Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in Puerto Rico (2013 –2016)
Conclusion: Incidence estimates for PR were higher than other LAC countries but consistent with MS increases in other world regions. Our findings tend to rule out several prior potential environmental explanations for high MS incidence rates.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:106 –112 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Treatment and Outcomes of Working Aged Adults with Stroke: Results from a National Prospective Registry
Conclusions: Younger stroke patients exhibited distinct differences from their older counterparts with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics, prescription of antihypertensive medications and residual health status.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:113 –120 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: The prevalence of CMT in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, seems to be slightly higher than those in previous studies in European populations. Founder mutation in theGDAP1 gene accounts for a large part of the genetically defined CMT2 in Finland.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:34-39 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dose-Response Relationship between the Risk of Vasovagal Syncope and Body Mass Index or Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adults Undergoing Blood Tests
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:31-33 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study
Introduction: Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI.Methods: Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regress...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Strategies to Improve Stroke Care Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: In this systematic review, we found several reports on evidence-based implementable stroke services in LMICs. Some strategies are economic, feasible and reproducible but remain untested. Data on their outcomes and sustainability is limited. Further research on implementation of locally and regionally adapted stroke-services and cost-effective secondary prevention programs should be a priority.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:45-61 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis in Austria
Conclusions: Incidence rates and prevalence ratios of MS in our study are within the upper range of comparable studies across many European countries as well as the United States.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:40-44 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 48, 2017
Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:I-IV (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

White Matter Lesion Progression and Cognitive Function Over 5 Years in a Young Susceptible Population
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:62-63 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Characteristics and Prognosis of Oldest Old Subjects with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Conclusion: The survival of oldest old ALS patients is particularly short. It relates to prognostic features at baseline and to an independent effect of advanced age.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:64-73 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Development of a Thai Parkinson's Disease Screening Tool and the Prevalence of Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease, Based on a Community Survey in Bangkok
Conclusions: The prevalence of parkinsonism and PD in Thailand is similar to that in Western countries but slightly higher than that for other Asian countries. Differing methodologies, diagnostic criteria, and case identification strategies may contribute to variations in the reported prevalence of PD. Widespread use of the Thai PD-screening tool should be implemented to facilitate early detection of new cases and, in turn, better healthcare.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:74-81 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Central Nervous System Medication Use and Frailty among Residents of Aged Care Homes in Malaysia
Conclusion: Frailty and polypharmacy were highly prevalent among aged care home subjects taking CNS medications. These findings support the notion that periodic regular medication review should improve the overall use of medications in elderly patients.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:82-90 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Development of a Thai Parkinson's Disease Screening Tool and the Prevalence of Parkinsonism and Parkinson's Disease, Based on a Community Survey in Bangkok
Conclusions: The prevalence of parkinsonism and PD in Thailand is similar to that in Western countries but slightly higher than that for other Asian countries. Differing methodologies, diagnostic criteria, and case identification strategies may contribute to variations in the reported prevalence of PD. Widespread use of the Thai PD-screening tool should be implemented to facilitate early detection of new cases and, in turn, better healthcare.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:74-81 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Characteristics and Prognosis of Oldest Old Subjects with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Conclusion: The survival of oldest old ALS patients is particularly short. It relates to prognostic features at baseline and to an independent effect of advanced age.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:64-73 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

White Matter Lesion Progression and Cognitive Function Over 5 Years in a Young Susceptible Population
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:62-63 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 29, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 48, 2017
Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:I-IV (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis in Austria
Conclusions: Incidence rates and prevalence ratios of MS in our study are within the upper range of comparable studies across many European countries as well as the United States.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:40-44 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 18, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Strategies to Improve Stroke Care Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: In this systematic review, we found several reports on evidence-based implementable stroke services in LMICs. Some strategies are economic, feasible and reproducible but remain untested. Data on their outcomes and sustainability is limited. Further research on implementation of locally and regionally adapted stroke-services and cost-effective secondary prevention programs should be a priority.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:45-61 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 18, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: The prevalence of CMT in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, seems to be slightly higher than those in previous studies in European populations. Founder mutation in theGDAP1 gene accounts for a large part of the genetically defined CMT2 in Finland.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:34-39 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dose-Response Relationship between the Risk of Vasovagal Syncope and Body Mass Index or Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adults Undergoing Blood Tests
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:31-33 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study
Introduction: Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI.Methods: Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regress...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiological Study of Huntington's Disease in the Province of Ferrara, Italy
Conclusions: The prevalence and incidence of HD in our population were lower than the prevalence and incidence reported for other European and Italian populations, but higher compared to those of Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Compared to previous studies, HD incidence and prevalence did not change significantly.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:18-23 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 11, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Non-Motor Symptoms Assessed by Non-Motor Symptoms Questionnaire and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale in Parkinson's Disease in Selected Asian Populations
Background: Ethnic variations have been described in medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Whether ethnicity plays a role in Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly with regard to non-motor symptoms (NMS), remains unclear. Existing literature is diverse, controversial, and inadequately documented. This review aims to analyse and report the currently available literature on NMS, specifically in Asian PD patients.Summary: We conducted a literature review using PubMed, searching for articles and currently available publications that reference and assess NMS in PD patients living in Asia us...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 11, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Intracranial and Extracranial Large Artery Stenosis in a Population-Based Study of Stroke in the Middle East
Conclusion: Extracranial carotid stenosis represents the majority of LAD strokes in this population. Thus, public health strategies may best be developed in such a way that they are targeted toward the risk factors that contribute to extracranial stenosis.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:188-192 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Identifying Relapses in Multiple Sclerosis Patients through Administrative Data: A Validation Study in the Lazio Region, Italy
Conclusions: The proposed algorithm based on health administrative databases does not seem to be able to reliably detect relapses; however, it may be a helpful tool to detect healthcare utilization, and therefore to identify the worsening condition of a patient's health.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:171-178 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Older Age at Multiple Sclerosis Onset Is an Independent Factor of Poor Prognosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Background: Late-onset multiple sclerosis (LOMS) frequently features a primary progressive (PP) course, strongly predicting severe disability. In this population-based cohort, we estimated the prognostic role of age at multiple sclerosis (MS) onset, independent of PP course, on disability progression.Methods: The association of age at disease onset (adult, (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Male Adult Prison Population and Its Association with the Offence Type
Conclusions: The high prevalence of TBI within male prisoners and a high proportion of injuries sustained in childhood suggest the need for routine screening for TBI to identify prisoners at risk of persistent difficulties. Interventions to support those experiencing persistent difficulties post-TBI are needed to optimise functioning and prevent reoffending.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:164-170 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 2, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Association of Poor Academic Performance with Tic Disorders: A Longitudinal, Mainstream School-Based Population Study
Conclusions: TD was associated with academic difficulties, namely, LD in conjunction with ADHD but not GR. The diagnosis of TD and comorbidities, and the initiation of proper treatment could have a favorable impact on school performance, and consequently on social development.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:155-163 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sleep and Olfaction among Older Adults
Conclusions: Diminished sleep quality was associated with reduced capacity to identify odors. Determining whether this is a causal association will require further study and longitudinal data.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:147-154 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Primary Headache Disorders in Kuwait
Background: Only an insignificant quantum of data exists on the prevalence of primary headaches among those living in Kuwait. We aimed to determine the prevalence of primary headaches among the Kuwaiti population.Methods: This community-based study included Kuwaiti population aged 18-65 years. Using systematic random sampling, data was collected by the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation questionnaire. Responses to the diagnostic questions were transformed into diagnoses algorithmically to confirm the diagnosis of primary headache.Results: A total of 15,523 patients were ...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Quality of Life and Caregivers' Burden of Parkinson's Disease
Conclusions: The clinical features “saliva and drooling” and “dyskinesia” impacted the QoL of PD patients, and the QoL domains “stigma” and “emotional well-being” of PD patients impacted their caregivers' burden.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:131-137 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Disease-Modifying Therapies and Adherence in Multiple Sclerosis: Comparing Patient Self-Report with Pharmacy Records
Background: Self-report and pharmacy records are often used to measure adherence rates to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about how the sources compare.Objective: Compare self-report and pharmacy records for assessing DMT use and adherence rates.Methods: Demographic information, self-reported DMT use, and missed DMT doses in the previous 30 days were obtained from consecutive MS patients attending an MS clinic and linked to pharmacy records. A medication possession ratio (MPR) was calculated using pharmacy records for the year before and after the visit; MPR (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence of Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in a Health Maintenance Organization in Buenos Aires, Argentina
Conclusions: The results obtained are similar to those published for other geographical areas.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:119-123 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Differentiating Incident from Recurrent Stroke Using Administrative Data: The Impact of Varying Lengths of Look-Back Periods on the Risk of Misclassification
Conclusion: Hospital administrative data sets linked to prior admissions can be used to distinguish recurrent from incident stroke. The risk of misclassifying recurrent stroke cases as incident events is negligible with a look-back period of 10 years.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:111-118 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background: Despite the presence of a strong association between influenza infection and stroke, whether influenza vaccination reduces the risk of stroke is yet a matter of controversy. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether influenza vaccination protects against stroke.Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from database inception date to November 18, 2016, without language restrictions, to identify studies investigating the effect of influenza vaccination on subsequent risk of stroke. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the risk of stroke in overall and subgroup analyses and calcula...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Characteristics and Long-Term Outcome of Neurosarcoidosis: A Population-Based Study from 1976-2013
Conclusion: Neurosarcoidosis is an uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. Neurosarcoidosis manifestations generally responded well to high-dose glucocorticoids in the majority of patients, but relapse was common.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:87-94 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Erratum
Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:86 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mortality of Stroke and Its Subtypes in China: Results from a Nationwide Population-Based Survey
Conclusions: The burden of stroke in China is still heavy. Greater attention should be paid to improve strategies for preventing stroke.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:95-102 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in the Republic of Cyprus: A 25-Year Retrospective Study
Conclusions: Incidence, prevalence and main socio-demographic characteristics of ALS in Cyprus were similar to those of other European countries, without any geographic clustering of the disease. Additionally, an increased incidence through the years was confirmed. However, observations such as a higher male prevalence and a younger mean age of onset compared to published literature require further investigation.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:79-85 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparisons of Risk Factors for Intracerebral Hemorrhage versus Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Patients
Background: Chinese populations have a higher stroke incidence, a higher proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and a lower proportion of ischemic stroke (IS) as compared with white populations. The reasons are not fully understood.Methods: To evaluate the differences of major risk factors between ICH and IS in Chinese stroke patients, we analysed acute ICH and IS patients consecutively recruited in National Taiwan University Hospital Stroke Registry from 2006 to 2011. We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the associations of risk factors with ICH vs. IS. Also, we conducted subgroup analyses when a ...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evidence of Decreasing Hospital Admissions for Traumatic Brain Injury in Europe
Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:71 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 2, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Changing Epidemiological Patterns in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Hospital-Based Study in Belgium
Conclusions: This longitudinal study confirms that epidemiological patterns in TBI are changing: overall incidence is steadily decreasing, but in elderly patients, the incidence is increasing. Falls are the leading cause, occurring most frequently in elderly patients. These changes are relevant for prevention.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:63-70 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gender Differences and Stroke Outcomes
Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:61-62 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 18, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences Do Not Exist in Outcomes among Stroke Patients with Intracranial Atherosclerosis in China: Subgroup Analysis from the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study
Conclusions: These results suggest no sex difference in outcome among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:48-54 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Puerto Rico, 2014: A Population-Based Study
Conclusion: According to the country estimates, PR has a higher MS incidence than other Caribbean and Latin American countries, but a lower incidence compared to countries at higher latitudes. Our findings provide insights into the MS etiology in the Hispanic population that require additional research.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:55-60 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Findings of Vascular Brain Injury and Structural Loss from Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Elderly American Indians: The Strong Heart Study
Conclusions: Vascular brain injury is the likely explanation in this elderly American Indian population for brain infarcts, hemorrhages, WMH grade, and WMH volume. Although vascular brain injury may play a role in other findings, independent degenerative other disease processes may underlie abnormal sulcal widening, ventricular enlargement, hippocampal volume, and total brain volume. Further examination of risk factors and outcomes with these findings may expand the understanding of neurological conditions in this understudied population.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:39-47 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Associations between Ischemic Stroke Follow-Up, Socioeconomic Status, and Adherence to Secondary Preventive Drugs in Southern Sweden: Observations from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke)
Conclusions: The use of secondary preventive drugs decreases over the first year after stroke and remains suboptimal. Specific reasons for nonadherence warrant further study.Neuroepidemiology 2017;48:32-38 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Is Periodontal Disease Associated with Alzheimer's Disease A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Background: In the last decade, several observational studies have suggested that there exists an association between periodontal disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether or not this link exists.Summary: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guideline for systematic review was used and registered at PROSPERO (CRD42016035377). The search strategy included using electronic databases and by hand searching articles published up to January 2016. MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched by 2 independent reviewers. O...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Is Periodontal Disease Associated with Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
Background: In the last decade, several observational studies have suggested that there exists an association between periodontal disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether or not this link exists.Summary: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guideline for systematic review was used and registered at PROSPERO (CRD42016035377). The search strategy included using electronic databases and by hand searching articles published up to January 2016. MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched by 2 independent reviewers. O...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research