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A refined concept: α-synuclein dysregulation disease
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hideki Mochizuki, Chi-Jing Choong, Eliezer Masliah α-synuclein (αSyn) still remains a mysterious protein even two decades after SNCA encoding it was identified as the first causative gene of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of αSyn causes α-synucleinopathies including PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent advances in therapeutic approaches offer new antibody-, vaccine-, antisense-oligonucleotide- and small molecule-based options to reduce αSyn...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CDC42EP4, a perisynaptic scaffold protein in Bergmann glia, is required for glutamatergic tripartite synapse configuration
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector pr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Research progress in stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome (SIDS) and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP)
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Dan-Dan Liu, Shi-Feng Chu, Chen Chen, Peng-Fei Yang, Nai-Hong Chen, Xin He In recent years, stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome (SIDS) and the resulting stroke-associated infection (SAI) have become a focus of current research efforts. Inflammatory reactions after stroke promote tissue healing and eliminate necrotic cells, whereas excessive inflammatory reactions may cause secondary damage. Stroke-induced immunodepression not only reduces inflammatory reactions and protects brain tissues but also weakens the resistance of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mediated dopamine release in larval Drosophila melanogaster
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Poojan Pyakurel, Mimi Shin, B. Jill Venton Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of insects and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a target for neonicotinoid insecticides. Functional insect nAChRs are difficult to express in host cells, and hence difficult to study. In mammals, acetylcholine and nicotine evoke dopamine release, but the extent to which this mechanism is conserved in insects is unknown. In intact larval ventral nerve cords (VNCs), we studied dopamine evoked by...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Circadian modification network of a core clock driver BMAL1 to harmonize physiology from brain to peripheral tissues
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Teruya Tamaru, Ken Takamatsu Circadian clocks dictate various physiological functions by brain SCN (a central clock) -orchestrating the temporal harmony of peripheral clocks of tissues/organs in the whole body, with adaptability to environments by resetting their timings. Dysfunction of this circadian adaptation system (CAS) occasionally causes/exacerbates diseases. CAS is based on cell-autonomous molecular clocks, which oscillate via a core transcriptional/translational feedback loop with clock genes/proteins, e.g., BMAL1: CL...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathological role of lipid interaction with α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Mari Suzuki, Kazunori Sango, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In sporadic PD and DLB, normally harmless αSyn proteins without any mutations might gain toxic functions by unknown mechanisms. Thus, it is important to elucidate the factors promoting the toxic conversion of αSyn, towards understanding the pathogenesis of and developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and DLB. Accumulating...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A refined concept: Alpha synuclein dysregulation disease
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hideki Mochizuki, Chi-Jing Choong, Eliezer Masliah Alpha synuclein (αSyn) still remains a mysterious protein even two decades after SNCA encoding it was identified as the first causative gene of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of αSyn causes α-synucleinopathies including PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent advances in therapeutic approaches offer new antibody-, vaccine-, antisense-oligonucleotide- and small molecule-based options to reduce αSyn p...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death via activation of Nrf2-ARE and eIF2 α-ATF4 pathways
In this study, we investigated protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) fatty acids and their derivatives on oxidative stress-induced cell death using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (HPO-DAEE), a synthesized RJ fatty acid derivative, markedly induced antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Pretreatment with HPO-DAEE protected against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidative responses, plays a key role in the acquisition of resistance to oxidative stress. HPO-DAEE elicited nuclear accumulation of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutathione monoethyl ester prevents TDP-43 pathology in motor neuronal NSC-34  cells
In this study, we investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) in modulating oxidative stress responses in TDP-43 pathology in motor neuron NSC-34 cells. Results demonstrate that depletion of GSH produces pathology similar to that of mutant TDP-43, including occurrence of cytosolic aggregates, TDP-43 phosphorylation and nuclear clearing of endogenous TDP-43. We also demonstrate that introduction of mutant TDP-43A315T and silencing of endogenous TDP-43, but not overexpression of wild-type TDP-43, result in similar pathology, including depletion of intracellular GSH, possibly resulting from a decreased expression of a reg...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 induces brain proteomic changes in cuprizone mice during remyelination involving calcium proteins
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Eystein Oveland, Agnes Nystad, Frode Berven, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland Dietary supplementation of vitamin D is commonly recommended to patients with multiple sclerosis. We recently found that high-dose of the hormonally active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25D) promotes myelin repair in the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination. In the present study, we quantified 5062 proteins, of which 125 were differentially regulated in brain tissue from 1,25D treated mice during remyelination, compared to plac...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

P2Y12 shRNA treatment relieved HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain in rats
In this study, we investigated the role of the P2Y12 receptor in HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain. The results showed that peripheral nerve exposure to HIV gp120 increased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated model rats. The gp120 treatment increased the expression of P2Y12 mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs. Treatment with P2Y12 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in DRG SGCs decreased the upregulated expression of P2Y12 mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs as well as relieved mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated rats. Reduction of P2Y12 receptor decreased co-expression of P2Y12 and glial fibrillary acidic prote...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress in vascular dementia by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Aarti Yadav, Aditya Sunkaria, Nitin Singhal, Rajat Sandhir Vascular dementia (VaD) is the leading cause of cognitive decline resulting from vascular lesions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced model of VaD. R-SLNs prepared had average size of 286 nm and 91.25...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Defective methionine metabolism in the brain after repeated blast exposures might contribute to increased oxidative stress
In this study, brains of rats exposed to repeated blasts in a shock tube underwent untargeted profiling of primary metabolism by automatic linear exchange/cold injection GC-TOF mass spectrometry and revealed acute and sub-acute disruptions in the metabolism of the essential amino acid methionine and associated antioxidants. Methionine sulfoxide, the oxidized metabolite of methionine, showed a sustained increase in the brain after blast exposure which was associated with a significant decrease in cysteine, the amino acid derived from methionine. Glutathione, the antioxidant synthesized from cysteine, also concomitantly decr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ISG'ylation increases stability of numerous proteins including Stat1, which prevents premature termination of immune response in LPS-stimulated microglia
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Piotr Przanowski, Stefan Loska, Dominik Cysewski, Michal Dabrowski, Bozena Kaminska Microglia are myeloid cells in the central nervous system which maintain homeostasis and contribute to repair, but instigate neuroinflammation when are activated by infection, trauma or neurological diseases. Initiation of acute inflammatory responses could be mimicked in vitro by stimulation of microglial cultures with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have previously demonstrated Stat-dependent induction of the Uba7 mRNA expression in LPS stimulated...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Recombinant neuroglobin ameliorates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage via inhibiting the activation of mitochondria apoptotic pathway
The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of endogenous Ngb in brain using a rabbit model of SAH, and to verify whether TAT-Ngb fusion protein could be delivered into brain parenchyma, as well as to explore the neuroprotective effect of Ngb and its possible mechanisms. We found that Ngb expressions were up regulated in the transcript and protein levels in a similar time dependent manner after SAH as compared to the sham group. Moreover, TAT-Ngb fusion protein was successfully generated and transferred into brain neurons. Compared with the saline- and Ngb-treated group, neuronal viabilities and neurolo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Suppression of cortical TRPM7 protein attenuates oxidative damage after traumatic brain injury via Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Hong-Liang Xu, Meng-Dong Liu, Xiao-Hong Yuan, Chun-Xi Liu Neuronal death after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex process resulting from a combination of factors, many of which are still unknown. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a transient receptor potential channel that has been demonstrated to mediate ischemic and traumatic neuronal injury in vitro. In the present study, TRPM7 was suppressed in the rat cerebral cortex by intracortical injections of viral vectors bearing shRNA specific for TRPM7 to i...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A brain-specific isoform of apoptosis-inducing factor 2 attenuates ischemia-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Yuanyang Xie, Siyi Wanggou, Qing Liu, Xuejun Li, Jingping Liu, Ming Wu Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a family of conserved mitochondrial flavoproteins that have both vital and lethal functions in cells. The function and regulation of AIF-1, the original described and most abundant isoform, has been extensively studied, whereas three other AIF isoforms have not been further characterized. Here, we investigated the role of AIF-2, a brain-specific isoform of AIF, in an in vitro ischemia model in neuronal HT22 cells. We sh...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Upregulation of Cdh1 signaling in the hippocampus attenuates brain damage after transient global cerebral ischemia in rats
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Bo Zhang, Kai Wei, Xuan Li, Rong Hu, Jin Qiu, Yue Zhang, Wenlong Yao, Chuanhan Zhang, Chang Zhu Cerebral ischemia is a major cause of brain dysfunction. The E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex and its coactivator Cdh1 have been reported to be involved in the regulation of neuronal survival, differentiation, axonal growth and synaptic development in the central nervous system. However, its role in the ischemic brain and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antecedent ADHD, dementia, and metabolic dysregulation: A U.S. based cohort analysis
Discussion These results indicate that the association between antecedent ADHD and dementia risk may be uniquely influenced by metabolic dysregulation, building upon prior discussion in this journal of a purported link between AD and diabetes. We tie the current findings to environmental risk factors that we have previously implicated in the etiology of ADHD to generate testable hypotheses on the underlying brain neurochemistry that may facilitate the link between metabolic dysregulation and dementia subtype risk. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can crosstalk between DOR and PARP reduce oxidative stress mediated neurodegeneration?
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Rutika Raina, Dwaipayan Sen The progressive loss of structure and function of neurons leads to neurodegenerative processes which become the causative reason for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) etc. These diseases are multifactorial in nature but they have been seen to possess similar causative agents to a certain extent. Oxidative Stress (OS) has been identified as a major stressor and a mediator in most of these diseases. OS not only leads to the generation of free radica...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Application of the gene editing tool, CRISPR-Cas9, for treating neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Nivya Kolli, Ming Lu, Panchanan Maiti, Julien Rossignol, Gary L. Dunbar Increased accumulation of transcribed protein from the damaged DNA and reduced DNA repair capability contributes to numerous neurological diseases for which effective treatments are lacking. Gene editing techniques provide new hope for replacing defective genes and DNA associated with neurological diseases. With advancements in using such editing tools as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), meganucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), et...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Coronaridine congeners modulate mitochondrial α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with different potency and through distinct intra-mitochondrial pathways
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hugo R. Arias, Olena Lykhmus, Kateryna Uspenska, Maryna Skok In contrast to plasma membrane-expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), mitochondrial nAChRs function in an ion-independent manner by triggering intra-mitochondrial kinases that regulate the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), an important step in cellular apoptosis. The aim of this study is to determine the structural requirements for mitochondrial α3β4* nAChR activation by measuring the modulatory effects of two noncompetitive antagonists of ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The release and transmission of amyloid precursor protein via exosomes
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Tingting Zheng, Xiaoqing Wu, Xiaojie Wei, Mingkai Wang, Baorong Zhang Amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing is central in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The healthy unaffected neurons suffer the transmission of amyloid protein from pathologically affected neurons, which may play an important role in the anatomical spread of the disease. Exosomes are appropriate candidates for transmission of amyloid species, because of their potential role as “intercellular transportation”. To address a role of secre...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-fat diet-induced hyperglutamatergic activation of the hippocampus in mice: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 9.4T
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Song-I. Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term neurochemical alterations in the hippocampus of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while plasma leptin and corticosterone levels were monitored. Although metabolic disturbances induced by the excess intake of fat are assumed to cause depression, the relationship underlying dysfunctional adipose tissue, stress hormone release, and excitatory metabolism has not been fully understood yet. Four-week-old male ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The potential role of the novel hypothalamic neuropeptides nesfatin-1, phoenixin, spexin and kisspeptin in the pathogenesis of anxiety and anorexia nervosa
This article reviews recent evidence dealing with the hypothetical role of these new factors in the anxiety-related circuits and pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sirt3 confers protection against acrolein-induced oxidative stress in cochlear nucleus neurons
In this study, we investigated the mechanisms on acrolein-induced toxicity in primary cultured cochlear nucleus neurons with focus on Sirt3, a mitochondrial deacetylase. We found that acrolein treatment induced neuronal injury and programmed cell death (PCD) in a dose dependent manner in cochlear nucleus neurons, which was accompanied by increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation. Acrolein exposure also significantly reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) levels, promoted cytochrome c release and decreased mitochondrial ATP production. In addition, increased ER track...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuropathic pain inhibitor, RAP-103, is a potent inhibitor of microglial CCL1/CCR8
We report here that RAP-103 exhibits stronger antagonism for CCR8 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 7.7 fM) compared to CCR5 (IC50 < 100 pM) in chemotaxis using primary cultured mouse microglia. In addition, RAP-103 at a concentration of 0.1 pM completely inhibits membrane ruffling and phagocytosis induced by chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1), an agonist for CCR8. It has been shown that CCL1/CCR8 signaling is important in tactile allodynia induced by nerve ligation. Therefore, CCR8, among other chemokine receptors such as CCR2/CCR5, could be the most potent target for RAP-103. Inhibitory effe...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A potential impact of Helicobacter pylori-related galectin-3 in neurodegeneration
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Marina Boziki, Stergios A. Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi, Evangelos Kazakos, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Evaggelia Giartza-Taxidou, Leonidas Laskaridis, Dimitri Tzivras, Elisabeth Vardaka, Constantinos Kountouras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Thomann Robert, Jannis Kountouras Neurodegeneration represents a component of the central nervous system (CNS) diseases pathogenesis, either as a disability primary source in the frame of prototype neurodegenerative disorders, or as a secondary effect, following inf...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Trophic modulation of gamma oscillations: The key role of processing protease for Neuregulin-1 and BDNF precursors
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-pos...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Concerted action of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and glutaminyl cyclase results in formation of pyroglutamate-modified amyloid peptides in vitro
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Alvard Antonyan, Dagmar Schlenzig, Stephan Schilling, Marcel Naumann, Svetlana Sharoyan, Sona Mardanyan, Hans-Ulrich Demuth Compelling evidence suggests a crucial role of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ(1-40/42)) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The N-terminal truncation of Aβ(1-40/42) and their modification, e.g. by glutaminyl cyclase (QC), is expected to enhance the amyloid toxicity. In this work, the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry application proved N-terminal cleavage of Aβ(1-40/42) by purified dipeptidy...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Metyrapone prevents acute glucose hypermetabolism and short-term brain damage induced by intrahippocampal administration of 4-Aminopyridine in rats
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Luis García-García, Rubén Fernández de la Rosa, Mercedes Delgado, Ágata Silván, Pablo Bascuñana, Jens P. Bankstahl, Francisca Gomez, Miguel A. Pozo Intracerebral administration of the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) triggers neuronal depolarization and intense acute seizure activity followed by neuronal damage. We have recently shown that, in the lithium-pilocarpine rat model of status epilepticus, a single administration of metyrapone, an inhibitor of the 11&b...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anti-thyroid antibodies and thyroid function in anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Yinyao Lin, Sha Tan, Yuge Wang, Xianru Shen, Yaqin Shu, Yilong Shan, Yanqiang Wang, Haiyan Li, Lei Zhang, Wei Cai, Xiaobo Sun, Zhengqi Lu (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of dopamine D1 receptor in 3-fluoromethamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Phuong-Tram Nguyen, Eun-Joo Shin, Duy-Khanh Dang, Hai-Quyen Tran, Choon-Gon Jang, Ji Hoon Jeong, Yu Jeung Lee, Hyo Jong Lee, Yong Sup Lee, Kiyofumi Yamada, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim 3-Fluoromethamphetamine (3-FMA) is an illegal designer drug of methamphetamine (MA) derivative. Up to date, little is known about the neurotoxic potential of 3-FMA. In the present study, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors in neurotoxicity induced by 3-FMA in comparison with MA (35 mg/kg, i.p.) as a control drug. Here we...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal expression of Hexokinase-3 in the injured female rat spinal cords
In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal expression of HK3 in the spinal cords by using a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that HK3 could be detected in sham-opened spinal cords. After SCI, it gradually increased, reached a peak at 7 days post-injury (dpi), and then gradually decreased with the prolonging of injury time, but still maintained at a higher level for up to 28 dpi (the longest time evaluated in this study). Immunofluorescence staining showed that HK3 was found in GFAP+, β-tubulin III+ and ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of imipramine on cytokines panel in the rats serum during the drug treatment and discontinuation
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): M. Kuśmider, A. Faron-Górecka, P. Pabian, J. Solich, M. Szlachta, M. Kolasa, D. Żurawek, J. Wójcikowski, W. Daniel, M. Dziedzicka-Wasylewska Time dependent sensitization (TDS) - phenomenon described originally by Chiodo and Antelman (1980) in context of dopamine receptors, refers to cascade of events that continue to develop in the organism, after the initiating stimulus is no longer available. Treatment could be recognized as such a initiating stimulus (in case of depression, example of electroconvulsive the...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Calcium uptake and cytochrome c release from normal and ischemic brain mitochondria
In this study, a clinically relevant canine cardiac arrest model was used to assess the effects of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity, Ca2+ uptake-mediated inhibition of respiration, and Ca2+-induced cytochrome c release, as measured in vitro in a K+-based medium in the presence of Mg2+, ATP, and NADH-linked oxidizable substrates. Maximum Ca2+ uptake by frontal cortex mitochondria was significantly lower following 10 min cardiac arrest compared to non-ischemic controls. Mitochondria from ischemic brains were also more sensitive to the respiratory inhibition associated w...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Release of soluble and vesicular purine nucleoside phosphorylase from rat astrocytes and microglia induced by pro-inflammatory stimulation with extracellular ATP via P2X7 receptors
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Luis Emiliano Peña-Altamira, Elisabetta Polazzi, Patricia Giuliani, Alina Beraudi, Francesca Massenzio, Ilaria Mengoni, Alessandro Poli, Mariachiara Zuccarini, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Marco Virgili, Barbara Monti, Francesco Caciagli Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a crucial enzyme in purine metabolism which converts ribonucleosides into purine bases, has mainly been found inside glial cells. Since we recently demonstrated that PNP is released from rat C6 glioma cells, we then wondered whether this ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Motoneuron degeneration in the trigeminal motor nucleus innervating the masseter muscle in Dystonia musculorum mice
We report that motoneurons with NF accumulation in the Mo5 nuclei of Dst Gt homozygous mice express the stress-induced genes CHOP, ATF3, and lipocalin 2 (Lcn2). We also show a reduced number of Mo5 motoneurons and a reduced size of Mo5 nuclei in Dst Gt homozygous mice, possibly due to apoptosis, given the presence of cleaved caspase 3-positive Mo5 motoneurons. In the mandibular (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve, which contains axons of Mo5 motoneurons and trigeminal sensory neurons, there was infiltration of Iba1-positive macrophages. Finally, we report atrophy of the masseter muscles in Dst Gt homozygous mice, which s...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Icariside II, a PDE5 inhibitor from Epimedium brevicornum, promotes neuron-like pheochromocytoma PC12 cell proliferation via activating NO/cGMP/PKG pathway
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Jianmei Gao, Yingshu Xu, Ming Lei, Jingshan Shi, Qihai Gong Icariside II (ICS II), a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE 5-I), is a major ingredient of Epimedium brevicornum, with wide spectrum of neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the potential beneficial effect of ICS II on neuronal cell proliferation, and its possible underlying mechanism remains still unclear. We hypothesized that the beneficial effect of ICS II on neuron-like highly differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell proliferation is c...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insulin expression in cultured astrocytes and the decrease by amyloid β
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Katsura Takano, Keisuke Koarashi, Kenji Kawabe, Masanori Itakura, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi Nakamura Insulin resistance in brain has been reported in Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Insulin signaling is important for homeostasis in brain function and reported to be disturbed in neurons leading to tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. Many investigations of insulin in neurons have been reported; however, it has not been reported whether astrocytes also produce insulin. In the present study, we assesse...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Strong sonic hedgehog signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord is not required for oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation but is necessary for correct timing of its generation
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hirokazu Hashimoto, Wen Jiang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kyeong-Hye Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Kazuhiro Ikenaka In the mouse neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted from the floor plate (FP) and the notochord (NC) regulates ventral patterning of the neural tube, and later is essential for the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During early development, the NC is adjacent to the neural tube and induces ventral domains in it, including the FP. In the later stage of development, during gliogenesis in the spinal cord, the...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Neuroprotective role of Ginkgo biloba against cognitive deficits associated with bisphenol A exposure: An animal model study” [Neurochem. Int. 108 (2017) 199–212]
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Manar Mohammed El Tabaa, Samia Salem Sokkar, Ehab Sayed Ramadan, Inas Zakria Abd El Salam, Anis Zaid (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression and regulation of CYP17A1 and 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in cells of the nervous system: Potential effects of vitamin D on brain steroidogenesis
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ida Emanuelsson, Mokhtar Almokhtar, Kjell Wikvall, Alfhild Grönbladh, Erik Nylander, Anne-Lie Svensson, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Maria Norlin Steroids are reported to have diverse functions in the nervous system. Enzymatic production of steroid hormones has been reported in different cell types, including astrocytes and neurons. However, the information on some of the steroidogenic enzymes involved is insufficient in many respects. Contradictory results have been reported concerning the relative importance of differen...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential homologous desensitization of the human histamine H3 receptors of 445 and 365 amino acids expressed in CHO-K1 cells
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ana-Maricela García-Gálvez, Juan Escamilla-Sánchez, Catalina Flores-Maldonado, Rubén-Gerardo Contreras, Juan-Manuel Arias, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) signal through Gαi/o proteins and are found in neuronal cells as auto- and hetero-receptors. Alternative splicing of the human H3R (hH3R) originates 20 isoforms, and the mRNAs of two receptors of 445 and 365 amino acids (hH3R445 and hH3R365) are widely expressed in the human brain. We previously showe...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Anti-neuroinflammatory effect of 6,8,1 ′-tri-O-methylaverantin, a metabolite from a marine-derived fungal strain Aspergillus sp., via upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia
In conclusion, 6,8,1′-tri-O-methylaverantin represents a potential candidate for use in the development of therapeutic agents for the regulation of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Graphical abstract (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Methylated flavonoids as anti-seizure agents: Naringenin 4 ′,7-dimethyl ether attenuates epileptic seizures in zebrafish and mouse models
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Daniëlle Copmans, Adriana M. Orellana-Paucar, Gert Steurs, Yifan Zhang, Annelii Ny, Kenn Foubert, Vasiliki Exarchou, Aleksandra Siekierska, Youngju Kim, Wim De Borggraeve, Wim Dehaen, Luc Pieters, Peter A.M. de Witte Epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects more than 70 million people worldwide and is characterized by the presence of spontaneous unprovoked recurrent seizures. Existing anti-seizure drugs (ASDs) have side effects and fail to control seizures in 30% of patients due to drug resistance. Hence, safer a...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin impairs adult neurogenesis and cognitive functions via regulating neuroinflammation and insulin signaling in adult rats
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Sonu Singh, Shubha Shukla, Rakesh Shukla Neurogenesis is a complex process involved in memory formation and is known to be altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroinflammation and insulin signaling dysfunction, key players during intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) induced dementia variedly affects neurogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the variation in neurogenic process associated with AD in ICV STZ induced dementia. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180–200 g ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of erythropoietin on astrocytes and brain endothelial cells in primary culture during anoxia depend on simultaneous signaling by other cytokines and on duration of anoxia
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hameed Al-Sarraf, Slava Malatiali, Mariam Al-Awadi, Zoran Redzic Studies on animals revealed neuroprotective effects of exogenously applied erythropoietin (EPO) during cerebral ischemia/hypoxia. Yet, application of exogenous EPO in stroke patients often lead to haemorrhagic transformation. To clarify potential mechanism of this adverse effect we explored effects of EPO on viabilities of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells (BECs) in primary culture during anoxia of various durations, in the presence or absence of vascular ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Astrocytic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters mediate guanidinoacetate transport in rat brain
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Masanori Tachikawa, Ayane Yashiki, Shin-ichi Akanuma, Haruka Matsukawa, Soichiro Ide, Masabumi Minami, Ken-ichi Hosoya Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is a biosynthetic precursor of creatine, which plays a critical role in homeostasis of high-energy phosphates in the brain, but cerebral accumulation of GAA leads to neurological complications, such as epilepsy and seizures. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the contribution of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport systems to GAA transport in astrocytes by means ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vascular impairment as a pathological mechanism underlying long-lasting cognitive dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 111 Author(s): Aleksandra Ichkova, Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Claire Bar, Frederic Villega, Jan Pieter Konsman, Jerome Badaut Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same i...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research