Allopregnanolone in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): Evidence for Dysregulated Sensitivity to GABA-A Receptor Modulating Neuroactive Steroids Across the Menstrual Cycle
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Liisa Hantsoo, C. Neill EppersonAbstractPremenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe mood disorder with core symptoms (affective lability, irritability, depressed mood, anxiety) and increased sensitivity to stress occurring in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. PMDD can be conceptualized as a disorder of suboptimal sensitivity to neuroactive steroid hormones (NASs). In this review, we describe the role of the NAS allopregnanolone (ALLO), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (GABAA-R), in PMDD’s path...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Allopregnanolone in Postpartum Depression: Role in Pathophysiology and Treatment
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Stephen J. KanesAbstractPostpartum depression (PPD) is a unique subtype of major depressive disorder and a substantial contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. In addition to affecting the mother, PPD can have short- and long-term consequences for the infant and partner. The precise etiology of PPD is unknown, but proposed mechanisms include altered regulation of stress response pathways, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and dysfunctional gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling, and fu...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pregnane Steroidogenesis is Altered by HIV-1 Tat and Morphine: Physiological Allopregnanolone is Protective against Neurotoxic and Psychomotor Effects
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Jason J. Paris, Philippe Liere, Sarah Kim, Fakhri Mahdi, Meagan E. Buchanan, Sara R. Nass, Alaa N. Qrareya, Mohammed F. Salahuddin, Antoine Pianos, Neïké Fernandez, Zia Shariat-Madar, Pamela E. Knapp, Michael Schumacher, Kurt F. HauserAbstractPregnane steroids, particularly allopregnanolone (AlloP), are neuroprotective in response to central insult. While unexplored in vivo, AlloP may confer protection against the neurological dysfunction associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The HIV-1 regulatory pr...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Realising the therapeutic potential of neuroactive steroid modulators of the GABAA receptor
Publication date: May 2020Source: Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 12Author(s): Delia Belelli, Derk Hogenkamp, Kelvin W. Gee, Jeremy J. LambertAbstractIn the 1980s particular endogenous metabolites of progesterone and of deoxycorticosterone were revealed to be potent, efficacious, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). These reports were followed by the discovery that such steroids may be synthesised not only in peripheral endocrine glands, but locally in the central nervous system (CNS), to potentially act as paracrine, or autocrine “neurosteroid” messengers, thereby fine tuning ne...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - January 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interactions between pyridostigmine bromide and stress on glutamatergic neurochemistry: insights from a rat model of Gulf War Illness
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): V.A. Macht, J.L. Woodruff, H.E. Burzynski, C.A. Grillo, L.P. Reagan, J.R. FadelAbstractPyridostigmine bromide (PB) was administered to soldiers during the first Gulf War as a prophylactic treatment to protect against toxicity in the event of exposure to nerve agents. Although originally thought to pose minimal risk to soldiers, epidemiological studies have since correlated PB administration with the development of a variety of symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction, termed Gulf War Illness (GWI). We previously demonstrated that i...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Post-finasteride syndrome: an emerging clinical problem
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, Silvia GiattiAbstractThe presence of side effects during pharmacological treatment is unfortunately a quite common problem. In this review, we focused our attention on adverse events related to 5 alpha-reductase (5α-R) inhibitors (i.e., finasteride and dutasteride), approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia (AGA).Although these drugs are generally well tolerated, many reports described adverse effects in men during treatment, such as sexual d...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - December 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early postnatal allopregnanolone levels alteration and adult behavioral disruption in rats: implication for drug abuse
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Iris Bartolomé, Anna Llidó, Sònia Darbra, Marc PallarèsAbstractSeveral studies have highlighted the role that early postnatal levels of allopregnanolone play in the development of the CNS and adult behavior. Changes in allopregnanolone levels related to stress have been observed during early postnatal periods, and perinatal stress has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. The alteration of early postnatal allopregnanolone levels in the first weeks of life has been proven to affect adult behaviors, su...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - December 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Realizing the therapeutic potential of GABAAR-active neurosteroids.
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Delia Belelli, Derk Hogenkamp, Kelvin W. Gee, Jeremy J. LambertAbstractIn the 1980s particular endogenous metabolites of progesterone and of deoxycorticosterone were revealed to be potent, efficacious, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). These reports were followed by the discovery that such steroids may be synthesised not only in peripheral endocrine glands, but locally in the central nervous system (CNS), to potentially act as paracrine, or autocrine “neurosteroid” messengers, thereby ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - December 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GABA-A receptor modulating steroids in acute and chronic stress; relevance for cognition and dementia?
Publication date: Available online 20 December 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): S.K.S. Bengtsson, T. Bäckström, R. Brinton, R.W. Irwin, M. Johansson, J. Sjöstedt, M.D. WangAbstractCognitive dysfunction, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are increasing as the population worldwide ages. Therapeutics for these conditions is an unmet need. This review focuses on the role of the positive GABA-A receptor modulating steroid allopregnanolone (APα), it’s role in underlying mechanisms for impaired cognition and of AD, and to determine options for therapy of AD. On one hand, APα ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - December 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Involvement Of Oxidative Stress And Mitochondrial Mechanisms In Air Pollution-Related Neurobiological Impairments
ConclusionThis study demonstrates a causal mechanism mediating SVEE-induced behavioral deficits in rats. We further established that SVEE is a toxicological stressor that induces oxidative stress and results in mitochondrial impairment, which by disrupting neural circuitry impairs cognitive and behavioral functions.Graphical abstract (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute Sleep Deprivation During Pregnancy in Rats: Rapid Elevation of Placental and Fetal Inflammation and Kynurenic Acid
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Annalisa M. Baratta, Nickole R. Kanyuch, Casey A. Cole, Homayoun Valafar, Jessica Deslauriers, Ana PocivavsekAbstractThe kynurenine pathway (KP) is the dominant pathway for tryptophan degradation in the mammalian body and emerging evidence suggests that acute episodes of sleep deprivation (SD) disrupt tryptophan metabolism via the KP. Increases in the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) during pregnancy may lead to a higher risk for disrupted neurodevelopment in the offspring. As pregnancy is a critical period during whi...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - December 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Actions of Allopregnanolone Underlie Therapeutic Benefits in Stress-Related Disease
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Giorgia Boero, Patrizia Porcu, A. Leslie MorrowAbstractFor several years, research from around the world has suggested that the neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone) may have therapeutic potential for treatment of various stress-related diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), as well as neurological and psychiatric conditions that are worsened in the presence of stress, such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and seizure disord...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - November 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2019Source: Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 11Author(s): (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - November 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ovarian status dictates the neuroinflammatory and behavioral consequences of sub-chronic stress exposure in middle-aged female mice
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Rand S. Eid, Stephanie E. Lieblich, Sarah J. Wong, Liisa A.M. GaleaAbstractOvarian hormones influence the outcomes of stress exposure and are implicated in stress-related disorders including depression, yet their roles are often complex and seemingly contradictory. Importantly, depression and stress exposure are associated with immune dysregulation, and ovarian hormones have immunomodulatory properties. However, how ovarian hormones can influence the inflammatory outcomes of stress exposure is poorly understood. Here, we examined th...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - November 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Allopregnanolone-based treatments for postpartum depression: Why/how do they work?
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Najah Walton, Jamie MaguireAbstractRecent FDA approval of an allopregnanolone-based treatment specifically for postpartum depression, brexanolone, now commercially called Zulresso®, is an exciting development for patients and families impacted by postpartum depression and allows us to start asking questions about why and how this compound is so effective. Allopregnanolone is a neuroactive steroid, or neurosteroid, which can be synthesized from steroid hormone precursors, such as progesterone, or synthesized de novo from cholester...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - October 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mu opioid receptor regulation of glutamate efflux in the central amygdala in response to predator odor
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Jeffrey Parrilla Carrero, Kris F. Kaigler, George H. Hartshorn, Jim R. Fadel, Marlene A. WilsonAbstractThe amygdala plays an important role in the responses to predator threat. Glutamatergic processes in amygdala regulate the behavioral responses to predator stress, and we have found that exposure to ferret odor activates glutamatergic neurons of the basolateral amygdala [BLA] which are known to project to the central amygdala [CeA]. Therefore, we tested if predator stress would increase glutamate release in the rat CeA using in vivo...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - October 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurosteroids as Novel Antidepressants and Anxiolytics: GABA-A Receptors and Beyond
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Charles F. Zorumski, Steven M. Paul, Douglas F. Covey, Steven MennerickAbstractThe recent FDA approval of the neurosteroid, brexanolone (allopregnanolone), as a treatment for women with postpartum depression, and successful trials of a related neuroactive steroid, SGE-217, for men and women with major depressive disorder offer the hope of a new era in treating mood and anxiety disorders based on the potential of neurosteroids as modulators of brain function. This review considers potential mechanisms contributing to antidepressant ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - September 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal connectivity in the aftermath of acute social stress
In this study, using a within-subject design and Granger causal analysis (GCA), we investigated the alterations of resting state effective connectivity from and to hippocampal subregions after an acute social stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Participants were engaged in stress and control conditions spaced approximately one month apart. Our findings showed that stress altered the information flows in the thalamus-hippocampus-insula/midbrain circuit. The changes in this circuit could also predict with high accuracy the stress and control conditions at the subject level. These hippocampus-related brain networks have ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - September 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions during the process of reconsolidation of aversive memories: a systematic review
Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Lívia Maria Bolsoni, Antonio Waldo ZuardiAbstractReconsolidation is the return of a memory to a transient state of lability, following memory consolidation, that can occur when memories are evoked. During the process of reconsolidation, memories may be modified by different means, including the administration of drugs, during a period called the "reconsolidation window”. This process has been widely studied in animals, but human studies are limited and include several methodological pitfalls. Our objective was to con...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - August 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurobiological links between stress and anxiety
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Nuria Daviu, Michael R. Bruchas, Bita Moghaddam, Carmen Sandi, Anna BeyelerAbstractStress and anxiety have intertwined behavioral and neural underpinnings. These commonalities are critical for understanding each state, as well as their mutual interactions. Grasping the mechanisms underlying this bidirectional relationship will have major clinical implications for managing a wide range of psychopathologies. After briefly defining key concepts for the study of stress and anxiety in pre-clinical models, we present circuit, as well as cel...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - August 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: A brief overview of the 2018 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Matthew N. Hill, Richard Hunter, Lawrence P. Reagan (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - August 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduces anxiety-like behavior and normalizes enhanced amygdala glutamatergic transmission following chronic oral corticosterone treatment
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Amanda Morgan, Veronika Kondev, Gaurav Bedse, Rita Baldi, David Marcus, Sachin PatelAbstractChronic stress increases the probability of being diagnosed with anxiety disorders, depression, and chronic illness. Pharmacological interventions that reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of chronic stress in animal models, may represent novel approaches to the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Here, we examined the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on anxiety-like behaviors and amygdala glutamatergic s...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - August 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CRF Signaling Between Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (PVN) Coordinates Stress Responses.
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Zhiying Jiang, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Nicholas J. JusticeAbstractThe importance of a precisely coordinated neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral stress response was a primary theme at the Stress Neurobiology Workshop 2018, held in the beautiful setting of Banff Provincial Park in Alberta, Canada. Much of the research featured at this meeting reinforced the importance of appropriately responding to stress in order to avoid various neuropsychiatric pathologies, including Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and addic...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - August 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Foreword
Publication date: November 2019Source: Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 11Author(s): Nora D. Volkow, Michelle P. Freund, Gayathri J. Dowling (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - July 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuro-Autonomic Changes Induced by Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) in Healthy Young Adults: Implications for Stress
In conclusion, RIPC induces changes in the activity of ANS that are linked to stress resistance. (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - July 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of KCNQ Potassium Channels in Stress-induced Deficit of Working Memory
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Amy F.T. Arnsten, Lu E. Jin, Nao J. Gamo, Brian Ramos, Constantinos D. Paspalas, Yury M. Morozov, Anna Kata, Nigel S. Bamford, Mark F. Yeckel, Leonard K. Kaczmarek, Lynda El-HassarAbstractThe prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates higher cognition but is impaired by stress exposure when high levels of catecholamines activate calcium-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. The current study examined whether stress and increased cAMP-PKA signaling in rat medial PFC (mPFC) reduce pyramidal cell firing and impair working memory by activating KCNQ ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - July 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered fibrinolytic system in rat models of depression and patients with first-episode depression
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Wenxiu Han, Ruili Dang, Pengfei Xu, Gongying Li, Xueyuan Zhou, Lei Chen, Yujin Guo, Mengqi Yang, Dan Chen, Pei JiangAbstractTissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease involved in cleavage of neurotrophic factors. In addition, tPA and neuroserpin can also directly bind to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), promoting neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth. Given both the cleavage and non-cleavage actions of the fibrinolytic system are crucial in neurological functions, the present study, for the first time...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - July 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Risk and Protective Effects of Serotonin and BDNF Genes on Stress-Related Adult Psychiatric Symptoms
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Paul G. Nestor, Keira O’Donovan, Hannah E. Lapp, Victoria Choate Hasler, Sara Boodai, Richard HunterAbstractWe focused on individual risk by examining childhood adversity and current psychiatric symptoms in a sample of 100 college students genotyped for both the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Naturally occurring allelic variation in 5-HTTLPR (short/long) and BDNF (valine/ methionine) have been strongly implicated in stress-related psychiatric risk, but the combined effects of the...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - July 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Rita Valentino (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - July 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Buprenorphine prevents stress-induced blunting of nucleus accumbens dopamine response and approach behavior to food reward in mice
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Shivon Robinson, Tiffany E. Hill-Smith, Irwin LuckiAbstractAlterations to the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are thought to underlie dysfunctional reward processing in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Using in vivio microdialysis in awake freely moving mice, we assessed the effects of stress on the motivational and neurochemical correlates underlying conditioned approach behavior for palatable food in the non-deprived mouse. Mice trained to approach and consume food in a familiar environment exhibited a 30% increase in nucleus acc...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cardiovascular outcomes related to social defeat stress: New insights from resilient and susceptible rats
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Gessynger Morais-Silva, Willian Costa-Ferreira, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Jacqueline C. Pavan, Carlos C. Crestani, Marcelo T. MarinAbstractStress exposure is an important risk factor for psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. Two phenotypes related to coping with stress can be observed in rodents that experience chronic social defeat stress (SDS): susceptible, showing social avoidance and behavioral changes related to depression, and resilient, showing none of these alterations. Moreover, a strong correlation exists between depression and...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HPA axis function and diurnal cortisol in post-traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review
ConclusionDespite some indications of an association between PTSD and dysregulated HPA axis functionality as demonstrated by diurnal cortisol output, the current review has revealed mixed findings. As such, a complete understanding of HPA axis dysregulation as it relates to PTSD remains unestablished. Given the findings, further investigation into the relationship between PTSD trauma-exposed and non-PTSD trauma-exposed individuals and diurnal cortisol is warranted. (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial for neurobiology of stress special issue on stress and substance abuse throughout development
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Rita J. Valentino (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic unpredictable stress influenced the behavioral but not the neurodegenerative impact of paraquat
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Chris Rudyk, Zach Dwyer, Jessica McNeill, Natalina Salmaso, Kyle Farmer, Natalie Prowse, Shawn HayleyAbstractThe impact of psychological stressors on the progression of motor and non-motor disturbances observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. Given that PD likely results from many different environmental “hits”, we were interested in whether a chronic unpredictable stressor regimen would act additively or possibly even synergistically to augment the impact of the toxicant, paraquat, which has previo...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - June 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endocannabinoids, stress signaling, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Ryan R. Wyrofsky, Beverly A.S. Reyes, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Seema Bhatnagar, Lynn G. Kirby, Elisabeth J. Van BockstaeleAbstractThe endocannabinoid (eCB) system has been implicated in a variety of physiological functions due to abundant expression of its receptors and endogenous ligands in the central nervous system. Substantial progress has been made in understanding how the eCB system influences the brain norepinephrine (NE) system, an important neurochemical target in the continued development of new therapies for stress-induced psychiatric ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sex differences in neural stress responses and correlation with subjective stress and stress regulation
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Elizabeth V. Goldfarb, Dongju Seo, Rajita SinhaAbstractEmotional stress responses, encompassing both stress reactivity and regulation, have been shown to differ between men and women, but the neural networks supporting these processes remain unclear. The current study used functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to investigate sex differences in neural responses during stress and the sex-specific relationships between these responses and emotional stress responses for men and women. A significant sex by condition interaction revealed that men sho...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Publisher's Note
Publication date: February 2019Source: Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 10Author(s): (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early life exposures, neurodevelopmental disorders, and transposable elements
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Hannah E. Lapp, Richard G. HunterAbstractTransposable elements make up a much larger portion of the genome than protein-coding genes, yet we know relatively little about their function in the human genome. However, we are beginning to more fully understand their role in brain development, neuroinflammation, and adaptation to environmental insults such as stress. For instance, glucocorticoid receptor activation regulates transposable elements in the brain following acute stress. Early life is a period of substantial brain development duri...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Publisher’s Note
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Rachael Engels (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Parenting stress: A novel mechanism of addiction vulnerability
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Helena JV. Rutherford, Linda C. MayesAbstractAddiction remains a significant public health concern. Despite numerous public health initiatives, many parents continue to use substances during the prenatal and postpartum period. While stress has been implicated in the maintenance of substance use disorders more generally, we propose that parenting stress specifically increases vulnerability to substance use in adults caring for young children. To explore this notion, we first consider the neurobiology of the adult transition to parenthood ...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Branched-chain amino acids mediate resilience to chronic social defeat stress by activating BDNF/TRKB signaling
In this study, our objective was to examine the effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), commonly used by athletes, on susceptibility to stress. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to daily defeat sessions by a CD1 aggressor, for 10 days. On day11, the behavior of mice was assessed using the social interaction test, elevated plus maze and open field. Mice received the BCAA leucine, isoleucine or valine before each defeat session. Furthermore, we examined whether BCAA regulate brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling by using a brain-permeable tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TRKB) inhibitor, ANA-12. We also tested...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stress and glucocorticoid modulation of feeding and metabolism
Publication date: Available online 15 May 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): G. Balsevich, A. Abizaid, A. Chen, I.N. Karatsoreos, M.V. SchmidtAbstractThis perspective highlights research presented as part of the symposium entitled, “Stress and Glucocorticoid Modulation of Feeding and Metabolism” at the 2018 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Banff, AB, Canada. The symposium comprised five researchers at different career stages who each study different aspects of the interaction between the stress response and metabolic control. Their collective results reveal the complexity of this relationship i...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interventions after acute stress prevent its delayed effects on the amygdala
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Prabahan Chakraborty, Sumantra ChattarjiAbstractStress is known to elicit contrasting patterns of plasticity in the amygdala and hippocampus. While chronic stress leads to neuronal atrophy in the rodent hippocampus, it has the opposite effect in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Further, even a single episode of acute stress is known to elicit delayed effects in the amygdala. For example, 2 h of immobilisation stress has been shown to cause a delayed increase in dendritic spine density on BLA principal neurons 10 days later in young ra...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of restraint stress on the regulation of hippocampal glutamate receptor and inflammation genes in female C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice
We examined the stress induced changes in the regulation of 11 inflammatory cytokine genes and 12 glutamate receptor genes in the hippocampus of female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using quantitative PCR. Elevated proinflammatory cytokine genes include Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFa), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB), Interleukin 1 alpha (IL1a), Interleukin 1 receptor (IL1R), Interleukin 10 receptor alpha subunit (IL10Ra), Interleukin 10 receptor beta subunit (IL10Rb), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family members. Our results show that BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice differ in the genes i...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - May 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Editorial: Stress and its impact on Alzheimer's Disease
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Hongxin Dong, John G. Csernansky (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - April 24, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In the face of stress: Interpreting individual differences in stress-induced facial expressions
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): Leah M. Mayo, Markus HeiligAbstractStress is an inevitable part of life that can profoundly impact social and emotional functioning, contributing to the development of psychiatric disease. One key component of emotion and social processing is facial expressions, which humans can readily detect and react to even without conscious awareness. Facial expressions have been the focus of philosophic and scientific interest for centuries. Historically, facial expressions have been relegated to peripheral indices of fixed emotion states. More r...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - April 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age- and sex-dependent impact of repeated social stress on morphology of rat prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons
In this study, male and female adolescent (42–48 days old, 4 rats per group) or adult (68–72 days old, 4 rats per group) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5 days of repeated social stress in the resident-intruder paradigm or control manipulation. We examined dendritic morphology of cells in the mPFC in both layer II/III and Layer V. Repeated social stress resulted in decreased dendritic branching in layer II/III apical dendrites regardless of sex or age. In apical layer V dendrites, stress increased branching in adult males but decreased it in all other groups. Stress resulted in a decrease in dendritic spine...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Noradrenergic depletion causes sex specific alterations in the endocannabinoid system in the Murine prefrontal cortex
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Neurobiology of StressAuthor(s): M.A. Urquhart, J.A. Ross, B.A.S. Reyes, M. Nitikman, S.A. Thomas, K. Mackie, E.J. Van BockstaeleAbstractBrain endocannabinoids (eCB), acting primarily via the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1r), are involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, including behavioral responses to stress. A significant neural target of eCB action is the stress-responsive norepinephrine (NE) system, whose dysregulation is implicated in myriad psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Using Western blot analysis, the protein expression leve...
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - April 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Persistent pain intensifies recall of consolidated fear memories
In conclusion, this study provides evidence that persistent pain has a significant impact on consolidated fear memories. Very likely the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon is increased inhibitory input onto the BLA to mPFC projection neurons, possibly from neurons with induced parvalbumin expression. Conceivably, the increased fear response to consolidated fear memory is a harbinger for the later development of anxiety and depression symptoms associated with chronic pain. (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - April 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The mediating role of hippocampal networks on stress regulation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment
ConclusionsExtra hippocampal networks may be recruited as compensation to attend the maintenance of relatively normal stress regulation in aMCI by alleviating the detrimental effects of chronic stress exposure on acute stress regulation. (Source: Neurobiology of Stress)
Source: Neurobiology of Stress - April 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research