Is the Real Prevalence of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Underestimated? A Retrospective Study on a Large Series of Pancreatic Specimens
Conclusions: The frequency of incidental histological diagnosis of PanNET is considerably high, suggesting that their real prevalence is probably underestimated. The present study suggests a possible correlation between the incidental occurrence of PanNET and IPMN.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

POMC processing in the hypothalamus is directly regulated by saturated fat – implications for the development of obesity
In outbred mice, susceptibility or resistance to diet-induced obesity is associated with rapid changes in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) levels. Here, we evaluated three hypotheses that potentially explain the development of the different obesity phenotypes in outbred Swiss mice. First, rapid and differential changes in the gut microbiota in obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause differential efficiencies in fatty acid harvesting leading to changes in systemic fatty acid concentrations that in turn affect POMC expression and processing. Second, independently of the ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Factors of Aggressiveness in Lactotroph Tumours
The behaviour of lactotroph tumours varies between benign tumours, those cured by treatment, and that of aggressive tumours, and carcinomas with metastasis. Identification of clinical, pathological and molecular factors is essential for the early identification of patients that may have such aggressive tumours. Plasma prolactin levels and tumour size and invasion, per se, are not prognostic factors. However, tumours appearing at a young age (#x3c;20 years), especially in boys, and the presence of genetic predisposition have a poorer prognosis. In addition, lactotroph tumours in men differ from those in women, being larger,...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Preface
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vasoinhibin Suppresses Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Differentiation and Survival of PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells
Conclusions: Vasoinhibin downregulates NGF-induced differentiation and survival of PC12 cells, blocking tropomyosin receptor kinase A-triggered signaling pathways and increasing apoptosis. These results establish that vasoinhibin interaction with NGF and other neurotrophins may be critical in mediating pathways involved in neuronal survival and differentiation.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Recent survival trends in high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms and lung cancer
Conclusions. Our results should stipulate further research, in particular, of the pdNEN-SCLC relationship. They will also be helpful in patient care and communication, providing the first conditional survival details in this context, a highly patient-relevant outcome. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Temozolomide alone or combined to capecitabine for the treatment of advanced pancreatic NET
Introduction: Combining capecitabine (CAP) to temozolomide (TEM) chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) relies on limited evidences. We compared TEM-CAP to TEM alone in patients with advanced PanNET. Methods: Consecutive patients with advanced PanNET treated by TEM or TEM-CAP between 2004 and 2017 in three expert centers were included. Progression-free survival (PFS), tolerance, tumor response and overall survival were compared between the two groups. Propensity-based analyses were performed to reduce confounding bias due to the nonrandomized setting. Results: TEM and TEM-CAP were administered...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Challenging the Current Risk Factors of Appendiceal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Can They Accurately Predict Local Lymph Nodal Invasion? Results from a Large Case Series
Conclusions: Higher tumour grade and lymphovascular invasion should be considered as the most important risk prognosticators. Surprisingly, tumour size was not found to be significant in our cohort. Further international multicentre studies with large numbers of patients are needed to fully validate those data.Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - May 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Strong antitumor activity of bevacizumab and aflibercept in Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: In-depth preclinical study
Background Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It has been greatly understudied and very little is known about optimal treatment strategy for patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo whether anti-VEGF drugs could be a therapeutic alternative for these tumors with a poor prognosis. Methods We have developed two xenograft models using either human cell line derived from lung (H460) or from colon (COLO320) NEC to assess the effect of two antiangiogenic drugs, aflibercept and bevacizumab, on tumor growth and their pathological characteristics. Additionally...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - April 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Neurotensin Enhances Locomotor Activity and Arousal, and Inhibits Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Signalings
Conclusion: These results show that that the Nts and Mch systems interact and modulate locomotor activity and arousal. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - April 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

PLAC8 is overexpressed and regulates cell proliferation in low-grade human PanNET
Conclusion: Our findings establish PLAC8 as a central mediator of cell growth in a subset of human PanNET, providing evidence for the existence of distinct molecular subtypes within this class of tumors. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - April 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Non-invasive imaging methodologies for assessment of radiation damage to bone marrow and kidneys from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy
Background/Aims: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is becoming clinical routine for management of Neuroendocrine Tumours. The number of PRRT cycles are correlated with treatment effect but theoretically limited by off-target radiation damage to kidneys and bone marrow. New imaging biomarkers for assessment of PRRT tissue damage would enable evaluation of novel renal and bone marrow protective agents, as well as personalized PRRT treatment regiments. Methods: Mice treated with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-TATE PRRT or vehicle were examined at baseline and following treatment with [18F]FLT PET and [99mTc]Tc-Mag3 SPECT to asses...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - April 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Clinical, pathological and molecular factors of aggressiveness in lactotroph tumours
(Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - April 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comment on Sundin et al.: ENETS Consensus Guidelines
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Response to Prof. Ingo Brink and Prof. Aubalewska-Dydejczyk regarding Their “Letter to the Editor”
Neuroendocrinology (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin deficiency specifically impairs contextual and recognition memory consolidation in male mice
Conclusions: These data indicate that circulating but not brain CBG influences contextual and recognition long-term memory in relation with glucocorticoid levels. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Fast Feedback Inhibition of ACTH Secretion by Endogenous Cortisol in Humans
CONCLUSIONS: This experimental design may enable new physiological studies of human FF that is mediated by endogenous cortisol, including mechanisms, reproducibility, and generalizability to other activating stimuli. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex differences in hippocampal memory and learning following neonatal brain injury: Is there a role for ER α?
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxia ischemia (HI) leads to severe, life-long morbidities in thousands of neonates born in the US and worldwide each year. Varying capacities of long-term episodic memory, verbal working memory and learning can present without cerebral palsy and have been associated with the severity of neonatal encephalopathy sustained at birth. Among children who sustain a moderate degree of HI at birth, girls have larger hippocampal volumes compared to boys. Clinical studies indicate that female neonatal brains are more resistant to the effects of neonatal HI, resulting in better long-term cognitive out...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The role of 11 ß-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 2 in glucocorticoid programming of affective and cognitive behaviours
Developmental exposure to stress hormones, glucocorticoids, is central to the process of prenatal programming of later life health. Glucocorticoid overexposure, through stress or exogenous glucocorticoids, results in reduced birthweight, as well as affective and neuropsychiatric outcomes in adults, combined with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. As such, glucocorticoids are tightly regulated during development through the presence of the metabolising enzyme 11 β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). HSD2 is highly expressed in two hubs during development: the placenta and the fetus itse...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Corticosteroid action in the brain: the potential of selective receptor modulation
We describe SGRM action in animal models of brain function and pathology, and argue for their utility as molecular filters, to characterize context-specific GR interactome and transcriptional activity that are responsible for particular glucocorticoid-driven effects in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation.The ultimate objective of this approach is to identify molecular processes that are responsible for adaptive and maladaptive effects of glucocorticoids in the brain. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pitfalls in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Hyperprolactinemia
An appropriate diagnostic evaluation is essential for the most appropriate treatment to be performed. Currently, macroprolactinemia is the third most frequent cause of non-physiological hyperprolactinemia after drugs and prolactinomas. Up to 40% of macroprolactinemic patients may present with hypogonadism symptoms, infertility and/or galactorrhea. Thus, the screening for macroprolactin is indicated not only for asymptomatic subjects but also for those without an obvious cause for their prolactin (PRL) elevation. Before submitting patients to macroprolactin screening and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), one shoul...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GLP-1-, but not GDF-15-, receptor activation increases the number of IL-6-expressing cells in the external lateral parabrachial nucleus
Conclusion In summary, GLP-1R are found on IL-6 producing cells in PBNel, and GLP-1R stimulation leads to an increase in the proportion of cells with IL-6 reporter fluorescence, supporting IL-6 mediation of GLP-1 effects on energy balance. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy as a Novel Treatment for Metastatic and Invasive Phaeochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
At present, there is no clinical guideline or standardised protocol for the treatment of metastatic or invasive phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (collectively known as PPGL) due to the rarity of the disease and the lack of prospective studies or extended national databases. Prognosis is mainly determined by genetic predisposition, tumour burden, rate of disease progression and location of metastases. For patients with progressive or symptomatic disease that is not amenable to surgery, there are various palliative treatment options available. These include localised therapies including radiotherapy, radiofrequency or cry...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dopamine Agonists - from the 1970s up to today
The discovery of dopamine inhibitory effects on prolactin secretion has led to an era of successful dopaminergic therapy for prolactinomas. Herein we provide an overview of the evolution of dopamine agonists and their use in patients with PRL-secreting pituitary tumors, starting from the 1970s up to today, highlighting that normalization of PRL levels, restoration of eugonadism, and reduction of tumor mass can be achieved in the majority of patients by treatment with dopamine agonists. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life for octreotide long-acting vs. placebo in patients with metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors in the phase 3 PROMID trial
Conclusions HRQoL was maintained with few deteriorations in octreotide long-acting patients, whereas there was earlier and/or more deterioration in placebo patients. In octreotide long-acting patients, HRQoL was maintained or improved for the clinically important NET symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, diarrhea and pain, whereas placebo patients experienced a deterioration of HRQoL on these symptoms. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Improvements in body composition after 4 years of growth hormone treatment in adult-onset hypopituitarism compared to age-matched controls.
Conclusion: Four years of GHRT resulted in improvements in BMI and waist circumference in patients with adult-onset hypopituitarism compared to age-matched controls observed during the same follow-up time. Despite these beneficial effects on body composition, BMI and waist circumference remained higher in patients on GHRT compared to healthy controls. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Abstracts
Neuroendocrinology 2019;108:1 –273 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Abstracts of the 16th Annual ENETS Conference for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumor Disease
Neuroendocrinology 2019;108:I –X (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - March 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Comparison of temozolomide-capecitabine to 5-fluorouracile-dacarbazine in 247 patients with advanced digestive neuroendocrine tumors using propensity score analyses
Conclusion. PFS may be longer with 5FU-DTIC than TEM-CAP in patients with advanced NET. Although patients often prefer oral chemotherapy, 5FU-DTIC is a relevant alternative. A randomized comparison is needed to confirm these results. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - February 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hair glucocorticoids as biomarker for endogenous Cushing ’s syndrome: validation in two independent cohorts
Background/Aims: The current diagnostic workup of Cushing ’s syndrome (CS) requires various tests which only capture short-term cortisol exposure, whereas patients with endogenous CS generally have elevated long-term cortisol levels. Scalp hair assessment has emerged as a convenient test in capturing glucocorticoid concentrations over long periods of tim e. The aim of this multicenter, multinational, prospective, case-control study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of scalp hair glucocorticoids in screening of endogenous CS.Methods: We assessed the diagnostic performances of hair cortisol (HairF), hair cortison...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - February 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Differential CRE expression in Lhrh-Cre and Gnrh-Cre alleles and the impact on fertility in Otx2-flox mice
Increasingly, studies utilize cell-specific deletion of genes through conditional gene deletion by CRE recombination. Despite numerous advantages, this strategy also has limits such as ectopic CRE-expression and germline recombination. Two commonly used gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh)-driven CRE-expressing mice both target GnRH neurons. However, a direct comparison of the cells targeted, and their phenotypic outcome has not yet been presented. To compare where recombination takes place, we crossed the Gnrh-cre and Lhrh-cre lines with the Rosa26-LacZ reporter mouse. Lhrh-cre allowed recombination of the Rosa26-LacZ ge...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - February 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Management Challenges in Prolactinomas
Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are present in about 1 per 1000 of the general population and prolactinomas are by far the most common clinical subtype of pituitary adenomas. Usually prolactinomas affect pre-menopausal women and present with typical symptoms of menstrual disturbance and/or galactorrhea. They are generally managed with dopamine agonists to restore fertility and to control symptoms and tumour size. In a subset of prolactinomas, however, management remains challenging. Studies in recent years have identified the factors related to dopamine agonist resistance, such as, male sex, genetic features, and ag...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - February 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Emerging Role of Chromatin Remodeling Factors in Female Pubertal Development
To attain sexual competence, all mammalian species go through puberty, a maturational period during which body growth and development of secondary sexual characteristics occurs. Puberty begins when the diurnal pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the hypothalamus increases for a prolonged period of time, driving the adenohypophysis to increase the pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone (LH) with diurnal periodicity. Increased pubertal GnRH secretion does not appear to be driven by inherent changes in GnRH neuronal activity; rather, it is induced by changes in transsynaptic and glial inputs to GnRH...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - February 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Title pages
Neuroendocrinology 2019;108:1 –4 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Tumor Microenvironment in Neuroendocrine Tumors: Biology and Therapeutic Implications
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising in the diffuse neuroendocrine system and characterized by indolent growth. Complex interactions take place among the cellular components of the microenvironment of these tumors, and the recognition of the molecular mediators of their interplay and cross-talk is crucial to discover novel therapeutic targets. NET cells overexpress a plethora of proangiogenic molecules including VEGF, PDGF, FGF, semaphorins and angiopoietins, that promote both recruitment and proliferation of endothelial cell precursors, thus resulting among the most vasculariz...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Surgery for Prolactinomas to date
While in the past, surgery for prolactinomas was a competitive option to medical treatment with dopamine agonists, to date the indications for operations are restricted to only a few specific situations. However, if a patient is intolerant to medical treatment or if the drugs are not sufficiently effective in terms of lowering prolactin-levels or tumor shrinkage, surgery should always be considered. In microprolactinomas, operations can achieve excellent prolactin normalization rates. In difficult to treat tumors, the combination of surgical tumor resection and long term medical treatment supports better control of the dis...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Observational study to assess quality of life in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours receiving treatment with Everolimus: The OBLIQUE Study (UK Phase IV trial)
Conclusions: The OBLIQUE study demonstrates that HRQoL is maintained in patients with PanNENs during treatment with everolimus in a UK real-world setting. This study adds to the limited HRQoL data available in this patient group. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 31, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Lung Metastases in Patients with Well-Differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: An Appraisal of the Validity of Thoracic Imaging Surveillance.
Background/Aims: To evaluate the impact of Lung Metastases (LM) on overall survival (OS) in WD Stage IV GEP-NEN patients along with developing surveillance strategies for thoracic imaging. Methods: Thirty-four patients with LM, from three Centres, were identified (22 small intestinal/12 pancreatic; 17 Grade1/15 Grade2/2 unknown). For comparison, we used 106 Stage IV WD, Grade 1 and 2(G1-2) GEP-NEN patients with metastatic disease confined in the abdomen. Results: LM prevalence was 4.9% (34/692). Eleven patients (32%) presented with synchronous LM whereas 23 (68%) developed metachronous LM at a median of 25 months (range ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correlation between intrinsic brain activity and thyroid-stimulating hormone level in unmedicated bipolar II depression
Conclusions: These findings suggest that the patients with BD II depression display intrinsic activity abnormalities mainly in the PCu/PCC and MOG which are associated with specific frequency bands. Moreover, altered intrinsic activity in the PCu/PCC may be related to TSH levels in bipolar II depression. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Aggressive and malignant prolactinomas
Prolactin-secreting tumours (prolactinomas) represent the most common pituitary tumour type, accounting for 47 –66% of functional pituitary tumours. Prolactinomas are usually benign and controllable tumours as they express abundant levels of dopamine type 2 receptor (D2), and can be treated with dopaminergic drugs, effectively reducing prolactin levels and tumour volume. However, a proportion of prolactino mas exhibits aggressive features (including invasiveness, relevant growth despite adequate dopamine agonist treatment and recurrent potential) and few may exhibit metastasizing potential (carcinomas). In this conte...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth hormone response to oral glucose load: from normal to pathological conditions
The exact physiological basis of acute GH suppression by oral glucose is not fully understood. Glucose-mediated increase in hypothalamic somatostatin seems to be the most plausible explanation. Attempts to better understand its underlying mechanisms are compromised by species disparities in the response of GH to glucose load. While in humans, glucose inhibits GH release, acute elevation of circulating glucose levels in rats has either no effect on GH secretion or may be stimulatory. Likewise, chronic hyperglycemia alters growth hormone release in both humans and rats nonetheless in opposite directions. Several factors infl...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

NETest liquid biopsy is Diagnostic of Lung Neuroendocrine Tumors and Identifies Progressive Disease
We examined the utility of a neuroendocrine multigene transcript “liquid biopsy” (NETest) in bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC) for diagnosis and monitoring of disease status. Aim: To independently validate the utility of the NETest in diagnosis and management of BPC in a multicenter, multinational blinded study. Material and methods: The study cohorts assess ed were bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC) (n=99), healthy controls (n=102), other lung neoplasia (n=101) including adenocarcinomas (ACC) (n=41), squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (n=37), SCLC (n=16) and LCNEC (n=7) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=5...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Vorspann
Neuroendocrinology 2019;108:1 –4 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Author Index
Neuroendocrinology 2019;108:63 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Subject Index
Neuroendocrinology 2019;108:64 (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Recovery of the adrenal function after pituitary surgery in patients with Cushing Disease: persistent remission or recurrence?
Background Cushing ’s disease (CD) represents the principal cause of endogenous hypercortisolism. The first-line therapy of CD is surgical removal of the ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma, which is generally followed by adrenal insufficiency (AI). Objective To analyse the recovery of the AI in patients with CD after pituitary surgery in relation with recurrence and persistent remission of CD. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis on patients with CD who met the following inclusion criteria: adult age, presence of AI at 2 months after the surgical intervention, a minimum follow-up of 3 years after the sur gical ...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Different responses to a high-fat diet in IL-6 conditional knock-out mice driven by constitutive GFAP-Cre and Synapsin 1-Cre expression
Conclusion The present results demonstrate that brain production of IL-6 regulates bod y weight in the context of caloric excess and that the cellular source is critical. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1 in the human hypothalamus is reduced in obese subjects and colocalizes with oxytocin, vasopressin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript
Background/Aims: Nesfatin-1, processed from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), is a potent anorexigenic peptide being expressed in rodent hypothalamic nuclei and involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight in animals. The present study aimed to investigate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 protein expression in the human hypothalamus as well as its correlation with body weight. Methods: Sections of hypothalamus and adjacent cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei, including nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and diagonal band of Broca (DBB), from 25 autopsy cases (17 males, 8 females; 8 lean, 9 overweight, 8 obese) were examined using i...
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Leukemia inhibitory factor represses GnRH gene expression via cFOS during inflammation in male mice
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the increase in LIF due to neuroinflammation induces cFOS and represses GnRH gene. Therefore, in addition to synaptic changes in GnRH neurons, neuroinflammatory cytokines directly regulate gene expression and reproductive fun ction, and the specificity for neuronal targets may stem from the proximity to the fenestrated capillaries. (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prediction of recurrence after transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing ’s disease: the use of machine learning algorithms
This study was aimed to develop machine learning (ML)-based predictive models for CD recurrence after initial TSS and to evaluate their performance. Method: A total of 354 CD patients were included in this retrospective, supervised learning, data mining study. Predict ive models for recurrence were developed according to 17 variables using 7 algorithms. Models were evaluated based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: All patients were followed up for over 12 months (mean±SD = 43.80±35.61 months). The recurrence rate was 13.0%. Age (p (Source: Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Neuroendocrinology - January 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research