Predicting Motor Sequence Learning in Individuals With Chronic Stroke
Conclusion. Nonlinear information extracted from multiple time points across practice, specifically the rate of motor skill acquisition during practice, relates strongly with changes in motor behavior at the retention test following practice and could be used to predict optimal doses of practice on an individual basis. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wadden, K. P., Asis, K. D., Mang, C. S., Neva, J. L., Peters, S., Lakhani, B., Boyd, L. A. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Small-World Characteristics of Cortical Connectivity Changes in Acute Stroke
Conclusions. After an acute stroke, brain cortex rearranges its network connections diffusely, in a frequency-dependent modality probably in order to face the new anatomical and functional frame. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Caliandro, P., Vecchio, F., Miraglia, F., Reale, G., Della Marca, G., La Torre, G., Lacidogna, G., Iacovelli, C., Padua, L., Bramanti, P., Rossini, P. M. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy in the Acute Stage: What Is the Key Factor for Efficacy? A Randomized Controlled Study
Conclusion. It was found that 14 hours of aphasia therapy administered within 2 weeks as individual therapy, focusing on individual deficits, combined with group sessions has proven to be most efficient. This approach yielded the same outcome as 30 hours of group therapy, either in the form of CIAT or group therapy without constraints. SLT in an intensive treatment schedule is feasible and was well tolerated in the acute stage after stroke. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Woldag, H., Voigt, N., Bley, M., Hummelsheim, H. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Estimated Prestroke Peak VO2 Is Related to Circulating IGF-1 Levels During Acute Stroke
Conclusions. Improving aerobic fitness prior to stroke may be beneficial by increasing baseline IGF-1 levels. These results set the groundwork for future clinical trials to determine whether high IGF-1 and aerobic fitness are beneficial to stroke recovery by providing neuroprotection and improving function. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mattlage, A. E., Rippee, M. A., Abraham, M. G., Sandt, J., Billinger, S. A. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Electroencephalography-Derived Sensory and Motor Network Topology in Multiple Sclerosis Fatigue
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently complain of excessive fatigue, which is the most disabling symptom for half of them. While the few drugs used to treat MS fatigue are of limited utility, we recently observed the efficacy of a personalized neuromodulation treatment. Here, we aim at strengthening knowledge of the brain network changes that occur when MS fatigue increases, using graph theory. We collected electroencephalographic (EEG; 23 or 64 channels) data in resting state with eyes open in 27 relapsing-remitting (RR) patients with mild MS (EDSS ≤2), suffering a wide range of fatigue as scored by the modifi...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Vecchio, F., Miraglia, F., Porcaro, C., Cottone, C., Cancelli, A., Rossini, P. M., Tecchio, F. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Depression, Type 2 Diabetes, and Poststroke Cognitive Impairment
Background. Ten percent of stroke survivors develop dementia, which increases to more than a third after recurrent stroke. Other survivors develop less severe vascular cognitive impairment. In the general population, depression, and diabetes interact in predicting dementia risk, and they are both prevalent in stroke. Objective. To assess the cumulative association of comorbid depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes with cognitive outcomes among stroke survivors. Methods. Multicenter observational cohort study of people within 6 months of stroke. Depression and cognitive status were screened using the Center for Epidemiolog...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Swardfager, W., MacIntosh, B. J. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Impairments Are Associated With Impaired Head and Trunk Stability During Gait in Parkinson Fallers
Conclusions. The results provide evidence of neuromuscular deficits for PD fallers that are independent of medications, symptom severity, and posture and contribute to impaired head, trunk, and pelvis control associated with falls in this population. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cole, M. H., Naughton, G. A., Silburn, P. A. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Relative to Typical Antipsychotic Drugs, Aripiprazole Is a Safer Alternative for Alleviating Behavioral Disturbances After Experimental Brain Trauma
Background. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are used to manage traumatic brain injury (TBI)–induced behavioral disturbances, such as agitation and aggression. However, APDs exhibiting D2 receptor antagonism impede cognitive recovery after experimental TBI. Hence, empirical evaluation of APDs with different mechanistic actions is warranted. Aripiprazole (ARIP) is a D2 and 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist; pharmacotherapies with these properties enhance cognition after TBI. Objective. To test the hypothesis that ARIP would increase behavioral performance and decrease histopathology after TBI. Methods. Adult m...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Phelps, T. I., Bondi, C. O., Mattiola, V. V., Kline, A. E. Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research

Can Neurological Biomarkers of Brain Impairment Be Used to Predict Poststroke Motor Recovery? A Systematic Review
Conclusions. There were 3 prevalent methodological limitations: (a) lack of cross-validation, (b) lack of minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for motor outcomes, and (c) small sample size. More high-quality studies are needed to establish which neurological biomarkers are the best predictors of motor recovery after stroke. Finally, the quarter-century old methodological quality tool used here should be updated by inclusion of more contemporary methods and statistical approaches. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - December 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kim, B., Winstein, C. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Same Intervention-Different Reorganization: The Impact of Lesion Location on Training-Facilitated Somatosensory Recovery After Stroke
Conclusion. Different patterns of change in activation are evident following touch discrimination training with thalamic/capsular lesions compared with S1/S2 cortical somatosensory lesions, despite common training and similar improvement. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Carey, L. M., Abbott, D. F., Lamp, G., Puce, A., Seitz, R. J., Donnan, G. A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Upper-Limb Recovery After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing EMG-Triggered, Cyclic, and Sensory Electrical Stimulation
This study compared the effect of cyclic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), electromyographically (EMG)-triggered NMES, and sensory stimulation on motor impairment and activity limitations in patients with upper-limb hemiplegia. Methods. This was a multicenter, single-blind, multiarm parallel-group study of nonhospitalized hemiplegic stroke survivors within 6 months of stroke. A total of 122 individuals were randomized to receive either cyclic NMES, EMG-triggered NMES, or sensory stimulation twice every weekday in 40-minute sessions, over an 8 week-period. Patients were followed for 6 months after treatment concl...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilson, R. D., Page, S. J., Delahanty, M., Knutson, J. S., Gunzler, D. D., Sheffler, L. R., Chae, J. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Circadian Melatonin Rhythm Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Conclusions: In patients with TBI, melatonin production was attenuated overnight, and the timing of melatonin secretion was delayed. We suggest that disruption to the circadian regulation of melatonin synthesis is a feature of severe TBI, possibly contributing to the sleep difficulties that are commonly reported in this population. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Grima, N. A., Ponsford, J. L., St. Hilaire, M. A., Mansfield, D., Rajaratnam, S. M. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

The Role of the Frontal Lobe in Complex Walking Among Patients With Parkinsons Disease and Healthy Older Adults: An fNIRS Study
Background. Gait is influenced by higher order cognitive and cortical control mechanisms. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been used to examine frontal activation during walking in healthy older adults, reporting increased oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) levels during dual task walking (DT), compared with usual walking. Objective. To investigate the role of the frontal lobe during DT and obstacle negotiation, in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods. Thirty-eight healthy older adults (mean age 70.4 ± 0.9 years) and 68 patients with PD (mean age 71.7 ± 1.1...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Maidan, I., Nieuwhof, F., Bernad-Elazari, H., Reelick, M. F., Bloem, B. R., Giladi, N., Deutsch, J. E., Hausdorff, J. M., Claassen, J. A. H., Mirelman, A. Tags: Featured articles Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Engaging Cervical Spinal Cord Networks to Reenable Volitional Control of Hand Function in Tetraplegic Patients
Conclusions. The present data are sufficient to suggest that hand motor function in individuals with chronic tetraplegia can be improved with cervical cord neuromodulation and thus should be comprehensively explored as a possible clinical intervention. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu, D. C., Edgerton, V. R., Modaber, M., AuYong, N., Morikawa, E., Zdunowski, S., Sarino, M. E., Sarrafzadeh, M., Nuwer, M. R., Roy, R. R., Gerasimenko, Y. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Remodeling of Neuronal Circuits After Reach Training in Chronic Capsular Stroke
This study was performed to investigate changes in neuronal circuits and motor recovery in a chronic capsular stroke model in the presence or absence of reach training. Method. We generated photothrombotic capsular lesions in 42 Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluated motor recovery with or without daily training in a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT). We used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose-microPET (positron emission tomography) to assess remodeling of neuronal circuits. Results. SPRT training was selectively beneficial only for the group with incomplete capsular destruction (P
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cho, J., Kwon, D.-H., Kim, R. G., Song, H., Rosa-Neto, P., Lee, M.-C., Kim, H.-I. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

The Effect of Levodopa on Improvements in Protective Stepping in People With Parkinsons Disease
Conclusions. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease are able to improve protective postural responses through short-term perturbation training, and improvements were more pronounced when on levodopa for some variables. Perturbation training may be more effective if completed while optimally medicated with levodopa. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Peterson, D. S., Horak, F. B. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

COMT and ANKK1 Genetics Interact With Depression to Influence Behavior Following Severe TBI: An Initial Assessment
Conclusion. In the context of depression, Val158Met and Taq1a polymorphisms are individually associated with behavioral dysfunction 12 months following severe TBI, with preliminary evidence suggesting cumulative, or perhaps epistatic, effects of COMT and ANKK1 on behavioral dysfunction. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Myrga, J. M., Juengst, S. B., Failla, M. D., Conley, Y. P., Arenth, P. M., Grace, A. A., Wagner, A. K. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Handwriting Impairments in People With Parkinsons Disease and Freezing of Gait
Conclusions. Writing is more severely affected in PD patients with FOG than in those without FOG. These results indicate that deficient movement sequencing and adaptation is a generic problem in patients with FOG. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Heremans, E., Nackaerts, E., Broeder, S., Vervoort, G., Swinnen, S. P., Nieuwboer, A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Long-Term Exercise Improves Memory Deficits via Restoration of Myelin and Microvessel Damage, and Enhancement of Neurogenesis in the Aged Gerbil Hippocampus After Ischemic Stroke
Conclusions. These results suggest that long-term treadmill exercise after I-R can restore memory function through replacement of multiple damaged structures in the ischemic aged hippocampus. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahn, J. H., Choi, J. H., Park, J. H., Kim, I. H., Cho, J.-H., Lee, J.-C., Koo, H.-M., Hwangbo, G., Yoo, K.-Y., Lee, C. H., Hwang, I. K., Cho, J. H., Choi, S. Y., Kwon, Y.-G., Kim, Y.-M., Kang, I.-J., Won, M.-H. Tags: Basic Research Article Source Type: research

ApoE and SNAP-25 Polymorphisms Predict the Outcome of Multidimensional Stimulation Therapy Rehabilitation in Alzheimers Disease
Conclusions. Polymorphisms in genes known to modulate neural plasticity might predict the outcome of a multistructured rehabilitation protocol in patients with AD. These data, although needing confirmation on larger case studies, could help optimizing the clinical management of individuals with AD, for example defining a more intensive treatment in those subjects with a lower likelihood of success. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Guerini, F. R., Farina, E., Costa, A. S., Baglio, F., Saibene, F. L., Margaritella, N., Calabrese, E., Zanzottera, M., Bolognesi, E., Nemni, R., Clerici, M. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Performance Variability as a Predictor of Response to Aphasia Treatment
Conclusions. Intraindividual variability may be indicative of potential for improvement on a given task, with more uniform performance suggesting functioning at or near peak potential. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Duncan, E. S., Schmah, T., Small, S. L. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation in Dysphagia Poststroke: A Prospective, Randomized Single-Blinded Interventional Study
Background. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) appears to promote cortical plasticity and swallowing recovery poststroke. Objective. We aimed to assess clinical effectiveness with longer follow-up. Methods. Dysphagic patients (n = 36; median = 71 years; 61% male) recruited from 3 trial centers within 6 weeks of stroke, received active or sham PES in a single-blinded randomized design via an intraluminal pharyngeal catheter (10 minutes, for 3days). The primary outcome measure was the Dysphagia Severity Rating (DSR) scale (1 for DSR
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Vasant, D. H., Michou, E., OLeary, N., Vail, A., Mistry, S., Hamdy, S., Greater Manchester Stroke Research Network Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Physical Activity Intervention for Adults With Brain Impairment: A Controlled Clinical Trial
Conclusion. The 12-week intervention effectively increased adoption of PA in a sample of community-dwelling adults with BI immediately after the intervention but not at follow-up. Future studies should explore strategies to foster maintenance of PA participation. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Clanchy, K. M., Tweedy, S. M., Trost, S. G. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

A Critical Evaluation of the Methodological Obstacles to Translating Cell-Based Research Into an Effective Treatment for People With Parkinsons Disease
The remarkable scientific and technological advances in the field of cell research have not been translated into viable restorative therapies for brain disorders. In this article, we examine the best available evidence for the clinical efficacy of reconstructive intracerebral transplantation in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), with the aim of identifying methodological obstacles to the translation process. The major stumbling block is the fact that the potential contributions of people with neural grafts and the effects of the physical and social environment in which they recover have not been adequately investi...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Polgar, S., Karimi, L., Buultjens, M., Morris, M. E. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Skilled Bimanual Training Drives Motor Cortex Plasticity in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy
Background. Intensive bimanual therapy can improve hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP). We compared the effects of structured bimanual skill training versus unstructured bimanual practice on motor outcomes and motor map plasticity in children with USCP. Objective. We hypothesized that structured skill training would produce greater motor map plasticity than unstructured practice. Methods. Twenty children with USCP (average age 9.5; 12 males) received therapy in a day camp setting, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. In structured skill training (n = 10), children performed progressively m...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Friel, K. M., Kuo, H.-C., Fuller, J., Ferre, C. L., Brandao, M., Carmel, J. B., Bleyenheuft, Y., Gowatsky, J. L., Stanford, A. D., Rowny, S. B., Luber, B., Bassi, B., Murphy, D. L. K., Lisanby, S. H., Gordon, A. M. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Macrostructural and Microstructural Brain Lesions Relate to Gait Pathology in Children With Cerebral Palsy
Conclusions. These results indicate that the combined influence of multiple brain lesions and their impact on the primary motor deficits might explain a large part of the gait pathology in sCP. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Meyns, P., Van Gestel, L., Leunissen, I., De Cock, P., Sunaert, S., Feys, H., Duysens, J., Desloovere, K., Ortibus, E. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Unilateral Upper Limb Training in Two Distinct Prognostic Groups Early After Stroke: The EXPLICIT-Stroke Randomized Clinical Trial
Background and Objective. Favorable prognosis of the upper limb depends on preservation or return of voluntary finger extension (FE) early after stroke. The present study aimed to determine the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) and electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (EMG-NMS) on upper limb capacity early poststroke. Methods. A total of 159 ischemic stroke patients were included: 58 patients with a favorable prognosis (>10° of FE) were randomly allocated to 3 weeks of mCIMT or usual care only; 101 patients with an unfavorable prognosis were allocated to 3-week EMG-NMS o...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kwakkel, G., Winters, C., van Wegen, E. E. H., Nijland, R. H. M., van Kuijk, A. A. A., Visser-Meily, A., de Groot, J., de Vlugt, E., Arendzen, J. H., Geurts, A. C. H., Meskers, C. G. M., on behalf of the EXPLICIT-Stroke Consortium Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

WFNR Franz Gerstenbrand Award Announcement
(Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - September 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Announcement Source Type: research

Paradoxical Motor Recovery From a First Stroke After Induction of a Second Stroke: Reopening a Postischemic Sensitive Period
Conclusions. New ischemia can reopen a sensitive period of heightened responsiveness to training and mediate full recovery from a previous stroke. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeiler, S. R., Hubbard, R., Gibson, E. M., Zheng, T., Ng, K., OBrien, R., Krakauer, J. W. Tags: Basic Science Article Source Type: research

Upper Limb Rehabilitation in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review
Conclusions. The results of this systematic review indicated that different types of upper limb rehabilitation strategies can improve upper limb function in PwMS. Further research is necessary to compare directly the effects of different rehabilitation strategies and to investigate the optimal therapy dosage according to the upper limb disability level. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lamers, I., Maris, A., Severijns, D., Dielkens, W., Geurts, S., Van Wijmeersch, B., Feys, P. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Robotic Quantification of Position Sense in Children With Perinatal Stroke
Background. Perinatal stroke is the leading cause of hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Motor deficits and their treatment are commonly emphasized in the literature. Sensory dysfunction may be an important contributor to disability, but it is difficult to measure accurately clinically. Objective. Use robotics to quantify position sense deficits in hemiparetic children with perinatal stroke and determine their association with common clinical measures. Methods. Case-control study. Participants were children aged 6 to 19 years with magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed unilateral perinatal arterial ischemic stroke or periventr...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuczynski, A. M., Dukelow, S. P., Semrau, J. A., Kirton, A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Effects of Pain and Pain Management on Motor Recovery of Spinal Cord-Injured Patients: A Longitudinal Study
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of pain and pain management on neurological recovery after SCI. Methods. We analyzed clinical data in a prospective multicenter observational cohort study in patients with SCI. Using mixed effects regression techniques, total motor and sensory scores were modelled at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Results. A total of 225 individuals were included in the study (mean age: 45.8 ± 18 years, 80% male). At 1 month postinjury, 28% of individuals with SCI reported at- or below-level neuropathic pain. While pain classification showed no effect on neurological outcome...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cragg, J. J., Haefeli, J., Jutzeler, C. R., Röhrich, F., Weidner, N., Saur, M., Maier, D. D., Kalke, Y. B., Schuld, C., Curt, A., Kramer, J. K. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Contribution of Paretic and Nonparetic Limb Peak Propulsive Forces to Changes in Walking Speed in Individuals Poststroke
Conclusions. Gait retraining in the chronic phase of stroke recovery facilitates paretic limb neuromotor recovery and reduces the reliance on the nonparetic limb’s generation of propulsive force to increase walking speed. These findings support gait rehabilitation efforts directed toward improving the paretic limb’s ability to generate propulsive force. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hsiao, H., Awad, L. N., Palmer, J. A., Higginson, J. S., Binder-Macleod, S. A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Somatosensory Impairments in the Upper Limb Poststroke: Distribution and Association With Motor Function and Visuospatial Neglect
Background. A thorough understanding of the presence of different upper-limb somatosensory deficits poststroke and the relation with motor performance remains unclear. Additionally, knowledge about the relation between somatosensory deficits and visuospatial neglect is limited. Objective. To investigate the distribution of upper-limb somatosensory impairments and the association with unimanual and bimanual motor outcomes and visuospatial neglect. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 122 patients within 6 months after stroke (median = 82 days; interquartile range = 57-133 days). Somatosens...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Meyer, S., De Bruyn, N., Lafosse, C., Van Dijk, M., Michielsen, M., Thijs, L., Truyens, V., Oostra, K., Krumlinde-Sundholm, L., Peeters, A., Thijs, V., Feys, H., Verheyden, G. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Postural Motor Learning Deficits in People With MS in Spatial but Not Temporal Control of Center of Mass
Conclusions: People with MS have the capacity to improve use of a feed-forward postural strategy with practice and retain the learned behavior for temporal not spatial control of CoM, despite their significant postural response impairments. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gera, G., Fling, B. W., Van Ooteghem, K., Cameron, M., Frank, J. S., Horak, F. B. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Sleep in the Acute Phase of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Snapshot of Polysomnography
Conclusion. Patients in the acute stage of severe TBI exhibit increased sleep duration and earlier sleep onset, suggesting that the injured brain enhances sleep need and/or decreases the ability to maintain wakefulness. As poor sleep efficiency could compromise brain recovery, further studies should investigate whether strategies known to optimize sleep in healthy individuals are efficacious in acute TBI. While there are several inherent challenges, polysomnography is a useful means of examining sleep in the early stage of recovery in patients with severe TBI. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wiseman-Hakes, C., Duclos, C., Blais, H., Dumont, M., Bernard, F., Desautels, A., Menon, D. K., Gilbert, D., Carrier, J., Gosselin, N. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

A Clinically Relevant Method of Analyzing Continuous Change in Robotic Upper Extremity Chronic Stroke Rehabilitation
Background. Robots designed for rehabilitation of the upper extremity after stroke facilitate high rates of repetition during practice of movements and record precise kinematic data, providing a method to investigate motor recovery profiles over time. Objective. To determine how motor recovery profiles during robotic interventions provide insight into improving clinical gains. Methods. A convenience sample (n = 22), from a larger randomized control trial, was taken of chronic stroke participants completing 12 sessions of arm therapy. One group received 60 minutes of robotic therapy (Robot only) and the other group received...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - August 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Massie, C. L., Du, Y., Conroy, S. S., Krebs, H. I., Wittenberg, G. F., Bever, C. T., Whitall, J. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Delayed Exercise Is Ineffective at Reversing Aberrant Nociceptive Afferent Plasticity or Neuropathic Pain After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
This study determined if delaying exercise intervention until pain is detected would similarly ameliorate established SCI-induced pain. Adult, female Sprague-Dawley rats with a C5 unilateral contusion were separated into SCI allodynic and SCI non-allodynic cohorts at 14 or 28 days postinjury when half of each group began exercising on automated running wheels. Allodynia, assessed by von Frey testing, was not ameliorated by exercise. Furthermore, rats that began exercise with no allodynia developed paw hypersensitivity within 2 weeks. At the initiation of exercise, the SCI Allodynia group displayed marked overlap of peptide...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Detloff, M. R., Quiros-Molina, D., Javia, A. S., Daggubati, L., Nehlsen, A. D., Naqvi, A., Ninan, V., Vannix, K. N., McMullen, M.-K., Amin, S., Ganzer, P. D., Houle, J. D. Tags: Basic Research Articles Source Type: research

Vagus Nerve Stimulation During Rehabilitative Training Improves Forelimb Recovery After Chronic Ischemic Stroke in Rats
Conclusion. VNS paired with rehabilitative training confers significantly greater recovery of forelimb function after chronic ischemic stroke in rats. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Khodaparast, N., Kilgard, M. P., Casavant, R., Ruiz, A., Qureshi, I., Ganzer, P. D., Rennaker, R. L., Hays, S. A. Tags: Basic Research Articles Source Type: research

Improving Motor Corticothalamic Communication After Stroke Using Real-Time fMRI Connectivity-Based Neurofeedback
Conclusions. Our results document for the first time the feasibility and safety for patients with chronic stroke and severe motor impairment to self-regulate and augment ipsilesional cortico-subcortical connectivity through neurofeedback using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Liew, S.-L., Rana, M., Cornelsen, S., Fortunato de Barros Filho, M., Birbaumer, N., Sitaram, R., Cohen, L. G., Soekadar, S. R. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Reducing The Cost of Transport and Increasing Walking Distance After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial on Fast Locomotor Training Combined With Functional Electrical Stimulation
Background. Neurorehabilitation efforts have been limited in their ability to restore walking function after stroke. Recent work has demonstrated proof-of-concept for a functional electrical stimulation (FES)–based combination therapy designed to improve poststroke walking by targeting deficits in paretic propulsion. Objectives. To determine the effects on the energy cost of walking (EC) and long-distance walking ability of locomotor training that combines fast walking with FES to the paretic ankle musculature (FastFES). Methods. Fifty participants>6 months poststroke were randomized to 12 weeks of gait training a...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Awad, L. N., Reisman, D. S., Pohlig, R. T., Binder-Macleod, S. A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Imaging Predictors of Improvement From a Motor Learning-Based Intervention for Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy
Background. Motor-learning interventions may improve hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) but with inconsistent outcomes across participants. Objective. To examine if pre-intervention brain imaging predicts benefit from bimanual intervention. Method. Twenty children with UCP with Manual Ability Classification System levels I to III, aged 7-16 years, participated in an intensive bimanual intervention. Assessments included the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF) and Children’s Hand Experience Questionnaire (CHEQ) at baseline (T1), completion (T2) and 8-...
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Schertz, M., Shiran, S. I., Myers, V., Weinstein, M., Fattal-Valevski, A., Artzi, M., Ben Bashat, D., Gordon, A. M., Green, D. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Compensatory Versus Noncompensatory Shoulder Movements Used for Reaching in Stroke
Conclusions. The upper-limb flexor synergy was used adaptively for reaching accuracy by patients with mild, but not moderate/severe stroke. The flexor synergy, as parameterized by the amount of arm-plane motion, can be used by clinicians to identify levels of motor recovery in patients with stroke. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Levin, M. F., Liebermann, D. G., Parmet, Y., Berman, S. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Does Poststroke Lower-Limb Spasticity Influence the Recovery of Standing Balance Control? A 2-Year Multilevel Growth Model
Conclusions. The present results suggest that the reduction in spasticity may be beneficial to balance control recovery. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Singer, J. C., Nishihara, K., Mochizuki, G. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

The Effects of Stroke Type, Locus, and Extent on Long-Term Outcome of Gait Rehabilitation: The LEAPS Experience
Conclusions. Type, locus, and extent of lesion, and the loss of substrate for neuroplastic effect as a result of prior stroke may affect long-term outcome of rehabilitation of hemiparetic gait. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Nadeau, S. E., Dobkin, B., Wu, S. S., Pei, Q., Duncan, P. W., for the LEAPS Investigative Team Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Subcortical Volume Loss in the Thalamus, Putamen, and Pallidum, Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury, Is Associated With Motor Performance Deficits
Conclusions. Our results reveal that GM atrophy is associated with motor impairments in TBI, providing new insights into the etiology of motor control impairments following brain trauma. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - July 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gooijers, J., Chalavi, S., Beeckmans, K., Michiels, K., Lafosse, C., Sunaert, S., Swinnen, S. P. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Prefrontal Cortex Activation While Walking Under Dual-Task Conditions in Stroke: A Multimodal Imaging Study
Conclusion. Our results provide novel evidence that enhanced brain activity changes relate to dual task motor decrements. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - June 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Al-Yahya, E., Johansen-Berg, H., Kischka, U., Zarei, M., Cockburn, J., Dawes, H. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Long-term Effectiveness of Intensive Therapy in Chronic Stroke
Conclusions. Motor benefits from intensive therapy compared with usual care were observed at 12 and 36 weeks posttherapy; however, this difference was attenuated at 36 weeks. Subgroups analysis showed that younger age, and a shorter time since stroke were associated with greater immediate and long-term improvement of motor function. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - June 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu, X., Guarino, P., Lo, A. C., Peduzzi, P., Wininger, M. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Enhanced Neurobehavioral Outcomes of Action Observation Prosthesis Training
Conclusions. These results indicate that the type of limb imitated influences neural and behavioral strategies for novel prosthetic device usage. This finding is important, as customary prosthetic rehabilitation with intact therapists involves mismatched limb imitation that may exacerbate challenges in adapting to new motor patterns demanded by prosthesis use. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - June 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cusack, W. F., Thach, S., Patterson, R., Acker, D., Kistenberg, R. S., Wheaton, L. A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research

Influence of Spinal Cord Integrity on Gait Control in Human Spinal Cord Injury
Conclusions. In motor-incomplete SCI, distinct clusters of discretely controlled gait parameters can be discerned that refine the evaluation of gait impairment beyond outcomes of walking speed and distance. These findings are specifically different from that in other neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson) and are more discrete at targeting and disentangling the complex effects of interventions to improve walking outcome following motor-incomplete SCI. (Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair)
Source: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair - June 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Awai, L., Bolliger, M., Ferguson, A. R., Courtine, G., Curt, A. Tags: Clinical Research Articles Source Type: research