Propranolol Impairs Primary Immune Responses in Rat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Conclusion: This study suggests that sympathetic dysregulation is involved in the outbreak of clinical EAE.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - May 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Silencing MicroRNA-155 Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure by Inhibiting Microglia Activation
Conclusion(s): These findings demonstrate that aberrant upregulation of miR-155 contributes to epileptogenesis through inducing microglia neuroinflammation.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - March 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interferon-Beta Treatment Differentially Alters TLR2 and TLR4-Dependent Cytokine Production in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Conclusions: Our data suggest that IFN- β treatment alters the TLR-dependent immune response of PBMCs from MS patients. This may contribute to the beneficial effects of IFN-β treatment.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - March 21, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Isoliquiritigenin Attenuates Neuroinflammation in Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Rats
Conclusions: These findings suggest that isoliquiritigenin possesses beneficial effects in TBI by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - February 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Title pages
Neuroimmunomodulation 2018;25:239 –242 (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - February 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Author Index Vol. 25, No. 5-6, 2018
Neuroimmunomodulation 2018;25:340 (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - February 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Subject Index Vol. 25, No. 5-6, 2018
Neuroimmunomodulation 2018;25:341 (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - February 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 25, 2018
Neuroimmunomodulation 2018;25:I –IV (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - February 6, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Induces CD4 < sup > + < /sup > and CD8 < sup > + < /sup > T Cell Functional Impairment by Upregulating the Expression of PD-1 via the Activated Sympathetic Nervous System
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated that aTBI activated the SNS, and further upregulated the expression of PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which, in turn, impaired their function and contributed to immunosuppression.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Astrocyte-Conditioned Medium Protects Prefrontal Cortical Neurons from Glutamate-Induced Cell Death by Inhibiting TNF- α Expression
Conclusions: The study demonstrates that ACM exerts neuroprotective effects on cell viability, and this effect is most likely mediated through the modulation of neurotrophin and TNF- α expression.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CD4 < sup > + < /sup > T Cells Affect the Thyroid Hormone Transport at the Choroid Plexus in Mice Raised in Enriched Environment
Conclusions: Our study highlights the contribution of close interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems in brain plasticity and function.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-653 Inhibits Thymocyte Proliferation and Induces Thymocyte Apoptosis in Mice with Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis by Downregulating TRIM9
Conclusion: The findings from the present study provided evidence that miR-653 impairs proliferation and promotes apoptosis of thymocytes of MG mice by suppressing TRIM9, indicating that miR-653 could be used as potential therapeutic target in the treatment of autoimmune MG.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 31, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Silencing Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A1 in Monocytes Inhibits Inflammation in Mice with Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion: The key findings of this study collectively propose that LILRA1 suppression exerts a potent anti-inflammatory effect on MS mice. Overall, LILRA1 downregulation presents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MS.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 27, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Premenstrual Syndrome, Inflammatory Status, and Mood States in Soccer Players
Conclusion: PMS influences the inflammatory condition related to mood states and stress hormones in female soccer players.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 17, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Insights into the Relationship of the Immune System with Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders
Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Characterization of the Hippocampal Neuroimmune Response to Binge-Like Ethanol Consumption in the Drinking in the Dark Model
Conclusions: Altogether, these findings suggest that binge-like ethanol drinking prior to dependence causes dysregulation to the neuroimmune system. This altered neuroimmune state may have an impact on behavior but could also result in a heightened neuroimmune response that is exacerbated from further ethanol exposure or other immune-modulating events.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Lycopene on Experimental Spinal Cord Ischemia Injury via Cyclooxygenase-2 Suppression
Conclusion: Lycopene exerted neuroprotective functions in SCII and inhibited SCII-elicited neuroinflammation via COX-2 suppression.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Zika Virus as a Possible Risk Factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Neuroimmunological Aspects
The recent outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the discovery that perinatal Zika exposure can lead to the Congenital Zika Syndrome has promoted a call for prevention measures. Due to the increased number of babies born with microcephaly, structural brain abnormalities, and neurological alterations in regions affected by ZIKV, investigations were carried out in order to better understand this process. The maternal immune system directly influences the fetal central nervous system, and complications during pregnancy have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental...
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - January 13, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Promising New Approach for the Treatment of Inflammatory Pain: Transfer of Stem Cell-Derived Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Positive Cells
Conclusions: The transfer of iTH+ cells may cause a long-lasting reduction of arthritis-induced pain even if it does not ameliorate inflammation. The invasion of M2 macrophages into the dorsal root ganglia is likely to be an important mechanism of antinociception.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - December 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Erratum
Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - December 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cytokines and Tissue Damage Biomarkers in First-Onset Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: Significance of Interleukin-6
Conclusions: IL-6 plays a role in the pathogenetic process of NMOSD, especially in the AQP4-IgG-positive subtype. Distinct pathogenesis exists between AQP4-IgG-positive and AQP4-IgG-negative NMOSD in the initial phase of the disease.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - December 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neuroimmune and Inflammatory Signals in Complex Disorders of the Central Nervous System
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair. Also, inflammation mediates a series of neurotoxic roles in neuropsychiatric conditions a...
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - December 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Serum Bilirubin and Albumin in Anti- < b > < i > N < /i > < /b > -Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
Conclusions: Our results revealed for the first time an association between the serum levels of bilirubin in the anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Further studies investigating the role of bilirubin and albumin in anti-NMDAR encephalitis are required.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - November 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

CXCL12 and CXCR4 in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease
Conclusions: Our findings provide new information on the expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 in PD. CXCR4 expression in PBMC or CXCL12 serum levels may be potential biomarkers of inflammation in PD patients.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - November 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Crosstalk between Estrogen Withdrawal and NF κB Signaling following Penetrating Brain Injury
Discussion: These data further expand the model of how estrogens and other steroid hormones interact with the inflammatory pathways following injury and may prove beneficial when developing therapies for treatment of TBI.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - November 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal Fluid Level of Soluble CD27 Is Associated with Disease Severity in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
Conclusions: We revealed that the level of CSF sCD27 was elevated in NMOSD and correlated with NMOSD disease activity.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - November 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

A Rodent Model of Anxiety: The Effect of Perinatal Immune Challenges on Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Integrity
Conclusion: These results indicate that the MIA rat model, which is well documented to produce behavioural, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical abnormalities, also produces GI inflammation and integrity disruptions. We suggest that this model may be a useful tool to elucidate biological pathways associated with neuropsychiatric disorders.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - November 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Differential Peripheral Inflammatory Factors Associated with Cognitive Function in Patients with Heart Failure
Conclusions: In this cohort with HF, vascular inflammation appears related to poorer cognitive function. This could indicate targets for treatment to reduce cognitive deficits in HF. However, this is a preliminary study, and further research is needed.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - October 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Human Microglial Cells Undergo Proapoptotic Induction and Inflammatory Activation upon in vitro Exposure to a Naturally Occurring Level of Aflatoxin B < sub > 1 < /sub >
Conclusion: Our work confirmed that the environmentally relevant level of AFB1 could cause an inflammatory reaction in human microglial cells that is potentially harmful or toxic to the homeostasis of the human central nervous system and might increase susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - October 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

IL-18 Serum Levels and Variants of the Serotonin Transporter Gene Are Related to Awareness of Emotions in Healthy Subjects: A Preliminary Study
Conclusions: These results indicate a possible novel interaction between IL-18 and the serotoninergic system to mediate emotional unawareness, suggesting putative biological predictors of emotional dysregulation, which in turn can act as a risk factor for a variety of medical conditions in susceptible subjects.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - October 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Peripheral Neuroimmunoendocrine Interactions: Contribution of TNFRp55 to the Circadian Synchronization of Progesterone and Cytokine Production in Joints of Mice in Late Pregnancy
Conclusions: Our results show that TNF, via TNFRp55 signaling, modulates articular Pg and cytokine circadian rhythms in late pregnancy. These findings suggest a temporal neuroimmunoendocrine association in peripheral tissues in late pregnancy.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - October 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Relationship between Cytokines and Verbal Memory in Individuals with Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings
Conclusion: The results are compatible with the hypothesis that deficits in verbal memory of individuals with SZ could be secondary to inadequate functioning of cognitive processing areas, such as proactive cognitive control.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - October 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dysregulated Network of Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Markers is Associated to More Severe Human Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy
Individuals who are infected withTrypanosoma cruzi develop chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), which is a complication involving a series of immune pathogenetic mechanisms, although an association between immune and metabolic alterations was more recently proposed. Accordingly, we investigated the immuno-metabolic response in chagasic patients and their possible influence on CCC pathogenesis. To this end,T. cruzi-seropositive (asymptomatic or with CCC) and sero-negative individuals were studied. Serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)- α, interleukin (IL)-6, adipocytokines and the expression of their receptors in periphe...
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - October 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Assessment of Pyrexia and Associated Sickness Behavior in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis
Conclusion: The study demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the sublingual temperature amongst patients with severe chronic periodontitis. The subgingival temperature has a positive correlation with the sublingual temperature. There was a linear trend of an association of sickness behavior with the severity of chronic periodontitis. A significant increase in the circulating inflammatory mediators, CRP and ESR, were noticed in subjects with elevated body temperature.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - September 10, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Immunological Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Potential Target for Therapy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology and currently few effective therapies. Immune system alterations have being demonstrated in ASD, both in humans and via animal models; immune imbalance thus arises as a possible pathway for drug intervention. In this review, the studies were classified into 2 major groups: (1) clinical research whose authors classify therapies with primary anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, making use of: sulforaphane, celecoxib, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, spironolactone, flavonoid luteolin, corticosteroids, oral immunoglobulin,...
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - September 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Neuroimmune Alterations in Autism: A Translational Analysis Focusing on the Animal Model of Autism Induced by Prenatal Exposure to Valproic Acid
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent developmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication and social interaction and in stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Besides the classical behavioral dyad, several comorbidities are frequently present in patients with ASD, such as anxiety, epilepsy, sleep disturbances, and gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Although the etiology of ASD remains unclear, there is supporting evidence for the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer that, when used during the gestational period, incre...
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - September 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Thyroid Function and Autoimmune Indications in Patients with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis
Conclusions: Low T3 syndrome often copresents in anti-NMDAR encephalitis and indicates a longer hospitalization, abnormal MRI findings, consciousness declination, and a higher clinical severity. However, fT3 levels do not seem to influence the prognosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - September 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Zinc Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide Interference with Both Body Temperature and Sickness Behavior in Virgin Female Rats
Conclusion: Zinc treatment is beneficial as it reduces the increased tympanic temperature induced by LPS, but it does not influence other sickness behavior caused by exposure to LPS.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - August 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Intracellular Pathogen Infections and Immune Response in Autism
Conclusion: The immune responses generated by organisms that cause perinatal maternal infection, i.e., bacteria, viruses, or parasites, have been associated with the development of autism in offspring. Physiological changes transmitted from the mother during chronic or acute inflammation should be further investigated so that modulatory preventive measures can be developed.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - August 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Reduced CD4 T Lymphocytes in Lymph Nodes of the Mouse Model of Autism Induced by Valproic Acid
Objective: Considering the potential role of lymphocytes in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we aimed to evaluate possible alterations of T cell pools in the lymphoid organs of an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA). Pregnant Swiss mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg of VPA (VPA group) or saline (control group) on day 11 of gestation. Male offspring were euthanized on postnatal day 60 for removal of thy ­muses, spleens, and a pool of inguinal, axillary and brachial lymph nodes. Cellularity was evaluated, and flow cytometry analysis was performed on cell ...
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - August 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Interleukin 4 Leads to Sustained Phosphorylation of the STAT6 and ERK Pathways in the Retina and Disrupts Subcortical Visual Circuitry in Rodents
Conclusions: These data suggest that a single in vivo treatment with IL-4 during the early stages of development modulates signaling pathways in the retina, resulting in altered binocular subcortical visual connectivity.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - August 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

High Frequency of Tc22 and Th22 Cells in Myasthenia Gravis Patients and Their Significant Reduction after Thymectomy
Conclusion: Our findings suggest a possible role of Th22 and Tc22 in MG pathogenesis.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - August 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibody in a Patient with Myelitis: A Retrospective Study
Conclusions: Although serum GAD65 antibodies were present in a patient, it is not recommended to routinely screen for GAD65 antibodies in patients with myelitis because of their rare occurrence. However, screening for GAD65 antibodies should be considered in patients who have been diagnosed with cancer or a thymic abnormality.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - July 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Taklisodok-um in a Spinal Cord Injury Model
Conclusion: These findings suggest that TLSDU attenuates neuroinflammation after SCI in part by regulating TLR4 signaling at the injury site.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - July 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Treatment-Resistant Human Extraparenchymal Neurocysticercosis: An Immune-Inflammatory Approach to Cysticidal Treatment Outcome
Conclusions: Altogether, these results may point to a modulation of the neuroinflammation in these patients that could indirectly favor cysticercal survival in CNS microenvironment.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - July 24, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Aging Process Alters IL-1 β and CD63 Levels Differently in Extracellular Vesicles Obtained from the Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the normal aging process causes different changes in the profiles of central and circulating EVs. Altered IL-1 β levels in circulating EVs can be linked, at least partly, to age-related inflammatory conditions, and a disruption of the CFS exosomes in aged rats, evaluated by CD63 levels, can be related to susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - July 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Chronic Sleep Restriction Impairs the Antitumor Immune Response in Mice
Conclusions: Sleep dep ­rivation induces failure in the activity of cells that are im­portant to the tumor immune response, both in the tumor microenvironment and on the periphery. This leads to the early onset and increased growth rate of lung metastasis.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - July 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Mebicar and Ginsenoside Rg1 on Neurobehavioral and Immunological Disruptions Caused by Intermittent Unpredictable Stress in Mice
Conclusions: This study suggests that mebicar or ginsenoside Rg1 may have little preventive effect on neurobehavioral disruption by IUS exposure, but mebicar or ginsenoside Rg1 shortened the lasting duration of the anxiety caused by exposure to a novel environment. The anti-stress effect of mebicar and ginsenoside Rg1 may be restricted in peripheral stress responses.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - June 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

RANKL/RANK/OPG Axis Is Deregulated in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Multiple Sclerosis Patients at Clinical Onset
Conclusion: Our study revealed that changes of RANKL/RANK/OPG axis are associated with MS, particularly the decreased OPG level in the CSF at disease onset. Therefore, these factors may serve as disease biomarkers and molecular targets of novel therapeutic approaches.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - June 19, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Antidepressants Improve Negative Regulation of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in Monocytes from Patients with Major Depression
Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest a role for dysregulation of TLR signaling in monocytes in MDD and identify a balancing effect of antidepressants on this dysregulation.Neuroimmunomodulation (Source: Neuroimmunomodulation)
Source: Neuroimmunomodulation - June 13, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research