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Potential for stem cell treatment in manganism
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Thatiane C. de Moura, Szeifoul Afadlal, Alan S. Hazell Development of manganism (also known as manganese neurotoxicity) is a major complication of manganese exposure in which neurological dysfunction is linked to accumulation of the metal in brain. Due to neuronal cell death in basal ganglia structures, particularly the globus pallidus, functional recovery is limited. Bearing a resemblance to Parkinson's disease, effective treatment for manganism is currently limited. However, the rapidly developing field of stem cell researc...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

3-Iodothyroacetic acid (TA1), a by-product of thyroid hormone metabolism, reduces the hypnotic effect of ethanol without interacting at GABA-A receptors
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Annunziatina Laurino, Elisa Landucci, Francesco Resta, Gaetano De Siena, Rosanna Matucci, Alessio Masi, Laura Raimondi 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1) is among the by-products of thyroid hormone metabolism suspected to mediate the non-genomic effects of the hormone (T3). We aim to investigate whether TA1 systemically administered to mice stimulated mice wakefulness, an effect already described for T3 and for another T3 metabolite (i.e. 3-iodothryonamine; T1AM), and whether TA1 interacted at GABA-A receptors (GABA-AR). Mice were ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dual effects of insect nAChR chaperone RIC-3 on hybrid receptor: Promoting assembly on endoplasmic reticulum but suppressing transport to plasma membrane on Xenopus oocytes
In this study, five RIC-3 isoforms were identified from Locusta migratoria. Four isoforms showed obvious effects on hybrid receptor Locα1/rβ2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. As a representative, the co-expression of RIC-3v4 exhibited the decreased agonist responses (I max) on oocytes, lower specific [3H]epibatidine binding (B max) on plasma membrane protein (PMP), and reduced subunit levels in PMP, which showed that the mature Locα1/rβ2 on the plasma membrane was decreased by the co-expression of RIC-3. In contrast, the [3H]epibatidine binding and mature Locα1/rβ2 levels in the endoplasmic re...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sitagliptin enhances the neuroprotective effect of pregabalin against pentylenetetrazole-induced acute epileptogenesis in mice: Implication of oxidative, inflammatory, apoptotic and autophagy pathways
This study is indicative for the antiepileptogenic potential of sitagliptin with or without pregabalin in the PTZ model of epilepsy which is likely to be through its effect on antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and autophagic pathways. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial NUDIX hydrolases: A metabolic link between NAD catabolism, GTP and mitochondrial dynamics
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Aaron Long, Nina Klimova, Tibor Kristian NAD+ catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD+ catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potent...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

SIRT3 and mitochondrial metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Illari Salvatori, Cristiana Valle, Alberto Ferri, Maria Teresa Carrì The NAD+-dependent deacetylase protein Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is emerging among the factors playing a key role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the prevention of oxidative stress. This deacetylase activates protein substrates directly involved in the production and detoxification of ROS, such as superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase, but also enzymes in the lipid beta-oxidation pathway. In this paper we review existing evidence on the role of SIRT3...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

From dysfunctional endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling to neurodegeneration
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Zoi Erpapazoglou, François Mouton-Liger, Olga Corti Over the last years, contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have attracted great attention in the study of cell homeostasis and dysfunction, especially in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. This is largely due to the critical involvement of this subcellular compartment in a plethora of vital cellular functions: Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial dynamics, transport, bioenergetics and turnover, ER stress, apoptotic signaling and inflammatio...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Control of mitochondrial physiology and cell death by the Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bok
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Beatrice D'Orsi, Julia Mateyka, Jochen H.M. Prehn Neuronal cell death is often triggered by events that involve intracellular increases in Ca2+. Under resting conditions, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration is tightly controlled by a number of extrusion and sequestering mechanisms involving the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and ER. These mechanisms act to prevent a disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis. As these processes require ATP, excessive Ca2+ overloading may cause energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and may eventua...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Connecting mitochondrial dynamics and life-or-death events via Bcl-2 family proteins
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Abdel Aouacheria, Stephen Baghdiguian, Heather M. Lamb, Jason D. Huska, Fernando J. Pineda, J. Marie Hardwick The morphology of a population of mitochondria is the result of several interacting dynamical phenomena, including fission, fusion, movement, elimination and biogenesis. Each of these phenomena is controlled by underlying molecular machinery, and when defective can cause disease. New understanding of the relationships between form and function of mitochondria in health and disease is beginning to be unraveled on several front...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial mechanisms of neuronal rescue by F-68, a hydrophilic Pluronic block co-polymer, following acute substrate deprivation
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Janice C. Wang, Vytautas P. Bindokas, Matthew Skinner, Todd Emrick, Jeremy D. Marks Global brain ischemia can lead to widespread neuronal death and poor neurologic outcomes in patients. Despite detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating neuronal death following focal and global brain hypoxia-ischemia, treatments to reduce ischemia-induced brain injury remain elusive. One pathway central to neuronal death following global brain ischemia is mitochondrial dysfunction, one consequence of which is the cascad...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in CNS injury using Methylene Blue; still a magic bullet?
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Hemendra J. Vekaria, Lora Talley Watts, Ai-Ling Lin, Patrick G. Sullivan Complex, multi-factorial secondary injury cascades are initiated following traumatic brain injury, which makes this a difficult disease to treat. The secondary injury cascades following the primary mechanical tissue damage, are likely where effective therapeutic interventions may be targeted. One promising therapeutic target following brain injury are mitochondria. Mitochondria are complex organelles found within the cell, which act as powerhouses within all cel...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long-term oral kinetin does not protect against α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration in rodent models of Parkinson's disease
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Adam L. Orr, Florentine U. Rutaganira, Daniel de Roulet, Eric J. Huang, Nicholas T. Hertz, Kevan M. Shokat, Ken Nakamura Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) cause Parkinson's disease (PD), likely by disrupting PINK1's kinase activity. Although the mechanism(s) underlying how this loss of activity causes degeneration remains unclear, increasing PINK1 activity may therapeutically benefit some forms of PD. However, we must first learn whether restoring PINK1 function prevents degeneration in pati...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorganization in Parkinson's disease-relevant PINK1 and DJ1 mutants
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Irene Lopez-Fabuel, Lucia Martin-Martin, Monica Resch-Beusher, Garikoitz Azkona, Rosario Sanchez-Pernaute, Juan P. Bolaños Brain mitochondrial complex I (CI) damage is associated with the loss of the dopaminergic neurons of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. However, whether CI inhibition is associated with any alteration of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) organization in PD patients is unknown. To address this issue, here we analyzed the MRC by blue native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) followed ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An X-chromosome linked mouse model (Ndufa1S55A) for systemic partial Complex I deficiency for studying predisposition to neurodegeneration and other diseases
In this study, we describe an X-chromosome linked mouse model (Ndufa1 S55A ) for systemic partial Complex I deficiency. By homologous recombination, a point mutation T > G within 55th codon of the Ndufa1 gene was introduced. The resulting allele Ndufa1 S55A introduced systemic serine-55-alanine (S55A) mutation within the MWFE protein, which is essential for Complex I assembly and stability. The S55A mutation caused systemic partial Complex I deficiency of ∼50% in both sexes. The mutant males (Ndufa1 S55A/Y ) displayed reduced respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and produced less body heat. They were also ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain energy metabolism spurns fatty acids as fuel due to their inherent mitotoxicity and potential capacity to unleash neurodegeneration
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Peter Schönfeld, Georg Reiser The brain uses long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to a negligible extent as fuel for the mitochondrial energy generation, in contrast to other tissues that also demand high energy. Besides this generally accepted view, some studies using cultured neural cells or whole brain indicate a moderately active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Here, we corroborate the conclusion that brain mitochondria are unable to oxidize fatty acids. In contrast, the combustion of liver-derived ketone bodies by neural cells is...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Updates to a 13C metabolic flux analysis model for evaluating energy metabolism in cultured cerebellar granule neurons from neonatal rats
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Mika B. Jekabsons, Hoda M. Gebril, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Ikhlas A. Khan A hexose phosphate recycling model previously developed to infer fluxes through the major glucose consuming pathways in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from neonatal rats metabolizing [1,2–13C2]glucose was revised by considering reverse flux through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and symmetrical succinate oxidation within the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The model adjusts three flux ratios to effect 13C distribution...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protection of PC12  cells from cocaine-induced cell death by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Frederic Lamarche, Cecile Cottet-Rousselle, Luc Barret, Eric Fontaine Cocaine abuse induces brain injury and neurodegeneration by a mechanism that has not yet been fully elucidated. Mitochondria play a key role in cell death processes, notably through the opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP). In this work, we examined the involvement of the PTP in cocaine-induced toxicity in PC12 cell lines. We used two different PTP inhibitors -i.e. cyclosporin A (CsA) and metformin-to assess their ability to counteract the cocaine...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in the plasma membrane, mitochondria and the ER: Pharmacology and implications in neuronal diseases
Publication date: October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 109 Author(s): Birgit Honrath, Inge E. Krabbendam, Carsten Culmsee, Amalia M. Dolga Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa) channels regulate after-hyperpolarization in many types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2/SK) channels, a subfamily of KCa channels, are widely expressed in the nervous system, and in the cardiovascular system. Voltage-independent SK channels are activated by alterations in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) which facilitates the opening of these channels through binding of Ca2+ to ca...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitative temporal changes in DTI values coupled with histological properties in cuprizone-induced demyelination and remyelination
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ryutaro Yano, Junichi Hata, Yoshifumi Abe, Fumiko Seki, Keitaro Yoshida, Yuji Komaki, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F. Tanaka Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used to evaluate microstructural variations in brain tissue. In particular, fractional anisotropy (FA), reflecting the magnitude and orientation of anisotropic water diffusion, allows us to detect pathological events in white matter. An ex vivo DTI study coupled with histological assessment is an efficient strategy to evaluate the myelination process, i.e. demyelination...
Source: Neurochemistry International - October 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement of neuronal and glial activities in control of the extracellular d-serine concentrations by the AMPA glutamate receptor in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Sayuri Ishiwata, Asami Umino, Toru Nishikawa It has been well accepted that d-serine may be an exclusive endogenous coagonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor in mammalian forebrain regions. We have recently found by using an in vivo dialysis method that an intra-medial prefrontal cortex infusion of S-α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (S-AMPA), a selective AMPA-type glutamate receptor agonist, causes a reduction in the extracellular levels of d-serine in a calcium-permeable ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vesicular movements in the growth cone
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Motohiro Nozumi, Michihiro Igarashi Growth cones, which are the highly motile tips of extending neuronal processes in developing neurons, have many vesicles. These vesicles are likely essential for the membrane expansion that is required for nerve growth, and probably coordinate with rearrangement of the cytoskeletons. Such mechanisms are poorly understood from molecular and cell biological aspects. Recently, we used superresolution microscopic approaches and described new mechanisms that are involved in the interaction bet...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ghrelin receptor antagonism of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral and accumbens dopaminergic sensitization in rats
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Pavel Jerabek, Tereza Havlickova, Nina Pushkina, Chrysostomos Charalambous, Marek Lapka, Petr Kacer, Magdalena Sustkova-Fiserova An increasing number of studies over the past few years have demonstrated ghrelin's role in alcohol, cocaine and nicotine abuse. However, the role of ghrelin in opioid effects has rarely been examined. Recently we substantiated in rats that ghrelin growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A) appear to be involved in acute opioid–induced changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system assoc...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Treadmill exercise alleviated prenatal buprenorphine exposure-induced depression in rats
In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that a non-pharmacological option, i.e., moderate treadmill exercise, alleviated the development of depression-like neurobehaviors by resolving the oxidative and inflammatory burden as well as by enhancing neurochemical and neuroendocrine signaling. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection and plasticity after traumatic brain injury
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Raghu Vemuganti, Edward D. Hall (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Apigenin inhibits rat neurosteroidogenic 5 α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
In conclusion, apigenin is a potent inhibitor of rat AKR1C9, thereby controlling the rate of neurosteroid biosynthesis. Graphical abstract (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The influence of acidic media on the effect of beta-amyloid peptide on the function of glycine receptor in hippocampal neurons
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): J.V. Bukanova, E.I. Solntseva, R.V. Kondratenko, V.G. Skrebitsky We have previously shown that application of beta-amyloid peptide 1–42 (Aβ) at picomolar/nanomolar concentrations caused a decrease in the peak amplitude and acceleration of desensitization of the glycine-activated chloride current (I Gly) in hippocampal pyramidal neurons (Bukanova et al., 2016). The aim of this work was to study the effect of Aβ on I Gly in an acidified medium. The relevance of this work is determined by the fact that the path...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Palmitic acid stimulates energy metabolism and inhibits insulin/PI3K/AKT signaling in differentiated human neuroblastoma cells: The role of mTOR activation and mitochondrial ROS production
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Erika Calvo-Ochoa, Karina Sánchez-Alegría, Cecilia Gómez-Inclán, Patricia Ferrera, Clorinda Arias The high consumption of saturated lipids has been largely associated with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. In particular, saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (PA) have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, how neurons develop insulin resistance in response to lipid overload is not fully understood. Here, we used cultured rat c...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondria in the nervous system: From Health to Disease, Part I
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Brian M. Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M. Beart In Part I of this Special Issue on “Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease”, the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum c...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The starving brain: Overfed meets undernourished in the pathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Kelly J. Gibas Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Arctic A β40 blocks the nicotine-induced neuroprotective effect of CHRNA7 by inhibiting the ERK1/2 pathway in human neuroblastoma cells
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ye Ju, Toru Asahi, Naoya Sawamura Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Point mutations in the Aβ sequence, which cluster around the central hydrophobic core of the peptide, are associated with familial AD (FAD). Several mutations have been identified, with the Arctic mutation exhibiting a purely cognitive phenotype that is typical of AD. Our previous findings suggest that Arctic Aβ40 binds to and aggregates with CHRNA7, thereby inhibiting the calcium respon...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in the mitochondrial bioenergetics of astrocytes but not microglia at a physiologically relevant brain oxygen tension
This study tested the hypothesis that sex and/or brain physiological oxygen tension influence the mitochondrial bioenergetic properties of primary rat cortical astrocytes and microglia. Oxygen consumption was measured with a Seahorse XF24 cell respirometer in an oxygen-controlled environmental chamber. Strikingly, male astrocytes had a higher maximal respiration than female astrocytes when cultured and assayed at 3% O2. Three percent O2 yielded a low physiological dissolved O2 level of ∼1.2% (9.1 mm Hg) at the cell monolayer during culture and 1.2–3.0% O2 during assays. No differences in bioenergetic pa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility by activation of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Xinjian Zhu, Jingde Dong, Zhengrong Xia, Aifeng Zhang, Jie Chao, Honghong Yao A growing body of evidence suggests that stress triggers a variety of pathophysiological responses. Recent studies show that stress produces enduring effects on structure and function of hippocampus, which is one of the most important structures involved in epilepsy. In the present study, we determined the effect of repeated restraint stress exposure on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the possible mechanisms invo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis via sonic hedgehog pathway after stroke in mice
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ye Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Lili Cui, Rong Chen, Cong Zhang, Yaoru Li, Tingting He, Xingyuan Zhu, Zuyuan Shen, Lipeng Dong, Jingru Zhao, Ya Wen, Xiufen Zheng, Pan Li There is a pressing need of developing approaches for delayed post-stroke therapy for patients who fail to receive thrombolysis within the narrow time window. Neuroprotection of Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute phase has been well documented. The current study was to determine the influence of SAFI at the su...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contrasting effects of selective MAGL and FAAH inhibition on dopamine depletion and GDNF expression in a chronic MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 110 Author(s): Noemi Pasquarelli, Christoph Porazik, Hanna Bayer, Eva Buck, Stefan Schildknecht, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting, Boris Ferger The modulation of the brain endocannabinoid system has been identified as an option to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Especially the elevation of endocannabinoid levels by inhibition of hydrolytic degradation represents a valuable approach. To evaluate whether monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition could be beneficial for PD, we exami...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

APP/A β structural diversity and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 110 Author(s): Alex E. Roher, Tyler A. Kokjohn, Steven G. Clarke, Michael R. Sierks, Chera L. Maarouf, Geidy E. Serrano, Marwan S. Sabbagh, Thomas G. Beach The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1–40 and 1–42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslati...
Source: Neurochemistry International - August 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The regulation of corticosteroid receptors in response to chronic social defeat
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Jia Zhang, Yan Fan, Muhammad U. Raza, Yanqiang Zhan, Xiang-Dong Du, Paresh D. Patel, Meng-Yang Zhu Our previous studies demonstrated that chronic social defeat (CSD) up-regulated expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain, which was mediated by corticosteroid receptors. In the present study we first analyzed the alterations of corticosteroid receptors in different brain regions after the CSD paradigm. The results showed that CSD significantly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ALCAR promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating cell-survival and cell death-related signals in rat model of Parkinson's disease like-phenotypes
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Shubha Shukla Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway that leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The formation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus is affected by many factors such as anxiety, depression and impairment in learning and memory that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in PD, indicating the role of adult neurogenesis in PD pathophysiology. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), reg...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The functional interaction between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ly-6/neurotoxin proteins in Locusta migratoria
This study provides an approximate panorama for the functional interaction net between L. migratoria lynx and nAChRs, although some other nAChRs need further tests. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased spinal endomorphin-2 contributes to mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
In this study, using a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model that displayed obvious mechanical allodynia, it was found that the expression of spinal EM2 was significantly decreased in DNP rats. While intrathecal administration of exogenous EM2 attenuated mechanical allodynia in DNP rats, the mu-opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine facilitated these events. It was found that the reduction in spinal EM2 was mediated by increased activity of dipeptidylpeptidase IV, possibly as a consequence of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that the reduction in the le...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerium oxide nanoparticles could ameliorate behavioral and neurochemical impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's disease in rats
Conclusion The present study showed a putative therapeutic role of CeO2NPs in the treatment of 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rats, and suggested their antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects as possible mechanisms for elevated striatal dopamine level and improved motor performance. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lithium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain
In this study, we examined the neuroprotective role of lithium chloride (LiCl) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. We determined that LiCl -attenuated LPS-induced activated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling and significantly reduced the nuclear factor-kB (NF-KB) translation factor and various other inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We also analyzed that LiCl significantly abrogated activated gliosis via attenuation of specific markers for activated microglia, ionized calcium-binding adaptor m...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microglia support ATF3-positive neurons following hypoglossal nerve axotomy
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Tatsuhide Tanaka, Koichi Murakami, Yoshio Bando, Taichi Nomura, Ayami Isonishi, Shoko Morita-Takemura, Kouko Tatsumi, Akio Wanaka, Shigetaka Yoshida Microglia are essential in developmental processes and maintenance of neuronal homeostasis. Experimental axotomy of motor neurons results in neurodegeneration, and microglia in motor nuclei become activated and migrate towards injured neurons. However, whether these activated microglia are protective or destructive to neurons remains controversial. In the present study, we transected t...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of task-specific rehabilitation training on tau modification in rat with photothrombotic cortical ischemic damage
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Kyung-Lim Joa, Sohee Moon, Ji-Hye Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Seon Jung, Myeong-Ok Kim, Chang-Hwan Kim, Han-Young Jung, Ju-Hee Kang Although stroke elicits progressive cognitive decline and is a leading cause of dementia, molecular interplay between stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, studies on the effects of post-stroke rehabilitation on AD pathology are limited. We evaluated the acute effect of stroke on tau modification, and the molecular effects of task-specific tra...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modifiable risk factors promoting neurodegeneration is associated with two novel brain degradation markers measured in serum
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Jesper S. Neergaard, Katrine Dragsbæk, Claus Christiansen, Henning B. Nielsen, Christopher T. Workman, Susanne Brix, Kim Henriksen, Morten A. Karsdal There has been limited success with blood-based biomarkers of neurodegeneration. One perceived reason is that blood has no direct contact to the brain. Recently developed blood-based biomarkers of tau-degradation have shown promise as potential tools for peripheral assessment of neurodegeneration; however, factors contributing to the levels of these in blood are poorly understoo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Supplementation with different teas from Camellia sinensis prevents memory deficits and hippocampus oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Alexandre Martins, Helen L. Schimidt, Alexandre Garcia, Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann, Francielli W. Santos, Felipe P. Carpes, Weber Cláudio da Silva, Pâmela B. Mello-Carpes Memory and cognition impairments resultant of ischemic stroke could be minimized or avoided by antioxidant supplementation. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of Green tea from Camellia sinensis has been investigated. However, there is a lack of information regarding the neuroprotective potential of others teas processed from the Cam...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 inhibits neuronal death following transient brain ischemia via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Yasushi Yabuki, Xu Jing, Kohji Fukunaga The T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2′,4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate) promotes acetylcholine (ACh) release in mouse hippocampus, enhancing cognitive function. Here, we tested SAK3 neuroprotective activity in the context of transient brain ischemia using a 20-min bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) mouse model. Mice were administered with SAK3 (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, p.o.)...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of system Xc − in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Dae-Joong Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hideyo Sato, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Yukio Yoneda, Hyoung-Chun Kim The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild typ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proteomic approach to detect changes in hippocampal protein levels in an animal model of type 2 diabetes
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyun Jung Kwon, Jong Whi Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Ho Jae Han, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon In our previous study, we demonstrated that type 2 diabetes affects blood-brain barrier integrity and ultrastructural morphology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 40 weeks of age. In the present study, we investigated the possible candidates for diabetes-related proteins in the hippocampus of ZDF rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control, ZLC), by using two-di...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of aging and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology on brain monoamines in mice
We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice. While, we observed no aging effect in WT mice, we detected region-specific changes in the levels of all monoamines in 18-month-old transgenic compared with WT mice. ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ZL006 protects spinal cord neurons against ischemia-induced oxidative stress through AMPK-PGC-1 α-Sirt3 pathway
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Shu-Guang Liu, Yun-Mei Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Xi-Jing He, Tao Ma, Wei Song, Yu-Min Zhang Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determine...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research