Unmet Needs in the Field of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Pancreas, and Respiratory System: Reports by the ENETS Group
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - December 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Semaphorin signalling in GnRH neurons: from development to disease.
In mammals, fertility critically depends on the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by scattered hypothalamic neurons (GnRH neurons). During development, GnRH neurons originate in the nasal placode and migrate first in the nasal compartment and then through the nasal/forebrain junction, before reaching their final positions in the hypothalamus. This neurodevelopmental process, which has been extensively studied in mouse models, is regulated by a plethora of factors that might control GnRH neuron migration or survival as well as the fasciculation/targeting of the olfactory/vomeronasal axons along wh...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - December 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neurokinin 3 receptor antagonism – a novel treatment for menopausal hot flushes
Menopause is associated with significant symptomatic burden, with approximately two thirds of post menopausal women suffering from vasomotor symptoms, hot flushes and night sweats. The mainstay of treatment for hot flushes continues to be hormone replacement therapy. However, as HRT is contraindicated in some cases, alternative, efficacious treatment options are also required. Hot flushes are thought to arise as a result of significant changes in the neuroendocrine circuitry underpinning the reproductive axis during menopause. This includes reduced circulating ovarian estrogens, hypersecretion of gonadotropins and increase...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic profiling of lung carcinoids with a Ki67 index greater than 20%
The clinicopathological features of lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) with a high proliferative index at the border area between atypical carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma, have not been investigated so far. The aim of this study was, therefore, to search for lung NENs, which are well-differentiated but show Ki67 values that overlap with those of poorly differentiated NENs (PD-NENs). Resected lung NENs from 244 Japanese patients were reviewed and Ki67 index was assessed in all tumors. The data were then correlated to clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Among 59 (24%) well-differentiated NENs (WD-NE...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Management of dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinoma
Dopamine agonists are usually very effective in the treatment of prolactinomas. Nonetheless, a subset of individuals does not respond satisfactorily to these agents and this resistance is characterized by failure to achieve normoprolactinaemia and a 30% or more reduction in maximal tumor diameter (in the case of macroprolactinoma) under maximally tolerated doses. Its overall prevalence is 20-30% for bromocriptine (BRC) and around 10% for cabergoline (CAB). The two main predictive factors are male gender and tumor invasiveness. The management of drug-resistant prolactinomas includes several options. Any BRC-resistant patie...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 27, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Patterns of recurrence after resection for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: who, when, and where?
Conclusions Recurrence of pan-NENs is rare and is p redicted by tumor size, nodal metastasis, grading, and vascular invasion. Patients with G1 pan-NEN without nodal metastasis and vascular invasion may be considered cured by surgery. After 5 years without recurrence, follow-up should focus on excluding the development of liver metastases. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 27, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyperprolactinemia/Prolactinomas in the Postmenopausal Period: Challenges in Diagnosis and Management
Hyperprolactinemia is not a common finding in postmenopausal women. Prolactinomas detected after menopause are usually macroadenomas. Due to atypical clinical features they may remain unrecognized for a long period of time. Interestingly the growth potential of prolactinomas remains after menopause. Most tumors are invasive and present with high prolactin levels. They respond to medical treatment with dopamine agonists in terms of prolactin normalization, tumor shrinkage, and improvement in pituitary function. Treatment with dopamine agonists is usually long term. Reducing doses of cabergoline to the lowest that keeps prol...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 23, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Genistein modifies hamster behavioral and expression of inflammatory factors following sub-chronic unpredictable mild stress
Conclusion: Genistein accounted for increased motor performances in EPM and HB, but reduced immobility during FST, which were correlated with diminished argyrophilic signals in some limbic neuronal fields. Contextually, up-regulated Hsp70 and TrkB mRNAs occurred in hippocampal and hypothalamic neuronal fields. Conversely, diminished NF-kB1 levels were mainly obtained in the hippocampus. Hormonal neuroprotective properties of genistein corroborating anxiolytic and antidepressant role(s) through elevated expression levels of stress proteins and trophic factors, may constitute novel therapeutic measures against emotional and ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEPNEN) in a multi-ethnic Asian institution < br > < br > < br > < br > < br > < br >
Background Epidemiological evidence suggests there are differences in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (GEPNEN) among population groups. We aimed to contribute to the current evidence by evaluating the clinicopathologic characteristics of GEPNEN in a multi-ethnic Asian group. Materials and methods This was a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with GEPNEN at a tertiary medical institution at Singhealth Outram Campus, Singapore between 1995 and 2015. Results Two hundred ninety-five patients were included in the evaluation; comprising of Chinese (74.6%), M alay (4.4%), Indian (9.5%) and others...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Giant Prolactinomas
Prolactin-secreting adenomas (prolactinomas) are the most common secreting adenomas of the pituitary. Microprolactinomas (diameter10 mm) are generally seen in men. Most macroprolactinomas measure between 10 and 40 mm. Giant prolactinomas, measuring>40 mm, are rare, accounting for only 1-5% of all prolactinomas. Although generally benign, giant prolactinomas are aggressive and invasive, extending into the suprasellar region and also involve the cavernous sinuses. The optic chiasm is frequently involved which leads to visual damage and patients occasionally suffer from ophthalmoplegia. Long-term (usually lifetime) therapy...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Astrocytes mediate protective actions of estrogenic compounds after traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem. It may result in severe neurological disabilities and in a variety of cellular metabolic alterations for which available therapeutic strategies are limited. In the last decade, the use of estrogenic compounds, which activate protective mechanisms in astrocytes, has been explored as a potential experimental therapeutic approach. Previous works have suggested estradiol (E2) as a neuroprotective hormone that acts in the brain by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs). Several steroidal and nonsteroidal estrogenic compounds can imitate the effects of estradiol on ER...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - November 4, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

JAK2/STAT5 pathway mediates prolactin-induced apoptosis of lactotropes
Prolactinomas are increasingly viewed as a "problem of signal transduction". Consequently, the identification of factors and signalling pathways that control lactotrope cell turnover is needed in order to encourage new therapeutic developments. We have previously shown that prolactin (PRL) acts as a proapoptotic andantiproliferative factor on lactotropes, maintaining anterior pituitary cell homeostasis, which contrasts with the classical antiapoptotic and/or proliferative actions exerted by PRL in most other target tissues.We aimed to investigate the PRLR-triggered signalling pathways mediating these non- classic...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 30, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GnRH transactivates human AMH receptor gene via Egr1 and FOXO1 in gonadotrope cells
Conclusions: This study identifies GnRH as a regulator of human AMHR2 expression, further highlighting the importance of AMH signaling in the regulation of gonadotrope function. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine-Metabolic Dysfunction and Sleep Disturbances in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Focus on Alzheimer ́s Disease and Melatonin. < br >
Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) is associated with altered eating behavior and metabolic disruption. Amyloid plaques and neurofilament tangles are observed in many hypothalamic nuclei from AD brains. Some of these areas (suprachiasmatic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area) also play a role in regulation of the slee p/wake cycle and may explain the comorbidity of eating and sleep disorders observed in AD patients. Inadequate sleep increases the neurodegenerative process, e.g. the decrease of slow wave sleep impairs clearance of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and tau protein from cerebral interstitial fluid. Cerebrosp inal f...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hyperprolactinemia / Prolactinomas in the post-menopausal period: < br > < br > challenges in diagnosis and management < br > < br >
Hyperprolactinemia is not a common finding in post-menopausal women. Prolactinomas detected after menopause are usually macroadenomas. Due to atypical clinical features they may remain un-recognized for a long period of time. Interestingly the growth potential of prolactinomas remains after menopause. Most tumors are invasive and present with high prolactin levels. They respond to medical treatment with dopamine agonists both in terms of prolactin normalization, tumor shrinkage and improvement in pituitary function. Treatment with dopamine agonists is usually long-term. Reducing doses of cabergoline to the lowest that keep...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

TARGETED ALPHA PARTICLE THERAPY FOR NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS: < br > THE NEXT GENERATION OF PRRT < br >
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are being seen increasingly frequently, but to date only complete surgical resection is curative. However, among the various therapeutic options, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), linking a radioactive moiety to an octreotide derivative, has been shown to be highly efficacious and a well-tolerated therapy, improving progression-free survival and probably overall survival. Nevertheless, the current radionuclides in use are β-particle emitters with non-optimal radiobiological properties. A new generation of α-particle emitting radionuclides is being developed, with advanta...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Palmitate induces an anti-inflammatory response in immortalized microglial BV-2 and IMG cell lines that decreases TNF α levels in mHypoE-46 hypothalamic neurons in co-culture.
Conclusions: These results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory role of microglia towards the palmitate-induced neuroinflammation, and potentially energy homeostasis, in hypothalamic neurons. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Erratum
Neuroendocrinology 2018;107:1 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sexual behavior: From hormonal regulation to endocrine disruption
Sexual behavior constitutes a chain of behavioral responses beginning with courtship and leading to copulation. These responses, which are exhibited in a sexually dimorphic manner by the two partners, are tightly regulated by sex steroid hormones as early as the perinatal period. Hormonal changes or exposure to exogenous factors exhibiting hormone-mimetic activities such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) can therefore interfere with their expression. Here we review the experimental studies in rodents performed to address the potential effects of exposure to EDC on sexual behavior and underlying mechanisms, with a par...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endospanin 1 determines the balance of leptin-regulated hypothalamic functions
Endospanin 1 (Endo1), a protein encoded, in humans by the same gene than the leptin receptor (ObR), and increased by diet induced obesity, is an important regulator of ObR trafficking and cell surface exposure, determining leptin signaling strength. Defective intracellular trafficking of the leptin receptor to the neuronal plasma membrane has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the development of leptin resistance observed in human obesity. More recently, Endo1 has emerged as a mediator of "selective leptin resistance". The underlying mechanisms of the latter are not completely understood, but the possibility...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 16, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Competitive testing the who 2010 vs the who 2017 grading of pancreas neuroendocrine neoplasia: data from a large international cohort study
Conclusions: the WHO-AJCC 2017 grading is at least equally per forming as the WHO-AJCC 2010 but allows the successful identification of the most aggressive PanNET subgroup. Grading is confirmed as probably the most powerful tool for patient survival prediction. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Small Intestine Neuroendocrine Tumours
Background: The prevalence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NETs) is increasing. Disease progression is often slow and treatment options and long-term survival rates have improved, but little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in these patients.Objective: To assess HRQoL and its predictors in SI-NET patients receiving contemporary treatments.Methods: We measured HRQoL with 15D and SF-36 questionnaires in 134 SI-NET patients and compared the 15D results to those of age- and gender-standardized general population (n = 1153). In the patients, we studied impact of treatments, Ki67, liver metasta...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lung Carcinoids: long-term surgical results and the lack of prognostic value of somatostatin receptors and other novel IHC markers. < br >
Conclusion: The long-term outcome of surgical treated patients with LCs is favourable. Age, histopathological type and ipsilateral mediastinal subcarinal lymph node status at baseline were independent prognostic factors for survival and disease recurrence or progression. The extent of surgery and operative macro-radicality also had an impact on prognosis. None of the IHC markers tested appeared to be associated with disease prognosis. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unmet medical needs in pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid) neoplasms
Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) display the common features of all well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and are classified as low- and intermediate-grade malignant tumours (i.e. typical (TC) and atypical carcinoid (AC), respectively). There is a paucity of randomised studies dedicated to advanced PCs and management principles are drawn from the larger gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NEN experience. There is growing evidence that NEN anatomic subgroups have different biology and different responses to treatment and, therefore, should be investigated as separate entities in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss t...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Haploinsufficiency of Homeodomain Proteins Six3, Vax1, and Otx2, Causes Subfertility in Mice Via Distinct Mechanisms
Haploinsufficiency occurs when loss of one copy of a diploid gene (hemizygosity) causes a phenotype. It is relatively rare, in that most genes can produce sufficient mRNA and protein from a single copy to prevent any loss of normal activity and function. Reproduction is a complex process relying on migration of GnRH neurons from the olfactory placode to the hypothalamus during development. We have studied three different homeodomain genes Otx2, Vax1, and Six3, and found that deletion of one allele for any of these genes in mice produces subfertility or infertility in one or both sexes, despite the presence of one intact al...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The nuclear translocation of mitogen-activated protein kinases: molecular mechanisms and use as novel therapeutic target
The MAPK cascades are central signaling pathways that play a central role in the regulation of most stimulated cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, stress response and apoptosis. Currently four such cascades are known, each termed by its downstream MAPK components: the ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and ERK5. One of the hallmarks of these cascades is the stimulated nuclear translocation of their MAPK components using distinct mechanisms. ERK1/2 are shuttled into the nucleus by importin7, JNK and p38 by a dimer of importin3 with either importin9 or importin7, and ERK5 by importin- α/β. Dysregulation of ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Abstracts
Neuroendocrinology 2018;S1:1-XX (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vorspann
Neuroendocrinology 2018;107(suppl 1):I –IV (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unmet Needs in Functional and Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms(PanNENs)
Recently, European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS )held working sessions composed of members of the advisory board and other Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) experts to attempt to identify unmet needs in NENs in different locations or with advanced/poorly differentiated NENs. This section briefly summarizes the main proposed areas of unmet needs in patients with functional and non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs). (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unmet Needs in Appendiceal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms (ANEN) are mostly discovered coincidentally during appendicectomy and usually have a benign clinical course, thus appendicectomy alone is considered as curative. However in some cases a malignant potential is suspected and therefore additional operations, such as completion right hemicolectomy, are considered. The existing European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) guidelines provide quite useful data about epidemiology and prognosis, as well as, practical recommendations with regards to the risk factors for a more aggressive disease course and the indications for a secondary operat...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Role of the Acute Octreotide Suppression Test in Detecting Patients with Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
Conclusions: AOST is a promising tool to increase the diagnostic accuracy of serum CgA.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Colorectal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms – areas of unmet need
The subject of colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), subdivided into well-differentiated NENs, termed neuroendocrine tumours (NETs; grade (G) 1 and 2), and poorly-differentiated NENs, termed neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs; G3) according to the 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification, has arguably not had as much attention or study as NENs occurring in other sites. Colorectal NETs and NECs are however easier to study than many others since they are usually not difficult to remove and are increasingly detected because of intensified colorectal cancer screening and surveillance programs. Colorectal NETs and...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Administration of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus of Male Rats Mimics the Metabolic Cold Defense Response
Conclusions: We conclude that TRH administration in the rat PVN largely mimics the metabolic and behavioral changes induced by cold exposure indicating a potential link between TRH release in the PVN and cold defense.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Adolescent inhalant abuse results in adrenal dysfunction and a hypermetabolic phenotype with persistent growth impairments
Conclusions: Inhalant abuse results in negative energy balance, persistent growth impairment, and endocrine changes suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. We conclude that adrenal insufficiency contributes to the negative energy balance phenotype, potentially presenting a significant additional health risk for inhalant users. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unmet medical needs in metastatic lung and digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms.
Unmet medical needs are not infrequent in oncology and these needs are usually of higher magnitude in rare cancers. The field of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has evolved rapidly during the last decade and currently a new WHO classification is being implemented and several treatment options are available in metastatic setting after the results of prospective phase III clinical trials. However, several questions are still unanswered and decisions in our daily clinical practice should be made with limited evidence. In the 2016 meeting of the advisory board of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) the main unmet...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Unmet needs in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (WHO G3).
Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are classified based upon morphology and graded upon proliferation rate as either well-differentiated low-grade (G1-G2) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) or poorly differentiated high-grade (G3) neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Recently, a new subgroup of well-differentiated high-grade pancreatic tumours (NET G3) has been defined. The GEP NEN G3 group consisting of both NEC and NET G3, has recently been shown to be a quite heterogeneous patient group concerning prognosis and treatment benefit, depending on factors such as primary tumour site, differentiation, proliferat...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Evaluation of clinical prognostic factors and further delineation of the effect of mesenteric fibrosis on survival in advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumours
Background: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI NETs) represent 30-50% of small bowel neoplasms and often present at an advanced stage. To date, there is relatively limited literature regarding prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) in stage IV disease. In addition, the prevalence of mesenteric fibrosis (MF) in SI NETs and its effect on OS have not been sufficiently explored in the literature.Aim: The primary aim of this study was to perform a large scale survival analysis in an institutional cohort of 387 patients with metastatic (stage IV) SI NETs. The secondary aim was to provide epidemiological info...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - September 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

ENETS Newsletter Summer 2018
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of acute octreotide suppression test in detecting patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms
Background: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) is routinely used as a biomarker in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Several conditions and comorbidities may be associated with falsely elevated CgA, often leading to extensive diagnostic evaluation, which may be costly and harmful. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of acute octreotide suppression test (AOST) in differentiating falsely elevated serum CgA.Methods: Our prospective study enrolled 45 patients from two different patient cohorts: 1) 29 patients with suspicion or presence of NEN (extensive work-up and subsequent biopsy confirmed 16 NENs); ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A Novel Synonymous Variant in the < b > < i > AVP < /i > < /b > Gene Associated with Autosomal Dominant Familial Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus Causes Partial RNA Missplicing
Conclusion: We identified a synonymous variant affecting the second nucleotide of exon 3 in theAVP gene (c.324G#x3e;A) in a family in which adFNDI segregates. Notably, we showed that this variant causes partial missplicing of pre-mRNA, resulting in accumulation of the variant prohormone in ER. Our study suggests that even a small amount of aberrant mRNA might be sufficient to disturb cellular function, resulting in adFNDI. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 14, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Risk of Second Primary Colorectal Adenocarcinomas is not Increased among Patients with Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms – A Nationwide Population Based Study
CONCLUSION: In this population based study, there was no increased risk of SPCA among GEP-NEN patients. The clinical work-up in newly diagnosed GEP-NEN patients likely explains the positive short-term association followed by a negative association. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male rats mimics the metabolic cold defence response
Conclusions: We conclude that TRH administration in the rat PVN largely mimics the metabolic and behavioral changes induced by cold exposure indicating a potential link between TRH release in the PVN and cold defense. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical Relationship of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone and Kisspeptin Neurons in Adult Female Sheep and Primates
Conclusion: Although species differences were observed, this work establishes a neuroanatomical framework between nNOS and kisspeptin and nNOS and GnRH in adult female nonhuman primates and sheep.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - August 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

< sup > 18 < /sup > F-FDOPA PET/CT Uptake Parameters Correlate with Catecholamine Secretion in Human Pheochromocytomas
Conclusion: While the18F-FDOPA PET/CT MB of PHEO strongly correlates with the concentration of MN, amperometric recordings suggest that18F-FDOPA uptake could be enhanced by overactivity of catecholamine exocytosis. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 26, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Increased energy expenditure, lipolysis, and hyperinsulinemia confer resistance to central obesity and type 2 diabetes in mice lacking alpha2A-adrenoceptors
The α2A-adrenoceptors (ARs) are Gi-coupled receptors, which prejunctionally inhibit the release of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi), and postjunctionally insulin secretion and lipolysis. We have earlier shown that α2A-/- mice display sympathetic hyperactivity, hyperinsulinemia and improved gl ucose tolerance. Here we employed α2A-/- mice and placed the mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) to test the hypothesis that lack of α2A-ARs protects from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). In addition, high caloric diet was combined with running wheel exercise to test the interaction of d...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Chemoprevention with enalapril and aspirin in Men1(+/T) knockout mouse model
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias (pNEN) are the most common cause of death in adult patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). So far, only few chemopreventive strategies (e.g. with somatostatin analogues) have been evaluated for MEN1 associated pNENs. In this experimental study on 75 Men1(+ /T) knockout mice, the effect of aspirin (n=25) and an inhibitor of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (enalapril, n=25) compared to controls (n=25) were evaluated as single chemopreventive strategies for pNENs after 6,9,12,15 and 18 months. After each study period, mice were sacrificed and the resected pancreata were e...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Identifying prognostic factors for well-differentiated metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs): A retrospective international multicenter cohort study
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) represent rare neoplasms of all NETs often presenting without functional activity. Many sporadic non-functioning pNET patients are already metastatic at the time of diagnosis, and the therapeutic approach to such patients is mostly palliative. In this international, multicenter, retrospective cohort study we assessed the prognostic value of a set of anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, radiological, and pathological parameters at baseline and the impact of the therapeutic strategies on the survival of patients with sporadic grade 1/2, stage IV, non-functioning pNETs. Three hundre...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Establishment and characterization of a novel cell line derived from a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the anal canal
Conclusion: We established and characterized the first small cell GEP-NEC cell line that may serve as a valuable tool to create a better understanding of the biology of these rare tumors and to develop novel treatment strategies. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Central Precocious Puberty Caused by a Heterozygous Deletion in the < b > < i > MKRN3 < /i > < /b > Promoter Region
Conclusion: A rare genetic alteration in the regulatory region ofMKRN3 causes CPP. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Sunitinib in Patients With Well-Differentiated Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours
Conclusions: This phase IV trial confirms sunitinib as an efficacious and safe treatment option in patients with advanced/metastatic, well-differentiated, unresectable panNETs,and supports the phase III study outcomes. AEs were consistent with the known safety profile of sunitinib. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - July 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research