Spatial Assessment of the Association between Long-Term Exposure to Environmental Factors and the Occurrence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Catalonia, Spain: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study
Conclusion: Our results indicate that some environmental factors, in particular those associated with exposure to pesticides and air pollutants as a result of urban traffic, could be associated with the occurrence of ALS.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:33 –49 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Obesity and Migraine: Effect Modification by Gender and Perceived Stress
Conclusions: We found support for gender- and stress-dependent associations between obesity and migraine using a large, heterogeneous adult sample. This underscores the need for evidence-based strategies for weight loss and stress reduction for female migraineurs.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:25 –32 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comorbidities Are Associated with Altered Health Services Use in Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study
Discussion: The presence of fatigue and higher physical comorbidity burden were associated with higher rates of health services use. Findings have implications for those examining healthcare burden or organizing health services for persons with MS.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:1 –10 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Relevance of Dementia in Atrial Fibrillation Patients within a Specific European Health Care Area
Conclusions: Patients with dementia presented a more adverse risk profile, with significant differences in all-cause mortality.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:11 –18 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in Ireland, 2010 –2015
Conclusions: The epidemiological trends identified are similar to those prevalent elsewhere in the developed world. More incomplete tetraplegia among an older patient population necessitates a review of how acute care and rehabilitation services are delivered.Neuroepidemiology 2018;51:19 –24 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Show Contrasting Associations with Risk of Cancer
Conclusions: We found that persons with MCI tended to have an increased risk of cancer, whereas those with dementia have a decreased risk. These findings call into question a biological explanation for the inverse link between dementia and cancer, thereby suggesting the presence of methodological bias.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:207 –215 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Estimating the Marginal Causal Effect of Fish Consumption during Adolescence on Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-Based Incident Case-Control Study
Discussion: Subject to limitation of case-control studies in interpreting associations causally, this study suggests that both fresh and canned fish consumptions in adolescence can decrease the risk of MS.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:111 –118 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - May 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Differences in Race and Ethnicity in Muscular Dystrophy Mortality Rates for Males under 40 Years of Age, 2006 –2015
Conclusion: Since DMD is the primary cause of deaths in young males with MD, mortality rates are a reasonable proxy for the relative difference in racial prevalence. It appears that DMD is significantly more common in white males than in males of other races.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:201 –206 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 26, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Premature Mortality Due to Malignancies of the Central Nervous System in Canada, 1980 –2010
Conclusion: Our study shows that ­Canadian people with CNS cancers have had their lives prolonged at the end of the study period.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:195 –200 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 25, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Temporal Trends of Stroke Epidemiology in Southern Sweden: A Population-Based Study on Stroke Incidence and Early Case-Fatality
Conclusion: First-ever stroke incidence in southern Sweden has decreased to 33% since the beginning of this millennium. Incidence rates have decreased among the elderly but remain unchanged among younger age groups. Our findings warrant further studies on trends in risk factor profiles and effects of prevention strategies, and heightened focus on stroke in the young.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:174 –182 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - April 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Early and One-Year Outcomes of Acute Stroke in the Industrial Region of Poland During the Decade 2006 –2015: The Silesian Stroke Registry
Conclusions: In a large population of industrial province, we showed recent, positive trends in AS admissions, treatment and 1-year outcomes. Development of stroke unit networks and increase in thrombolytic treatment were at least in part responsible for survival improvement and reduction of recurrence of AS. However, case-fatality and stroke recurrence remain high compared to those of other developed countries.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:183 –194 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Distance from Home to Research Center: A Barrier to In-Person Visits but Not Treatment Adherence in a Stroke Trial
Conclusions: Distance between patient and study center was an independent predictor of missed in-person visits but not with adherence to study treatment or preventive care.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:137 –143 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Resting Heart Rate Is Not Associated with Cognitive Function
Conclusion: While elevated RHR has been shown to be associated with adverse health events and poor fitness level, RHR has no relation to cognitive function in the general population.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:160 –167 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Parkinson ’s Disease, Melanoma, and Keratinocyte Carcinoma: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: We report a positive relationship between PD and risk of BCC. These results should stimulate greater awareness on the part of healthcare providers to the increased risk of BCC in PD patients.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:168 –173 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Myasthenia Gravis in Slovakia in the Years 1977 –2015
Conclusion: The age at onset and incidence increased significantly over the study period due to marked increase of MG incidence in elderly, particularly over 70 years. Possible reasons for this trend are discussed.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:153 –159 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence and Risk Profile of Dementia in the Regions of Middle East and North Africa
Conclusions: MENA is youthful and dementia here is neither likely to be an epidemic nor looming over. The only possible exception might be Arab pocket in Israel. To us, previous attributions on dementia do not seem to be based on the realities of this region and, therefore, may prevent pragmatic addressal of dementia. Lastly, values-based collaborations are invited to jointly fill the awareness deficit in a unique low-cost manner.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:144 –152 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Clinical Impact of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Analysis from the China National Stroke Registry
Conclusions: Female sex, a history of diabetes mellitus, and poor clinical grade are independent early risk factors for the development of DCI and can contribute to a better identification of patients at a high risk for DCI. DCI was associated with severe clinical course, poor outcome, and mortality both in the short- and long-term in patients with aSAH in China.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:128 –136 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 12, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Place of Residence and Cognitive Function among the Adult Population in India
Conclusion: Cognition among adults in India differed significantly according to their current and past place of residence. Socioeconomic factors played an important role in the cognitive function of adults in urban areas.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:119 –127 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Rome: A Capture-Recapture Analysis
Conclusion: The results confirm that the metropolitan area of Rome is a high-risk area for MS.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:105 –110 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - March 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Abstracts of the 15th Italian Congress of Neuroepidemiology
Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:74 –103 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Analysis of Hospital Charges of Inpatients with Acute Ischemic Stroke in Beijing, China, 2012 –2015
Conclusions: The proportion of medicine fees for the ischemic stroke inpatients showed a downward trend during the period from 2012 to 2015, but medicine fees still accounted for the largest percentage of hospital charges in China. LOHS emerged to be the main determinant of the cost. Decreasing medicine fees and LOHS might be strategies to decrease hospital charges and reduce economic burden of stroke in China.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:63 –73 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Increasing Burden of Stroke: The Dijon Stroke Registry (1987 –2012)
Conclusions: Increasing attack rates and decreasing mortality have led to a rise in the number of stroke survivors in the population, thus indicating a growing need for the implementation of dedicated services.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:47 –56 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Population-Based Cohort Study on Dementia Risk in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Conclusions: The relative risk of developing dementia (118 –314%) in patients with type 1 DM was much higher than the ­previously reported relative risk (15–28%) associated with type 2 DM.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:57 –62 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - February 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparative Burden of Subclinical Tremor in a Cohort of Normal Individuals Stratified by Familial Risk for Essential Tremor
Conclusion: The burden of ET extends beyond the boundaries of the clinically defined disease, and partially expressed forms of ET are abundant in ET families. This fact greatly complicates gene-finding studies and epidemiological studies whose goal is to detect disease-linked associations.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:41 –46 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis Mortality by Race/Ethnicity, Age, Sex, and Time Period in the United States, 1999 –2015
Conclusion: MS-specific mortality trends demonstrate distinctive differences by race/ethnicity and age. The observations that whites and females are more likely to die from MS is in line with the overall understanding that these groups are affected more by MS. However, the findings of blacks dying at an earlier age and having more substantially increasing mortality trends than whites suggest that MS burden weighs unequally by race. Further investigation into these trends may provide additional evidence into risk or protective factors within each group.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:35 –40 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adjudication of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Conclusions: We hope that this work will motivate and facilitate investigators to use MESA data to investigate issues concerning TIA and stroke and will inform investigators seeking to adjudicate TIA and stroke in other studies.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:23 –28 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using the Capture-Recapture Method to Estimate the Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Beijing, China
Conclusions: The total incidence of ALS in Beijing is similar to international reports. The onset of ALS is not merely the result of ageing.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:29 –34 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Five-Year Recurrence Rate and the Predictors Following Stroke in the Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Stroke in the Middle East
Conclusion: A substantial number of our patients either died or had stroke recurrences during the study period. Advanced age and the severity of the index stroke significantly increased the risk of recurrence. This is an important finding for health policy makers and for designing preventive strategies in people surviving their stroke.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:18 –22 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - January 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comorbid Conditions in Parkinson ’s Disease: A Population-Based Study of Statewide Parkinson’s Disease Registry
Conclusions: The findings highlight PD as a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder, and this information is crucial for creating strategies to better prevent and manage PD complications.Neuroepidemiology (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - December 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Acknowledgments to Referees
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:198-199 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - December 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 49, 2017
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:I-IV (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - December 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Epilepsy among Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: Insights from a Large Database Analysis
Conclusion: Our study confirms the higher prevalence of epilepsy in SLE patients. Physicians should be aware of such findings and have a lower threshold for suspecting epileptic seizures in these patients. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms by which SLE favors the insurgence of seizures.Neuroepidemiology 2018;50:1 –6 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - December 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Tinnitus Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Benign Brain Tumors: A Nationwide, Population-Based Secondary Cohort Study of Young and Middle-Aged Adults
Conclusions: Findings from this secondary cohort analysis indicated that tinnitus is associated with a higher risk of benign brain tumors.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:174 –178 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gender-Related Differences and Short-Term Outcome of Stroke: Results from a Hospital-Based Registry in Sub-Saharan Africa
Conclusions: Sex differences exist in the clinical profile of stroke but not in the outcome. Knowledge of these differences could help influence stroke prevention, thereby improving stroke burden in Africa.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:179 –188 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Joint 7th Annual Scientific Session of the Stroke Prevention and Control Society and Chinese Preventive Medicine Association (SPCS, CPMA) and 6th International Conference on Neurology and Epidemiology (ICNE). Xiamen, China, December 1-3, 2017: A Selection of Abstracts
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:189-197 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 29, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein E e4 Allele Is Associated with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis indicate a weak association betweenAPOE e4 and SCD. Age and northern European residency are the critical factors that determine heterogeneity in theAPOE e4-associated prevalence of SCD.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:165 –173 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Long-Term Outcomes of Ischemic Stroke of Undetermined Mechanism: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort
Conclusions: The classification of ISUM as a single group may lead to over- or underestimation of mortality and recurrence in this major category of IS. A better definition of ISUM is necessary to predict death and recurrence accurately.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:160 –164 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Age-Period-Cohort Modeling of Multiple Sclerosis Incidence Rates in Kuwait: 1980 –2014
Conclusion: A substantial increase in MS incidence rates was recorded, which significantly varied in all 3 temporal dimensions during the study period. Future studies may contemplate biological basis for recorded temporal increase in MS risk.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:152 –159 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 21, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Decline in Search Speed and Verbal Memory Over 26 Years of Midlife in a British Birth Cohort
Conclusions: Decline in verbal memory and search speed across midlife is evident, though with different non-linear trajectories. By implication, pathways to cognitive impairment and dementia in older age may have their origins in this period.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:121 –128 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Determinants, Prevalence, and Trajectory of Long-Term Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment: Results from a 4-Year Follow-Up of the Auckland Stroke Regional Outcomes Study-IV Study
Conclusions: Cognitive deficits remain highly prevalent at 4-year post stroke. Early identification of those at higher risk of declining cognition is vital to target rehabilitation interventions at the acute stage and improve overall outcomes.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:129 –134 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Contemporary Epidemiology of Transient Ischemic Attack in Dijon, France (2013 –2015)
Conclusions: TIA is a frequent occurrence and a large proportion of patients have a high risk of recurrence, thus highlighting the need to establish dedicated emergency services to administer prompt secondary prevention.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:135 –141 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Exploring the Association between Statin Use and the Risk of Parkinson ’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Conclusion: Our results showed that statin use is significantly associated with a lower risk of developing PD. Physicians should consider statin drug therapy, monitor its outcomes, and empower their patients to improve their knowledge, therapeutic outcomes, and quality of life. However, preventive measures and their associated mechanisms must be further assessed and explored.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:142 –151 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Germany: A Cohort Study Applying Different Case Definitions Based on Claims Data
Conclusion: The incidence of MS in Germany might be substantially higher than suggested in earlier studies. In addition, our study highlights the importance of a look-back period of at least 36 months to identify incident MS cases based on claims data.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:91 –98 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Stroke among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Does Age Matter A Real-Life Study
Conclusion: RA is independently associated with stroke, especially among RA patients under 65 years, for whom cardiovascular risk factors were more prominent. Physicians should advise RA patients to manage their risk factors strictly.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:99 –105 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in Puerto Rico (2013 –2016)
Conclusion: Incidence estimates for PR were higher than other LAC countries but consistent with MS increases in other world regions. Our findings tend to rule out several prior potential environmental explanations for high MS incidence rates.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:106 –112 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Treatment and Outcomes of Working Aged Adults with Stroke: Results from a National Prospective Registry
Conclusions: Younger stroke patients exhibited distinct differences from their older counterparts with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics, prescription of antihypertensive medications and residual health status.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:113 –120 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland: A Population-Based Study
Conclusions: The prevalence of CMT in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, seems to be slightly higher than those in previous studies in European populations. Founder mutation in theGDAP1 gene accounts for a large part of the genetically defined CMT2 in Finland.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:34-39 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dose-Response Relationship between the Risk of Vasovagal Syncope and Body Mass Index or Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adults Undergoing Blood Tests
Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:31-33 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical Inactivity Predicts Slow Gait Speed in an Elderly Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study: The Northern Manhattan Study
Introduction: Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI.Methods: Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test. Physical inactivity was defined as reporting no leisure-time physical activity. Multi-variable logistic and quantile regress...
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Strategies to Improve Stroke Care Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: In this systematic review, we found several reports on evidence-based implementable stroke services in LMICs. Some strategies are economic, feasible and reproducible but remain untested. Data on their outcomes and sustainability is limited. Further research on implementation of locally and regionally adapted stroke-services and cost-effective secondary prevention programs should be a priority.Neuroepidemiology 2017;49:45-61 (Source: Neuroepidemiology)
Source: Neuroepidemiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research