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Mitochondria in the nervous system: From Health to Disease, Part I
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Brian M. Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M. Beart In Part I of this Special Issue on “Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease”, the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum c...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The starving brain: Overfed meets undernourished in the pathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Kelly J. Gibas Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Arctic A β40 blocks the nicotine-induced neuroprotective effect of CHRNA7 by inhibiting the ERK1/2 pathway in human neuroblastoma cells
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ye Ju, Toru Asahi, Naoya Sawamura Amyloid β protein (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Point mutations in the Aβ sequence, which cluster around the central hydrophobic core of the peptide, are associated with familial AD (FAD). Several mutations have been identified, with the Arctic mutation exhibiting a purely cognitive phenotype that is typical of AD. Our previous findings suggest that Arctic Aβ40 binds to and aggregates with CHRNA7, thereby inhibiting the calcium respon...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in the mitochondrial bioenergetics of astrocytes but not microglia at a physiologically relevant brain oxygen tension
This study tested the hypothesis that sex and/or brain physiological oxygen tension influence the mitochondrial bioenergetic properties of primary rat cortical astrocytes and microglia. Oxygen consumption was measured with a Seahorse XF24 cell respirometer in an oxygen-controlled environmental chamber. Strikingly, male astrocytes had a higher maximal respiration than female astrocytes when cultured and assayed at 3% O2. Three percent O2 yielded a low physiological dissolved O2 level of ∼1.2% (9.1 mm Hg) at the cell monolayer during culture and 1.2–3.0% O2 during assays. No differences in bioenergetic pa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repeated restraint stress increases seizure susceptibility by activation of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Xinjian Zhu, Jingde Dong, Zhengrong Xia, Aifeng Zhang, Jie Chao, Honghong Yao A growing body of evidence suggests that stress triggers a variety of pathophysiological responses. Recent studies show that stress produces enduring effects on structure and function of hippocampus, which is one of the most important structures involved in epilepsy. In the present study, we determined the effect of repeated restraint stress exposure on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the possible mechanisms invo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis via sonic hedgehog pathway after stroke in mice
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Ye Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Lili Cui, Rong Chen, Cong Zhang, Yaoru Li, Tingting He, Xingyuan Zhu, Zuyuan Shen, Lipeng Dong, Jingru Zhao, Ya Wen, Xiufen Zheng, Pan Li There is a pressing need of developing approaches for delayed post-stroke therapy for patients who fail to receive thrombolysis within the narrow time window. Neuroprotection of Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute phase has been well documented. The current study was to determine the influence of SAFI at the su...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Contrasting effects of selective MAGL and FAAH inhibition on dopamine depletion and GDNF expression in a chronic MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 110 Author(s): Noemi Pasquarelli, Christoph Porazik, Hanna Bayer, Eva Buck, Stefan Schildknecht, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting, Boris Ferger The modulation of the brain endocannabinoid system has been identified as an option to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Especially the elevation of endocannabinoid levels by inhibition of hydrolytic degradation represents a valuable approach. To evaluate whether monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) or fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition could be beneficial for PD, we exami...
Source: Neurochemistry International - September 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

APP/A β structural diversity and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 110 Author(s): Alex E. Roher, Tyler A. Kokjohn, Steven G. Clarke, Michael R. Sierks, Chera L. Maarouf, Geidy E. Serrano, Marwan S. Sabbagh, Thomas G. Beach The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposes amyloid- β (Aβ) is a chief pathological element of dementia. AD therapies have targeted monomeric and oligomeric Aβ 1–40 and 1–42 peptides. However, alternative APP proteolytic processing produces a complex roster of Aβ species. In addition, Aβ peptides are subject to extensive posttranslati...
Source: Neurochemistry International - August 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The regulation of corticosteroid receptors in response to chronic social defeat
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Jia Zhang, Yan Fan, Muhammad U. Raza, Yanqiang Zhan, Xiang-Dong Du, Paresh D. Patel, Meng-Yang Zhu Our previous studies demonstrated that chronic social defeat (CSD) up-regulated expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain, which was mediated by corticosteroid receptors. In the present study we first analyzed the alterations of corticosteroid receptors in different brain regions after the CSD paradigm. The results showed that CSD significantly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ALCAR promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating cell-survival and cell death-related signals in rat model of Parkinson's disease like-phenotypes
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sandeep Kumar Mishra, Shubha Shukla Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway that leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The formation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus is affected by many factors such as anxiety, depression and impairment in learning and memory that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in PD, indicating the role of adult neurogenesis in PD pathophysiology. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), reg...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The functional interaction between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ly-6/neurotoxin proteins in Locusta migratoria
This study provides an approximate panorama for the functional interaction net between L. migratoria lynx and nAChRs, although some other nAChRs need further tests. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased spinal endomorphin-2 contributes to mechanical allodynia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
In this study, using a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model that displayed obvious mechanical allodynia, it was found that the expression of spinal EM2 was significantly decreased in DNP rats. While intrathecal administration of exogenous EM2 attenuated mechanical allodynia in DNP rats, the mu-opioid receptor antagonist β-funaltrexamine facilitated these events. It was found that the reduction in spinal EM2 was mediated by increased activity of dipeptidylpeptidase IV, possibly as a consequence of diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that the reduction in the le...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerium oxide nanoparticles could ameliorate behavioral and neurochemical impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's disease in rats
Conclusion The present study showed a putative therapeutic role of CeO2NPs in the treatment of 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rats, and suggested their antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects as possible mechanisms for elevated striatal dopamine level and improved motor performance. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lithium ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurotoxicity in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain
In this study, we examined the neuroprotective role of lithium chloride (LiCl) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cortex and hippocampus of the adult rat brain. We determined that LiCl -attenuated LPS-induced activated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling and significantly reduced the nuclear factor-kB (NF-KB) translation factor and various other inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We also analyzed that LiCl significantly abrogated activated gliosis via attenuation of specific markers for activated microglia, ionized calcium-binding adaptor m...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Microglia support ATF3-positive neurons following hypoglossal nerve axotomy
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Tatsuhide Tanaka, Koichi Murakami, Yoshio Bando, Taichi Nomura, Ayami Isonishi, Shoko Morita-Takemura, Kouko Tatsumi, Akio Wanaka, Shigetaka Yoshida Microglia are essential in developmental processes and maintenance of neuronal homeostasis. Experimental axotomy of motor neurons results in neurodegeneration, and microglia in motor nuclei become activated and migrate towards injured neurons. However, whether these activated microglia are protective or destructive to neurons remains controversial. In the present study, we transected t...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of task-specific rehabilitation training on tau modification in rat with photothrombotic cortical ischemic damage
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Kyung-Lim Joa, Sohee Moon, Ji-Hye Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Seon Jung, Myeong-Ok Kim, Chang-Hwan Kim, Han-Young Jung, Ju-Hee Kang Although stroke elicits progressive cognitive decline and is a leading cause of dementia, molecular interplay between stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, studies on the effects of post-stroke rehabilitation on AD pathology are limited. We evaluated the acute effect of stroke on tau modification, and the molecular effects of task-specific tra...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modifiable risk factors promoting neurodegeneration is associated with two novel brain degradation markers measured in serum
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Jesper S. Neergaard, Katrine Dragsbæk, Claus Christiansen, Henning B. Nielsen, Christopher T. Workman, Susanne Brix, Kim Henriksen, Morten A. Karsdal There has been limited success with blood-based biomarkers of neurodegeneration. One perceived reason is that blood has no direct contact to the brain. Recently developed blood-based biomarkers of tau-degradation have shown promise as potential tools for peripheral assessment of neurodegeneration; however, factors contributing to the levels of these in blood are poorly understoo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Supplementation with different teas from Camellia sinensis prevents memory deficits and hippocampus oxidative stress in ischemia-reperfusion
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Alexandre Martins, Helen L. Schimidt, Alexandre Garcia, Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann, Francielli W. Santos, Felipe P. Carpes, Weber Cláudio da Silva, Pâmela B. Mello-Carpes Memory and cognition impairments resultant of ischemic stroke could be minimized or avoided by antioxidant supplementation. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of Green tea from Camellia sinensis has been investigated. However, there is a lack of information regarding the neuroprotective potential of others teas processed from the Cam...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 inhibits neuronal death following transient brain ischemia via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Yasushi Yabuki, Xu Jing, Kohji Fukunaga The T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 (ethyl 8'-methyl-2′,4-dioxo-2-(piperidin-1-yl)-2′H-spiro[cyclopentane-1,3'-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin]-2-ene-3-carboxylate) promotes acetylcholine (ACh) release in mouse hippocampus, enhancing cognitive function. Here, we tested SAK3 neuroprotective activity in the context of transient brain ischemia using a 20-min bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) mouse model. Mice were administered with SAK3 (0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, p.o.)...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The role of system Xc − in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Duy-Khanh Dang, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Dae-Joong Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Hideyo Sato, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Yukio Yoneda, Hyoung-Chun Kim The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc−, Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild typ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proteomic approach to detect changes in hippocampal protein levels in an animal model of type 2 diabetes
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyun Jung Kwon, Jong Whi Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Ho Jae Han, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon In our previous study, we demonstrated that type 2 diabetes affects blood-brain barrier integrity and ultrastructural morphology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 40 weeks of age. In the present study, we investigated the possible candidates for diabetes-related proteins in the hippocampus of ZDF rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control, ZLC), by using two-di...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of aging and Alzheimer's disease-like pathology on brain monoamines in mice
We examined whether brain monoamine levels change as part of physiological aging and/or AD-like disease in APPSWE/PS1ΔE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. The neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum of 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old B6C3 wild-type (WT) mice and of 18-month old APP/PS1 and WT mice were analysed for 5-HT, DA and NA contents by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), along with neocortex from 14-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice. While, we observed no aging effect in WT mice, we detected region-specific changes in the levels of all monoamines in 18-month-old transgenic compared with WT mice. ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ZL006 protects spinal cord neurons against ischemia-induced oxidative stress through AMPK-PGC-1 α-Sirt3 pathway
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Shu-Guang Liu, Yun-Mei Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Xi-Jing He, Tao Ma, Wei Song, Yu-Min Zhang Spinal cord ischemia (SCI) induces a range of cellular and molecular cascades, including activation of glutamate receptors and downstream signaling. Post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) links neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors to form a ternary complex in the CNS. This molecular complex-mediated cytotoxicity has been implicated in brain ischemia, but its role in SCI has not been determine...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduced ability of calcitriol to promote augmented dopamine release in the lesioned striatum of aged rats
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Wayne A. Cass, Laura E. Peters Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that affects over one million people in the United States. Previous studies, carried out in young adult rats, have shown that calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, can be neuroprotective in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) models of PD. However, as PD usually affects older individuals, the ability of calcitriol to promote dopaminergic recovery was examined in lesioned young adult (4 month old), middle-aged (14 mo...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combination of valproic acid and morpholino splice-switching oligonucleotide produces improved outcomes in spinal muscular atrophy patient-derived fibroblasts
This study provides the first indication of a novel dual therapy approach for the potential treatment of SMA. Graphical abstract (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective role of Ginkgo biloba against cognitive deficits associated with Bisphenol A exposure: An animal model study
In conclusion, our results suggested that Gb has potential to ameliorate BPA-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and subsequent cognitive deficits through mechanisms involving its ability to enhance the release of biogenic amines as well as its antioxidant and adiponectin pro-secretory effects. Graphical abstract (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reciprocal changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in discrete brain regions upon rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in rats
In this study using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) we quantified noradrenaline (NA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels in locus coeruleus (LC), dorsal raphe (DR), pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), frontal lobe (FL), cortex and hippocampus (Hippo) in control and after 96 h REMS deprivation (REMSD) rats. Normal free moving control (FMC) rats were taken as standard cage controls. To rule out non-specific effects large platform control (LPC) and post-REMSD recovery (REC) were carried out. The levels of NA and GABA in discrete brain regions upon REMSD were statistically compared with all the control...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Mohsen Taghizadeh, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Ehsan Dadgostar, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Javad Abolhassani, Mohammad Hossein Aarabi, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi The current research was performed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 patients with PD. Participants were randomly assigned into...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glycine receptor subunits expression in the developing rat retina
Conclusions These results revealed the expression of GlyR at early postnatal ages, supporting its role in retina development. In addition, our results indicated that the adult retina expressed a high proportion of the α2 subunit, suggesting the expression of monomeric and/or heteromeric receptors. A variety of studies are needed to further characterize the role of the specific subunits in both adult and immature retina. (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of I2-imidazoline receptor (IR) alkylating BU99006 in the mouse brain: Upregulation of nischarin/I1-IR and μ-opioid receptor proteins and modulation of associated signalling pathways
This study assessed by Western blot the effects of BU99006 on nischarin (candidate I1-IR), μ-OR (regulated by nischarin) and associated signalling mediators in the mouse brain. Acute treatment with BU99006 (20 mg/kg, i.p., 1–3 h) led to fast (peak at 1 h) and shortlasting (decline up to 3 h) upregulation of nischarin and μ-OR contents in the hippocampus (less or non-significant effects in cortex) and altered the expression of cytoskeletal β-actin (reduced contents at 3 h). In the same hippocampal samples of BU99006-treated mice, an inhibition of the MAPK species MEK, ERK and JNK wa...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hemicholinium-3 sensitive choline transport in human T lymphocytes: Evidence for use as a proxy for brain choline transporter (CHT) capacity
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Vinay Parikh, Qi Wu, Yang Mao-Draayer, Qin Wang, Randy D. Blakely, Martin Sarter The synaptic uptake of choline via the high-affinity, hemicholinium-3-dependent choline transporter (CHT) strongly influences the capacity of cholinergic neurons to sustain acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. To advance research on the impact of CHT capacity in humans, we established the presence of the neuronal CHT protein in human T lymphocytes. Next, we demonstrated CHT-mediated choline transport in human T cells. To add...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of CSF neurofilament light chain protein in the biomarker-guided classification system for Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Simone Lista, Nicola Toschi, Filippo Baldacci, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan J. Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Antonio Melo dos Santos, Stéphane Epelbaum, Foudil Lamari, Bruno Dubois, Roberto Floris, Francesco Garaci, Harald Hampel We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein in the classification of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitively healthy control individuals (HCs) and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as comparisons....
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Upregulation of IRAS/nischarin (I1-imidazoline receptor), a regulatory protein of μ-opioid receptor trafficking, in postmortem prefrontal cortex of long-term opiate and mixed opiate/cocaine abusers
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Benjamin Keller, Romano La Harpe, Jesús A. García-Sevilla Imidazoline receptor antisera-selected (IRAS)/nischarin, a putative I1-imidazoline receptor, has recently been shown to regulate μ-opioid receptor (OR) trafficking and resensitisation. To study a possible involvement of this μ-OR regulator in opiate dependence, the present study assessed by Western blot analysis the contents of IRAS/nischarin and μ-OR in total homogenates and subcellular preparations of postmortem human prefrontal cortex (PFC/BA9) of l...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 regulates microglia mediated decrease of endothelial tight junction integrity
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Abbas Rezaeian Mehrabadi, Minna A. Korolainen, Gary Odero, Donald W. Miller, Tiina M. Kauppinen Alzheimer's disease pathology includes, beside neuronal damage, reactive gliosis and reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Microglia are intimately associated with the BBB and upon AD pathology, pro-inflammatory responses of microglia could contribute to BBB damage. To study whether microglia can directly affect BBB integrity, the effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) -stimulated primary murine microglia on co-cultured mouse brain end...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of agmatine for CNS disorders
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Vivian B. Neis, Priscila B. Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S. Rodrigues Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Bidirectional interactions between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 108 Author(s): Mitsuru Shinohara, Naoyuki Sato Clinical studies have indicated that diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been fully elucidated. Diabetes causes neurodegeneration by inducing changes in vascular function and structure, glucose metabolism, and insulin signaling, as well as by modifying β−amyloid (Aβ)/tau metabolisms. In turn, AD influences systemic glucose metabolism by inducing behavioral changes, memory disturbances,...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and neurite outgrowth in the model mice of autism spectrum disorder
In this study, we have investigated ER stress condition and neuronal maturation in an ASD mice model employing male ICR mice. An ASD mice model was established by injecting with valproic acid (VPA) into pregnant mice. The offspring born from VPA-treated mothers were subjected to the experiments as the ASD model mice. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ASD model mice were found to be under high ER stress. The mRNA levels of Hes1 and Pax6 were decreased in the cerebral cortex of the ASD model mice, but not in the hippocampus. In addition, the mRNA level in Math1 was increased in the cerebral cortex. ER stress inhibited d...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ubiquitination at the mitochondria in neuronal health and disease
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Christian Covill-Cooke, Jack Howden, Nicol Birsa, Josef Kittler The preservation of mitochondrial function is of particular importance in neurons given the high energy requirements of action potential propagation and synaptic transmission. Indeed, disruptions in mitochondrial dynamics and quality control are linked to cellular pathology in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Here, we will discuss the role of ubiquitination by the E3 ligases: Parkin, MARCH5 and Mul1, and how they regulate mito...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotection of edaravone on the hippocampus of kainate-induced epilepsy rats through Nrf2/HO-1 pathway
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Zhiguang Liu, Chengzhi Yang, Xinyan Meng, Zaili Li, Cunling Lv, Peiwei Cao Epilepsy is a severe and chronic neurological disease. Edaravone is an effective free radical scavenger and has been reported to prevent neuronal loss induced by Kainate (KA). However, the molecular mechanisms by which edaravone inhibits KA-induced neuron injury remain elusive. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups. For KA treatment, Kainate (4 μg/kg) were administrated in the right hippocampus CA3 region with sereotact...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Traffic jam hypothesis: Relationship between endocytic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Nobuyuki Kimura, Katsuhiko Yanagisawa Membrane trafficking pathways, like the endocytic pathway, carry out fundamental cellular processes that are essential for normal functioning. One such process is regulation of cell surface receptor signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that β-amyloid protein (Aβ) plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Cleavage of Aβ from its precursor, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), occurs through the endocytic pathway in neuronal cells. In early-stage AD,...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathophysiological role of prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of the EP2 receptor in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and lumbar motor neurons in ALS model mice
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Yasuhiro Kosuge, Hiroko Miyagishi, Yuki Yoneoka, Keiko Yoneda, Hiroshi Namgo, Kumiko Ishige, Yoshihisa Ito Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective degeneration of motor neurons. The primary triggers for motor neuronal death are still unknown, but inflammation is considered to be an important factor contributing to the pathophysiology of ALS both clinically and in ALS models. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its corresponding four E-prostanoid receptors play a pivotal ro...
Source: Neurochemistry International - July 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The broad spectrum of signaling pathways regulated by unfolded protein response in neuronal homeostasis
Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Atsushi Saito, Kazunori Imaizumi The protein folding capabilities in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are disturbed by alternations in the cellular homeostasis such as the disruption of calcium ion homeostasis, the expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to these ER dysfunctions, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades to restore the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible damages, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged ER dysfunction...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reprint of: Importins in the maintenance and lineage commitment of ES cells
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 106 Author(s): Noriko Yasuhara, Yoshihiro Yoneda The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear envelope, and nuclear pores within the envelope facilitate nucleocytoplasmic transport and the exchange of information. Gene regulation is a key component of biological activity regulation in the cell. Transcription factors control the expression levels of various genes that are necessary for the maintenance or conversion of cellular states during animal development. Because transcription factor activities determine the extent...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The potential of stem cells for 21st century neuroscience, II
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International, Volume 106 Author(s): John M. Haynes, Robert F. Halliwell (Source: Neurochemistry International)
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) deficiency: Novel insights into the structural basis and molecular pathomechanism
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Attila Ambrus, Vera Adam-Vizi This review summarizes our present view on the molecular pathogenesis of human (h) E3-deficiency caused by a variety of genetic alterations with a special emphasis on the moonlighting biochemical phenomena related to the affected (dihydro)lipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3, gene: dld), in particular the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). E3-deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder frequently presenting with a neonatal onset and premature death; the highest carrier rate of a ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vascular endothelial growth factor influences migration and focal adhesions, but not proliferation or viability, of human neural stem/progenitor cells derived from olfactory epithelium
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo Rodrigo Perera-Murcia, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Harish Babu, Maria García-Anaya, Jorge Julio González-Olvera In humans, new neurons are continuously added in the olfactory epithelium even in the adulthood. The resident neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE) in the olfactory epithelium are influenced by several growth factors and neurotrophins. Among these modulators the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has attr...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Functional research and molecular mechanism of Kainic acid-induced denitrosylation of thioredoxin-1 in rat hippocampus
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Hongning Yang, Ningjun Zhao, Lanxin Lv, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Tie Xu Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has long been recognized as a redox regulator, and is implicated in the inhibition of cell apoptosis. Trx1 is essential for the maintenance of the S-nitrosylation of molecules in cells. The S-nitrosylation of Trx1 is essential for the physiological function such as preservation of the redox regulatory activity. The mechanisms underlying Trx1 denitrosylation induced by kainate acid (KA) injection still remain uncharacterized. Our results ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genistein, a dietary soy isoflavone, exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice: Involvement of serotonergic system
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Pei Hu, Li Ma, Yan-gui Wang, Feng Ye, Chuang Wang, Wen-Hua Zhou, Xin Zhao Genistein, a principal isoflavone property of soybeans, possesses multiple pharmacological activities such as neuroprotection. Recently, it was reported that genistein exerted antidepressant-like effects in animal models, but the mechanism of action remains ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of genistein in mice and explore the underlying mechanism(s), using two mouse models of depression, i.e. forced swim...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates acute neuroinflammation and long-term cognitive impairment after polymicrobial sepsis
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017 Source:Neurochemistry International Author(s): Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Drielly Florentino, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Aloir Neri Oliveira Junior, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Fabricia Petronilho Sepsis is a complication of an infection which imbalance the normal regulation of several organ systems, including ...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nrf2 pathway activation upon rotenone treatment in human iPSC-derived neural stem cells undergoing differentiation towards neurons and astrocytes
In this study, we characterized the effects of a repeated dose treatment with rotenone (14 days) on hiPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) undergoing differentiation, assessing the expression and the activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Our results show that Nrf2 signaling increases during NSC differentiation. Moreover, we observed that rotenone treatment induced a progressive activation of Nrf2 signaling together with a induction of astrocyte reactivity, a reduction of neurite length leading to neuronal cell death, in particular of DA neurons. Altogether these data indicate that hiPSC-NSC models are relevant test systems for t...
Source: Neurochemistry International - June 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research