Unique Metastatic Patterns in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of Different Primary Origin
Conclusion Almost half of NEN patients were diagnosed with synchronous metastatic disease. L-NEN have a unique metastatic pattern compared to GE- and Pan-NEN. Remarkably, an important part of L-NEN metastases were in the brain, whereas brain metastases were almost absent in GE- and Pan-NEN, indicating utility of screening in L-NEN. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Kisspeptin-54 accurately identifies hypothalamic GnRH neuronal dysfunction in men with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
Background: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is hypogonadism due to either hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. Whilst gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) can directly test pituitary function, no specific test of hypothalamic function exists. Kisspeptin-54 (KP54) is a neuropeptide that directly stimulates hypothalamic GnRH-release and thus could be used to specifically interrogate hypothalamic function. Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (CHH) is typically due to variants in genes that control hypothalamic GnRH neuronal migration of function. Thus, we investigated whether KP54 could accurately identify hypothalamic ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Temozolomide Alone or Combined with Capecitabine for the Treatment of Metastatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasia: a “Real World” data analysis
Background: Neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) are a rare group of tumors with different prognosis and response to therapy. Their heterogeneity is dependent on the site of origin, morphology and Ki67. Temozolomide (TEM) appears to be active in metastatic NENs (mNENs) but there is limited evidence about its efficacy in gastrointestinal NENs. We analyzed “real-world” data on the use of TEM alone or in association with capecitabine (CAPTEM) in patients with mNENs. Patients and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with advanced NENs treated with TEM or CAPTEM between 2009 and 2019 were included. A pre-treatment tu...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

MRI may be able to identify the origin of neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases
Conclusions: MRI provides qualitative features that can help discriminate between hepatic metastases from pNET and those from mNET. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Publisher Correction
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Erratum
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GLP-1 regulates the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus both directly and indirectly via presynaptic action
GLP-1 exerts its anorexigenic effect at least partly via the POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC). These neurons are known to express GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). To determine whether in addition to its direct effect, GLP-1 also modulates, how neuronal inputs can regulate the POMC neurons by acting on presynaptic terminals, ultrastructural and electrophysiological studies were performed on tissues of adult male mice. GLP-1R-immunoreactivity was associated with the cell membrane of POMC neurons and with axon terminals forming synapses on these cells. The GLP-1 analog Exendin 4 (Ex4) markedly increased the firing rate of ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cortisol circadian rhythm and insulin resistance in muscle: effect of dosing and timing of hydrocortisone exposure on insulin sensitivity in synchronized muscle cells.
Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that is late-in-the-day cortisol exposure that modulates insulin sensitivity-related genes expression and intracellular insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Modulation of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplastic cell fate by autophagy mediated death
Conclusion Our study h ighlights that the autophagy functional restoration and prolongation of this catabolic process, mediated by inhibition of deacetylase, is responsible for the reduction of pNEN cells. Prompting of autophagy cell death could be a promising strategy for the therapy of pNEN. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

ctDNA in neuroendocrine carcinoma of gastroenteropancreatic origin or of unknown primary: the CIRCAN-NEC pilot study
Conclusion: This pilot study shows a high sensitivity of ctDNA assessment, which is encouraging for the future management of GEPNEC (tumour molecular diagnosis and evaluation of disease progression). (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Protective and Reparative Role of Colony Stimulating Factors in the Brain with Cerebral Ischemia / Reperfusion Injury
Stroke is a debilitating disease and has the ability to culminate in devastating clinical outcomes. Ischemic stroke followed by reperfusion entrains cerebral ischemia / reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is a complex pathological process and is associated with serious clinical manifestations. Therefore, the development of a robust and effective post-stroke therapy is crucial. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) and erythropoietin (EPO), originally discovered as hematopoietic growth factors, are versatile and have transcended beyond their traditional role of orchestrating the proliferation, differentiation and surviva...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy of a novel second-generation somatostatin-dopamine chimera (TBR-065) in human medullary thyroid cancer: a preclinical study
Conclusion: In MTC cell lines a second generation somatostatin-dopamine analogue, TBR-065, exerts a more relevant anti-tumor activity, as compared with LAN, through modulation of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and reduction in migration. Further studies are required to establish whether TBR-065 has comparable potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth in vivo. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Chinese case of X-linked acrogigantism and systemic review
Conclusion: It is important to recognize the possibility of X-LAG when a child under 2 years old presents overgrowth. Early diagnosis and treat ment are of great importance for better treatment efficacy and clinical outcome. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Craniopharyngioma in the elderly: a multicenter and nation-wide study in spain
Conclusion. CP diagnosed in the elderly shows a similar distribut ion by sex and histologic forms than that diagnosed at younger ages. At presentation visual field alterations and headaches are the main clinical symptoms which improve substantially with surgery. However, surgery, mainly NTR, is accompanied by worsening of pituitary function, especially DI, which s eems to be a predictor of mortality in this population. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Capecitabine-Temozolomide (CAPTEM) in advanced Grade 2 and grade 3 Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) – benefits of chemotherapy in NENs with significant 18FDG uptake
The objective of this study was to evaluate activity of the CAPTEM in patients with grade 2 and grade 3 NENs and identify prognostic factors Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of patients with metastatic grade 2 and grade 3 NENs, who were with baseline significant dual uptake on68Ga-DOTATATE/ 18F-FDG-PET-CT scan and treated with CAPTEM chemotherapy between January 2014 and December 2019 at Tata Memorial Hospital was conducted. The clinical variables and survival data were collected. Progression free survival (PFS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 68 patients received the CAPTEM re...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 110, 2020
Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:I –VI (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A consensus developed morphological re-evaluation of 196 high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and its clinical correlations.
High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN) are classified according to morphology as well differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NET) G3 or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Little data exist concerning which morphological criteria this subdivision should be based on. Uncertainty exists if the NEC group should be further subdivided according to proliferation rate. Clinical data on NET G3 and NEC with a lower Ki-67 range are limited. 213 patients with high-grade GEP-NEN (Ki-67>20%) were included from the Nordic NEC Registries. Four experienced NET pathologists re-evaluated ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Risk factors for recurrence in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and size as a surrogate in determining the treatment strategy: a Korean nationwide study
This study aimed to suggest a treatment algorithm for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) based on risk factors for recurrence in a large cohort. Methods: Data of 918 patients who underwent curative intent surgery for PNET were collected from 14 tertiary centers. Risk factors for recurrence and survival analyses were performed. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 86.5%. Risk factors for recurrence included margin status (R1, hazard ratio [HR] 2.438; R2, HR 3.721), 2010 WHO grade (G2, HR 3.864; G3, HR 7.352), and N category (N1, HR 2.273). Size of 2 cm was significant in the univariate analysis (HR...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unifocal versus multiple ileal neuroendocrine tumors location: an embryological origin
Introduction: Small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NET) are situated preferentially within the ileum. The aim was to describe a potential difference in location between unifocal and multiple ileal-NET. Methods: Between December 2010 and December 2019, all consecutive patients who underwent resection in our European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society Center of Excellence, of at least one non-duodenal SI-NET, were retrospectively included. The main objective was to prove that multiple ileal-NET were mostly located on the left side of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) axis (defined as 40cm from the ileocecal valve), and u...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Real-World, Population-Based Study for the Incidence and Outcomes of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of Unknown Primary
Conclusions: The diagnosis of NENs of unknown primary has increased across the past four decades. Outcomes of individuals with metastatic small intestinal NENs seem to be better than those with metastatic NENs of unknown primary, both neuroendocrine tumors, and carcinomas. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vertebral fractures associated with spinal sagittal imbalance and quality of life in acromegaly: a radiographic study with eos 2d/3d technology
Conclusions: In acromegaly, VFs may be associated with spine deformities and sagittal imbalance, spine arthropathy, impaired QoL and disability. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) and the Pancreas - Diagnosis and Treatment of Functioning and Non-Functioning Pancreatic and Duodenal Neuroendocrine Neoplasia within the MEN1 Syndrome – An International Consensus Statement
The better understanding of the biological behavior of MEN1 organ manifestations and the in-crease in clinical experience warrant a revision of previously published guidelines. DP-NENs are still the second most common manifestation in MEN1 and, besides NENs of the thymus, remain a leading cause of death. DP-NENs are thus of main interest in the effort to re-evaluate recommendations for their diagnosis and treatment. Especially over the last two years, more clinical experience has documented the follow-up of treated and untreated (natural-course) DP-NENs. It was the aim of the international consortium of experts in endocr...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Understanding the treatment algorithm of patients with metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: A single-institution retrospective analysis comparing outcomes of chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in 255 patients
This study suggests that PRRT is associated with superior clinical outcomes relative to other systemic therapies for G2 metastatic PNET. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations.  (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A ‘watch and wait’ strategy involving regular endoscopic surveillance is safe for many patients with small, sporadic, grade 1, non-ampullary, non-functioning duodenal neuroendocrine tumours
Introduction Duodenal neuroendocrine tumours (d-NETs) are rare, but are increasing in incidence. Current ENETS guidelines advocate resection of all localised d-NETs. However, ‘watch and wait’ may be appropriate for some localised, small, grade 1, non-functioning, non-ampullary d-NETs. We evaluated whether patients with such d-NETs who chose ‘watch and wait’ involving regular endoscopic surveillance had equivalent disease-related outcomes to patients undergoing en doscopic or surgical resection. Methods Retrospective review of patients with histologically confirmed d-NETs at Liverpool ENETS Centre...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Development of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Carcinoid Syndrome Symptom Index (FACT-CSI)
Conclusions: The FACT-CSI is a content-relevant, symptom-focused index reflecting the highest priority and clinically relevant symptoms and concerns of people with CS. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Subject Index Vol. 110, No. 9-10
Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:890 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Author Index Vol. 110, No. 9-10
Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:889 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Title pages
Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:723 –726 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Reliability and Agreement of Radiological and Pathological Tumor Size in patients with MEN1-Related Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Results from a Population-Based Cohort
Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) have a high prevalence in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and are the leading cause of death. Tumor size is still regarded as the main prognostic factor and therefore used for surgical decision making. We assessed reliability and agreement of radiological and pathological tumor size in a population-based cohort of patients with MEN1-related pNETs. Methods: Patients were selected from the Dutch MEN1 database if they had undergone a resection for a pNET between 2003 and 2018. Radiological (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT)...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A plasma protein biomarker strategy for detection of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors
Conclusion: This interim analysis demonstrate that a multi-biomarker/machine learning strategy improve diagnostic accuracy of patients with SI-NET at the time of diagnosis, especially in patients with normal CgA levels. The results indicate that this multi-biomarker strategy can be useful for early detection of SI-NETs at presentation and conceivably detect recurrence after radical primary resection. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Tumour Growth Rate to predict the outcome of patients with Neuroendocrine Tumours: Performance and sources of variability
Introduction: Tumor growth rate (TGR), percentage of change in tumor volume/month, has been previously identified as an early radiological biomarker for treatment monitoring in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) patients. We assessed the performance and reproducibility of TGR 3 months (TGR3m) as a predictor factor of progression-free survival (PFS), including the impact of imaging method and reader variability. Methods: Baseline and 3-months ( ±1month) CT/MRI images from patients with advanced, grade 1-2 NETs were retrospectively reviewed by 2 readers. Influence of number of targets, tumor burden and location of lesion o...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cardiac Metastases in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumours: Clinical Features, Therapy Outcomes, and Prognostic Implications
Conclusions: Clinical features of NET CM ranged from asymptomatic patients to heart failure. Concomitant bone or pancreatic metastases and NT pro-BNP levels> 2 ULN predicted shorter survival time. PRRT serves as a feasible therapy with promising survival benefits, however more data are needed. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Ki-67 Index to Predict Treatment Response to the Capecitabine Temozolomide (CAPTEM) Regimen in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
Conclusions The overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) of the entire cohort (N = 151) were 26.5% and 76.2%, respectively, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 12.0 months. CAR T analysis showed that patients with the Ki-67 range group 10-40% demonstrated a significantly higher ORR than those with Ki-67> 40% and (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Maternal Motivation: Exploring the Roles of Prolactin and Pup Stimuli
Motherhood entails increased motivation for pups, which become strong reinforcers and guide maternal behaviours. This depends on steroids and lactogens acting on the brain of females during pregnancy and postpartum. Since virgin female mice exposed to pups are nearly spontaneously maternal, the specific roles of endocrine and pup-derived signals in the induction of maternal motivation remain unclear. This work investigates maternal motivation in dams and virgin female mice, using a novel variant of the pup retrieval paradigm, the Motivated Pup Retrieval Test. We also analyse the role of prolactin and of stimuli derived fro...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sensitivity and Specificity of the NETest: A Validation Study
Conclusions: The sensitivity of the NETest is exceptionally high (>95%) in a population of metastatic, well-differentiated NETs. Specificity within a healthy population of patients is exceptionally high when using a normal range of 0-20% but relatively low when evaluating patients with other GI malignancies. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

MYC up-regulation confers resistance to everolimus and establishes vulnerability to cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms cells
This study aimed at identifying mechanisms involved in acquisition of resistance to everolimus. Methods BON-1 and everolimus-resistant (ER) BON-1 cells were used as in vitro system of sensitivity and acquired resistance. Transcriptome changes occurring in BON-1 and ER-BON-1 were investigated by RNA sequencing and validated by quantitative PCR analysis. RNA extracted from patients ’ biopsies was used to validate MYC up-regulation. Drug screening and functional assays were performed using ER-BON-1 cells. Cell cycle progression was evaluated by FACS analysis. Results Our results show that MYC overexpression is a key...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Models of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms – Current status and future directions
Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors that originate from the endocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. GEP-NEN are subdivided according to their differentiation into well differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and poorly differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Since GEP-NEN represent rare diseases only limited data from large prospective, randomized clinical trials are available, and recommendations for treatment of GEP-NEN are in part based on data from retrospective analyses or cas...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prognostic role of examined and positive lymph nodes after distal pancreatectomy for non-functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms
Background The most appropriate nodal staging system for non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs) remains unclear. Despite some evidence are available for pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), the adequate nodal staging is still unknown for distal pancreatectomy (DP). Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of the number of positive lymph nodes after DP for NF-PanNENs and to define the minimal number of lymph nodes to be harvested for an appropriate nodal staging. Methods Data were retrospectively collected from patients who underwent DP with curative intent (R0-R1) for sporadic well...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diagnosis, Background, and Treatment of Hypothalamic Damage in Craniopharyngioma
Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are rare brain tumors managed primarily with surgery and radiotherapy. There are 2 phenotypes of CP, i.e., one with a rather good outcome without hypothalamic damage and another with hypothalamic damage. With hypothalamic damage, progressive disease with recurrent operations and additional cranial radiotherapy often result in hypothalamic obesity, an affected psychosocial life, and cognitive dysfunction. The morbidity and mortality are increased for particularly cerebrovascular diseases. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement to predict hypothalamic damage is important for decision making for hypotha...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Diagnostic Value of Different MRI Sequences
Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a useful imaging modality to assess the presence of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (PNETs), allowing repeat monitoring examinations in MEN-1 patients. Objectives: We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional MRI sequences identifying which better depict the presence of PNETs in MEN-1 patients. Method: We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive MEN-1 patients who underwent a conventional MRI protocol to monitor previously proven PNETs. MRI sequences T1-w Chemical-Shift (CS), T2-w HASTE, fat-suppressed (FS) T2-w HASTE, Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI)...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Diagnosis, background and treatment of hypothalamic damage in craniopharyngioma
Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are rare brain tumours managed primarily with surgery and radiotherapy. There are two phenotypes of CPs, one with a rather good outcome without hypothalamic damage and the other with hypothalamic damage. With hypothalamic damage progressive disease with recurrent operations and additional cranial radiotherapy often result in hypothalamic obesity, affected psychosocial life and cognitive dysfunction. The morbidity and mortality is increased for particularly cerebrovascular diseases. Preoperative hypothalamic involvement to predict hypothalamic damage is important for decision making for hypothalamic...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Bisphenol A induces Agrp gene expression in hypothalamic neurons through a mechanism involving ATF3.
Conclusions: Overall, these results indicate hypothalamic Agrp is susceptible to dysregulation by BPA and implicate ATF3 as a common mediator of the orexigenic effects of BPA in hypothalamic neurons. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in the rat hypothalamus is widely distributed in neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, fluctuates during the estrous cycle and is sexually dimorphic
Conclusions These findings suggest that estrogenic regulation of hypothalamic function through GPER may be different in males and in females and may fluctuate during the estrous cycle in females. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas
Skull base chordomas account for less than 0.2% and chondrosarcomas for less than 0.15% of all intracranial tumors. Although their clinical and imaging presentation is similar, they derive from different origins. Chordomas arise from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord and chondrosarcomas from primitive mesenchymal cells or from the embryonic rest of the cranial cartilaginous matrix. Both entities are characterized by infiltration and destruction of surrounding bone and soft tissue and a high locoregional recurrence rate. Chondrosarcomas, when treated with similar complex strategies, display a much better prognos...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Emerging Roles of Anti-M üllerian Hormone in Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function
Since its initial discovery in the 1940s, research into the physiological actions of anti-M üllerian hormone (AMH), from its eponymous role in male developmental biology to its routine clinical use in female reproductive health, has undergone a paradigm shifting change. With several exciting studies recently reporting hitherto unforeseen AMH actions at all levels in the hypogonadal-pituit ary-gonadal axis, the importance of this hormone for both hypothalamic and pituitary reproductive control is finding increasing support and significance. In this review, we will briefly summarize what is known about the traditional r...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

An Assessment of Circulating Chromogranin A as a Biomarker of Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: The available data are scarce. An assessment of all published data showed that CgA exhibits major limitations as an effective and accurate biomarker for either PC or SCLC. Its utility especially for localized PC/limited SCLC (when surgery is potentially curative), is limited. The clinical value of CgA remains to be determined. This requires validated, well-constructed, multicenter, prospective, randomized studies. An assessment of all published data indicates that CgA does not exhibit the minimum required metrics to function as a clinically useful biomarker for lung NENs.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Intracranial germinoma masquerading as secondary granulomatous hypophysitis: A case report and review of literature
Germinomas are highly immunogenic tumors eliciting a strong peri-tumoral immune response that can spillover into the surrounding healthy tissues. This phenomenon can also occur in intracranial germinomas, manifesting as secondary hypophysitis. Herein, we report a case of 12-year-old-girl presenting with polyuria and polydispsia. She had central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and panhypopituitarism. Imaging revealed a sellar-suprasellar mass with infundibular stalk thickening. Transphenoidal biopsy revealed epitheloid granulomas with immunostaining negative for germinomatous cells. Other causes of hypophysitis were ruled out. Acc...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Targeting the Enteric Nervous System to Treat Metabolic Disorders? “Enterosynes” as Therapeutic Gut Factors
The gut-brain axis is of crucial importance for controlling glucose homeostasis. Alteration of this axis promotes the type 2 diabetes (T2D) phenotype (hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance). Recently, a new concept has emerged to demonstrate the crucial role of the enteric nervous system in the control of glycaemia via the hypothalamus. In diabetic patients and mice, modification of enteric neurons activity in the proximal part of the intestine generates a duodenal hyper-contractility that generates an aberrant message from the gut to the brain. In turn, the hypothalamus sends an aberrant efferent message that provokes a stat...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

STK33 promotes the growth and progression of human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour via activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
Background: Serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) has been reported to play an important role in cancer cell proliferation. We investigated the role of STK33 in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (PNET) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: PNET specimens and adjacent non-tumorous pancreatic tissues from 84 patients who underwent curative surgery for PNET were stained by immunochemistry for STK33. The relationships among STK33 expression, clinicopathological parameters and clinical prognosis were statistically analysed. MTT, scratching, transwell and apoptosis assays were employed to detect the effects of STK33 knockdown (si...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 1, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preweaning paternal deprivation impacts parental responses to pups and alters the serum OT and CORT levels and OTR, V1AR, ER, D1R, D2R levels in relevant brain regions in adult mandarin voles
Although maternal separation and neonatal paternal deprivation have been found to exert a profound and persistent effects on the physiological and behavioural development of offspring, whether preweaning paternal deprivation (PPD) (from PND 10 to 21) affects maternal and parental responses to pups and the underlying neuroendocrine mechanism are under-investigated. Using monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), the present study found that PPD increased the latency to approach a pup-containing ball, decreased the total durations of sniffing and contacting a pup-containing ball and walking, and increased the total du...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - June 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research