A Nationwide, Population-Based Prevalence Study of Genetic Muscle Disorders
Conclusions: Ethnic and regional differences in the prevalence of genetic muscle disorders need to be considered in service delivery planning, evaluation, and decision making.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:128 –135 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cancers Preceding Parkinson ’s Disease after Adjustment for Bias in a Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study
Cancer patients are at lower risk of developing Parkinson ’s disease (PD) compared with the general population. One explanation is the negative association between smoking and PD, but PD risk is also lower for cancers not related to smoking. Another explanation is survival bias where death from cancer may act as a competing risk. We conducted a large pop ulation-based case-control study in Denmark and investigated whether cancer diagnosis reduced the risk of developing PD even after adjusting for important risk factors including smoking, physical activity, and lifetime oestrogen status. Using probabilistic bias analy...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence of Epilepsy after Neonatal Seizures: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: The incidence rate of epilepsy in the Parma district was higher than that reported in other Italian areas studied, probably due to the different methodology used and the application of the most recent definition of epilepsy. Children with NS were at higher risk of epilepsy and develop the disease at a younger age.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:144 –151 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence and Current Treatment Gaps in Pediatric Stroke and TIA: An Ontario-Wide Population-Based Study
Conclusion: Our population-based study yielded a higher incidence rate than prior North-American studies. Important care gaps exist including delayed diagnosis, lack of expert care, and departure from published treatment guidelines. Variability in ICD PPV and yield underlines the need for prospective data collection and for improving the pediatric stroke and TIA coding processes.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:119 –127 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 18, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Migraine in the Elderly: A Narrated Review
Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders among all age groups including the elderly, but the incidence and prevalence of migraine tend to decrease with age. The clinical phenotype of migraine also appears to be different in the elderly patient group in comparison to the younger patient group, with elderly migraine appearing to be more often bilateral and associated with what has become known as “late-life migraine accompaniments. Furthermore, difficulty in the differentiation of migraine from vascular insults such as transient ischemic attacks and amyloid angiopathy and other multiple comorbiditie...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Roles of Age and Aging in Essential Tremor: An Epidemiological Perspective
Background: With an aging population, it behooves physicians and scientists to gain an understanding of the intersections between aging and human disease. Here, the author reviews the intersections between age, aging, and essential tremor (ET), particularly as these relate to disease epidemiology.Summary: The prevalence and incidence of ET both increase with age, and the former, in an exponential fashion with advanced aging. There is evidence that age may independently drive several features of the natural history of ET (e.g., the increase in tremor severity with time, the appearance of head tremor with time). Epidemiologi...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 13, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Ageing Population: A Neurological Challenge
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:76 –77 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of the Ageing Population on the Burden of Stroke: The Dijon Stroke Registry
Conclusions: Ageing and growth of the population led to a rise in the absolute number of strokes, especially in the elderly, that is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years. Improved stroke care was accompanied with an increase in stroke survivors that contributed to a rise in recurrent events. Urgent action is needed to meet this epidemiological challenge.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:78 –85 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Conscientiousness Is Associated with Lower Risk of Dementia among Black and White Older Adults
Conclusions: Higher Conscientiousness is associated with lower dementia risk, even among diverse populations. Higher Conscientiousness may be protective, or lower Conscientiousness may be an early symptom of neurodegenerative disease.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:86 –92 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Descriptive Epidemiology: The Origin of Geographic Difference
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) epidemiology has rapidly developed in the last 30 years alongside the evolving changes in concepts in the field of clinical ALS and also due to the recent proposals of new classification system for motor neuron diseases. Many of these changes in the clinical scenario have been determined through the results of ALS population-based studies conducted in the last 20 years primarily in Europe. All the evidences converge to show that ALS risk is different across continents and ethnicities. In a European registry consortium named EURALS, ALS incident cases were drawn from a source population c...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 2, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment No Dementia among the Elderly in a Rural Area of Northern China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion: These findings suggest that it is crucial to address the secondary prevention of stroke and to consider the psychological status among the elderly with low educational attainment in order to reduce the burden of CIND in China.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:25 –31 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cognitive Function and Impairment in Older, Rural South African Adults: Evidence from “Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in Rural South Africa”
Conclusions: The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased with age and is comparable to rates of dementia reported in other sub-Saharan African countries. Age and sex differences in cognitive function scores were minimized as education increased, potentially reflecting the power of even poor-quality education to improve cognitive reserve.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:32 –40 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis Incidence and Prevalence Trends in the Province of Padua, Northeast Italy, 1965 –2018
Conclusions: MS incidence and prevalence further and significantly increased in the period 2011 –2015. Our 1965–2015 data indicate a real increased risk of MS and stress a role of exogenous factors in MS susceptibility.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:41 –46 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms in Children When Both Parents Are Sporadic or Familial Carriers of Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms
Conclusions: Couples concordant for IA disease are uncommon but not exceedingly rare. Biparental sporadic exposure does not seem to increase the risk of a clinically diagnosed IA disease or SAH in the offspring. IAs were common in the children with biparental sporadic-familial exposure.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:47 –54 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Medical History and Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-Based Incident Case-Control Study
Conclusion: Lifetime histories of head trauma as well as 9 investigated autoimmune diseases are not associated with increased risk of MS.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:55 –62 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Ascertainment of Dementia Cases in the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Murcia Cohort
Conclusion: Ascertainment of incident dementia in the EPIC-Murcia cohort study was feasible using information from medical records. This systematic 2-step validation protocol is proposed as a feasible way to ascertain dementia in cohort studies originally designed for other endpoints.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:63 –73 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Therapies for Pain in Parkinson Disease: Concerns Related to a Meta-Analysis on Treating Different Types of Pain as if They Were the Same
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:74 –75 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Global Burden of Disease Brain Summit, Auckland 2018
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:3 –16 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global and Regional Trends of Multiple Sclerosis Disability-Adjusted Life Years Rates: A 25-Year Assessment
Conclusion: In general, our findings revealed a global downward trend in the MS DALY rate. We also conclude that MS DALY rates are decreasing both in developed and developing countries, with a steeper slope in the developed world.Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:17 –24 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Global Burden of Neurological Disorders: From Global Burden of Disease Estimates to Actions
Neuroepidemiology 2019;52:1 –2 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees
Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:230 –231 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 51, 2018
Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:I –IV (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Difference in Stroke Knowledge between Rural and Urban Communities in a Developing Country after Community-Based Stroke Educational Campaigns: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusions: Rural and semi-urban regions performed better than the urban population. Receiving stroke information is a determinant factor for stroke knowledge. Stroke Educational Campaigns are a cost-effective method for raising stroke awareness, thus reducing stroke burden.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:224 –229 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Aging and the Epidemiology of Epilepsy
Background: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder affecting all ages but with a peak in the elderly. The association of epilepsy with age can be explained by the predominance of brain diseases with epileptogenic potential (mostly stroke and dementia) and by the effects of the aging process through a number of molecular mechanisms involving networks of neurons with focal or diffuse distribution.Summary: The prevalence of active epilepsy is 6.4 per 1,000 and the lifetime prevalence is 7.6 per 1,000. The prevalence tends to increase with age, with peaks in the oldest age groups and in socially deprived individuals. The incidence of ...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Weather, Weather Changes and the Risk of Bell ’s Palsy: A Multicenter Case-Crossover Study
Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of an association between certain weather conditions and the risk for BP with acute changes in atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature as the main risk factors. Additionally, contrasting results for risk of BP after temperature changes in the diabetic and non-diabetic subgroups support the paradigm of a diabetic facial palsy as a distinct disease entity.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:207 –215 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk of Hemorrhagic Stroke in Patients Exposed to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Conclusion: Our results indicated that the use of NSAIDs is significantly associated with a higher risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke. These results should be interpreted with caution because they may be confounded owing to the observational design of the individual studies. Nevertheless, we recommend that NSAIDs should be used judiciously, and their efficacy and safety should be monitored proactively.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:166 –176 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Transthyretin Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy in Portugal: A Nationwide Study
Conclusions: In Portugal, TTR-FAP affects both genders and mainly young adults. TTR-FAP incidence appears to be decreasing while prevalence is increasing. In comparison to previous studies, there is an increased representativeness of late-onset patients. This epidemiological setting poses future and complex challenges for the social and healthcare system, strengthening the relevance of regular epidemiologic surveillance.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:177 –182 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Synergism between Female Gender and High Levels of Daily Stress Associated with Migraine Headaches in Ontario, Canada
Conclusion: We report 10.7% prevalence of migraines and synergism between female gender and stress on risk of migraine, suggesting health interventions targeting women under stress may be beneficial.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:183 –189 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Examination of Therapies for Pain in Parkinson ’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pain in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) is a debilitating symptom with a prevalence of 68%, yet is untreated 50% of the time. What is unclear, however, is which treatment is optimal for minimizing pain severity in PD. Thus, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of a var iety of novel, complimentary, and conventional treatments for pain in PD and elucidate which therapy is the most effective. A systematic search was performed using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. To identify additional articles, manual searches of reference lists of include d tria...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - September 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis in Italy: A 40-Year Follow-Up of the Prevalence in Ferrara
Conclusion: Our study has confirmed the province of Ferrara is an area at high risk for MS, in line with epidemiological data from the regions of continental and insular Italy. The sharp increase in MS prevalence over time in this population can be imputed in part to a greater exposition to risk factors in genetically susceptible subjects but also to an increased survival and improved ascertainment. So, the results suggest that both methodologic and environmental factors are essential in determining the real distribution of MS. The need to get reliable estimates of MS prevalence must be highlighted as a public health and r...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Stroke Misdiagnosis in the Emergency Department: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
Conclusions: Patients with stroke misdiagnosis were commonly FAST-negative with nonspecific symptoms including altered mental status, dizziness and nausea/vomiting often associated with PCS. Improved diagnostic accuracy may increase access to acute therapies.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:123 –127 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evidence for Seasonal Variation of Bell ’s Palsy in Germany
Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:128 –130 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Cognitive Change Over 20 Years: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study
Conclusions: Lower concentrations of 25(OH)D measured in midlife were not significantly associated with more rapid cognitive decline over a 20-year follow-up period. The results of this prospective study are less susceptible to reverse causation than prior studies.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:131 –137 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Nonvascular Cognitive Function in Rural, Low-Income Elderly in Tianjin, China
Conclusion: These findings suggest that it is crucial to manage and control hypertension and improve educational attainment in order to reduce the prevalence and burden of nonvascular cognitive impairment among low-income residents, both men and women, in rural China.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:138 –148 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimation of the Prevalence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in the United States Using National Administrative Healthcare Data from 2002 to 2004 and Capture-Recapture Methodology
Conclusions: Federal healthcare claims databases ascertained are a very efficient method for identifying the majority of ALS-prevalent cases in the National ALS Registry, and may be enhanced by having patients self-register through the registry web portal.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:149 –157 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Driving Your Recovery Post Stroke
Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:113 –114 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Inpatient Cost of Stroke in Beijing: A Descriptive Analysis
Conclusion: Hospitalization cost of stroke was substantial. These findings provide health policymakers and healthcare professionals with evidence to help guide future spending.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:115 –122 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - August 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Presentation, Evaluation, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Stroke in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Our review revealed the low use of evidence-based practices for acute stroke care in LMIC. The true use in hospitals that do not conduct this research is probably even lower. Strategies to evaluate and improve health system performance for acute stroke care, including implantation of stroke units and making thrombolysis more available and affordable are needed in LMIC. Registration in Prospero: CRD42017069325.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:104 –112 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Mortality in the United States, 2011 –2014
Conclusions: Previous reports of ALS mortality in the United States showed similar age, sex, and race distributions but with greater age-adjusted mortality rates due to the inclusion of other diseases in the case definition. When using ICD-10 data collected prior to 2017, additional review of multiple-cause of death data is required for the accurate estimation of ALS deaths.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:96 –103 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Future Trends and the Economic Burden of Dementia in Manitoba: Comparison with the Rest of Canada and the World
Dementia is a growing public health concern in Canada. This epidemic is linked to huge human and economic costs. The number of Manitobans (65+) with dementia in 2045 (47,021), representing 2.58% of the Manitoban population, will be 2.3 times that of the year 2015 (20,235). The number of cases of dementia in Manitoba grew by 20.7% from 2015 to 2025, 68.16% from 2015 to 2035 and at an alarming rate of 125% from 2015 to 2045. Importantly, the total economic burden of dementia in Manitoba is close to one billion USD and is expected to grow more than 28 billion USD during the year 2038. The focus of this review is to compare de...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Maternal Folate Intake and Risk of Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Maternal consumption of folic acid is associated with a reduced risk of CBSCT. Further investigations are necessary to increase the reliability of the results and estimate the relationship between dose-response and the best outcome.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:82 –95 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - July 3, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Regional Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease Is Associated with Balance in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Population
Conclusions: WMHV, especially in the anterior ­cerebral regions, is associated with a lower SPPB. Prevention of subclinical cerebrovascular disease is a potential target to prevent physical decline in the elderly.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:57 –63 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Caffeine Consumption in First-Degree Relatives of Essential Tremor Cases: Evidence of Dietary Modification Before Disease Onset
Conclusion: The balance of caffeinated to decaffeinated beverages is different in FD-ET than Co. These data raise several intriguing questions. Among these is whether relatives of ET cases modify their caffeine consumption before disease onset.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:64 –70 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in Iceland
Conclusion: MS prevalence was high in Iceland compared to the prevalence mentioned in reports from most of the world, and was similar to prevalence rates in other Nordic countries.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:50 –56 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - June 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial Assessment of the Association between Long-Term Exposure to Environmental Factors and the Occurrence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Catalonia, Spain: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study
Conclusion: Our results indicate that some environmental factors, in particular those associated with exposure to pesticides and air pollutants as a result of urban traffic, could be associated with the occurrence of ALS.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:33 –49 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Obesity and Migraine: Effect Modification by Gender and Perceived Stress
Conclusions: We found support for gender- and stress-dependent associations between obesity and migraine using a large, heterogeneous adult sample. This underscores the need for evidence-based strategies for weight loss and stress reduction for female migraineurs.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:25 –32 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comorbidities Are Associated with Altered Health Services Use in Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study
Discussion: The presence of fatigue and higher physical comorbidity burden were associated with higher rates of health services use. Findings have implications for those examining healthcare burden or organizing health services for persons with MS.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:1 –10 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Relevance of Dementia in Atrial Fibrillation Patients within a Specific European Health Care Area
Conclusions: Patients with dementia presented a more adverse risk profile, with significant differences in all-cause mortality.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:11 –18 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Ireland, 2010 –2015
Conclusions: The epidemiological trends identified are similar to those prevalent elsewhere in the developed world. More incomplete tetraplegia among an older patient population necessitates a review of how acute care and rehabilitation services are delivered.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:19 –24 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Show Contrasting Associations with Risk of Cancer
Conclusions: We found that persons with MCI tended to have an increased risk of cancer, whereas those with dementia have a decreased risk. These findings call into question a biological explanation for the inverse link between dementia and cancer, thereby suggesting the presence of methodological bias.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:207 –215 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research