Announcements
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Announcements Source Type: research

Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation: a population-based study on differences between Danish centres using standard immunosuppression with and without glucocorticoids
Conclusions There was a tendency of a higher post-transplant cancer occurrence, but lower all-cause mortality, in the Danish transplantation centre that adhered to a standard steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Engberg, H., Wehberg, S., Bistrup, C., Heaf, J., Sorensen, S. S., Thiesson, H. C., Hansen, J. M., Svensson, M., Green, A., Marckmann, P. Tags: Renal Transplantation Source Type: research

Immunologic outcome in elderly kidney transplant recipients: is it time for HLA-DR matching?
Background The Eurotransplant Senior Program (ESP) neglects HLA matching for elderly (≥65 years) kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Few data regarding the influence of DR matching on clinical and immunologic outcome in elderly KTR exist. Methods This retrospective long-term observational study included 244 elderly out of n = 972 adult KTR between 2004 and 2014. Data analysis included patient and graft survival, biopsy-proven rejections [T-cell-mediated rejections (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejections] and development of de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA). Outcome data were assessed over a maximum period of ...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Halleck, F., Khadzhynov, D., Liefeldt, L., Schrezenmeier, E., Lehner, L., Duerr, M., Schmidt, D., Bamoulid, J., Lachmann, N., Waiser, J., Budde, K., Staeck, O. Tags: Renal Transplantation Source Type: research

Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome and pregnancy: outcome with ongoing eculizumab
Conclusions Eculizumab therapy during pregnancy displayed no overt safety issues but did not appear to prevent HELLP syndrome or pre-eclampsia in these high-risk chronic kidney disease patients. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Servais, A., Devillard, N., Fremeaux-Bacchi, V., Hummel, A., Salomon, L., Contin-Bordes, C., Gomer, H., Legendre, C., Delmas, Y. Tags: Intra- and Extracorporeal Treatments of Kidney Failure Source Type: research

Permanent cardiac pacing in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis
Conclusions Dialysis patients are at an increased risk of dysrhythmia requiring pacemaker implantation compared with the general population. The risks are not significantly different between HD and PD patients. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang, I.-K., Lin, K.-H., Lin, S.-Y., Lin, C.-L., Chang, C.-T., Yen, T.-H., Sung, F.-C. Tags: Intra- and Extracorporeal Treatments of Kidney Failure Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of persistent disease and relapse in primary membranous nephropathy
Background Primary membranous nephropathy is associated with variable clinical course ranging from spontaneous remission to slow progression to end stage renal failure. Achieving remission confers better renal survival in primary membranous nephropathy (PMN). Longer term outcomes such as patient survival and relapse of active disease remain poorly understood. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 128 consecutive adult patients diagnosed with biopsy proven PMN at a single UK centre between 1980 and 2010. These patients were followed prospectively over a median of 128 months. We assessed impact of persistent disease...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kanigicherla, D. A. K., Short, C. D., Roberts, S. A., Hamilton, P., Nikam, M., Harris, S., Brenchley, P. E. C., Venning, M. C. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction of zoster in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease
Conclusions Zoster vaccine is effective against incident zoster in older individuals with CKD. Extra efforts are warranted to increase vaccine uptake in individuals with CKD given the known low uptake in these higher risk individuals. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Langan, S. M., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., Margolis, D. J., Nitsch, D. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Prevalence and recognition of chronic kidney disease in Stockholm healthcare
Conclusions An estimated 6% of the adult Stockholm population accessing healthcare has CKD, but the frequency of albuminuria testing, nephrology consultations and registration of CKD diagnoses was suboptimal despite universal care. Improving provider awareness and treatment of CKD could have a significant public health impact. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gasparini, A., Evans, M., Coresh, J., Grams, M. E., Norin, O., Qureshi, A. R., Runesson, B., Barany, P., Ärnlöv, J., Jernberg, T., Wettermark, B., Elinder, C. G., Carrero, J.-J. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis receiving extended dosing regimens of darbepoetin alfa: long-term results of the EXTEND observational cohort study
Conclusions Long-term, extended dosing of DA maintained Hb concentrations in patients already treated with an ESA and corrected and maintained Hb in ESA-naìˆve patients. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Galle, J.-C., Addison, J., Suranyi, M. G., Claes, K., Di Giulio, S., Guerin, A., Herlitz, H., Kiss, I., Farouk, M., Manamley, N., Wirnsberger, G., Winearls, C. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Impaired vascular function contributes to exercise intolerance in chronic kidney disease
This study aimed to gain more insight into the role of vascular dysfunction in the exercise intolerance of predialysis CKD. In addition, vascular-related microRNAs (miRNAs)—as epigenetic regulators of exercise capacity—were analysed. Methods Sixty-three patients with CKD stages 1–5 and 18 healthy controls were included. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and arterial stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Plasma miRNA levels (miR-21, miR-126, miR-146a, miR-150 and miR-210) were quantif...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Van Craenenbroeck, A. H., Van Craenenbroeck, E. M., Van Ackeren, K., Hoymans, V. Y., Verpooten, G. A., Vrints, C. J., Couttenye, M. M. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Markers of kidney disease and risk of subclinical and clinical heart failure in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study
In this study, we aimed to determine the association of markers of kidney disease with subclinical HF (by echocardiogram) and risk of clinical HF among a large, well-characterized community-based cohort of African American patients. We also examined whether the association of markers of kidney disease with HF was attenuated with adjustment for echocardiographic measures. Methods We studied participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a large community-based cohort of African Americans. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured at baseline. We tested the association of e...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bansal, N., Katz, R., Himmelfarb, J., Afkarian, M., Kestenbaum, B., de Boer, I. H., Young, B. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Prognostic implications of adding urine output to serum creatinine measurements for staging of acute kidney injury after major surgery: a cohort study
Conclusions Adding UO to SCr criteria substantially increases the apparent incidence of AKI on hospital wards and significantly changes the prognostic implications of AKI identification and staging. These measures should not be considered equivalent criteria in AKI staging. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Quan, S., Pannu, N., Wilson, T., Ball, C., Tan, Z., Tonelli, M., Hemmelgarn, B. R., Dixon, E., James, M. T. Tags: Acute Kidney Injury Source Type: research

Factors influencing withdrawal from dialysis: a national registry study
Conclusions Death following dialysis withdrawal is common. Factors important to physical independence—prior cerebrovascular disease and increasing age—are associated with withdrawal. When combined with clinician comments this study provides an insight into the clinical decline affecting patients and the complexity of this decision. Early recognition of those likely to withdraw may improve end of life care. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Findlay, M. D., Donaldson, K., Doyle, A., Fox, J. G., Khan, I., McDonald, J., Metcalfe, W., Peel, R. K., Shilliday, I., Spalding, E., Stewart, G. A., Traynor, J. P., Mackinnon, B., on behalf of the Scottish Renal Registry (SRR) Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Genotypic and phenotypic predictors of inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease
Conclusion These results indicate a larger involvement of hereditary factors in inflammation than might have been expected and suggest that inclusion of genotype features in risk assessment studies is critical. The RLS model demonstrates that inflammation in CKD is determined by an extensive panel of factors and may prove to be a suitable tool that could enable a much-needed multifactorial approach as opposed to the commonly utilized single-factor analysis. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Luttropp, K., Debowska, M., Lukaszuk, T., Bobrowski, L., Carrero, J. J., Qureshi, A. R., Stenvinkel, P., Lindholm, B., Waniewski, J., Nordfors, L. Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Urinary soluble CD163 level reflects glomerular inflammation in human lupus nephritis
Conclusions Glomerular CD163+ macrophages are the predominant phenotype in the kidneys of lupus patients. These findings indicate that the u-sCD163 level can serve as a biomarker for macrophage-dependent glomerular inflammation in human LN. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Endo, N., Tsuboi, N., Furuhashi, K., Shi, Y., Du, Q., Abe, T., Hori, M., Imaizumi, T., Kim, H., Katsuno, T., Ozaki, T., Kosugi, T., Matsuo, S., Maruyama, S. Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Four seasons for reflecting: Winter. Touch
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Piccoli, G. B., Giuva, D., Ruff, D., Genovese, P., Apicella, M., Kuprina, N., Finnel, S. Tags: HUMANITIES IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Sustained remission in lupus nephritis: still a hard road ahead
End-stage renal disease caused by lupus nephritis (LN) is an avoidable outcome yet there is considerable uncertainty and variability among nephrologists in their approaches to this disorder. This review discusses recent evidence relevant to the management of LN including recent consensus statements. Long-term results are encouraging compared with 30 years ago, but despite the use of the best available current therapies and achieving high levels of early clinical responses, the kidney often sustains long-term damage and nephritis relapses affect over 50%. Major hurdles to management include the complexity of the clinical pr...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Quintana, L. F., Jayne, D. Tags: REVIEWS - CLINICAL SCIENCE AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

The application of multi-omics and systems biology to identify therapeutic targets in chronic kidney disease
This article reviews relevant concepts in omics data integration using systems biology, a mathematical modelling method that globally describes a biological system on the basis of its modules and the functional connections that govern their behaviour. The review describes key databases and bioinformatics tools, as well as the challenges and limitations of the current state of the art, along with practical application to CKD therapeutic target discovery. Moreover, it describes how systems biology and visualization tools can be used to generate clinically relevant molecular models with the capability to identify specific dis...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Cisek, K., Krochmal, M., Klein, J., Mischak, H. Tags: REVIEWS - CLINICAL SCIENCE AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Should belatacept be the centrepiece of renal transplantation?
Belatacept was developed to minimize cardiovascular risk and nephrotoxicity associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)–based immunosuppression. Recently, 7-year data from the Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression Trial (BENEFIT), a phase III study comparing belatacept with cyclosporine, have been published. While during the first year of belatacept the risk of acute rejection episodes was elevated, this seemingly had marginal consequences for long-term graft survival and function as well as patient survival. For patients at a low-immunological risk, this drug seems to...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Huber, M., Kemmner, S., Renders, L., Heemann, U. Tags: REVIEWS - BASIC SCIENCE AND TRANSLATIONAL NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Hedgehog Gli signalling in kidney fibrosis
Kidney fibrosis is the common final pathway of virtually all progressive injury to the kidney and a promising therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Hedgehog pathway has been reported to be critical in kidney development, and recent evidence suggests a role in kidney injury and fibrosis. This review provides an overview of recent data suggesting an important role of Gli transcriptional activators in kidney injury and repair. We have reported that the hedgehog transcriptional activator Gli1 specifically marks perivascular mesenchymal stem cells, which are an important source of kidney myofibroblasts. Geneti...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kramann, R. Tags: REVIEWS - BASIC SCIENCE AND TRANSLATIONAL NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Can there be science without philosophy?
Over the last few decades, philosophy has gained an increasingly bad reputation among working scientists. Prominent researchers have suggested, in various forms and degrees of mockery, that philosophy has little or nothing positive to contribute to science. This essay provides a response to these allegations. We begin by examining, and ultimately questioning, an influential argument purporting to undermine the significance of a philosophical approach to science. Next, we offer some biomedical examples where philosophical speculation plays a prominent role. We conclude by arguing that, when understood in the appropriate con...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nathan, M. J., Brancaccio, D., Zoccali, C. Tags: IDEAS, CONJECTURES AND REFUTATIONS Source Type: research

Exercise limitation in chronic kidney disease: deep seas and new shores
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: McMahon, L. P. Tags: IN FOCUS Source Type: research

The natural history of symptomatic cardiac conduction-system disease in end-stage renal disease
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kambur, T. R., Das, M., Agarwal, R. Tags: IN FOCUS Source Type: research

Urine sCD163: a window onto glomerular inflammation
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Moller, H. J., Tesar, V., Little, M. A. Tags: IN FOCUS Source Type: research

African Americans with left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease: what should we do?
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - December 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tamez, H. Tags: IN FOCUS Source Type: research

Announcements
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Announcements Source Type: research

Impact of the Banff 2013 classification on the diagnosis of suspicious versus conclusive late antibody-mediated rejection in allografts without acute dysfunction
Conclusions The Banff 2013 classification helps in making a diagnosis of late ABMR, identifying cases, decreasing the percentage of suspected ABMR and making more conclusive diagnoses. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gimeno, J., Redondo, D., Perez-Saez, M. J., Naranjo-Hans, D., Pascual, J., Crespo, M. Tags: Renal Transplantation Source Type: research

Solute solver 'what if module for modeling urea kinetics
Conclusions The completed Web form calculator may be particularly useful in computing equivalent continuous clearances for incremental hemodialysis strategies. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daugirdas, J. T. Tags: Intra- and Extracorporeal Treatments of Kidney Failure Source Type: research

Pregnancy in dialysis patients in the new millennium: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis correlating dialysis schedules and pregnancy outcomes
Background Advances have been made in the management of pregnancies in women receiving dialysis; however, single-centre studies and small numbers of cases have so far precluded a clear definition of the relationship between dialysis schedules and pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present systematic review was to analyse the relationship between dialysis schedule and pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies in chronic dialysis in the new millennium. Methods Medline–PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched (1 January 2000–31 December 2014: MESH, Emtree, free terms on pregnancy and dialysis). A separate an...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Piccoli, G. B., Minelli, F., Versino, E., Cabiddu, G., Attini, R., Vigotti, F. N., Rolfo, A., Giuffrida, D., Colombi, N., Pani, A., Todros, T. Tags: Intra- and Extracorporeal Treatments of Kidney Failure Source Type: research

A novel COL4A1 frameshift mutation in familial kidney disease: the importance of the C-terminal NC1 domain of type IV collagen
Conclusions Missense mutations of COL4A1 that encode the CB3 [IV] segment of the triple helical domain (exons 24 and 25) are associated with HANAC syndrome (hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and cramps). Missense mutations of COL4A1 that disrupt the NC1 domain are associated with antenatal cerebral haemorrhage and porencephaly, but not kidney disease. Our findings extend the spectrum of COL4A1 mutations linked with renal disease and demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal part of the NC1 domain of the α1 chain of type IV collagen is important in the integrity of glomerular basement membrane in hu...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gale, D. P., Oygar, D. D., Lin, F., Oygar, P. D., Khan, N., Connor, T. M. F., Lapsley, M., Maxwell, P. H., Neild, G. H. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Lipoprotein(a) concentrations, apolipoprotein(a) isoforms and clinical endpoints in haemodialysis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the 4D Study
Conclusions High Lp(a) concentrations and LMW apo(a) isoforms are risk predictors for all-cause mortality and death due to infection in haemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus. These associations are modified by age. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kollerits, B., Drechsler, C., Krane, V., Lamina, C., März, W., Dieplinger, H., Ritz, E., Wanner, C., Kronenberg, F., for the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study Investigators Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Albuminuria and tolvaptan in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: results of the TEMPO 3:4 Trial
Background The TEMPO 3:4 Trial results suggested that tolvaptan had no effect compared with placebo on albuminuria in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. However, the use of categorical ‘albuminuria events’ may have resulted in a loss of sensitivity to detect changes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of tolvaptan on albuminuria as a continuous variable. Methods Post hoc analysis of a 3-year prospective, blinded randomized controlled trial, including 1375 ADPKD patients. Albuminuria was measured in a spot morning urine sample prior to tolvaptan dosing and expressed ...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gansevoort, R. T., Meijer, E., Chapman, A. B., Czerwiec, F. S., Devuyst, O., Grantham, J. J., Higashihara, E., Krasa, H. B., Ouyang, J., Perrone, R. D., Torres, V. E., for the TEMPO 3:4 Investigators Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Development and initial validation of prescribing quality indicators for patients with chronic kidney disease
Conclusions We developed a set of 16 PQIs for measuring the quality of treatment in CKD patients, which had sufficient content and face validity as well as operational feasibility. These PQIs can be used to point out priority areas for improvement. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Smits, K. P. J., Sidorenkov, G., Bilo, H. J. G., Bouma, M., van Ittersum, F. J., Voorham, J., Navis, G., Denig, P. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Selective screening for distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent kidney stone formers: initial experience and comparison of the simultaneous furosemide and fludrocortisone test with the short ammonium chloride test
Conclusions The F+F test is characterized by an excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value, and the diagnosis of incomplete dRTA can be excluded reliably in a patient who acidifies their urine normally with this test. However, its lack of specificity is a drawback, and if there is any doubt, an abnormal F+F test may need to be confirmed by a follow-up NH4Cl test. Ideally, a prospective blinded study in unselected KSFs is needed to accurately assess the reliability of the F+F test in diagnosing, rather than excluding, dRTA. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shavit, L., Chen, L., Ahmed, F., Ferraro, P. M., Moochhala, S., Walsh, S. B., Unwin, R. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Primary care physicians perceived barriers, facilitators and strategies to enhance conservative care for older adults with chronic kidney disease: a qualitative descriptive study
Conclusions PCPs identified important barriers and facilitators to conservative care for their older patients with Stage 5 CKD. Further investigation of potential strategies that address barriers and enable facilitators is required to improve the quality of conservative care for older adults in the community. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tam-Tham, H., Hemmelgarn, B. R., Campbell, D. J. T., Thomas, C. M., Fruetel, K., Quinn, R. R., King-Shier, K. M. Tags: Chronic Kidney Disease Source Type: research

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is associated with elevated cell cycle arrest markers related to reduced renal blood flow and postcontrast hypoxia
This study sought to examine the relationships between renal vein levels of IGFBP-7, TIMP-2, reductions in RBF and postcontrast hypoxia as measured by blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Renal vein levels of IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 were obtained in an ARAS cohort (n= 29) scheduled for renal artery stenting and essential hypertensive (EH) healthy controls (n = 32). Cortical and medullary RBFs were measured by multidetector computed tomography (CT) immediately before renal artery stenting and 3 months later. BOLD imaging was performed before and 3 months after stenting in all patients, a...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Saad, A., Wang, W., Herrmann, S. M. S., Glockner, J. F., Mckusick, M. A., Misra, S., Bjarnason, H., Lerman, L. O., Textor, S. C. Tags: Acute Kidney Injury Source Type: research

A simple care bundle for use in acute kidney injury: a propensity score-matched cohort study
Conclusions Compliance with an AKI-CB was associated with lower mortality and reduced progression of AKI to higher stages. The AKI-CB is simple and inexpensive, and could therefore be applied in all healthcare settings to improve outcomes. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kolhe, N. V., Reilly, T., Leung, J., Fluck, R. J., Swinscoe, K. E., Selby, N. M., Taal, M. W. Tags: Acute Kidney Injury Source Type: research

Impact of individual intravenous iron preparations on the differentiation of monocytes towards macrophages and dendritic cells
Conclusions This study demonstrates that less stable i.v. iron preparations specifically affect monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and mDCs. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fell, L. H., Seiler-Mussler, S., Sellier, A. B., Rotter, B., Winter, P., Sester, M., Fliser, D., Heine, G. H., Zawada, A. M. Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Resveratrol delays polycystic kidney disease progression through attenuation of nuclear factor {kappa}B-induced inflammation
Conclusions The NF-B signaling pathway is activated and partly responsible for inflammation in polycystic kidney tissues. Targeting inflammation through resveratrol could be a new strategy for PKD treatment in the future. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wu, M., Gu, J., Mei, S., Xu, D., Jing, Y., Yao, Q., Chen, M., Yang, M., Chen, S., Yang, B., Qi, N., Hu, H., Wüthrich, R. P., Mei, C. Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

Four seasons for reflecting: autumn, hearing
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ruff, D., Giuva, D., Finnel, S., Sandrone family, Cattaneo, G., Ronco, R., Kourilsky, O., Piccoli, G. B. Tags: HUMANITIES IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Innate immunity in CKD-associated vascular diseases
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Therefore, the activation of the innate immune system plays an important role. In contrast to the adaptive immunity, unspecific recognition of conserved endogenous and exogenous structures by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a key feature of the innate immunity. Of these PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as the inflammasome complex have been documented to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). They are not only expressed in leukocytes but also in a variety of cell types such as endo...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zewinger, S., Schumann, T., Fliser, D., Speer, T. Tags: REVIEWS - CLINICAL SCIENCE AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Genetic testing in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: when and how?
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) represents the second most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. It manifests histologically as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and carries a 33% risk of relapse in a renal transplant. No efficient treatment exists. Identification of single-gene (monogenic) causes of SRNS has moved the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) to the center of its pathogenesis. Recently, mutations in>30 recessive or dominant genes were identified as causing monogenic forms of SRNS, thereby revealing the encoded proteins as essential for glomerular f...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lovric, S., Ashraf, S., Tan, W., Hildebrandt, F. Tags: REVIEWS - CLINICAL SCIENCE AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Should chronic metabolic acidosis be treated in older people with chronic kidney disease?
Metabolic acidosis is common in advanced chronic kidney disease and has been associated with a range of physiological derangements of importance to the health of older people. These include associations with skeletal muscle weakness, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone and mineral disorders that may lead to fragility fractures. Although metabolic acidosis is associated with accelerated decline in kidney function, end-stage renal failure is a much less common outcome in older, frail patients than cardiovascular death. Correction of metabolic acidosis using bicarbonate therapy is commonly employed, but the existing evidenc...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Witham, M. D., Lamb, E. J. Tags: REVIEWS - CLINICAL SCIENCE AND OUTCOME RESEARCH IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Sex hormones in women with kidney disease
Menstrual disorders, infertility and premature menopause are common but often underrecognized phenomena among women with chronic kidney disease. Hypothalamic, rather than ovarian dysfunction, may be the cause of the abnormal reproductive milieu, which can be at least partially reversed by kidney transplantation and increased intensity of hemodialysis. Endogenous sex hormones, and specifically estradiol, appear to be renoprotective in women, although the effects of exogenous estradiol (as an oral contraceptive and postmenopausal hormone therapy) on kidney function are more controversial. Treatment with postmenopausal hormon...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ahmed, S. B., Ramesh, S. Tags: REVIEWS - BASIC SCIENCE AND TRANSLATIONAL NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Midkine, a heparin-binding growth factor, and its roles in atherogenesis and inflammatory kidney diseases
The heparin-binding protein midkine is a potent growth factor with emerging roles in numerous inflammatory diseases. Beyond its characterization in embryogenesis and organ development, ample insights into its function have been collected from experimental disease models using knockout animals or knockdown intervention strategies. Here a comprehensive overview on midkine and its functions in atherogenesis and kidney diseases is provided. Molecular clues to key signalling pathways (Akt, ERK, HIF1α) and key events in atherosclerotic vessels link midkine expression with vascular smooth muscle proliferation and (neo)angio...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Salaru, D. L., Arsenescu-Georgescu, C., Chatzikyrkou, C., Karagiannis, J., Fischer, A., Mertens, P. R. Tags: REVIEWS - BASIC SCIENCE AND TRANSLATIONAL NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Moderator's view: Treatment of IgA nephropathy--getting comfortable with uncertainty
A Polar Views discussion by Pozzi and Rauen et al. on the interpretation and clinical application of the recently published Supportive Versus Immunosuppressive Therapy of Progressive IgA Nephropathy (STOP-IgAN) trial has elucidated important points concerning potential strengths and weaknesses of this landmark randomized trial. This critical examination of the impact of steroid monotherapy or steroid plus an immunosuppressive (IS) agent compared with ‘supportive’ therapy with inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) has enhanced our appreciation of the importance of rigorous application of titrate...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Glassock, R. J. Tags: POLAR VIEWS IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Opponent's comments
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pozzi, C. Tags: POLAR VIEWS IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Con: STOP immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy
A comprehensive supportive therapy approach constitutes the mainstay treatment of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. In our recent Supportive versus immunosuppressive Therapy Of Progressive IgA Nephropathy (STOP-IgAN) trial, we systematically selected for patients at high risk of a progressive disease course and evaluated the effect of immunosuppression, combined with supportive care, on renal end points in these patients. There was a higher rate of full clinical remission and transient proteinuria reduction in immunosuppressed patients. However, deterioration of renal function (i.e. number of patients with an estimated glom...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rauen, T., Eitner, F., Fitzner, C., Floege, J. Tags: POLAR VIEWS IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Opponent's comments
(Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rauen, T., Eitner, F., Fitzner, C., Floege, J. Tags: POLAR VIEWS IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research

Pro: STOP immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy?
The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines suggest a 6-month course of corticosteroids (CS) for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients with persistent proteinuria ≥1 g/day despite 3–6 months of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)>50 mL/min/1.73 m2. In December 2015, Rauen et al. (N Engl J Med 2015; 373: 2225–2236) published an article entitled ‘Intensive supportive care plus immunosuppression in IgA nephropathy’ (STOP-IgAN), which presented results from 379 IgAN patients from 32 nephrology centres in Germany. During a run-in phase o...
Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - November 1, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pozzi, C. Tags: POLAR VIEWS IN NEPHROLOGY Source Type: research