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Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and neurite outgrowth in the model mice of autism spectrum disorder
In this study, we have investigated ER stress condition and neuronal maturation in an ASD mice model employing male ICR mice. An ASD mice model was established by injecting with valproic acid (VPA) into pregnant mice. The offspring born from VPA-treated mothers were subjected to the experiments as the ASD model mice. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ASD model mice were found to be under high ER stress. The mRNA levels of Hes1 and Pax6 were decreased in the cerebral cortex of the ASD model mice, but not in the hippocampus. In addition, the mRNA level in Math1 was increased in the cerebral cortex. ER stress inhibited d...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ubiquitination at the mitochondria in neuronal health and disease
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Christian Covill-Cooke, Jack Howden, Nicol Birsa, Josef Kittler The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mito...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotection of edaravone on the hippocampus of kainate-induced epilepsy rats through Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Zhiguang Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Xinyan Meng, Zaili Li, Cunling Lv, Peiwei Cao Epilepsy is a severe and chronic neurological disease. Edaravone is an effective free radical scavenger and has been reported to prevent neuronal loss induced by Kainate (KA). However, the molecular mechanisms by which edaravone inhibits KA-induced neuron injury remain elusive. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. For KA treatment, Kainate (4 μg/kg) were administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region with sereotact...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Traffic jam hypothesis: Relationship between endocytic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Nobuyuki Kimura, Katsuhiko Yanagisawa Membrane trafficking pathways, like the endocytic pathway, carry out fundamental cellular processes that are essential for normal functioning. One such process is regulation of cell surface receptor signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that β-amyloid protein (Aβ) plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cleavage of Aβ from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), occurs through the endocytic pathway in neuronal cells. In early-stage AD,...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathophysiological role of prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of the EP2 receptor in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and lumbar motor neurons in ALS model mice
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Yasuhiro Kosuge, Hiroko Miyagishi, Yuki Yoneoka, Keiko Yoneda, Hiroshi Namgo, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa Ito Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons. The primary triggers for motor neuronal death are still unknown, but inflammation is considered to be an important factor contributing to the pathophysiology of ALS both clinically and in ALS models. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its corresponding four E-prostanoid receptors play a pivotal ro...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The broad spectrum of signaling pathways regulated by unfolded protein response in neuronal homeostasis
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Atsushi Saito, Kazunori Imaizumi The protein folding capabilities in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are disturbed by alternations in the cellular homeostasis such as the disruption of calcium ion homeostasis, the expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to these ER dysfunctions, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades to restore the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible damages, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged ER dysfunction...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reprint of: Importins in the maintenance and lineage commitment of ES cells
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 106 Author(s): Noriko Yasuhara, Yoshihiro Yoneda The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope, and nuclear pores within the envelope facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport and the exchange of information. Gene regulation is a key component of biological activity regulation in the cell. Transcription factors control the expression levels of various genes that are necessary for the maintenance or conversion of cellular states during animal development. Because transcription factor activities determine the extent...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The potential of stem cells for 21st century neuroscience, II
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 106 Author(s): John M. Haynes, Robert F. Halliwell (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) deficiency: Novel insights into the structural basis and molecular pathomechanism
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Attila Ambrus, Vera Adam-Vizi This review summarizes our present view on the molecular pathogenesis of human (h) E3-deficiency caused by a variety of genetic alterations with a special emphasis on the moonlighting biochemical phenomena related to the affected (dihydro)lipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3, gene: dld), in particular the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). E3-deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder frequently presenting with a neonatal onset and premature death; the highest carrier rate of a ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vascular endothelial growth factor influences migration and focal adhesions, but not proliferation or viability, of human neural stem/progenitor cells derived from olfactory epithelium
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo Rodrigo Perera-Murcia, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Harish Babu, Maria García-Anaya, Jorge Julio González-Olvera In humans, new neurons are continuously added in the olfactory epithelium even in the adulthood. The resident neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE) in the olfactory epithelium are influenced by several growth factors and neurotrophins. Among these modulators the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has attr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional research and molecular mechanism of Kainic acid-induced denitrosylation of thioredoxin-1 in rat hippocampus
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hongning Yang, Ningjun Zhao, Lanxin Lv, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Tie Xu Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has long been recognized as a redox regulator, and is implicated in the inhibition of cell apoptosis. Trx1 is essential for the maintenance of the S-nitrosylation of molecules in cells. The S-nitrosylation of Trx1 is essential for the physiological function such as preservation of the redox regulatory activity. The mechanisms underlying Trx1 denitrosylation induced by kainate acid (KA) injection still remain uncharacterized. Our results ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genistein, a dietary soy isoflavone, exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice: Involvement of serotonergic system
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Pei Hu, Li Ma, Yan-gui Wang, Feng Ye, Chuang Wang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Xin Zhao Genistein, a principal isoflavone property of soybeans, possesses multiple pharmacological activities such as neuroprotection. Recently, it was reported that genistein exerted antidepressant-like effects in animal models, but the mechanism of action remains ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of genistein in mice and explore the underlying mechanism(s), using two mouse models of depression, i.e. forced swim...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates acute neuroinflammation and long-term cognitive impairment after polymicrobial sepsis
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Drielly Florentino, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Aloir Neri Oliveira Junior, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Fabricia Petronilho Sepsis is a complication of an infection which imbalance the normal regulation of several organ systems, including ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nrf2 pathway activation upon rotenone treatment in human iPSC-derived neural stem cells undergoing differentiation towards neurons and astrocytes
In this study, we characterized the effects of a repeated dose treatment with rotenone (14 days) on hiPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) undergoing differentiation, assessing the expression and the activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Our results show that Nrf2 signaling increases during NSC differentiation. Moreover, we observed that rotenone treatment induced a progressive activation of Nrf2 signaling together with a induction of astrocyte reactivity, a reduction of neurite length leading to neuronal cell death, in particular of DA neurons. Altogether these data indicate that hiPSC-NSC models are relevant test systems for t...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PQBP1, an intrinsically disordered/denatured protein at the crossroad of intellectual disability and neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hitoshi Okazawa PQBP1 (polyglutamine binding protein-1) is the earliest identified molecule among the group of disease-related intrinsically disordered/denatured proteins. PQBP1 interacts with splicing-related factors via the disordered/denatured domain and regulates post-transcriptional gene expression. The mutations cause intellectual disability due to decreased dendritic spines and abnormal expression of synapse molecules in neurons, and microcephaly due to elongated cell cycle time and abnormal expression of cell cycle prote...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondria/metabolic reprogramming in the formation of neurons from peripheral cells: Cause or consequence and the implications to their utility
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Gary E. Gibson, Ankita Thakkar The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and their subsequent conversion to neural progenitor cells (NPC) and finally to neurons is intriguing scientifically, and its potential to medicine is nearly infinite, but unrealized. A better understanding of the changes at each step of the transformation will enable investigators to better model neurological disease. Each step of conversion from a differentiated cell to an iPSC to a NPC to neurons require...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chemokines play complex roles in cerebral ischemia
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Chen Chen, Shi-Feng Chu, Dan-Dan Liu, Zhao Zhang, Ling-Lei Kong, Xin Zhou, Nai-Hong Chen Ischemic stroke (IS) is a disease caused by deficiency of blood and oxygen in focal or complete brain, followed by inflammation cascade and other pathological reactions, which finally lead to irreversible damage to the cerebrum. For the inflammation is a key progress at the initiation of ischemia and poststroke, and chemokines work as vital cytokines in inflammation, we focus the roles of chemokines in IS. Studies have shown cerebral ischemi...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial permeability transition pore: Back to the drawing board
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Christos Chinopoulos Current models theorizing on what the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore is made of, implicate the c-subunit rings of ATP synthase complex. However, two very recent studies, one on atomistic simulations and in the other disrupting all genes coding for the c subunit disproved those models. As a consequence of this, the structural elements of the pore remain unknown. The purpose of the present short-review is to (i) briefly review the latest findings, (ii) serve as an index for more comprehensive...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Type-I interferon signalling through IFNAR1 plays a deleterious role in the outcome after stroke
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Moses Zhang, Catherine E. Downes, Connie H.Y. Wong, Kate M. Brody, Pedro L. Guio-Agulair, Jodee Gould, Robert Ates, Paul J. Hertzog, Juliet M. Taylor, Peter J. Crack Neuroinflammation contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of stroke. Here we test the hypothesis that the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR1) plays a critical role in neural injury after stroke by regulating the resultant pro-inflammatory environment. Wild-type and IFNAR1-/- primary murine neurons and glia were exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) an...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta aggregation in-vitro by carbenoxolone: Insight into mechanism of action
Conclusion These results project Cbx as a suitable candidate for the inhibition of Aβ 42 aggregation and the therapeutic potential of Cbx against AD can further be studied using in-vivo experiments. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reprint of: Hydrogen sulfide in stroke: Protective or deleterious?
Publication date: July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 107 Author(s): Su Jing Chan, Peter T.-H. Wong Hydrogen sulfide is believed to be a signalling molecule in the central nervous system. It is known to increase rapidly following an ischemic insult in experimental stroke. Is it protective or deleterious? This review surveys the relevant information available in the literature. It appears that there is no definitive answer to this question at present. Current evidence seems to suggest that the presence of H2S in the ischemic brain may either be deleterious or protective depending on its concentration, del...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of SUMOylation in cerebral hypoxia and ischemia
Publication date: July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 107 Author(s): Myriam Peters, Betty Wielsch, Johannes Boltze The process of protein modification by adding or detaching small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) proteins, called SUMOylation, contributes to the regulation of numerous processes in eukaryotic cells. SUMOylation also represents a key response and adaption mechanism to different forms of metabolic stress. The central nervous system (CNS) and neurons in particular are highly susceptible to hypoxic-ischemic stress due to the lack of significant oxygen and energy reserves. SUMOylation is observe...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endogenous regeneration: Engineering growth factors for stroke
Publication date: July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 107 Author(s): Su Jing Chan, Christopher Love, Myron Spector, Simon M. Cool, Victor Nurcombe, Eng H. Lo Despite the efforts in developing therapeutics for stroke, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the only FDA approved drug for ischemic stroke. Regenerative medicine targeting endogenous growth factors has drawn much interest in the clinical field as it provides potential restoration for the damaged brain tissue without being limited by a narrow therapeutic window. To date, most of the translational studies using regenerative medi...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases
The objective of this special issue is to bring to the readership of Neurochemistry International the latest developments and knowledge in a broad spectrum of areas of stroke research in both review and original research articles. Topics include neuroprotective diets, biomarkers used to aid clinical management, neurodegenerative as well as neuroprotective effects of the immune system, potential therapeutic targets, engineered growth factors that promote endogenous neuroregeneration, mechanisms of cerebral small vessel disease, and post stroke epilepsy. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Catabolism of GABA, succinic semialdehyde or gamma-hydroxybutyrate through the GABA shunt impair mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Dora Ravasz, Gergely Kacso, Viktoria Fodor, Kata Horvath, Vera Adam-Vizi, Christos Chinopoulos GABA is catabolized in the mitochondrial matrix through the GABA shunt, encompassing transamination to succinic semialdehyde followed by oxidation to succinate by the concerted actions of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH), respectively. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug that could enter the citric acid cycle through transhydrogenation with α-ketoglu...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oxoisoaporphine alkaloid derivative 8-1 reduces A β1-42 secretion and toxicity in human cell and Caenorhabditis elegans models of Alzheimer's disease
In this study, the possible anti-AD activities of 14 novel oxoisoaporphine alkaloid derivatives that we synthesized were screened and evaluated. We found that, in the 14 novel derivatives, compound 8-1 significantly reduced Aβ1-42 secretion in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant form of human β-amyloid precursor protein (APPsw). Next, we found that compound 8-1 could down-regulate the expression level of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in APPsw cells. Moreover, compound 8-1 significantly delayed paralysis in the Aβ1-42-transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain GMC101, which could be explain...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mevalonolactone disrupts mitochondrial functions and induces permeability transition pore opening in rat brain mitochondria: Implications for the pathogenesis of mevalonic aciduria
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Cristiane Cecatto, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Aline de Mello Gonçalves, Carmen Regla Vargas, Moacir Wajner Mevalonic aciduria (MVA) is caused by severe deficiency of mevalonic kinase activity leading to tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of mevalonic acid (MA) and mevalonolactone (ML). Patients usually present severe neurologic symptoms whose pathophysiology is poorly known. Here, we tested the hypothe...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic treatment with taurine after intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection improves cognitive dysfunction in rats by modulating oxidative stress, cholinergic functions and neuroinflammation
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): K.H. Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y.K. Gupta The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, an essential amino acid for growth and development of central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) model of cognitive impairment was used in male Wistar rats (270 ± 20 g). Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were used to assess cognitive performance. Taurine (40, 60 and 120 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days following STZ admi...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade of CCR5 receptor prevents M2 microglia phenotype in a microglia-glioma paradigm
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Emilia Laudati, Diego Currò, Pierluigi Navarra, Lucia Lisi Microglia express chemokines and their cognate receptors that were found to play important roles in many processes required for tumor development, such as tumor growth, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Among the chemokine receptor, CCR5 have been documented in different cancer models; in particular, CCR5 is highly expressed in human glioblastoma, where it is associated to poor prognosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CCR5 receptor b...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurons and astrocytes in an infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) mouse model show characteristic alterations in glutamate-induced Ca2+ signaling
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Mikhail Strokin, Georg Reiser INAD (infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, OMIM#256600), an autosomal recessive inherited degenerative disease, is associated with PLA2G6 mutations. PLA2G6 encodes Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (VIA iPLA2). However, it is unclear how the PLA2G6-mutations lead to disease. Non-canonical functions, which were suggested for VIA iPLA2, such as regulation of cellular and mitochondrial Ca2+ are promising candidates. Therefore, we investigate glutamate (Glu)-evoked Ca2+ signals in neurons and astrocytes in ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novel spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 improves methimazole-induced cognitive deficits in mice
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Husain Noreen, Yasushi Yabuki, Kohji Fukunaga Methimazole (MMI) is a first-line therapy used to manage hyperthyroidism and Graves’ disease. Despite its therapeutic benefit, chronic MMI administration can lead to hypothyroidism and perturb brain homeostasis in patients, resulting in neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and cognitive dysfunction. We recently developed the spiroimidazopyridine derivative SAK3 as cognitive enhancer; however, mechanisms underlying its activity remained unclear. Here, we show that SAK3 ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

1H NMR-based metabolomics reveals neurochemical alterations in the brain of adolescent rats following acute methylphenidate administration
In this study, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomics approach was employed to investigate the effects of MPH on brain biomolecules. Adolescent male Sprague Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with MPH (5.0 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg), and cerebral extracts from the left and right hemispheres were analysed. A total of 22 variables (representing 13 distinct metabolites) were significantly increased in the MPH-treated samples relative to the saline-treated controls. The upregulated metabolites included: amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA, glutamate and aspartate; large neutr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - March 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of a novel peptide, FK18, under oxygen-glucose deprivation in SH-SY5Y cells and retinal ischemia in rats via the Akt pathway
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Shuyu Xiong, Yupeng Xu, Mingming Ma, Haiyan Wang, Fang Wei, Qing Gu, Xun Xu Ischemic neuronal injury is associated with several life- and vision-threatening diseases. Neuroprotection is essential in the treatment of these diseases. Here, we identified and characterized a novel peptide, FK18, from basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). We further assessed the neuroprotective effects of this peptide and its potential mechanisms using the in vitro oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) model in SH-SY5Y cells and the in vivo ret...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contrasting roles of immune cells in tissue injury and repair in stroke: The dark and bright side of immunity in the brain
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Aditya Rayasam, Martin Hsu, Gianna Hernández, Julie Kijak, Anders Lindstedt, Christian Gerhart, Matyas Sandor, Zsuzsanna Fabry Despite considerable efforts in research and clinical studies, stroke is still one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Originally, stroke was considered a vascular thrombotic disease without significant immune involvement. However, over the last few decades it has become increasingly obvious that the immune responses can significantly contribute to both tissue injury and p...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Post-stroke epilepsy
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Tomotaka Tanaka, Masafumi Ihara Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) is a common complication after stroke, yet treatment options remain limited. While many physicians prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AED) for secondary prevention of PSE, it is unclear which treatments are most effective in the prevention of recurrence of symptoms, or whether such therapy is needed for primary prevention. This review discusses the current understanding of epidemiology, diagnoses, mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments of PSE. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterization of energy and neurotransmitter metabolism in cortical glutamatergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells: A novel approach to study metabolism in human neurons
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Blanca I. Aldana, Yu Zhang, Maria Fog Lihme, Lasse K. Bak, Jørgen E. Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K. Freude, Helle S. Waagepetersen Alterations in the cellular metabolic machinery of the brain are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Novel human cellular disease models are essential in order to study underlying disease mechanisms. In the present study, we characterized major metabolic pathways in neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selol, an organic selenium donor, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in the rat brain
In conclusion, our studies indicated that Selol effectively protects against LPS-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine release, by boosting antioxidant systems, and by augmenting BDNF level. Therefore, Selol could be a multi-potent and effective drug useful in the treatment and prevention of brain disorders associated with neuroinflammation. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterization of the cystine/glutamate antiporter in cultured Bergmann glia cells
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Edna Suárez-Pozos, Zila Martínez-Lozada, Orquidia G. Mendez-Flores, Alain M. Guillem, Luisa C. Hernández-Kelly, Francisco Castelán, Tatiana N. Olivares-Bañuelos, Donaji Chi-Castañeda, Mustapha Najimi, Arturo Ortega Glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain is a potent neurotoxin through the over-stimulation of its specific membrane receptors. In accordance, a tight regulation of its extracellular levels by plasma membrane transporters is present. A family of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of neuronal mitochondrial complex I or lysosomal glucocerebrosidase is associated with increased dopamine and serotonin turnover
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Carmen de la Fuente, Derek Burke, Simon Eaton, Simon J. Heales Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic and serotoninergic signalling. A number of pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated including loss of mitochondrial function at the level of complex I, and lysosomal metabolism at the level of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA1). In order to investigate further the potential involvement of complex I and GBA1 in PD, we assessed the impact of loss of respective enzyme activiti...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Multifunctional liposomes interact with Abeta in human biological fluids: Therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease
In conclusion, we demonstrate that functionalized liposomes significantly sequester Abeta42 in human biological fluids. These data may be critical for future in vivo administration tests using NPs for promoting sink effect. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural stem cell therapy for neurodegenerative disorders: The role of neurotrophic support
Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Samuel E. Marsh, Mathew Blurton-Jones Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease currently affect tens of millions of people worldwide. Unfortunately, as the world's population ages, the incidence of many of these diseases will continue to rise and is expected to more than double by 2050. Despite significant research and a growing understanding of disease pathogenesis, only a handful of therapies are currently available and all of them provide only transient benefit...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitophagy in neurodegeneration and aging
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Elayne M. Fivenson, Sofie Lautrup, Nuo Sun, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Tinna V. Stevnsner, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A. Bohr, Evandro F. Fang Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to normal aging and a wide spectrum of age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. It is important to maintain a healthy mitochondrial population which is tightly regulated by proteolysis and mitophagy. Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that regulates the turnover of damaged ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Downregulation of Mfn2 participates in manganese-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat striatum and PC12 cells
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Xinhang Liu, Jianbin Yang, Chunhua Lu, Shengyang Jiang, Xiaoke Nie, Jingling Han, Lifeng Yin, Junkang Jiang Manganese (Mn) is a widely distributed trace element that is essential for normal brain function and development. However, chronic exposure to excessive Mn has been known to lead to neuronal loss and manganism, a disease with debilitating motor and cognitive deficits, whose clinical syndrome resembling idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying Mn neurotoxicity remains lar...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased miR-146a expression in acute ischemic stroke directly targets the Fbxl10 mRNA and is involved in modulating apoptosis
Conclusions miR-146a expression was significantly down-regulated in AIS, and Fbxl10 was identified as a target of miR-146a. Moreover, up-regulation of Fbxl10, a miR-146a target, likely protects neurons from ischemic death. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Post stroke epilepsy
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Tomotaka Tanaka, Masafumi Ihara Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) is a common complication after stroke, yet treatment options remain limited. While many physicians prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AED) for secondary prevention of PSE, it is unclear which treatments are most effective in the prevention of recurrence of symptoms, or whether such therapy is needed for primary prevention. This review discusses the current understanding of epidemiology, diagnoses, mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments of PSE. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Serum uric acid and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis
Conclusion Our results showed that serum UA levels in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis are reduced during attacks compared with those in CTLs, are normalized after treatment, and are associated with disease severity. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of artemisinin on neuropathic pain mediated by P2X4 receptor in dorsal root ganglia
This study observed the effect of artemisinin on neuropathic pain and delineated its possible mechanism. The chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model was used in this study. The results demonstrated that artemisinin relieved pain behaviors in the CCI rats, inhibited the expression of P2X4 receptor in the DRG, and decreased the ATP-activated currents in HEK293 cells transfected with P2X4 plasmid. Dual-labeling immunofluorescence showed that the coexpression of P2X4 receptor and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the DRG of CCI rats was increased compared to control rats. After CCI rats were treated with artem...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterising the developmental profile of human embryonic stem cell-derived medium spiny neuron progenitors and assessing mature neuron function using a CRISPR-generated human DARPP-32WT/eGFP-AMP reporter line
In this study, we demonstrate that fine tuning Wnt and hedgehog (SHH) signaling early in human embryonic stem cell differentiation can induce a subpallial progenitor molecular profile. Stimulation of TGFβ signaling pathway by activin-A further supports patterning of progenitors to striatal precursors which adopt an LGE-specific gene signature. Moreover, we report that these MSNs also express markers associated with mature neuron function (cannabinoid, adenosine and dopamine receptors). To facilitate live-cell identification we generated a human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR-mediated gene editing at the DARPP32...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of the sigma-1 receptor by haloperidol metabolites facilitates brain-derived neurotrophic factor secretion from human astroglia
In this report we studied S1R-mediated BDNF release from human astrocytic glial cells. Astrocytes express the S1R, which mediates BDNF release when stimulated with the prototypical S1R agonists 4-PPBP and (+)-SKF10047. This effect could be antagonized by a selective concentration of the S1R antagonist BD1063. Haloperidol is known to have high affinity interactions with the S1R, yet it was unable to facilitate BDNF release. Remarkably, however, two metabolites of haloperidol, haloperidol I and haloperidol II (reduced haloperidol), were discovered to facilitate BDNF secretion and this effect was antagonized by BD1063. Neithe...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Crosstalk of metabolic factors and neurogenic signaling in adult neurogenesis: Implication of metabolic regulation for mental and neurological diseases
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Chong Gao, Qi Wang, Sookja K. Chung, Jiangang Shen Metabolic disorders like diabetes and obesity are commonly companied with neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidences indicated that cellular metabolic factors affect adult neurogenesis and have modulating effects on neurodegenerative disorders and psychiatric diseases. Adult neurogenesis contains multiple steps including proliferation of neural stem cells, lineage commitments of neural progenitor cells, maturation into functional neurons, and inte...
Source: Neurochemistry International - February 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research