How have Economic Evaluations in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Evolved Over Time? A Systematic Literature Review
ConclusionAs expected, similarities as well as differences were observed across the different economic models. Available evidence suggests models should continue using the Markov cohort model with 21 EDSS-based states, however, allowing the transition to a lower EDSS state and assuming a sustained treatment effect. With reference to the data sources, models should consider using a contemporary MS-specific mortality data, recent natural history data, and country-specific utility data if available. In case of data unavailability, a sensitivity analysis using multiple sources of data should be conducted. In addition, future m...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - July 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Clinical-Radiomics Nomogram for Functional Outcome Predictions in Ischemic Stroke
ConclusionThis novel noninvasive clinical-radiomics nomogram shows good performance in predicting ischemic stroke prognosis. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Confirmed 6-Month Disability Improvement and Worsening Correlate with Long-term Disability Outcomes in Alemtuzumab-Treated Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Post Hoc Analysis of the CARE-MS Studies
ConclusionCDI achievement at any point during the CARE-MS studies was associated with improved disability at year 9, highlighting the potential of alemtuzumab to change the multiple sclerosis course. Conversely, CDW at any point was associated with worsened disability at year 9. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expert Consensus and Narrative Review on the Management of Multiple Sclerosis in the Arabian Gulf in the COVID-19 Era: Focus on Disease-Modifying Therapies and Vaccination Against COVID-19
This article describes consensus recommendations from an expert group of neurologists from the Arabian Gulf region on the management of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) in the COVID-19 era. MS appears not to be a risk factor for severe adverse COVID-19 outcomes (though patients with advanced disability or a progressive phenotype are at higher risk). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT)-based care appears generally safe for patients with MS who develop COVID-19 (although there may be an increased risk of adverse outcomes with anti-CD20 therapy). Interferon- β, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, natalizu...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Emerging Infection, Vaccination, and Guillain –Barré Syndrome: A Review
AbstractGuillain –Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system that typically develops within 4 weeks after infection. In addition to conventional infectious diseases with which we are familiar, emerging infectious diseases, such as Zika virus infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have also been suggested to be associated with GBS. GBS is mainly categorized into a demyelinating subtype known as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and an axonal subtype known as acute mot...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optimized Propofol Anesthesia Increases Power of Subthalamic Neuronal Activity in Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation
This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of an optimized propofol anesthesia regimen in asleep DBS.MethodsThis retrospective study enrolled 68 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS surgery. All patients received local scalp anesthesia, with (asleep group,n = 35) or without (awake group,n = 33) propofol-remifentanil general anesthesia by target-controlled infusion under electroencephalogram monitoring. The primary outcome was subthalamic neuronal spiking characterization during microelectrode recording. The secondary outcomes were clinical outcomes including motor, cognition, mi nd...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Medication for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Common Comorbidities: A Systematic Review
AbstractIntroductionComorbid psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occur frequently, complicate management, and are associated with substantial burden on patients and caregivers. Very few systematic reviews have assessed the efficacy and safety of medications for ADHD in children and adolescents with comorbidities. Of those that were conducted, most focused on a particular comorbidity or medication. In this systematic literature review, we summarize the efficacy and safety of treatments for children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid autism spectrum diso...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hypervigilance, Allostatic Load, and Migraine Prevention: Antibodies to CGRP or Receptor
AbstractMigraine involves brain hypersensitivity with episodic dysfunction triggered by behavioral or physiological stressors. During an acute migraine attack the trigeminal nerve is activated (peripheral sensitization). This leads to central sensitization with activation of the central pathways including the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, the trigemino-thalamic tract, and the thalamus. In episodic migraine the sensitization process ends with the individual act, but with chronic migraine central sensitization may continue interictally. Increased allostatic load, the consequence of chronic, repeated exposure to stressors, lea...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - June 2, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Consequences of Insurance Denials Among U.S. Patients Prescribed Repository Corticotropin Injection for Acute Exacerbations of Multiple Sclerosis
ConclusionThe results of this study may aid providers and payers in evaluating scenarios where RCI may be beneficial and improve quality of care for patients experiencing MS relapse. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Dimethyl Fumarate in Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Switching After Suboptimal Response to Glatiramer Acetate, Including Patients With Early Multiple Sclerosis: Subgroup Analysis of RESPOND
ConclusionsDMF may be an effective treatment option in first switch and early MS switch patients with RMS who experience a suboptimal response to GA.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01903291. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Globus Pallidus Internus (GPi) Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson ’s Disease: Expert Review and Commentary
ConclusionGPi DBS can be effectively used in select cases of PD. As the ongoing DBS target debate continues (GPi vs. STN as DBS target), clinicians should keep in mind that GPi DBS has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy for a variety of symptoms, including bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor control. GPi DBS also has an important, direct anti-dyskinetic effect. GPi DBS is easier to program in the outpatient setting and will allow for more flexibility in medication adjustments (e.g. levodopa). Emerging technologies, including GPi closed-loop systems, advanced tractography-based targeting and enhanced programming...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Symptoms of the Nervous System and Implications for Therapy in Neurological Disorders
AbstractIn this paper, the neurological aspects of COVID-19 are presented, which may be of significance for physicians. Knowledge about the neurological symptoms of COVID-19 infection should help physicians in diagnoses and in taking appropriate precautions, as some manifestations can appear before typical pulmonary symptoms. Various mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion are discussed and symptoms are described, which can be subdivided into manifestations of the central nervous system (CNS) (headache, dizziness, stroke, impaired consciousness, encephalitis, meningitis, seizures) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) (charac...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction and Related Risk Factors in Men with Multiple Sclerosis in Iran: A Multicenter Study
ConclusionThe prevalence of SD in men with MS in Iran is relatively high. These patients should be screened, diagnosed, and treated for SD and influencing factors. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of Hospital Level on Stroke Outcomes in the Thrombolytic Therapy Era in Northeast Thailand: A Retrospective Study
ConclusionCHs may have the potential for acute ischemic stroke care in the same way as RHs or THs, with faster rt-PA treatment, in northeast Thailand. However, further studies should be performed to evaluate appropriate patient characteristics for CHs. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation as a Treatment for Neuropathic Cough: A Tolerability and Feasibility Study
This study explored the tolerability and feasibility of using TENS as a treatment for neuropathic cough. Laryngeal TENS was administered to five subjects with neuropathic cough. One electrode was placed ove r the lateral thyrohyoid membrane, and a second over the cricothyroid space. A frequency of 120 Hz was applied for 30 min. Participants rated symptoms pre-, during, and post-TENS treatment using a Likert scale. Laryngeal TENS was well tolerated by all subjects. Adverse effects included brief neck discomfort when increasing TENS intensity and an event of mild post-treatment hoarseness. The self-reported scores ...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Comparative Bioavailability of Apomorphine Sublingual Film and Subcutaneous Apomorphine Formulations in Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease and “OFF” Episodes: Results of a Randomized, Three-Way Crossover, Open-Label Study
ConclusionIn patients with PD and “OFF” episodes, APL demonstrated lowerCmax and relative bioavailability but similar exposures (AUCs) versus SC apomorphine within the approved dose range.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03292016. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pregnancy and the Control of Epileptic Seizures: A Review
AbstractOver the past 50  years, published studies have provided quantitative data on the control of epileptic seizures during pregnancy. The studies have varied in quality, and particularly in the ways in which seizure control has been assessed. However, most studies have shown that seizure occurrence rates are more likel y to worsen than improve during pregnancy, though in most pregnancies the rates have been unaltered. Nearly all of the studies have involved women with antiseizure medication-treated epilepsy, but there is a little evidence that seizure control also tends to worsen in pregnancies of women with untre...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - May 14, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Association Between Dietary Acid Load and Odds of Migraine: A Case –Control Survey
ConclusionIn this study, high dietary acid load was associated with higher odds of migraine. It is therefore possible that restricting dietary acid load could reduce the odds of migraine in susceptible subjects. However, due to the preliminary nature of the current evidence, caution is advised in drawing a definitive conclusion. More well-designed studies are required for a better understanding of this important issue. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Position of Cladribine Tablets in the Management of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An Expert Narrative Review From the United Arab Emirates
AbstractThe use of immune reconstitution therapies (IRT) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is associated with a prolonged period of freedom from relapses in the absence of continuously applied therapy. Cladribine tablets is a disease-modifying treatment (DMT) indicated for highly active relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) as defined by clinical or imaging features. Treatment with cladribine tablets is effective and well tolerated in patients with active MS disease and have a low burden of monitoring during and following treatment. In this article, an expert group of specialist neurologists involv...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

STO: Stroke Ontology for Accelerating Translational Stroke Research
ConclusionsThe stroke ontology is the first, multiple-view ontology in the domain of brain stroke that can be used as a tool for representation, formalization, and standardization of the heterogeneous data related to the stroke domain. Since this is a draft version of the ontology, the contribution of the stroke scientific community can help to improve the usability of the current version. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 22, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Approach to Management of Multiple Sclerosis: Addressing Invisible Symptoms —A Narrative Review
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, leading to neurodegeneration and manifesting as a variety of symptoms. These can include “invisible” symptoms, not externally evident to others, such as fatigue, mood disorders, cognitive impairments, pain, bladder/bowel dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, and vision changes. Invisible symptoms are highly prevalent in people living with MS, with multifactorial etiology and potential to impact the disease course. Patient experiences of these symptoms include both physical and psychosocial elements, which when...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patient and Provider Insights into the Impact of Multiple Sclerosis on Mental Health: A Narrative Review
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. People living with MS may experience a variety of symptoms as a consequence of this process, including many “invisible” symptoms that are internally manifested and not seen by others. Of the invisible symptoms of MS, which we have reviewed in a companion article, mood and mental health disorders are of particular concern due to their high prevalence and significant impact on patient quality of life. I n this review, we showcase the experiences of patient...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Gocovri (Amantadine) Extended Release Capsules on Non-Motor Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease and Dyskinesia
We report treatment-related effects on non-motor symptoms (NMS) assessed as secondary outcomes in two trials using the Movement Disorder Society–Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part I.MethodsEASE LID and EASE LID 3 enrolled levodopa-treated patients with PD and  ≥ 1 h/day ON time with troublesome dyskinesia. Patients were randomized to Gocovri (274 mg) or placebo taken daily at bedtime. Treatment differences from baseline to week 12 in MDS-UPDRS Part I were evaluated for the pooled population (N = 196) from both trials. Correlation analyses of NMS (M...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Real-World Treatment Profiles, Clinical Outcomes, and Healthcare Resource Utilization of Patients with Migraine Prescribed Erenumab: A Multicenter Chart-Review Study of US Headache Centers
ConclusionIn this predominantly refractory chronic migraine population treated in select headache centers, patients had fewer headache/migraine days per month and outpatient visits after initiating erenumab. However, patients largely continued to be managed via a polypharmacy approach after erenumab initiation. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The COVID-19 Pandemic Experience in Multiple Sclerosis: The Good, the Bad and the Neutral
ConclusionThese findings suggest that younger people, those with progressive types of MS, and those with psychological symptoms are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of a COVID-19 pandemic induced lockdown. Coping strategies provide further insight into these findings with those reporting active problem-focused approaches seemingly faring better than those who do not state any coping strategies. These results also have implications for understanding other like neurological conditions that share many similarities with MS and how best to direct support. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Diroximel Fumarate in the Real-World Setting Have High Rates of Persistence and Adherence
ConclusionThis real-world analysis of DRF-treated patients showed high overall persistence, low discontinuation rate due to GI AEs, and high adherence to therapy, aligning with expectations based on DRF clinical trials. Data were consistent in the DMF-to-DRF subgroup.Infographic (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Treatment Satisfaction of Galcanezumab in Japanese Patients with Episodic Migraine: A Phase  2 Randomized Controlled Study
AbstractIntroductionThis analysis evaluated the treatment satisfaction of Japanese patients receiving galcanezumab (GMB) as a preventive medication for episodic migraine (4 –14 monthly migraine headache days).MethodsThis phase  2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled patients aged 18–65 years at 40 centers in Japan. Patients were randomized 2:1:1 to receive monthly subcutaneous injections of placebo (PBO,n = 230), GMB 120 mg (n = 115), or GMB 240 mg (n = 114) for 6 months. Patients’ experience with treatment was meas...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Healthcare Resource Utilization Among Patients with Focal Seizure Treated with Eslicarbazepine Acetate in the US Long-Term Care Setting: A Retrospective Claims Database Analysis
AbstractIntroductionThe aim of this study was to compare healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) before and after initiation of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in the long-term care (LTC) setting (rehabilitation center, mental health center, LTC non-skilled nursing facility/assisted-living facility, home health, assisted living, nursing home, other/unknown).MethodsThis retrospective analysis used IQVIA ’s New Data Warehouse, which includes deterministically linked LTC, prescription, and professional fee claims data and IQVIA Hospital Charge Data Master database. The study period was 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2019. The...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Global Peginterferon Beta-1a Tolerability Management Best Practices: A Nurse-Focused Delphi Approach
ConclusionDelphi respondents reached consensus on ISR and FLS management strategies, which can help to inform treatment decisions. The results of this global Delphi analysis indicate that management of ISRs and FLS could be improved with more frequent follow-up visits and individualized training and education. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - March 24, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Recommendations for the Oral Health of Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease
ConclusionPatients with PD present poor oral health with conditions that are mostly preventable. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - March 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Design and Rationale of the Global Phase 3 NEURO-TTRansform Study of Antisense Oligonucleotide AKCEA-TTR-L Rx (ION-682884-CS3) in Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloid Polyneuropathy
ConclusionNEURO-TTRansform is designed to determine whether targeted delivery of AKCEA-TTR-LRx to hepatocytes with lower and less frequent doses will translate into clinical and quality-of-life benefits for patients with hATTR-PN.Trial RegistrationThe study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04136184) and EudraCT (2019-001698-10). (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - February 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ubrogepant for the Acute Treatment of Migraine: Pooled Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability From the ACHIEVE I and ACHIEVE II Phase 3 Randomized Trials
AbstractIntroductionUbrogepant is an oral, small-molecule calcitonin gene –related peptide receptor antagonist approved for the acute treatment of migraine. The efficacy and safety of ubrogepant were demonstrated in two pivotal phase 3, single-attack, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (ACHIEVE I and ACHIEVE II).MethodsWe conducted a post hoc analysis of pooled data from the ACHIEVE trials to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ubrogepant 50  mg (the only dose evaluated in both trials) versus placebo across a large population of participants with migraine. The coprimary efficacy outcomes were p...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - February 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease Undergoing Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery
AbstractPrecise stereotactic targeting of the dorsolateral motor part of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is paramount for maximizing clinical effectiveness and preventing side effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with advanced Parkinson ’s disease. With recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, direct targeting of the dorsolateral part of the STN is now feasible, together with visualization of the motor fibers in the nearby internal capsule. However, clinically relevant discrepancies were reported when c omparing STN borders on MRI to electrophysiological STN borders during micr...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - February 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Recognition of Facial Emotion Expressions in Patients with Depressive Disorders: A Prospective, Observational Study
AbstractIntroductionProcessing of emotional stimuli is altered in patients with depression. The present feasibility study investigated the features of emotional information recognition in people with depressive disorders and how these differ from individuals without depression to determine whether response times could potentially be used as a diagnostic marker to identify individuals at high risk of depression and as an indicator of antidepressant medication response.MethodsThe study recruited 32 individuals, 16 with single or recurrent depressive episodes and 16 control subjects without depression. Patients with depressio...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - February 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Rivaroxaban in Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Due to Protein S Deficiency: A Case Report
In this study our patient was treated with rivaroxaban. Protein S deficiency may be a predisposing factor in recurrent ischemic stroke, and rivaroxaban can be a safe and effective treatment option. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - January 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Quantifying Knowledge of Alzheimer ’s Disease: An Analysis of the Psychometric Properties of the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale
ConclusionAlthough the ADKS does not present a unidimensional structure, its independent items together provide a comprehensive spectrum of information regarding AD knowledge. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - January 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: A Review of Patisiran (ONPATTRO ®) for the Treatment of Polyneuropathy in People with Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis
The middle initial of one of the authors, Alan Kaye, was missed in the original publication. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - January 12, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Design of a Non-Interventional Study to Validate a Set of Patient- and Caregiver-Oriented Measurements to Assess Health Outcomes in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA-TOOL Study)
This study will provide us with a comprehensive set of tools to better capture the course of the disease and the response to treatments. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - January 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Potential Neuroregenerative and Neuroprotective Effects of Uridine/Choline-Enriched Multinutrient Dietary Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Narrative Review
AbstractIn mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD), also known as prodromal AD, there is evidence for a pathologic shortage of uridine, choline, and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), which are key nutrients needed by the brain. Preclinical and clinical evidence shows the importance of nutrient bioavailability to support the development and maintenance of brain structure and function in MCI and AD. Availability of key nutrients is limited in MCI, creating a distinct nutritional need for uridine, choline, and DHA. Evidence suggests that metabolic derangements associated with ageing and disease-related pathol...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - December 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Parent Experiences of Sanfilippo Syndrome Impact and Unmet Treatment Needs: A Qualitative Assessment
ConclusionEven modest treatment benefits for Sanfilippo syndrome were shown to be highly valued. Despite high caregiver burden, most parents expressed a willingness to “try anything,” including treatments with potentially high risk profiles, to maintain their child’s current state. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - December 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lennox –Gastaut Syndrome: Perspective of a Parent and a Physician
This article is co-authored by a parent of a 32-year-old male patient with Lennox –Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and his epileptologist. It discusses the parent’s experience of having a child with LGS from diagnosis through living day-to-day with the disease and the physician’s perspective when treating this devastating epilepsy syndrome. The patient’s mother, who is his legal r epresentative, provided written consent for publication of this article. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - October 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-Term Assessment of Lurasidone in Schizophrenia: Post Hoc Analysis of a 12-Month, Double Blind, Active-Controlled Trial and 6-Month Open-Label Extension Study
ConclusionLurasidone was generally well tolerated and effective in clinically stable schizophrenia patients over the long term. Lurasidone was also generally well tolerated and maintained effectiveness over 6  months in patients switching from risperidone. Patients switching from risperidone experienced improvements in metabolic parameters and prolactin levels. These findings confirm lurasidone’s long-term effectiveness and favourable metabolic profile in patients with schizophrenia.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00641745. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - October 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Immunomagnetic Reduction Detects Plasma A β 1–42 Levels as a Potential Dominant Indicator Predicting Cognitive Decline
AbstractAlthough the concentrations of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) biomarkers Aβ1 –40, A β1 –42 and tau protein are very low in human plasma, ultrasensitive assays such as immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) are able to precisely quantify them. Review articles have described the detailed working mechanism of IMR and revealed the feasibility of detecting early-stage AD by assaying these plasma biomarkers with IMR. In this review, we aimed to compare the significance of these plasma biomarkers in predicting cognitive decline in patients with Down syndrome, stroke, or amnestic mild cognitive impairment ba...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - October 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CRISPR-Cas9: A Promising Genome Editing Therapeutic Tool for Alzheimer ’s Disease—A Narrative Review
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a chronic and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficiency and development of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, comprising hyperphosphorylated tau. The number of patients with AD is alarmingly increasing worldwide; currently, at least 50 million people are thought to be living with AD. The mutations or alterations in amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), presenilin-1 (PSEN1), or presenilin-2 (PSEN2) genes are known to be associated with the pathophysiology of AD. Effective medication for AD is still elusive and ma...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - October 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An Evidence-Based Review of Galcanezumab for the Treatment of Migraine
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis is a comprehensive review of the current literature on the usage of galcanezumab for migraine treatment. It reviews the biology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and conventional treatment of migraines, then compares the literature available for galcanezumab with historical treatment options.Recent FindingsMigraine is a common headache disorder and constitutes a significant source of distress from both a personal and societal perspective. Conventional treatment includes abortive and preventive treatment. Treatment options are limited and may be only partially or minimally effective in...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - October 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Narrative Review of the Role of Transthyretin in Health and Disease
AbstractTransthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric transport protein highly conserved through vertebrate evolution and synthesized in the liver, choroid plexus, and retinal pigment epithelium. TTR transports the thyroid hormone thyroxine and the retinol-binding protein (RBP) bound to retinol (vitamin A). Mutations in TTR are associated with inherited transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv), a progressive, debilitating disease that is ultimately fatal and is characterized by misfolding of TTR and aggregation as amyloid fibrils, predominantly leading to cardiomyopathy or polyneuropathy depending on the particular TTR mutation. Transthyre...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - September 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Acupuncture and Its Role in the Treatment of Migraine Headaches
AbstractAcupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that is performed by placing needles or pressure in specific locations on a patient ’s skin to achieve a therapeutic effect. Although used to treat a variety of disorders, one of the most common applications of acupuncture is to treat chronic pain, especially headache and migraine pain. Migraines are difficult to treat, and pharmacotherapies are often the first line of treatment, although these options have many unwanted side effects, such as exacerbation of headache pain in those with chronic migraine. Many complimentary and integrative therapies are avai...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - September 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Systematic Review and Mixed Treatment Comparison of Pharmaceutical Interventions for Multiple Sclerosis
ConclusionsMeta-analyses confirmed the benefit of all DMTs in terms of relapse rate compared with placebo with a comparable rate of SAEs for the DMTs that could be included in the network. The rigor and transparency of reporting in this study provide a benchmark for comparisons with future new agents. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - September 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Overview of Differences and Similarities of Published Mixed Treatment Comparisons on Pharmaceutical Interventions for Multiple Sclerosis
ConclusionGiven the importance of MTCs for healthcare decision-making, it is imperative that reporting of methods, results and assumptions is clear and transparent to allow accurate interpretation of findings. For MTCs to be relevant, the choice of outcome measures should reflect clinical practice. Combination of treatments or of outcomes measured at different points of time should be avoided, as should imputation without justification. Furthermore, all approved treatment options should be included and updates of MTCs should be conducted when data for new treatments are published. (Source: Neurology and Therapy)
Source: Neurology and Therapy - September 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of Early Initiation of Eslicarbazepine Acetate on Economic Outcomes Among Patients with Focal Seizure: Results from Retrospective Database Analyses
This study assessed the association between early initiation of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as first-line therapy (1L cohort) or as first adjunctive regimen to either levetiracetam (LEV) or lamotrigine (LTG) (add-on cohort), and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and charges among adults with treated focal seizures (FS).MethodsThis retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis used Symphony Health ’s Integrated Dataverse (IDV®) claims data to identify patients aged ≥ 18 years with a diagnosis of FS who had a new prescription for ESL between April 2015 and June 2018. Baseline was the 90-d...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - September 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research