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Age related rise in lactate and its correlation with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) status in post-mitochondrial fractions isolated from different regions of brain in mice
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Siddhartha Datta, Nilkanta Chakrabarti Rise in brain lactate is the hallmark of ageing. Separate studies report that ageing is associated with elevation of lactate level and alterations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A/B mRNA-expression-ratio in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, age related lactate rise in brain and its association with LDH status and their brain regional variations are still elusive. In the present study, level of lactate, LDH (A and B) activity and LDH-A expression were evaluated in post-mitochondrial...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Comparative study for striatal-direct and -indirect pathway neurons to DA depletion-induced lesion in a PD rat model
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Xuefeng Zheng, Jiajia Wu, Yaofeng Zhu, Si Chen, Zhi Chen, Tao Chen, Ziyun Huang, Jiayou Wei, Yanmei Li, Wanlong Lei Striatal-direct and -indirect Pathway Neurons showed different vulnerability in basal ganglia disorders. Therefore, present study aimed to examine and compare characteristic changes of densities, protein and mRNA levels of soma, dendrites, and spines between striatal-direct and -indirect pathway neurons after DA depletion by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time PCR and immunoelectron microscopy ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin-3 attenuates traumatic neuronal injury through preservation of mitochondrial function
In this study, we investigated the role of PRDX3 in neuronal trauma using a traumatic neuronal injury (TNI) model in primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that TNI significantly decreased the expression of PRDX3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of PRDX3 by lentivirus (LV-PRDX3) transfection attenuated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and neuronal apoptosis after TNI. The results of immunostaining showed that LV-PRDX3 transfection markedly reduced TNI-induced intracellular ROS production, protein radical formation and lipid peroxidation. In addition, overexpression of PRDX3 preserved mitochondrial me...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alterations of L-type voltage dependent calcium channel alpha 1 subunit in the hippocampal CA3 region during and after pilocarpine-induced epilepsy
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Jie hua Xu, Hui Wang, Wen Zhang, Feng ru Tang Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) have been shown to regulate neuronal excitability and their antagonists have been used clinically for the control of seizures. While functional studies of VDCC in epileptogenesis in the CA1 area of hippocampus or the dentate gyrus have been done, few studies were carried out in the CA3 area. Given the bursting characteristics of the CA3 neurons, we speculated that VDCC in the CA3 area might play an important role in the epileptogenesis. In the prese...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective nature of adipokine resistin in the early stages of focal cerebral ischemia in a stroke mouse model
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Sedigheh Behrouzifar, Abedin Vakili, Ahmad Reza Bandegi, Parviz Kokhaei New evidence suggests that resistin may have a therapeutic potential effect in management of neurodegenerative disease; but its role in the pathophysiology of stroke-induced injuries is not understood. However, further investigations are required to elucidate the effect of resistin and explore its possible molecular mechanisms on the ischemic reperfusion injury. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. An...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Striatal norepinephrine efflux in l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Corinne Y. Ostock, Nirmal Bhide, Adam A. Goldenberg, Jessica A. George, Christopher Bishop l-DOPA remains the primary treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Unfortunately, its therapeutic benefits are compromised by the development of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The norepinephrine (NE) system originating in the locus coeruleus is profoundly affected in PD and known to influence dopamine (DA) signaling. However, the effect of noradrenergic loss on l-DOPA-induced striatal monoamine eff...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Curcumin potentiates the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in SH-EP1 cells
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Eslam El Nebrisi, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Petrilla Jayaprakash, Frank C. Howarth, Nadine Kabbani, Murat Oz Effects of curcumin, a biologically active ingredient of turmeric, were tested on the Ca2+ transients induced by the activation of α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in SH-EP1 cells. Curcumin caused a significant potentiation of choline (1 mM)-induced Ca2+ transients with an EC50 value of 133 nM. The potentiating effect of curcumin was not observed in Ca2+ tr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genomic DNA levels of mutant alpha-synuclein correlate with non-motor symptoms in an A53T Parkinson's disease mouse model
This study provides direct evidence that the genomic DNA levels of mutant alpha-synuclein correlate with non-motor symptoms in an A53T mouse model, indicating that the genomic DNA levels of mutant alpha-synuclein should be tightly manipulated in PD model studies. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nicotine alleviates chronic stress-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior and hippocampal neuropathology via regulating autophagy signaling
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Xi Xiao, Xueliang Shang, Baohui Zhai, Hui Zhang, Tao Zhang Recently, we reported that chronic nicotine significantly improved chronic stress-induced impairments of cognition and the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mice, however, the underlying mechanism still needs to be explored. In the present study, 32 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: control (CON), stress (CUS), stress with chronic nicotine administration (CUS + Nic) and chronic nicotine administration (Nic). The anxiety-like behavior and neuropathologi...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV, which probably plays important roles in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, is upregulated in AD brain neurons and associates with amyloid plaques
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Hans-Gert Bernstein, Henrik Dobrowolny, Gerburg Keilhoff, Johann Steiner There is evidence from in vitro experiments that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) might play role(s) in amyloid formation. However, nothing is known about the localization of the enzyme in brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. We herein show that in comparison to non-demented controls DPP IV is upregulated in AD brain neurons and occurs in multiple amyloid plaques. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cholinergic tone in ventral tegmental area: Functional organization and behavioral implications
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 114 Author(s): Changzheng Zhang, Xiaodong Liu, Peiling Zhou, Junjie Zhang, Wuming He, Ti-Fei Yuan The ventral tegmental area (VTA), a pivotal brain region of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, is substantially innervated and modulated by cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. In this review, we focus mainly on the current findings on VTA cholinergic compositions and functions, including VTA cholinergic innervations and synaptic connectivity, acetylcholine receptor expression and...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Axon-terminals expressing EAAT2 (GLT-1; Slc1a2) are common in the forebrain and not limited to the hippocampus
Conclusions: (1) EAAT2 is expressed in nerve terminals in multiple brain regions. (2) The uptake catalyzed by neuronal EAAT2 plays a role in glutamate metabolism, at least in the hippocampus. (3) Synapsin 1-Cre does not delete floxed genes in all neurons, and the contribution of neuronal EAAT2 is therefore likely to be larger than revealed in the present study. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

X-ray irradiation induces disruption of the blood –brain barrier with localized changes in claudin-5 and activation of microglia in the mouse brain
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Yukari Yoshida, Yukihiko Sejimo, Masashi Kurachi, Yasuki Ishizaki, Takashi Nakano, Akihisa Takahashi X-ray irradiation (X-irradiation) induces disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms underlying the permeability changes are unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the cellular and molecular changes produced by X-irradiation of the brain. Male ICR mice were irradiated locally on their head, posterior to the bregma, except for the eyes, with a single dose of 60 Gy. BBB permeability...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current perspective of mitochondrial biology in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Navneet Ammal Kaidery, Bobby Thomas Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of Lewy bodies containing α-synuclein. Although the cause of PD remains elusive, remarkable advances have been made in understanding the possible causative mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. An explosion of discoveries during the past two decades has led to the identification of several autoso...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activity dependent internalization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 requires calcium entry through the NCX sodium/calcium exchanger
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ignacio Ibáñez, David Bartolomé-Martín, Dolores Piniella, Cecilio Giménez, Francisco Zafra GLT-1 is the main glutamate transporter in the brain and its trafficking controls its availability at the cell surface, thereby shaping glutamatergic neurotransmission under physiological and pathological conditions. Extracellular glutamate is known to trigger ubiquitin-dependent GLT-1 internalization from the surface of the cell to the intracellular compartment, yet here we show that internalization als...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA DANCR mediates cisplatin resistance in glioma cells via activating AXL/PI3K/Akt/NF- κB signaling pathway
In conclusion, we identified a cisplatin-resistance associated lncRNA DANCR. DANCR promotes cisplatin resistance via activating AXL/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in glioma. Our data suggested that DANCR would be a potential biomarker for predicting cisplatin sensitivity and a therapeutic target for enhancing cisplatin efficacy in glioma. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Restorative effect of l-Dopa treatment against Ochratoxin A induced neurotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Pratiksha V. Bhat, T. Anand, Manu T. Mohan, Farhath Khanum The toxic effects of Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal secondary metabolite of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) a Parkinson inducing drug were investigated to evaluate the neurotoxic effects exerted by OTA. OTA is known to contaminate food and feedstuff leading to a wide range of toxicity like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. However, due to the dearth of available information on the possible me...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

12/15 lipoxygenase: A crucial enzyme in diverse types of cell death
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Qiu-Qi Li, Qin-Li, Ji-Ning Jia, Zhao-Qian Liu, Hong-Hao Zhou, Xiao-Yuan Mao The 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) enzymes react with polyunsaturated fatty acids producing active lipid metabolites that are involved in plethora of human diseases including neurological disorders. A great many of elegant studies over the last decades have contributed to unraveling the mechanism how 12/15-lipoxygenase play a role in these diseases. And the way it works is mainly through apoptosis. However, recent years have found that the way 12/15-lipo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The antipsychotic drug quetiapine stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by modulating the cell cycle
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Guiyun Mi, Yituo Wang, Enmao Ye, Yunyun Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Pinhong Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Hongju Yang, Zheng Yang Recent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte differentiation deficits and de-myelination occur in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Cell cycle proteins play a critical role in modulating oligodendrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In our previous studies, we found that cuprizone, a copper chelant, induces oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, and this effect can be alleviated by using the atypical antipsy...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tau pathology and neurochemical changes associated with memory dysfunction in an optimised murine model of global cerebral ischaemia - A potential model for vascular dementia?
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Sabah Khan, Nadira Y. Yuldasheva, Trevor F.C. Batten, Alasdair R. Pickles, Katherine A.B. Kellett, Sikha Saha Cerebral ischemia is known to be a major cause of death and the later development of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. However, ischemia induced cellular damage that initiates these diseases remain poorly understood. This is primarily due to lack of clinically relevant models that are highly reproducible. Here, we have optimised a murine model of global cerebral ischaemia with multiple markers to determine brai...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondria in the nervous system: From Health to disease, part II
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Maria Teresa Carrì, Brian M. Polster, Philip M. Beart In Part II of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together more reviews and original articles from researchers in the field of mitochondrial metabolism in the healthy and diseased nervous system. Subjects span from basic mitochondrial physiology to papers on mitochondrial dynamics and to those altered states of the nervous system that can be considered “mitopathologies”. Finally, a...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protective role of rosmarinic acid on amyloid beta 42-induced echoic memory decline: Implication of oxidative stress and cholinergic impairment
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that RA prevented Aβ-induced antioxidant-oxidant imbalance and cholinergic damage, which may contribute to the improvement of neural network dynamics of auditory processes in this rat model. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lanthionine ketimine-5-ethyl ester provides neuroprotection in a zebrafish model of okadaic acid-induced Alzheimer's disease
In this study, a recently established zebrafish OKA-induced AD model was utilized to further elucidate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties of LKE in the context of an AD-like condition. The fish were divided into 3 groups containing 8 fish per group. Group #1 = negative control, Group #2 = 100 nM OKA, Group #3 = 100 nM OKA +500 μM LKE. OKA caused severe cognitive impairments in the zebrafish, but concomitant treatment with LKE protected against cognitive impairments. Further, LKE significantly and substantially reduced the number of apoptotic brain cells, inc...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

S-oxiracetam ameliorates ischemic stroke induced neuronal apoptosis through up-regulating α7 nAChR and PI3K / Akt / GSK3β signal pathway in rats
In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that S-ORC could be used as an effective neuroprotective agent for ischemic stroke due to its effect in preventing neuronal apoptosis. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol activation of AMPK-dependent pathways is neuroprotective in human neural stem cells against amyloid-beta-induced inflammation and oxidative stress
Publication date: May 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 115 Author(s): Ming-Chang Chiang, Christopher J. Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive memory loss resulting in dementia. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are thought to promote inflammation and oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration in the neocortex and hippocampus of the AD brains. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, and cell survival in response to inflammation and oxidati...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) improved functional recovery of spinal cord injury partly by promoting axonal regeneration
Publication date: May 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 115 Author(s): Liya Lin, Hefeng Lin, Shi Bai, Lianshun Zheng, Xiaoming Zhang Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the spinal cord and results in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. The treatment of SCI became a challenge because the injured neurons fail to axon regenerate and repair after injury. Promoting axonal regeneration plays a key role in the treatment strategies for SCI. It would meet the goal of reconstruction the injured spinal cord and improving the functional recovery. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are at...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The small heat shock proteins, especially HspB4 and HspB5 are promising protectants in neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: May 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 115 Author(s): Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective potential of spermidine against rotenone induced Parkinson's disease in rats
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Sunaina Sharma, Puneet Kumar, Rahul Deshmukh Parkinson's disease is a leading hypokinetic disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of mid-brain. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is considered to be due to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, disturbed calcium homeostasis and glutamate excitotoxicity etc. Spermidine is a polyamine which counteracts age associated cell death by scavenging free radical formation, activates authophagic machinery by enhancing formati...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

1H NMR metabolic signature of cerebrospinal fluid following repetitive lower-limb remote ischemia preconditioning
Conclusion 1H NMR spectra combined with pattern recognition analysis offers a new and promising platform to investigate metabolic signatures in patients treated with RIPC. Our results suggest repetitive RIPC mainly changes energy metabolism and amino-acid metabolism in brain, which provides a potential mechanistic understanding of RIPC-induced tolerance to cerebral ischemia. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Astaxanthin protects against kainic acid-induced seizures and pathological consequences
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Yi Chang, Cheng Wei Lu, Yi Jing Chen, Tzu Yu Lin, Shu Kuei Huang, Su Jane Wang Excitotoxic damage caused by increased glutamate levels is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Astaxanthin, a natural carotenoid with multiple health benefits, inhibits glutamate release from the brain tissue; however, whether it possesses the ability to affect glutamate-induced brain injury is unknown. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity in rats and the p...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated peripheral administration of lipidized prolactin-releasing peptide analog induces c-fos and FosB expression in neurons of dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in male C57 mice
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Zdenko Pirník, Mária Kolesárová, Blanka Železná, Lenka Maletínská Previous studies indicate that hypothalamic prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), signaling via GPR10 and neuropeptide FF2 receptor, is involved in energy homeostasis, stress responses, and cardiovascular regulation. Energy homeostasis depends on the balance between food intake regulation and energy expenditure, in which the hypothalamus plays a key role. The lipidization of PrRP31 with palmitoyl acid allows it to produce it...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exposure to far-infrared rays attenuates methamphetamine-induced recognition memory impairment via modulation of the muscarinic M1 receptor, Nrf2, and PKC
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Huynh Nhu Mai, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Bao Trong Nguyen, Phuong Tram Nguyen, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Eun-Hee Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah, Nam Hun Kim, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Hyoung-Chun Kim We demonstrated that activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and inactivation of the glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1)-dependent systems are critical for methamphetamine (MA)-induced recognition memory impairment. We also demonstrated that exposure to far-infrared rays (FIR) causes induction of the glutathione (GSH)-dependent system, incl...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Botulinum toxin type A and gabapentin attenuate postoperative pain and NK1 receptor internalization in rats
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Xueyang Li, Ruijuan Guo, Yuqing Sun, Huili Li, Danxu Ma, Chen Zhang, Yun Guan, Junfa Li, Yun Wang Treatment of postoperative pain remains a challenge in clinic. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) and gabapentin regulate the release of neurotransmitters from primary afferent neurons, but their effects of on postoperative pain are not clear. In the current study, using pain behavioral tests, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry, we examined whether BoNT/A, alone or in combination with intrathecal gabapentin, inhibited pain hypersen...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deletion of serine racemase confers D-serine –dependent resilience to chronic social defeat stress
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Chao Dong, Ji-Chun Zhang, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Youge Qu, Kai Zhang, Wei Yao, Tamaki Ishima, Hisashi Mori, Kenji Hashimoto The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. Serine racemase (SRR, encoded by Srr) converts L-serine to D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist at the glycine site of the NMDAR. Knock-out (KO) of Srr did not alter behavioral signs of depression compared with wild-type (WT) mice as evaluated by locomotion, tail suspension, forced swimming, and 1% sucrose preference tests. Ho...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuromuscular synapse degeneration without muscle function loss in the diaphragm of a murine model for Huntington's Disease
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Priscila A.C. Valadão, Matheus P.S.M. Gomes, Bárbara C. Aragão, Hermann A. Rodrigues, Jéssica N. Andrade, Rubens Garcias, Julliane V. Joviano-Santos, Murilo A. Luiz, Wallace L. Camargo, Lígia A. Naves, Christopher Kushmerick, Walter L.G. Cavalcante, Márcia Gallacci, Itamar C.G. de Jesus, Silvia Guatimosim, Cristina Guatimosim Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by chorea, incoordination and psychiatric and behavioral symptoms. The leading ca...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Investigating the metabolic alterations in a depressive-like rat model of chronic forced swim stress: An in  vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 7T
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Song-I Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe Although recent investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused on the monoaminergic system, accumulating evidences suggest that alternative pathophysiological models of MDD and treatment options for patients with MDD are needed. Animals subjected to chronic forced swim stress (CFSS) develop behavioral despair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of CFSS on systems other than the monoamine system in the rat prefrontal c...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glial glutamate transporters expression, glutamate uptake, and oxidative stress in an experimental rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 116 Author(s): J.D. Neves, A.F. Vizuete, F. Nicola, C. Da Ré, A.F. Rodrigues, F. Schmitz, R.G. Mestriner, D. Aristimunha, A.T.S. Wyse, C.A. Netto Glial glutamate transporters (EAAT1 and EAAT2), glutamate uptake, and oxidative stress are important players in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. However, the changes in EAAT1 and EAAT2 expression, glutamate uptake and the oxidative profile during intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) development have not been described. The present study sought to investigate the changes of the above-mentioned vari...
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tert-butylhydroquinone post-treatment attenuates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in rats
This study was undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of TBHQ post-treatment on neonatal HI brain damage. Using a neonatal HI rat model, we demonstrated that TBHQ markedly abated oxidative stress compared to the HI group, as evidenced by decreased oxidative stress indexes, enhanced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and DNA binding activity, and up-regulated expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidative genes. Administration of TBHQ likewise significantly suppressed reactive gliosis and release of inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited apoptosis and neuronal degeneration in the neonatal rat cerebral cortex....
Source: Neurochemistry International - April 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A refined concept: α-synuclein dysregulation disease
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hideki Mochizuki, Chi-Jing Choong, Eliezer Masliah α-synuclein (αSyn) still remains a mysterious protein even two decades after SNCA encoding it was identified as the first causative gene of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of αSyn causes α-synucleinopathies including PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent advances in therapeutic approaches offer new antibody-, vaccine-, antisense-oligonucleotide- and small molecule-based options to reduce αSyn...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CDC42EP4, a perisynaptic scaffold protein in Bergmann glia, is required for glutamatergic tripartite synapse configuration
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector pr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Research progress in stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome (SIDS) and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP)
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Dan-Dan Liu, Shi-Feng Chu, Chen Chen, Peng-Fei Yang, Nai-Hong Chen, Xin He In recent years, stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome (SIDS) and the resulting stroke-associated infection (SAI) have become a focus of current research efforts. Inflammatory reactions after stroke promote tissue healing and eliminate necrotic cells, whereas excessive inflammatory reactions may cause secondary damage. Stroke-induced immunodepression not only reduces inflammatory reactions and protects brain tissues but also weakens the resistance of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) mediated dopamine release in larval Drosophila melanogaster
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Poojan Pyakurel, Mimi Shin, B. Jill Venton Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of insects and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a target for neonicotinoid insecticides. Functional insect nAChRs are difficult to express in host cells, and hence difficult to study. In mammals, acetylcholine and nicotine evoke dopamine release, but the extent to which this mechanism is conserved in insects is unknown. In intact larval ventral nerve cords (VNCs), we studied dopamine evoked by...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Circadian modification network of a core clock driver BMAL1 to harmonize physiology from brain to peripheral tissues
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Teruya Tamaru, Ken Takamatsu Circadian clocks dictate various physiological functions by brain SCN (a central clock) -orchestrating the temporal harmony of peripheral clocks of tissues/organs in the whole body, with adaptability to environments by resetting their timings. Dysfunction of this circadian adaptation system (CAS) occasionally causes/exacerbates diseases. CAS is based on cell-autonomous molecular clocks, which oscillate via a core transcriptional/translational feedback loop with clock genes/proteins, e.g., BMAL1: CL...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathological role of lipid interaction with α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Mari Suzuki, Kazunori Sango, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In sporadic PD and DLB, normally harmless αSyn proteins without any mutations might gain toxic functions by unknown mechanisms. Thus, it is important to elucidate the factors promoting the toxic conversion of αSyn, towards understanding the pathogenesis of and developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and DLB. Accumulating...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A refined concept: Alpha synuclein dysregulation disease
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hideki Mochizuki, Chi-Jing Choong, Eliezer Masliah Alpha synuclein (αSyn) still remains a mysterious protein even two decades after SNCA encoding it was identified as the first causative gene of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of αSyn causes α-synucleinopathies including PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent advances in therapeutic approaches offer new antibody-, vaccine-, antisense-oligonucleotide- and small molecule-based options to reduce αSyn p...
Source: Neurochemistry International - January 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death via activation of Nrf2-ARE and eIF2 α-ATF4 pathways
In this study, we investigated protective effects of royal jelly (RJ) fatty acids and their derivatives on oxidative stress-induced cell death using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 4-Hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (HPO-DAEE), a synthesized RJ fatty acid derivative, markedly induced antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Pretreatment with HPO-DAEE protected against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidative responses, plays a key role in the acquisition of resistance to oxidative stress. HPO-DAEE elicited nuclear accumulation of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glutathione monoethyl ester prevents TDP-43 pathology in motor neuronal NSC-34  cells
In this study, we investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) in modulating oxidative stress responses in TDP-43 pathology in motor neuron NSC-34 cells. Results demonstrate that depletion of GSH produces pathology similar to that of mutant TDP-43, including occurrence of cytosolic aggregates, TDP-43 phosphorylation and nuclear clearing of endogenous TDP-43. We also demonstrate that introduction of mutant TDP-43A315T and silencing of endogenous TDP-43, but not overexpression of wild-type TDP-43, result in similar pathology, including depletion of intracellular GSH, possibly resulting from a decreased expression of a reg...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 induces brain proteomic changes in cuprizone mice during remyelination involving calcium proteins
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Eystein Oveland, Agnes Nystad, Frode Berven, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland Dietary supplementation of vitamin D is commonly recommended to patients with multiple sclerosis. We recently found that high-dose of the hormonally active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25D) promotes myelin repair in the cuprizone model for de- and remyelination. In the present study, we quantified 5062 proteins, of which 125 were differentially regulated in brain tissue from 1,25D treated mice during remyelination, compared to plac...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

P2Y12 shRNA treatment relieved HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain in rats
In this study, we investigated the role of the P2Y12 receptor in HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain. The results showed that peripheral nerve exposure to HIV gp120 increased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated model rats. The gp120 treatment increased the expression of P2Y12 mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs. Treatment with P2Y12 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in DRG SGCs decreased the upregulated expression of P2Y12 mRNA and protein in DRG SGCs as well as relieved mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120-treated rats. Reduction of P2Y12 receptor decreased co-expression of P2Y12 and glial fibrillary acidic prote...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress in vascular dementia by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 112 Author(s): Aarti Yadav, Aditya Sunkaria, Nitin Singhal, Rajat Sandhir Vascular dementia (VaD) is the leading cause of cognitive decline resulting from vascular lesions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced model of VaD. R-SLNs prepared had average size of 286 nm and 91.25...
Source: Neurochemistry International - December 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research