Variability in Palliative Care Use after Intracerebral Hemorrhage at US Hospitals: A Multilevel Analysis
Conclusions: Substantial variation in PC use after ICH exists among US hospitals. A substantial proportion of this between-hospital variability remains unexplained even after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Use of Antidepressants and Risk of Incident Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Despite the high heterogeneity, these results demonstrate that even after adjusting for depression, use of antidepressants retains an independent increased risk of stroke.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 19, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Socioeconomic Status of Patients with Genetic Myopathy in Korea: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study
Conclusions: Our study was the first nationwide epidemiologic study of the prevalence and socioeconomic status of patients with genetic myopathy in Korea. Our results confirmed a sex divergence in a younger population and those with low socioeconomic status among patients with genetic myopathy.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Modifying Effect of Age on Survival in Parkinson ’s Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Conclusion: Our large-scale cohort enabled us to find an age-differential standardized death risk among PD patients, with the largest increased risk at ages 60 –69 years. Comorbidities and other contributory factors warrant further investigation.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in the City of Biancavilla
Conclusions: Our data confirmed Biancavilla is an area at high risk for MS, ascribable to increased survival, improved ascertainment, or maybe related to a genetic or environmental risk. At the time, any relation with mesothelioma was excluded.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Environmental Factors and the Risk of Brain Tumours in Young People: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: Although many of the studies reviewed suggest associations between the environmental exposures and BT in children and young adults, at present no reliable conclusion can be drawn as most results are based on small number of cases and exposure assessment is limited. Large-scale studies with better exposure assessment are needed to shed light on these possible associations, especially on exposure to heavy metals, tab water consumption, pesticides and parental smoking.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 5, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Lifestyle Risk Factors and Findings on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Older Adult American Indians: The Strong Heart Study
Conclusions: This study found similar associations between smoking and vascular brain injury among American Indians, as seen in other populations. In particular, these findings support the role of smoking as a key correlate for cerebral atrophy.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Driving and Traffic Accidents among People with Seizures: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: There is considerable variation in the prevalence of driving after a diagnosis of epilepsy and in reported motor vehicle accidents. Further efforts are required to better understand the impact of epilepsy, and epilepsy surgery, on driving and road safety, especially where driving continues in violation of restrictions. Policy changes are needed to encourage the introduction of available and affordable alternatives for driving, for example, developing public transport networks, and promoting subsidy schemes to encourage use of public transport, taxis, Uber, and Lyft, among people experiencing seizures.Neuroepid...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 24, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Motor Neuron Disease Prevalence in Portugal Using a Pharmaco-Epidemiological Approach and a Bayesian Multiparameter Evidence Synthesis Model
Conclusion: Overall, and even though we must account for the limitations of the indirect methods and models used for prevalence estimation, we probably have a very high ALS/MND prevalence in Portugal. It would be important to create registries, particularly in rare diseases, for better organization and distribution of healthcare services and resources, particularly at the level of ventilatory support.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Cognitive and Motor Decline, Neuroimaging and Neuropathology
Conclusions: In older individuals followed longitudinally, aPL do not relate to cognitive or motor decline, inflammation, or cerebrovascular disease on in vivo neuroimaging or postmortem neuropathology.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Prospective Study of the Incidence of Myasthenia Gravis in the East Midlands of England
Conclusions: Twenty years after the last comprehensive prospective incidence survey of MG in the east of England, we have demonstrated a rising incidence. The greatest increases seen were in patients over 65 years. Given the rigorous study methods employed, future replicate prospective studies from the same region will establish whether these rising figures are due to biological factors, independent of improved case ascertainment.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 52, 2019
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:I –IV (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 25, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Status and Long-Term Stroke Mortality, Recurrence and Disability in Iran: The Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study
Conclusion: A comprehensive stroke strategy should also address socioeconomic disadvantages.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Association between Inflammatory Markers in the Acute Phase of Stroke and Long-Term Stroke Outcomes: Evidence from a Population-Based Study of Stroke
Conclusion: CRP has a significant direct, yet weak, correlation to the severity of stroke. In addition, the level of CRP at admission may have a clinical implication to identify those at a higher risk of death or recurrence.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence and Mortality of Parkinson ’s Disease in Estonia
Conclusions: Over the last 20 years, the overall incidence of PD in Estonia has remained comparatively stable. The data did not show an excess mortality in PD patients (vs. general population) in the first 5  years of the disease.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Perceptions of Stroke and Associated Health-Care-Seeking Behavior in Northern Tanzania: A Community-Based Study
Conclusions: Knowledge of stroke symptoms and perception of self-risk are low in northern Tanzania, but most residents would present to a hospital for stroke-like symptoms.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Population-Based Survey of Stroke Knowledge in Argentina: The SIFHON Study
Conclusions: This study represents the largest stroke awareness survey in a Spanish-speaking population. There was good recognition of some basic facts of stroke. However, the population had poor knowledge of prevalence and severity of the disease, transient ischemic attacks, and treatment availability.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incident Mobility Disability, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Conclusion: Mobility disability occurs more frequently in community-dwelling older adults, but MCI is more strongly associated with mortality.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Disability-Adjusted Life-Years Due to Stroke in Kenya
Conclusion: The YLD, YLL, and DALYs observed reinforce the need for targeted prevention of risk factors and comprehensive stroke care initiatives in Kenya.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Essential Tremor in the Faroe Islands: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: This is the first population-based study of the prevalence of ET in the Faroe Islands. The estimated prevalence was similar to studies using the same or comparable methodologies.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:227 –235 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association between Trimetazidine and Parkinsonism: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: Treatment with TMZ was a statistically significant predictor of a new diagnosis of parkinsonism. Efforts should focus on close monitoring of, and education on, TMZ use in relation to DIP in all patients who are prescribed TMZ, including those with preexisting extrapyramidal and movement disorders.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:220 –226 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 7, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Reliability of Telephone Interview for Assessment of Long-Term Stroke Outcomes: Evidence from Interrater Analysis
Conclusion: It is reliable to get multiple raters in assessing mRS and BI using the telephone system. It is worthwhile to make use of a telephone interview to update clinicians on their acute clinical management towards long-term stroke prognosis.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:214 –219 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 21, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Characteristics of Restless Legs Syndrome in Korean Adults: A Study in Two Independent Samples of the General Population
Conclusions: The RLS prevalence in Korean adults considering RLS mimics is comparable to that in adults from other Asian countries (#x3c; 2%). The reported RLS prevalence varies depending on the diagnostic method employed.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:193 –204 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparison of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality of Persons with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries to the General Swiss Population: Results from a National Cohort Study
Conclusions: Elevated SMRs due to cardiovascular disease, UTIs and septicemia-related mortality suggest the need for innovation when managing associated secondary health conditions.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:205 –213 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 14, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association between Hypertension and the Risk of Parkinson ’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Analytical Studies
Conclusion: Based on population-based cohort studies, this meta-analysis indicated that hypertension might increase the risk of PD. In view of both hypertension and PD having an association with aging, case-control studies, especially the studies based on hospital records, were not suitable for similar studies.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:181 –192 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 6, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Vascular Risk Factors and Findings on Brain MRI of Elderly Adult American Indians: The Strong Heart Study
Conclusions: This study found risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in American Indians similar to those seen in other populations and provides additional evidence for the important roles of hypertension and diabetes in promoting cerebral infarcts and brain atrophy, respectively.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:173 –180 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Increase Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in Patients with Psoriasis Disease: An Evidence of Observational Studies
Conclusion: Our results showed that psoriasis is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing MS. Physicians should carefully be observed symptoms and empower their patients to improve existing knowledge and quality of life. Further studies are warranted to establish the mechanisms underlying this relationship.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:152 –160 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence and Prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: These findings provide a starting point to estimate the social burden of CIDP and demonstrate the need to reach consensus on diagnostic criteria for CIDP.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:161 –172 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Nationwide, Population-Based Prevalence Study of Genetic Muscle Disorders
Conclusions: Ethnic and regional differences in the prevalence of genetic muscle disorders need to be considered in service delivery planning, evaluation, and decision making.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:128 –135 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cancers Preceding Parkinson ’s Disease after Adjustment for Bias in a Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study
Cancer patients are at lower risk of developing Parkinson ’s disease (PD) compared with the general population. One explanation is the negative association between smoking and PD, but PD risk is also lower for cancers not related to smoking. Another explanation is survival bias where death from cancer may act as a competing risk. We conducted a large pop ulation-based case-control study in Denmark and investigated whether cancer diagnosis reduced the risk of developing PD even after adjusting for important risk factors including smoking, physical activity, and lifetime oestrogen status. Using probabilistic bias analy...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence of Epilepsy after Neonatal Seizures: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: The incidence rate of epilepsy in the Parma district was higher than that reported in other Italian areas studied, probably due to the different methodology used and the application of the most recent definition of epilepsy. Children with NS were at higher risk of epilepsy and develop the disease at a younger age.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:144 –151 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence and Current Treatment Gaps in Pediatric Stroke and TIA: An Ontario-Wide Population-Based Study
Conclusion: Our population-based study yielded a higher incidence rate than prior North-American studies. Important care gaps exist including delayed diagnosis, lack of expert care, and departure from published treatment guidelines. Variability in ICD PPV and yield underlines the need for prospective data collection and for improving the pediatric stroke and TIA coding processes.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:119 –127 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Migraine in the Elderly: A Narrated Review
Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders among all age groups including the elderly, but the incidence and prevalence of migraine tend to decrease with age. The clinical phenotype of migraine also appears to be different in the elderly patient group in comparison to the younger patient group, with elderly migraine appearing to be more often bilateral and associated with what has become known as “late-life migraine accompaniments. Furthermore, difficulty in the differentiation of migraine from vascular insults such as transient ischemic attacks and amyloid angiopathy and other multiple comorbiditie...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Roles of Age and Aging in Essential Tremor: An Epidemiological Perspective
Background: With an aging population, it behooves physicians and scientists to gain an understanding of the intersections between aging and human disease. Here, the author reviews the intersections between age, aging, and essential tremor (ET), particularly as these relate to disease epidemiology.Summary: The prevalence and incidence of ET both increase with age, and the former, in an exponential fashion with advanced aging. There is evidence that age may independently drive several features of the natural history of ET (e.g., the increase in tremor severity with time, the appearance of head tremor with time). Epidemiologi...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Ageing Population: A Neurological Challenge
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:76 –77 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of the Ageing Population on the Burden of Stroke: The Dijon Stroke Registry
Conclusions: Ageing and growth of the population led to a rise in the absolute number of strokes, especially in the elderly, that is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years. Improved stroke care was accompanied with an increase in stroke survivors that contributed to a rise in recurrent events. Urgent action is needed to meet this epidemiological challenge.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:78 –85 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Conscientiousness Is Associated with Lower Risk of Dementia among Black and White Older Adults
Conclusions: Higher Conscientiousness is associated with lower dementia risk, even among diverse populations. Higher Conscientiousness may be protective, or lower Conscientiousness may be an early symptom of neurodegenerative disease.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:86 –92 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Descriptive Epidemiology: The Origin of Geographic Difference
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) epidemiology has rapidly developed in the last 30 years alongside the evolving changes in concepts in the field of clinical ALS and also due to the recent proposals of new classification system for motor neuron diseases. Many of these changes in the clinical scenario have been determined through the results of ALS population-based studies conducted in the last 20 years primarily in Europe. All the evidences converge to show that ALS risk is different across continents and ethnicities. In a European registry consortium named EURALS, ALS incident cases were drawn from a source population c...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment No Dementia among the Elderly in a Rural Area of Northern China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion: These findings suggest that it is crucial to address the secondary prevention of stroke and to consider the psychological status among the elderly with low educational attainment in order to reduce the burden of CIND in China.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:25 –31 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cognitive Function and Impairment in Older, Rural South African Adults: Evidence from “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in Rural South Africa”
Conclusions: The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased with age and is comparable to rates of dementia reported in other sub-Saharan African countries. Age and sex differences in cognitive function scores were minimized as education increased, potentially reflecting the power of even poor-quality education to improve cognitive reserve.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:32 –40 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis Incidence and Prevalence Trends in the Province of Padua, Northeast Italy, 1965 –2018
Conclusions: MS incidence and prevalence further and significantly increased in the period 2011 –2015. Our 1965–2015 data indicate a real increased risk of MS and stress a role of exogenous factors in MS susceptibility.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:41 –46 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms in Children When Both Parents Are Sporadic or Familial Carriers of Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms
Conclusions: Couples concordant for IA disease are uncommon but not exceedingly rare. Biparental sporadic exposure does not seem to increase the risk of a clinically diagnosed IA disease or SAH in the offspring. IAs were common in the children with biparental sporadic-familial exposure.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:47 –54 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Medical History and Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-Based Incident Case-Control Study
Conclusion: Lifetime histories of head trauma as well as 9 investigated autoimmune diseases are not associated with increased risk of MS.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:55 –62 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Ascertainment of Dementia Cases in the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Murcia Cohort
Conclusion: Ascertainment of incident dementia in the EPIC-Murcia cohort study was feasible using information from medical records. This systematic 2-step validation protocol is proposed as a feasible way to ascertain dementia in cohort studies originally designed for other endpoints.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:63 –73 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Therapies for Pain in Parkinson Disease: Concerns Related to a Meta-Analysis on Treating Different Types of Pain as if They Were the Same
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:74 –75 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Global Burden of Disease Brain Summit, Auckland 2018
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:3 –16 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global and Regional Trends of Multiple Sclerosis Disability-Adjusted Life Years Rates: A 25-Year Assessment
Conclusion: In general, our findings revealed a global downward trend in the MS DALY rate. We also conclude that MS DALY rates are decreasing both in developed and developing countries, with a steeper slope in the developed world.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:17 –24 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global Burden of Neurological Disorders: From Global Burden of Disease Estimates to Actions
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:1 –2 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees
Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:230 –231 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 51, 2018
Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:I –IV (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research