A dibenzoylmethane derivative inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in mouse microglial cell line BV-2
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Katsura Takano, Natsumi Ishida, Kenji Kawabe, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Satoshi Hibino, Tominari Choshi, Osamu Hori, Yoichi NakamuraAbstractMicroglial activation has been suggested to play important roles in various neurodegenerative diseases by phagocytosis and producing various factors such as nitric oxide (NO), proinflammatory cytokines. Excessive production of NO, as a consequence of increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia, contributes to the neurodegeneration. During a search for compounds that regulate endopla...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PQBP1, an intrinsically disordered/denatured protein at the crossroad of intellectual disability and neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Hitoshi OkazawaAbstractPQBP1 (polyglutamine binding protein-1) is the earliest identified molecule among the group of disease-related intrinsically disordered/denatured proteins. PQBP1 interacts with splicing-related factors via the disordered/denatured domain and regulates post-transcriptional gene expression. The mutations cause intellectual disability due to decreased dendritic spines and abnormal expression of synapse molecules in neurons, and microcephaly due to elongated cell cycle time and abnormal expression of cell cycle ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The broad spectrum of signaling pathways regulated by unfolded protein response in neuronal homeostasis
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Atsushi Saito, Kazunori ImaizumiAbstractThe protein folding capabilities in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are disturbed by alternations in the cellular homeostasis such as the disruption of calcium ion homeostasis, the expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to these ER dysfunctions, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades to restore the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible damages, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged ER dysfun...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathophysiological role of prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of the EP2 receptor in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and lumbar motor neurons in ALS model mice
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Yasuhiro Kosuge, Hiroko Miyagishi, Yuki Yoneoka, Keiko Yoneda, Hiroshi Nango, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa ItoAbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons. The primary triggers for motor neuronal death are still unknown, but inflammation is considered to be an important factor contributing to the pathophysiology of ALS both clinically and in ALS models. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its corresponding four E-prostanoid receptors play a pivot...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Traffic jam hypothesis: Relationship between endocytic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Nobuyuki Kimura, Katsuhiko YanagisawaAbstractMembrane trafficking pathways, like the endocytic pathway, carry out fundamental cellular processes that are essential for normal functioning. One such process is regulation of cell surface receptor signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that β-amyloid protein (Aβ) plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cleavage of Aβ from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), occurs through the endocytic pathway in neuronal cells. In early-stag...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and neurite outgrowth in the model mice of autism spectrum disorder
In this study, we have investigated ER stress condition and neuronal maturation in an ASD mice model employing male ICR mice.An ASD mice model was established by injecting with valproic acid (VPA) into pregnant mice. The offspring born from VPA-treated mothers were subjected to the experiments as the ASD model mice. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ASD model mice were found to be under high ER stress. The mRNA levels of Hes1 and Pax6 were decreased in the cerebral cortex of the ASD model mice, but not in the hippocampus. In addition, the mRNA level in Math1 was increased in the cerebral cortex. ER stress inhibited de...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oxytocin release via activation of TRPM2 and CD38 in the hypothalamus during hyperthermia in mice: Implication for autism spectrum disorder
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Haruhiro Higashida, Teruko Yuhi, Shirin Akther, Sarwat Amina, Jing Zhong, Mingkun Liang, Tomoko Nishimura, Hong-Xiang Liu, Olga LopatinaAbstractOxytocin (OT) is a critical molecule for social recognition that mediates social and emotional behaviors. OT is released during stress and acts as an anxiolytic factor. To know the precise molecular mechanisms underlying OT release into the brain during stress is important. It has been reported that intracellular concentrations of free calcium in the hypothalamic neurons are elevated by si...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spatial organization of genome architecture in neuronal development and disease
Publication date: Available online 28 July 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Yuki Fujita, Toshihide YamashitaAbstractAlthough mammalian genomes encode genetic information in their linear sequences, their fundamental function with regard to gene expression depends on the higher-order structure of chromosomes. Current techniques for the evaluation of chromosomal structure have revealed that genomes are arranged at several hierarchical levels in three-dimensional space. The spatial organization of genomes involves the formation of chromatin loops that bypass a wide range of genomic distances, providing a conn...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alzheimer's disease as oligomeropathy
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Kenjiro OnoAbstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by pathological aggregates of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) and tau protein. On the basis of genetic evidence, biochemical data, and animal models, Aβ has been suggested to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AD (the amyloid hypothesis). Aβ molecules tend to aggregate to form oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils. Although mature fibrils in the final stage have been thought to be the ca...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis of lipid raft molecules in the living brain slices
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Norihiro Kotani, Takanari Nakano, Yui Ida, Rina Ito, Miki Hashizume, Arisa Yamaguchi, Makoto Seo, Tomoyuki Araki, Yasushi Hojo, Koichi Honke, Takayuki MurakoshiAbstractNeuronal plasma membrane has been thought to retain a lot of lipid raft components which play important roles in the neural function. Although the biochemical analyses of lipid raft using brain tissues have been extensively carried out in the past 20 years, many of their experimental conditions do not coincide with those of standard neuroscience researches such as...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vesicular movements in the growth cone
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Motohiro Nozumi, Michihiro IgarashiAbstractGrowth cones, which are the highly motile tips of extending neuronal processes in developing neurons, have many vesicles. These vesicles are likely essential for the membrane expansion that is required for nerve growth, and probably coordinate with rearrangement of the cytoskeletons. Such mechanisms are poorly understood from molecular and cell biological aspects. Recently, we used superresolution microscopic approaches and described new mechanisms that are involved in the interactio...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement of neuronal and glial activities in control of the extracellular d-serine concentrations by the AMPA glutamate receptor in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Sayuri Ishiwata, Asami Umino, Toru NishikawaAbstractIt has been well accepted that d-serine may be an exclusive endogenous coagonist for the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor in mammalian forebrain regions. We have recently found by using an in vivo dialysis method that an intra-medial prefrontal cortex infusion of S-α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (S-AMPA), a selective AMPA-type glutamate receptor agonist, causes a reduction in the extracellular levels of d-serine in a calcium-...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Roles of CSGalNAcT1, a key enzyme in regulation of CS synthesis, in neuronal regeneration and plasticity
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Michihiro Igarashi, Kosei Takeuchi, Sayaka SugiyamaAbstractChondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan composed of a long chain of repeating disaccharide units that are attached to core proteins, resulting in CS proteoglycans (CSPGs). In the mature brain, CS is concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are extracellular structures that surround synapses and regulate synaptic plasticity. In addition, CS is rapidly synthesized after CNS injury to create a physical and chemical barrier that inhibits axon growth. ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitative temporal changes in DTI values coupled with histological properties in cuprizone-induced demyelination and remyelination
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Ryutaro Yano, Junichi Hata, Yoshifumi Abe, Fumiko Seki, Keitaro Yoshida, Yuji Komaki, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F. TanakaAbstractDiffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used to evaluate microstructural variations in brain tissue. In particular, fractional anisotropy (FA), reflecting the magnitude and orientation of anisotropic water diffusion, allows us to detect pathological events in white matter. An ex vivo DTI study coupled with histological assessment is an efficient strategy to evaluate the myelination process, i.e. dem...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Motoneuron degeneration in the trigeminal motor nucleus innervating the masseter muscle in Dystonia musculorum mice
We report that motoneurons with NF accumulation in the Mo5 nuclei of DstGt homozygous mice express the stress-induced genes CHOP, ATF3, and lipocalin 2 (Lcn2). We also show a reduced number of Mo5 motoneurons and a reduced size of Mo5 nuclei in DstGt homozygous mice, possibly due to apoptosis, given the presence of cleaved caspase 3-positive Mo5 motoneurons. In the mandibular (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve, which contains axons of Mo5 motoneurons and trigeminal sensory neurons, there was infiltration of Iba1-positive macrophages. Finally, we report atrophy of the masseter muscles in DstGt homozygous mice, which show...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insulin expression in cultured astrocytes and the decrease by amyloid β
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Katsura Takano, Keisuke Koarashi, Kenji Kawabe, Masanori Itakura, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi NakamuraAbstractInsulin resistance in brain has been reported in Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Insulin signaling is important for homeostasis in brain function and reported to be disturbed in neurons leading to tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. Many investigations of insulin in neurons have been reported; however, it has not been reported whether astrocytes also produce insulin. In the present study, we as...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Strong sonic hedgehog signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord is not required for oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation but is necessary for correct timing of its generation
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Hirokazu Hashimoto, Wen Jiang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kyeong-Hye Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Kazuhiro IkenakaAbstractIn the mouse neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted from the floor plate (FP) and the notochord (NC) regulates ventral patterning of the neural tube, and later is essential for the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During early development, the NC is adjacent to the neural tube and induces ventral domains in it, including the FP. In the later stage of development, during gliogenesis in the spinal cord...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Trophic modulation of gamma oscillations: The key role of processing protease for Neuregulin-1 and BDNF precursors
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota MorikawaAbstractGamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumi...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuropathic pain inhibitor, RAP-103, is a potent inhibitor of microglial CCL1/CCR8
We report here that RAP-103 exhibits stronger antagonism for CCR8 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 7.7 fM) compared to CCR5 (IC50 
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A refined concept: α-synuclein dysregulation disease
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Hideki Mochizuki, Chi-Jing Choong, Eliezer MasliahAbstractα-synuclein (αSyn) still remains a mysterious protein even two decades after SNCA encoding it was identified as the first causative gene of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of αSyn causes α-synucleinopathies including PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent advances in therapeutic approaches offer new antibody-, vaccine-, antisense-oligonucleotide- and small molecule-based options to reduce &alph...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Circadian modification network of a core clock driver BMAL1 to harmonize physiology from brain to peripheral tissues
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Teruya Tamaru, Ken TakamatsuAbstractCircadian clocks dictate various physiological functions by brain SCN (a central clock) -orchestrating the temporal harmony of peripheral clocks of tissues/organs in the whole body, with adaptability to environments by resetting their timings. Dysfunction of this circadian adaptation system (CAS) occasionally causes/exacerbates diseases. CAS is based on cell-autonomous molecular clocks, which oscillate via a core transcriptional/translational feedback loop with clock genes/proteins, e.g., BMAL...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathological role of lipid interaction with α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Mari Suzuki, Kazunori Sango, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka NagaiAbstractAlpha-synuclein (αSyn) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In sporadic PD and DLB, normally harmless αSyn proteins without any mutations might gain toxic functions by unknown mechanisms. Thus, it is important to elucidate the factors promoting the toxic conversion of αSyn, towards understanding the pathogenesis of and developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and DLB. Accumul...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CDC42EP4, a perisynaptic scaffold protein in Bergmann glia, is required for glutamatergic tripartite synapse configuration
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto KinoshitaAbstractConfiguration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effect...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A role for KCC3 in maintaining cell volume of peripheral nerve fibers
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Bianca Flores, Cara C. Schornak, Eric DelpireAbstractThe potassium chloride cotransporter, KCC3, is an electroneutral cotransporter expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. KCC3 is responsible for the efflux of K+ and Cl− in neurons to help maintain cell volume and intracellular chloride levels. A loss-of-function (LOF) of KCC3 causes Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (HMSN/ACC) in a population of individuals in the Charlevoix/Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada. A...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New roles of reactive astrocytes in the brain; an organizer of cerebral ischemia
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Schuichi Koizumi, Yuri Hirayama, Yosuke M. MorizawaAbstractThe brain consists of neurons and much higher number of glial cells. They communicate each other, by which they control brain functions. The brain is highly vulnerable to several insults such as ischemia, but has a self-protective and self-repairing mechanisms against these. Ischemic tolerance or preconditioning is an endogenous neuroprotective phenomenon, where a mild non-lethal ischemic episode can induce resistance to a subsequent severe ischemic injury in the brain....
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Axon-terminals expressing EAAT2 (GLT-1; Slc1a2) are common in the forebrain and not limited to the hippocampus
Conclusions: (1) EAAT2 is expressed in nerve terminals in multiple brain regions. (2) The uptake catalyzed by neuronal EAAT2 plays a role in glutamate metabolism, at least in the hippocampus. (3) Synapsin 1-Cre does not delete floxed genes in all neurons, and the contribution of neuronal EAAT2 is therefore likely to be larger than revealed in the present study. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

X-ray irradiation induces disruption of the blood–brain barrier with localized changes in claudin-5 and activation of microglia in the mouse brain
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Yukari Yoshida, Yukihiko Sejimo, Masashi Kurachi, Yasuki Ishizaki, Takashi Nakano, Akihisa TakahashiAbstractX-ray irradiation (X-irradiation) induces disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). However, the mechanisms underlying the permeability changes are unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the cellular and molecular changes produced by X-irradiation of the brain. Male ICR mice were irradiated locally on their head, posterior to the bregma, except for the eyes, with a single dose of 60 Gy. BBB permeab...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA DANCR mediates cisplatin resistance in glioma cells via activating AXL/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway
In conclusion, we identified a cisplatin-resistance associated lncRNA DANCR. DANCR promotes cisplatin resistance via activating AXL/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway in glioma. Our data suggested that DANCR would be a potential biomarker for predicting cisplatin sensitivity and a therapeutic target for enhancing cisplatin efficacy in glioma. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activity dependent internalization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 requires calcium entry through the NCX sodium/calcium exchanger
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Ignacio Ibáñez, David Bartolomé-Martín, Dolores Piniella, Cecilio Giménez, Francisco ZafraAbstractGLT-1 is the main glutamate transporter in the brain and its trafficking controls its availability at the cell surface, thereby shaping glutamatergic neurotransmission under physiological and pathological conditions. Extracellular glutamate is known to trigger ubiquitin-dependent GLT-1 internalization from the surface of the cell to the intracellular compartment, yet here we show that internalizatio...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The antipsychotic drug quetiapine stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation by modulating the cell cycle
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Guiyun Mi, Yituo Wang, Enmao Ye, Yunyun Gao, Qiaowei Liu, Pinhong Chen, Yuyang Zhu, Hongju Yang, Zheng YangAbstractRecent studies have revealed that oligodendrocyte differentiation deficits and de-myelination occur in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Cell cycle proteins play a critical role in modulating oligodendrocyte proliferation and differentiation. In our previous studies, we found that cuprizone, a copper chelant, induces oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, and this effect can be alleviated by using the atypical an...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Restorative effect of l-Dopa treatment against Ochratoxin A induced neurotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Pratiksha V. Bhat, T. Anand, T. Mohan Manu, Farhath KhanumAbstractThe toxic effects of Ochratoxin A (OTA), a fungal secondary metabolite of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) a Parkinson inducing drug were investigated to evaluate the neurotoxic effects exerted by OTA. OTA is known to contaminate food and feedstuff leading to a wide range of toxicity like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. However, due to the dearth of available information on the possib...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Comparative study for striatal-direct and -indirect pathway neurons to DA depletion-induced lesion in a PD rat model
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Xuefeng Zheng, Jiajia Wu, Yaofeng Zhu, Si Chen, Zhi Chen, Tao Chen, Ziyun Huang, Jiayou Wei, Yanmei Li, Wanlong LeiAbstractStriatal-direct and -indirect Pathway Neurons showed different vulnerability in basal ganglia disorders. Therefore, present study aimed to examine and compare characteristic changes of densities, protein and mRNA levels of soma, dendrites, and spines between striatal-direct and -indirect pathway neurons after DA depletion by using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time PCR and immunoelectron micros...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Huntington's disease pattern of transcriptional dysregulation in the absence of mutant huntingtin is produced by knockout of neuronal GLT-1
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Robert B. Laprairie, Geraldine T. Petr, Yan Sun, Kathryn D. Fischer, Eileen M. Denovan-Wright, Paul A. RosenbergAbstractGLT-1 is the major glutamate transporter in the brain, and is expressed in astrocytes and in axon terminals in the hippocampus, cortex, and striatum. Neuronal GLT-1 accounts for only 5–10% of total brain GLT-1 protein, and its function is uncertain. In HD, synaptic dysfunction of the corticostriate synapse is well-established. Transcriptional dysregulation is a key feature of HD. We hypothesized that delet...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency predicts poor outcome among acute ischemic stroke patients without hypertension
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Bingjun Zhang, Yuge Wang, Yi Zhong, Siyuan Liao, Zhengqi LuAbstract25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency is a frequent condition in patients who suffer acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and several studies suggested that it may be associated with a poorer prognosis. Whether this association is affected by hypertension is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association between 25(OH)D levels and both clinical severity and outcome after 3 months in AIS patients stratified by the history of hypertension. Consecutive first-ever AIS pa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prolonged treatment with mevalonolactone induces oxidative stress response with reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial depolarization and inflammation in human glioblastoma U-87 MG cells
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Rossella Gratton, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio CrovellaAbstractMevalonate pathway impairment has been observed in diverse diseases, including Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD). MKD is a hereditary auto-inflammatory disorder, due to mutations at mevalonate kinase gene (MVK), encoding mevalonate kinase (MK) enzyme. To date, the most accredited MKD pathogenic hypothesis suggests that the typical MKD phenotypes might be due to a decreased isoprenoid production rather than to the excess and accumulation of mevalonic acid,...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proteome and behavioral alterations in phosphorylation-deficient mutant Collapsin Response Mediator Protein2 knock-in mice
In this study, we performed behavioral and proteomics analysis of crmp2ki/ki mice. The crmp2ki/ki mice appeared healthy and showed no obvious differences in physical characteristics compared to wild-type mice, but they showed impaired emotional behavior, reduced sociality, and low sensitivity to pain stimulation. Through mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, we found that 59 proteins were increased and 77 proteins were decreased in the prefrontal cortex of crmp2ki/ki mice. Notably, CRMP3, CRMP4, and CRMP5, the other CRMP family proteins, were increased in crmp2ki/ki mice. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Agmatine potentiates neuroprotective effects of subthreshold concentrations of ketamine via mTOR/S6 kinase signaling pathway
In this study, the exposure of HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line to corticosterone (50 μM) induced a significant neuronal cell death. Interestingly, the incubation of HT22 cells with the fast-acting antidepressant drug ketamine (1 μM) prevented the corticosterone-induced toxicity. Similarly, agmatine caused a significant cytoprotection at the concentration of 0.1 μM against corticosterone (50 μM) cell damage. Notably, the incubation with a subthreshold concentration of ketamine (0.01 μM) in combination with a subthreshold concentration of agmatine (0.001 μM) prevented the neuronal damage eli...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interstitial ion homeostasis and acid-base balance are maintained in oedematous brain of mice with acute toxic liver failure
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan AlbrechtAbstractAcute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10–12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preface: Toward a new era of the Japanese Society for Neurochemistry
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Keiji Wada (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 is required for ischemic preconditioning-mediated neuroprotection in the hippocampus following a subsequent longer transient cerebral ischemia
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Jae-Chul Lee, Chan Woo Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, Hyang-Ah Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, Joon Ha Park, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Jeong Hwi Cho, Hyun-Jin Tae, In Koo Hwang, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun KangAbstractTumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in neuronal damage in response to cerebral ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against a subsequent severer or longer transient ischemia by ischemic tolerance. Here, we focused on the role of TNF-α in IPC-...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Fisetin alleviates oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury via the Nrf2-ARE pathway
In conclusion, our data provided the first evidence that fisetin played a critical role in neuroprotection after TBI partly through the activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Blockade and reversal of swimming-induced paralysis in C. elegans by the antipsychotic and D2-type dopamine receptor antagonist azaperone
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Osama Refai, Randy D. BlakelyAbstractThe catecholamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) exerts powerful modulatory control of physiology and behavior across phylogeny. Perturbations of DA signaling in humans are associated with multiple neurodegenerative and behavioral disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, addiction and schizophrenia. In the nematode C. elegans, DA signaling regulates mating behavior, learning, food seeking and locomotion. Previously, we demonstrated that loss of function...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3: Emerging functions in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Suzanne M. Underhill, Susan L. Ingram, Susanne E. Ahmari, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Susan G. Amara (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Neuromuscular synapse degeneration without muscle function loss in the diaphragm of a murine model for Huntington's Disease” [Neurochem. Int. 116 (2018) 30–42]
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Priscila A.C. Valadão, Matheus P.S.M. Gomes, Bárbara C. Aragão, Hermann A. Rodrigues, Jéssica N. Andrade, Rubens Garcias, Julliane V. Joviano-Santos, Murilo A. Luiz, Wallace L. Camargo, Lígia A. Naves, Christopher Kushmerick, Walter L.G. Cavalcante, Márcia Gallacci, Itamar C.G. de Jesus, Silvia Guatimosim, Cristina Guatimosim (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hyperekplexia-associated mutations in the neuronal glycine transporter 2
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Beatriz López-Corcuera, Esther Arribas-González, Carmen AragónAbstractHyperekplexia or startle disease is a dysfunction of inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission characterized by an exaggerated startle in response to trivial tactile or acoustic stimuli. Although rare, this disorder can have serious consequences, including sudden infant death. One of the most frequent causes of hyperekplexia are mutations in the SLC6A5 gene, encoding the neuronal glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2), a key component of inhibitory gly...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The neurotoxin diethyl dithiophosphate impairs glutamate transport in cultured Bergmann glia cells
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2018Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Tatiana N. Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C. Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo OrtegaAbstractGlutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glut...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol protects neuronal-like cells expressing mutant Huntingtin from dopamine toxicity by rescuing ATG4-mediated autophagosome formation
In this study, we found that Dopamine affects the stability and function of ATG4, a redox-sensitive cysteine-protein involved in the processing of LC3, a key step in the formation of autophagosomes. Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol with anti-oxidant and pro-autophagic properties, has shown neuroprotective potential in HD. Yet the molecular mechanism through which Resveratrol can protect HD cells against DA is not known. Here, we show that Resveratrol prevents the generation of ROS, restores the level of ATG4, allows the lipidation of LC3, facilitates the degradation of polyQ-Htt aggregates and protects the cells from Dopa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain bioenergetics in rats with acute hyperphenylalaninemia
In conclusion, our data demonstrated impaired bioenergetics in cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus of HPA rats. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 117Author(s): (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mitochondria in the nervous system: From health to disease, part II
Publication date: July 2018Source: Neurochemistry International, Volume 117Author(s): Maria Teresa Carrì, Brian M. Polster, Philip M. BeartAbstractIn Part II of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together more reviews and original articles from researchers in the field of mitochondrial metabolism in the healthy and diseased nervous system. Subjects span from basic mitochondrial physiology to papers on mitochondrial dynamics and to those altered states of the nervous system that can be considered “mitopathologies”. Finally, a few...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research