: The cohorts consisted of 166 children aged 3-8 (83 children diagnosed with ASD and 83 children with typically-developing). sNfL were analyzed using Single Molecule Array (Simoa) technology. ASD symptom severity was assessed according to the Chinese version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score. RESULTS: The mean age of those included ASD was 5.1 years (standard deviations [S.D.]: 1.7) and 78.3% w...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: He WC, Zhang XJ, Zhang YQ, Zhang WJ Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neurotoxicity in Gulf War Illness and the Potential Role of Glutamate.
Abstract Shortly after the Gulf War in 1990-1991, service men and women began reporting multiple symptoms ranging from persistent headaches, widespread pain, chronic fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, mood dysregulation, gastrointestinal issues, skin abnormalities, and respiratory problems. This prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to initially classify the disorder as chronic multi-symptom illness (CMI), where it later became known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). Researchers and healthcare professionals since the early 1990s have been working extensively on alleviating the symptoms expressed in G...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Joyce MR, Holton KF Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neurotoxicity assessment of triazole fungicides on mitochondrial oxidative respiration and lipids in differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
Abstract Indiscriminate overuse or occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals can lead to neurotoxicity. Many pesticides act to impair mitochondrial function which can lead to exacerbation of neurodegeneration. Triazole fungicides are applied to grain, fruit, and vegetable crops to combat mold and fungi and their use is increasing worldwide. Here, we assessed the in vitro toxicity of two widely used triazole fungicides, propiconazole and tebuconazole, to mitochondria using differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as an in vitro cell model used in Parkinson's disease research. Cell viability (based on ATP le...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sanchez CL, Souders CL, Delgado CJP, Nguyen KT, Kroyter N, Ahmadie NE, Aristizabal-Henao JJ, Bowden JA, Martyniuk CJ Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Short-term neuronal effects of Fumonisin B1 on neuronal activity in rodents.
te;, Schlett K, Világi I, Varró P Abstract Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by microscopic fungi (mostly Fusarium species), which may infect our major crops. The toxin inhibits the development of these plants and may also have harmful effects on animals and humans consuming the infected crops. FB1 inhibits sphingolipid biosynthesis which leads to altered membrane characteristics and consequently, altered cellular functions. There are some indications that the toxin has inhibitory effects on neuronal activity in case of repeated consumption, presumably due to sphingolipid depletion. However,...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bódi V, Csikós V, Rátkai EA, Szűcs A, Tóth A, Szádeczky-Kardoss K, Dobolyi Á, Schlett K, Világi I, Varró P Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

MRI-based brain volumetry and retinal optical coherence tomography as the biomarkers of outcome in acute methanol poisoning.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Basal ganglia lesions are typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in survivors of acute methanol poisoning. However, no data are available on the association between the magnitude of damaged brain regions, serum concentrations of markers of acute methanol toxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the rate of retinal nerve ganglion cell loss. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between MRI-based volumetry of the basal ganglia, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and prognostic laboratory markers of outcomes in acute methanol poisoning. ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hlusicka J, Mana J, Vaneckova M, Kotikova K, Diblik P, Urban P, Navratil T, Marechal B, Kober T, Zakharov S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Lycopene protects against central and peripheral neuropathy by inhibiting Oxaliplatin-induced ATF-6 pathway, apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in brains and sciatic tissues of rats.
This study investigated the effects of lycopene, a potent antioxidant, on OXL-induced central and peripheral neuropathy. In this study, 30 minutes after oral administration of LY at a dose of 2 mg/kg b.w./day and 4 mg/kg b.w./day on 1 st, 2nd, 4th and 5th days, rats were given 4 mg/kg b.w./day of OXL intraperitoneally. It was detected that LY decreased OXL-induced lipid peroxidation and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the levels of glutathione (GSH) in brain tissue. LY showed anti-inflammatory effects by decreasi...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Celik H, Kucukler S, Ozdemir S, Comakli S, Gur C, Kandemir FM, Yardim A Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Vitamin A deficiency exacerbates autism-like behaviors and abnormalities of the enteric nervous system in a valproic acid-induced rat model of autism.
Abstract The manifestations of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly heterogeneous. As many individuals with ASD have gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities, ASD with GI problems is considered to be a subtype of ASD. Vitamin A (VA) plays an important role in the development of both the central and peripheral nervous system. However, the relationship between VA deficiency (VAD) and ASD with GI comorbidities is still unclear. We established rat models with different VA levels based on the valproic acid-induced autism model. Compared to autism model rats with VA normal (VAN), autism model rats with gestational VAD s...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng B, Zhu J, Yang T, Wang S, Liu H, Wu Q, Zhang X, Chen J, Li T Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Association between blood lead exposure and mental health in pregnant women: results from The Japan Environment and Children's Study.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a small but significant association between higher blood lead levels and lower socio-economic status in a population with low blood lead levels, but no association between low-level lead exposure and psychological symptoms. PMID: 32526257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ishitsuka K, Yamamoto-Hanada K, Yang L, Mezawa H, Konishi M, Saito-Abe M, Sasaki H, Nishizato M, Sato M, Koeda T, Ohya Y, Japan Environment, Children’s Study Group Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Involvement of hippocampal agmatine in β1-42 amyloid induced memory impairment, neuroinflammation and BDNF signaling disruption in mice.
This study suggests that agmatine improves learning and memory impairment possibly through the down regulation of neuroinflammatory pathways in AD. PMID: 32522471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kotagale N, Rahmatkar S, Chauragade S, Dixit M, Umekar M, Chopde C, Taksande B Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Adrenergic β receptor activation reduces amyloid β1-42-mediated intracellular Zn2+ toxicity in dentate granule cells followed by rescuing impairment of dentate gyrus LTP.
Adrenergic β receptor activation reduces amyloid β1-42-mediated intracellular Zn2+ toxicity in dentate granule cells followed by rescuing impairment of dentate gyrus LTP. Neurotoxicology. 2020 Jun 05;: Authors: Tamano H, Ishikawa Y, Shioya A, Itoh R, Oneta N, Shimaya R, Egawa M, Adlard PA, Bush AI, Takeda A Abstract Adrenergic β receptor activation prevents human soluble amyloid β (Aβ)-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) in slices. On the basis of the evidence that human Aβ1-42-induced impairment of LTP is due to Aβ1-42-mediated Zn2+ toxicity, we postu...
Source: Neurotoxicology - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tamano H, Ishikawa Y, Shioya A, Itoh R, Oneta N, Shimaya R, Egawa M, Adlard PA, Bush AI, Takeda A Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Prenatal phthalate exposure, oxidative stress-related genetic vulnerability and early life neurodevelopment: a birth cohort study.
This study aimed to (i) investigate the interplay between maternal prenatal phthalate levels, infant genetic vulnerability to oxidative stress, and child neurodevelopment and (ii) examine combined putative oxidant exposures. A population-based birth cohort of 1064 women with prenatal recruitment in Victoria, Australia. Maternal urine was collected at 36 weeks of pregnancy and phthalate metabolite concentrations measured. An unweighted genetic score for oxidative stress was made using a candidate gene approach. Cognition was assessed using the BAYLEY-III at two years (n = 678). Parents completed questionnaires...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ponsonby AL, Symeonides C, Saffery R, Mueller JF, O'Hely M, Sly PD, Wardrop N, Pezic A, Mansell T, Collier F, Burgner D, Thompson K, Vijayasarathy S, Sugeng EJ, Dwyer T, Ranganathan S, Anderson PJ, Anderson V, Vuillermin P, BIS Investigator Group Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to alcohol impairs social play behavior in adolescent male mice.
sti-Paiva A Abstract Prenatal ethanol exposure affects brain development and causes neural impairment, leading to both cognitive and behavioral consequences in the offspring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to small amounts of alcohol on social play behavior in adolescent male offspring. Swiss mice were prenatally exposed to ethanol by feeding pregnant dams with a liquid diet containing 25% alcohol-derived calories during gestation (alcohol group). They were then compared to both pair-fed dams that received an isocaloric liquid diet containing 0% alcohol-derived ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: de Ávila MAP, Gonçalves RM, Nascimento ECC, Cabral LDM, Vilela FC, Giusti-Paiva A Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Anti-epileptic activity of daidzin in PTZ-induced mice model by targeting oxidative stress and BDNF/VEGF signaling.
Abstract Epilepsy is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease described by recurrent seizures. Oxidative stress and dysregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are critical factors for the development of epilepsy. Daidzin is well-known for its effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential for centuries. The present study was focused on exploring the anti-epileptic potential of daidzin in the pentylenetetrazole-induced mice model. Daidzin (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered in the acute study and the dose was optimized. Pretr...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kazmi Z, Zeeshan S, Khan A, Malik S, Shehzad A, Seo EK, Khan S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Concentrated ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure induce brain damage in pre and postnatal exposed mice.
In this study, we investigated the impacts of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from São Paulo city, on the brain structure and behavior of juvenile male mice. BALB/c mice were exposed to PM2.5 concentrated ambient particles (CAP) at a daily concentration of 600 μg/m³ during the gestational [gestational day (GD) 1.5 - 18.5] and the postnatal periods [postnatal day (PND) 22 - 90] to filtered air (FA) in both periods (FA/FA), to CAP only in the postnatal period (FA/CAP), to CAP only in the gestational period (CAP/FA), and to CAP in both periods (CAP/CAP). Behavioral t...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Di Domenico M, de Menezes Benevenuto SG, Tomasini P, Yariwake VY, de Oliveira Alves N, Rahmeier FL, Fernandes MDC, Moura DJ, Saldiva PHN, Veras MM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

The monofunctional platinum(II) compounds, phenanthriplatin and pyriplatin, modulate apoptosis signaling pathways in HEI-OC1 auditory hybridoma cells.
Abstract Cisplatin is a platinum(II) chemotherapy drug that can cause the side-effect of ototoxicity and hearing loss. The monofunctional platinum(II) complexes, phenanthriplatin and pyriplatin, have recently been investigated as anti-cancer agents but their side-effects are largely unknown. Here, we used the auditory hybridoma cell line, HEI-OC1, to investigate the ototoxicity of cisplatin, phenanthriplatin and pyriplatin. The effect of these compounds against cellular viability, on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane polarization, caspase-3/7 activity, DNA integrity and caspase-12 ex...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Monroe JD, Johnston AM, Smith ME Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Tramadol-associated seizures in Egypt: Epidemiological, clinical, and radiological study.
PMID: 32413438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shamloul RM, Elfayomy NM, Ali EI, Elmansy AMM, Farrag MA Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Chronic exposure to low dose of bisphenol A causes follicular atresia by inhibiting kisspeptin neurons in anteroventral periventricular nucleus in female mice.
Abstract Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical extensively used in industrial and household applications. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to BPA on the adult female neuroendocrine system. Herein, we found that expose of adult female mice to BPA (50 µg/kg) by oral gavage for 60 days (BPA mice) prolonged diestrus and decreased serum 17β-estradiol (E2) concentration by reducing the number of antral follicles and corpora luteum. In comparison with controls, the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), hypothalami...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang C, Zhang J, Liu P, Zhou Y, Hu Q, Zhong Y, Wang X, Chen L Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Editorial: Special Issue on Fish, Mercury and Health.
PMID: 32387194 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cranmer JS Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neurotoxicity of sub-anesthetic doses of sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine co-administration in neonatal rats.
CONCLUSIONS: In the neonatal rat model, co-administration of a clinically relevant dose of DEX (1 µg/kg) with a sub-anesthetic dose of SEVO (1.1%) does not affect the neurotoxicity of the anesthetic while co-administration of higher doses of DEX with SEVO 1.1% potentiates it. PMID: 32387222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Perez-Zoghbi JF, Zhu W, Neudecker V, Grafe MR, Brambrink AM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Peripheral polyneuropathy after acute methanol poisoning: six-year prospective cohort study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Methanol is a widely used industrial short-chain aliphatic alcohol with known neurotoxic properties. Mass poisoning outbreaks due to the consumption of methanol-adulterated alcoholic drinks present a challenge to healthcare providers due to the high mortality and serious central nervous system (CNS) damage in survivors. However, the impact of methanol exposure on the peripheral nervous system is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of acute methanol exposure in the development of peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP) during the years following discharge from the hospital. METHODS: ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kotikova K, Klepis P, Ridzon P, Hlusicka J, Navratil T, Rulisek J, Zak I, Zakharov S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Application of the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) theory as a method to predict cumulative neurotoxicity.
Abstract Xenobiotic electrophiles can form covalent adducts that may impair protein function, damage DNA, and may lead a range of adverse effects. Cumulative neurotoxicity is one adverse effect that has been linked to covalent protein binding as a Molecular Initiating Event (MIE). This paper describes a mechanistic in silico chemical screening approach for neurotoxicity based on Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) theory. We evaluated the applicability of HSAB-based electrophilicity screening protocol for neurotoxicity on 19 positive and 19 negative reference chemicals. These reference chemicals were identified f...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Melnikov F, Geohagen BC, Gavin T, LoPachin RM, Anastas PT, Coish P, Herr DW Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Behavior and gene expression in the brain of adult self-fertilizing mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) after early life exposure to the neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA).
Behavior and gene expression in the brain of adult self-fertilizing mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) after early life exposure to the neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Neurotoxicology. 2020 May 04;: Authors: Carion A, Markey A, Hétru J, Carpentier C, Suarez-Ulloa V, Denoël M, Earley RL, Silvestre F Abstract β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin naturally produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, constitutes a serious environmental and health threat especially during acute blooms, which are becoming more frequent. This neurotoxin is...
Source: Neurotoxicology - May 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Carion A, Markey A, Hétru J, Carpentier C, Suarez-Ulloa V, Denoël M, Earley RL, Silvestre F Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Association between aluminum in drinking water and incident Alzheimer's disease in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging cohort.
Abstract Epidemiological evidence linking aluminum in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been inconsistent, with previous studies often limited by small sample sizes. The present study addresses this issue using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a prospective cohort of 10,263 subjects followed-up from 1991-1992 through 2001-2002. Participants' residential histories were linked to municipal drinking water sources in 35 Canadian municipalities to obtain ecologic pH, aluminum, fluoride, iron and silica concentrations in drinking water. Cox proportional hazards models were used to e...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Van Dyke N, Yenugadhati N, Birkett NJ, Lindsay J, Turner MC, Willhite CC, Krewski D Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neurotoxic effects of high-dose piperine on hippocampal synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in a rat model of memory impairment.
In this study, chronic administration of piperine low dose improved the ICV-STZ induced learning and long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments with no significant effect on baseline synaptic activity. In contrast, remarkable learning and long-term plasticity impairments were observed in rats treated by high dose of piperine in comparison to the other groups. Interestingly, this impaired hippocampal LTP was accompanied by an obvious alteration in baseline activity and significantly decreased neuronal numbers within the hippocampus. Therefore, our data provides a new understanding of the piperine supplementation effects on hi...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nazify M, Ashrafpoor M, Oryan S, Esfahani DE, Moghadamnia AA Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Targeting sirtuin activity with nicotinamide riboside reduces neuroinflammation in a GWI mouse model.
Abstract Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 30% of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War (GW), who suffer from symptoms that reflect ongoing mitochondria dysfunction. Brain mitochondria bioenergetics dysfunction in GWI animal models corresponds with astroglia activation and neuroinflammation. In a pilot study of GW veterans (n = 43), we observed that blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) protein levels were decreased in the blood of veterans with GWI compared to healthy GW veterans. Since nicotinamide riboside (NR)-mediated targeting of Sirt1 is shown to improve mitochondria funct...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Joshi U, Evans JE, Pearson A, Saltiel N, Cseresznye A, Darcey T, Ojo J, Keegan AP, Oberlin S, Mouzon B, Paris D, Klimas N, Sullivan K, Mullan M, Crawford F, Abdullah L Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Neuropsychological Effects of Mercury Exposure in Children and Adolescents of the Amazon Region, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of Total Hg in hair were associated with a lower performance in neuropsychological functions tests. The results show that environmental exposure to Hg is associated to children and adolescents' lower neuropsychological performance in the riverine and resettled areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. PMID: 32335201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dos Santos-Lima C, de Souza Mourão D, Ferreira de Carvalho C, de Souza-Marques BL, Vega CM, Gonçalves RA, Argollo N, Antonio Menezes-Filho J, Abreu N, de Souza Hacon S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Novel in Vitro Assay to Investigate Radiation Induced Changes in the Functionality of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurospheres.
Abstract Ionizing radiation (IR) is increasingly used for diagnostics and therapy of severe brain diseases. However, IR also has adverse effects on the healthy brain tissue, particularly on the neuronal network. This is true for adults but even more pronounced in the developing brain of unborn and pediatric patients. Epidemiological studies on children receiving radiotherapy showed an increased risk for cognitive decline ranging from mild deficits in academic functioning to severe late effects in intellectual ability and language as a consequence of altered neuronal development and connectivity. To provide a compr...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mayer M, Arrizabalaga O, Ciba M, Schroeder IS, Ritter S, Thielemann C Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Erratum to "A microstructural analysis distinguishes motor and motivational influences over voluntary running in animals chronically exposed to methylmercury and nimodipine" [Neurotoxicology 54, (2016) 127-139].
Erratum to "A microstructural analysis distinguishes motor and motivational influences over voluntary running in animals chronically exposed to methylmercury and nimodipine" [Neurotoxicology 54, (2016) 127-139]. Neurotoxicology. 2020 Apr 15;: Authors: Hoffman DJ, Christopher Newland M PMID: 32305151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hoffman DJ, Christopher Newland M Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on acoustic characteristics of play fighting-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in juvenile rats.
Abstract Juvenile rats display rough-and-tumble playing with conspecifics (play fighting behavior) and produce 22 and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). The 22 kHz USV is considered to reflect negative emotionality such as anxiety, fear, and distress, whereas the 50 kHz USV is considered to reflect positive emotionality such as joy, happiness, and satisfaction. USV is a sensitive tool for measuring emotionality in socially interactive situations. However, effects of prenatal ethanol-exposure on the acoustic characteristics of play fighting-induced USVs have remained unclear. In Experiment...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shahrier MA, Wada H Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Fenobucarb-induced developmental neurotoxicity and mechanisms in zebrafish.
In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of BPMC from 6 hpf (hours post fertilization, hpf) to 120 hpf. BPMC induced developmental toxicity with reduced motility in larval zebrafish. The spinal cord neutrophil infiltration, increased ROS production, caspase 3 and 9 activation, central nerve and peripheral motor neuron damage, axon and myelin degeneration were observed in zebrafish treated with BPMC generally in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of eight marker genes for nervous system function or development, namely, a1-tubulin, shha, elavl3, gap43, syn2a, gfap, mbp and manf, was...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu XY, Wu YY, Xia B, Dai MZ, Huang YF, Yang H, Li CQ, Li P Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Use of new psychoactive substances to mimic prescription drugs: the trend in France.
Abstract Among the expanding world of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS), Designer Medicines (DM) are designed to mimic psychoactive drugs and might lead to adverse events of various severity. The DM category includes designer benzodiazepines (DB), phenmetrazine, modafinil, methylphenidate analogs, and novel synthetic opioids (NSO). To investigate DM-related complications in France, all data on NPS collected in the French Addictovigilance network database through spontaneous reports (SRs) and the annual survey on deaths related to the abuse of licit and illicit psychoactive substances (DRAMES survey) between 2009 a...
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Batisse A, Eiden C, Peyriere H, Djezzar S, French Addictovigilance Network Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Evaluation of fosphenytoin, levetiracetam, and propofol as treatments for nerve agent-induced seizures in pediatric and adult rats.
In this study, fosphenytoin and levetiracetam failed to terminate seizure activity when animals were treated 5 minutes after seizure onset. Propofol was effective, exhibiting high efficacy and potency for terminating seizure activity quickly in pediatric and adult animals, suggesting it may be an effective anticonvulsant for NA-induced seizures in pediatric populations. PMID: 32220603 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dunn EN, Matson LM, Haines KM, Whitten KA, Lee-Stubbs RB, Berger KE, McCarren HS, Ardinger CE, Jackson Piercy CE, Miller-Smith SM, McDonough JH Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Visual contrast sensitivity in school-age Guadeloupean children exposed to chlordecone.
This study indicates that exposure to chlordecone in utero and during childhood may impair visual contrast sensitivity at school age, particularly in boys. PMID: 32217184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Saint-Amour D, Muckle G, Gagnon-Chauvin A, Rouget F, Monfort C, Michineau L, Thomé JP, Kadhel P, Multigner L, Cordier S Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Respirator usage protects brain white matter from welding fume exposure: a pilot magnetic resonance imaging study of welders.
Abstract Welding fume exposure has been associated with structural brain changes and a wide variety of clinical and sub-clinical outcomes including cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities. Respirator use has been shown to decrease exposure to welding fumes; however, the associations between respirator use and health outcomes, particularly neurologic health, have been understudied. In this preliminary study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the effectiveness of respirator use in protecting workers' white matter (WM) from the harmful effects related to welding fume exposure. Fractional ani...
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rechtman E, Curtin P, Onyebeke LC, Wang VX, Papazaharias DM, Hazeltine D, de Water E, Nabeel I, Mani V, Zuckerman N, Lucchini RG, Gaughan D, Tang CY, Horton MK Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Thioredoxin-1 blocks methamphetamine-induced injury in brain through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in mice.
Abstract Methamphetamine (METH) has been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and neuronal apoptosis in the central nervous system (CNS) during the development of addiction. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays an important role in inhibiting apoptosis and protects neurons from cytotoxicity through ER and mitochondria-mediated pathways. Our previous study has been reported that Trx-1 protects mice from METH-induced rewarding effect. However, whether Trx-1 plays the role in resisting METH injury is still unclear. Here, we aim to investigate whether Trx-1 participates in the ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang L, Guo N, Fan W, Ni C, Huang M, Bai L, Zhang L, Zhang X, Wen Y, Li Y, Zhou X, Bai J Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Gestational and childhood urinary triclosan concentrations and academic achievement among 8-year-old children.
CONCLUSION: Urinary triclosan concentrations at delivery and at age 1 year, but not other times during gestation or childhood, were associated with lower reading composite and to a lesser extent math test scores at age 8 years in this cohort of U.S. children. PMID: 32201332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurotoxicology)
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jackson-Browne MS, Papandonatos GD, Chen A, Calafat AM, Yolton K, Lanphear BP, Braun JM Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Interaction of Toxoplasma gondii infection and elevated blood lead levels on children's neurobehavior.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its possible effects on the behavior of school-aged children in Bahia, Brazil. Serum anti-body determinations were performed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Blood lead levels (BLL) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The evaluation of a child's behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL). Multivariate models applying logistic regression were used to test the association of chronic T. gondii infection and BLL with behavioral outcomes in children. Seroprevalence fo...
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Martinez VO, de Mendonça Lima FW, da Rocha RBA, Ferréol Bah HA, de Carvalho CF, Menezes-Filho JA Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Adolescent methylmercury exposure alters short-term remembering, but not sustained attention, in male Long-Evans rats.
Abstract Methylmercury is an environmental neurotoxicant found in fish that produces behavioral deficits following early developmental exposure. The impact of adolescent exposure to this developmental neurotoxicant is only recently being explored in animal models. Here, short-term memory and sustained attention were examined using a rodent model of adolescent methylmercury exposure. Rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, or 5 ppm methylmercury throughout the adolescent period and tested on a two-choice visual signal detection task in adulthood. Methylmercury improved short-term remembering in this procedure but the d...
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kendricks DR, Boomhower SR, Arnold MA, Glenn DJ, Newland MC Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders model alters the functionality of glutamatergic neurotransmission in adult zebrafish.
Abstract Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe a wide range of ethanol-induced developmental disabilities, including craniofacial dysmorphology, and neurochemical and behavioral impairments. Zebrafish has become a popular animal model to evaluate the long-lasting effects of, both, severe and milder forms of FASD, including alterations to neurotransmission. Glutamate is one of the most affected neurotransmitter systems in ethanol-induced developmental disabilities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the functionality of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in an adult zebrafish ...
Source: Neurotoxicology - March 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Baggio S, Zenki K, Martins Silva A, Dos Santos TG, Rech G, Lazzarotto G, Dutra Dias R, Hur Mussulini B, Pacheco Rico E, de Oliveira DL Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research