HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and sexually transmitted infections: intersection and opportunity
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 25 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00527-4In this Review, Stewart and Baeten discuss the successes and challenges of pre-exposure prophylaxis to date, its place as part of robust strategies to reduce HIV infections, the rising rates of curable sexually transmitted diseases and their relationship with HIV prevention, and future directions for synergies in pre-exposure prophylaxis and sexually transmitted disease prevention. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jenell Stewart Jared M. Baeten Source Type: research

Recommending exercise for children with a single kidney
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 22 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00533-6Recommendations for children and adolescents with single kidneys (like most survivors of Wilms tumour) for taking part in contact sporting activities are not aligned worldwide. This discrepancy can create misunderstandings regarding the perceived and real risk of abdominal impact and trauma when practising some sports. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Filippo Spreafico Giovanna Gattuso Olga Nigro Monica Terenziani Maura Massimino Source Type: research

Fertility preservation in boys facing gonadotoxic cancer therapy
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 19 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00523-8Treatment for childhood cancer can cause infertility in patients who survive to adulthood. Jensen et al. discuss the options for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal and pubertal boys, covering preservation of spermatozoa and testis tissue, as well as psychological and ethical issues, and current challenges to fertility preservation. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Christian F. S. Jensen Lihua Dong Murat Gul Mikkel Fode Simone Hildorf Jorgen Thorup Eva Hoffmann Dina Cortes Jens Fedder Claus Y. Andersen Jens S ønksen Source Type: research

Prostate zones and cancer: lost in transition?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 19 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00524-7The prostate is divided into the peripheral, transition and central zones, which have different prostate cancer incidences and prognoses. Differences between the zones suggest their potential roles in tumour aggressiveness, but treatment of prostate cancer remains zonal agnostic. Improved understanding of the zones and their roles in tumorigenesis could improve prostate cancer management. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amin Ali Alexander Du Feu Pedro Oliveira Ananya Choudhury Robert G. Bristow Esther Baena Source Type: research

Understanding iGCA
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00531-8Understanding iGCA (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Louise Stone Source Type: research

An emerging role for immuno-nutrition in patients undergoing radical cystectomy
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 05 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00529-2Malnutrition is a potentially modifiable factor that is associated with considerable morbidity and is prevalent in patients with bladder cancer who are treated with radical cystectomy. Studies suggest a role for immuno-nutrition in optimizing patients’ nutritional status before undergoing this procedure, with the goal of improving patient outcomes. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 5, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Muhannad Alsyouf Hooman Djaladat Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

The relationship between Black men with prostate cancer and their health-care providers
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 04 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00525-6Prostate cancer disproportionately affects Black men; the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. The role of the health-care provider is important in screening for prostate cancer, advising on treatment and ensuring completeness of therapy. Cultural competency is necessary in health-care providers as, for most men in Europe, Australasia and the USA, the ethnicity and/or race of the urologist will be discordant with that of the patient. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Francis I. Chinegwundoh Source Type: research

The MURAL prostate cancer PDX collection
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 04 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00528-3The MURAL prostate cancer PDX collection (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 4, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tim Thomas Source Type: research

Radical prostatectomy — aftercare should not be an afterthought
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 01 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00526-5Focus on quality of life after prostate cancer is vital to improve patient care. Improved assessment and proactive management of post-treatment functional outcomes is essential. Many aspects of the patients’ aftercare need to be improved in order to set up a clear path following prostatectomy. These improvements will enable a timely and efficient escalation of treatment and ameliorate patients’ survivorship experience. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Findlay MacAskill Arun Sahai Majed Shabbir Prokar Dasgupta Tet Yap Paul Cathcart Amy Sandher Karen Briggs Christian Brown Ben Challacombe Rick Popert Raveen Sandher Claire Taylor Sachin Malde Source Type: research

Ibrexafungerp to treat acute vulvovaginal candidiasis
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 21 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00522-9Ibrexafungerp to treat acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maria Chiara Masone Source Type: research

Host–biomaterial interactions in mesh complications after pelvic floor reconstructive surgery
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 20 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00511-yComplications related to the use of mesh in pelvic floor reconstructive surgery are related to a number of factors. This Review discusses the foreign body response, the biomaterial properties of mesh, the patient-specific and surgical risk factors and the failings in mesh development, all of which have contributed to these complications. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 20, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Roxanna E. Abhari Matthew L. Izett-Kay Hayley L. Morris Rufus Cartwright Sarah J. B. Snelling Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 15 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00514-9Cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer is common. The addition of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy with the introduction of potent androgen receptor signalling inhibitors has gained interest in the oncological community. However, conclusions of a survival benefit with this therapy cannot currently be made and results of several phase II trials are much anticipated. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ga ëtan Devos Wout Devlies Gert De Meerleer Marcella Baldewijns Thomas Gevaert Lisa Moris Daimantas Milonas Hendrik Van Poppel Charlien Berghen Wouter Everaerts Frank Claessens Steven Joniau Source Type: research

Refining neoadjuvant therapy clinical trial design for muscle-invasive bladder cancer before cystectomy: a joint US Food and Drug Administration and Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network workshop
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00505-wTrials evaluating novel therapies in the neoadjuvant setting must have clearly defined study elements and appropriately selected end points to ensure the applicability of the trial and enable interpretation of the study results. In this Perspectives, the authors describe the findings of a public workshop jointly sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration and the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network, which discussed key elements and end points when designing trials of neoadjuvant therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. (Source: N...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 10, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elaine Chang Andrea B. Apolo Rick Bangs Stephanie Chisolm Vinay Duddalwar Jason A. Efstathiou Kirsten B. Goldberg Donna E. Hansel Ashish M. Kamat Paul G. Kluetz Seth P. Lerner Elizabeth Plimack Tatiana Prowell Harpreet Singh Daniel Suzman Evan Y. Yu Hui Z Source Type: research

CDH12-expressing cell population predicts patient response to therapy
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 08 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00521-wCDH12-expressing cell population predicts patient response to therapy (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Louise Stone Source Type: research

RAL-P in infants: expert tips for success
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 07 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00519-4Andolfi et al. report on the largest single-institution case series of robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RAL-P) in infants. Transitioning from RAL-P in older children to infants seems to have more to do with patient and port positioning, instrument size and intra-abdominal space than robotic surgical technique. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 7, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marie-Klaire Farrugia Source Type: research

Repercussions of radiotherapy to the metabolism and microbiome
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 01 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00518-5Repercussions of radiotherapy to the metabolism and microbiome (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Louise Stone Source Type: research

Proteomic discovery of non-invasive biomarkers of localized prostate cancer using mass spectrometry
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00500-1Biomarkers that can improve risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer are urgently needed. In this Review, Khoo et al. outline mass spectrometry technologies that enable the systematic discovery and targeted validation of protein-based biomarkers in prostate-associated fluids. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 27, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amanda Khoo Lydia Y. Liu Julius O. Nyalwidhe O. John Semmes Danny Vesprini Michelle R. Downes Paul C. Boutros Stanley K. Liu Thomas Kislinger Source Type: research

Injectable PrEP superior to oral PrEP
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00515-8Injectable PrEP superior to oral PrEP (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 27, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Timothy Thomas Source Type: research

Camrelizumab plus famitinib to treat RCC
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00517-6Camrelizumab plus famitinib to treat RCC (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 27, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Timothy Thomas Source Type: research

Mitomycin C plus cytosine arabinoside for NMIBC
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 27 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00516-7Mitomycin C plus cytosine arabinoside for NMIBC (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 27, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Timothy Thomas Source Type: research

The cognitive effect of anticholinergics for patients with overactive bladder
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 24 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00504-xAnticholinergics are a common class of medication used in the treatment of overactive bladder. However, concerns have been raised over the potential association of anticholinergics and cognitive impairment or dementia. This Review discusses the clinical evidence and provides guidance for prescribing anticholinergics in at-risk populations. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Blayne Welk Kathryn Richardson Jalesh N. Panicker Source Type: research

Prostate cancer screening: a new way forward or another false start?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 19 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00513-wSerum PSA testing can identify men with clinically significant prostate cancer but exposes many more men to the diagnosis of indolent tumours. Benafif and colleagues have published the results of the BARCODE1 pilot study, in which they propose using germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify men with a genetic risk of developing prostate cancer. Based on their preliminary findings, changing the current prostate cancer screening paradigm will be a challenge. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 19, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Peter C. Albertsen Source Type: research

Practical considerations for prostate hypofractionation in the developing world
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 13 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00498-6Conventionally fractionated external beam radiotherapy is an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer, but long treatment programmes result in a substantial burden to patients and the health-care system, which is particularly problematic in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where health-care resources might be scarce and patient funds limited. Here, the authors discuss the outcomes and benefits of hypofractionation — in terms of both oncology and economics — and how it could be used to improve prostate ...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 13, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michael Yan Andre G. Gouveia Fabio L. Cury Nikitha Moideen Vanessa F. Bratti Horacio Patrocinio Alejandro Berlin Lucas C. Mendez Fabio Y. Moraes Source Type: research

Author Correction: Advances in sperm analysis: techniques, discoveries and applications
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00512-xAuthor Correction: Advances in sperm analysis: techniques, discoveries and applications (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 10, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Changsheng Dai Zhuoran Zhang Guanqiao Shan Lap-Tak Chu Zongjie Huang Sergey Moskovtsev Clifford Librach Keith Jarvi Yu Sun Source Type: research

Salvage therapy for prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 06 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00497-7Biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy for intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer is common. However, not all patients with recurrence will die from their disease. This comprehensive Review from a multidisciplinary group discusses the optimal evaluation and management of these patients to ensure balance between treatment-related morbidity and cancer control. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nicholas G. Zaorsky Jeremie Calais Stefano Fanti Derya Tilki Tanya Dorff Daniel E. Spratt Amar U. Kishan Source Type: research

Cutting cholesterol curbs clear cell RCC
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 02 August 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00510-zCutting cholesterol curbs clear cell RCC (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 2, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Louise Stone Source Type: research

On manels and manferences in urology
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00508-7Balancing diversity on panels at academic medical conferences demonstrates a commitment to the principles of diversity and inclusion. However, it seems we have a long way to go in urology, where two-thirds of sessions at major urology meetings still consist of all-male speaker panels. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 30, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Imogen Patterson Sigrid V. Carlsson Source Type: research

177Lu–PSMA-PET extends survival
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00507-8177Lu–PSMA-PET extends survival (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 30, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Peter Sidaway Source Type: research

Incorporating palliative care principles to improve patient care and quality of life in urologic oncology
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 26 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00491-zSociety guidelines recommend incorporating palliative care into standard oncological care. However, misconceptions regarding palliative care are common — notably, palliative care and treatments seeking to cure or prolong life are not mutually exclusive. In this article, the authors discuss the integration of palliative care into surgical urologic oncology and consider palliative care guidelines, indications for palliative care use, and how the field of urologic oncology can adopt best practices. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lee A. Hugar Elizabeth M. Wulff-Burchfield Gary S. Winzelberg Bruce L. Jacobs Benjamin J. Davies Source Type: research

ARVib inhibits signalling to suppress growth
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 26 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00509-6ARVib inhibits signalling to suppress growth (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 26, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

Cellular senescence as a possible link between prostate diseases of the ageing male
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00496-8Senescent cells and their secretome — the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) — cause a systemic pro-inflammatory state, contributing to an inflammatory microenvironment. In this article, the authors discuss the presence of senescent cells and the SASP in the ageing prostate and the evidence for a role of senescence in BPH and prostate cancer, as well as possible therapeutic targeting of these pathways in the future. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gaelle Fiard Vasilis Stavrinides Emma S. Chambers Susan Heavey Alex Freeman Rhys Ball Arne N. Akbar Mark Emberton Source Type: research

Molecular events in neuroendocrine prostate cancer development
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 21 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00490-0Neuroendocrine prostate cancer predominantly develops from adenocarcinoma following a period of androgen suppressive treatment. Outcomes in patients with this disease are poor; the understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its development will improve future targeted therapy options. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yong Wang Yu Wang Xinpei Ci Stephen Y. C. Choi Francesco Crea Dong Lin Yuzhuo Wang Source Type: research

Combination treatment in mHSPC
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 21 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00506-9Combination treatment in mHSPC (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

Using ctDNA to guide immunotherapy for urothelial cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 14 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00503-yUsing ctDNA to guide immunotherapy for urothelial cancer (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

Probiotics to treat chronic bacterial prostatitis
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 12 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00502-zProbiotics to treat chronic bacterial prostatitis (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

The potential of CAR T cell therapy for prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 08 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00488-8Chimeric antigen receptor T cell immunotherapy for prostate cancer has the potential to be combined with other treatment modalities, such as androgen deprivation therapy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy; furthermore, new developments could improve the efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy and this treatment could also be applied as focal therapy for this disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 8, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Philipp Wolf Jamal Alzubi Christian Gratzke Toni Cathomen Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab use in bladder cancer: a tale of two trials
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 06 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00499-5The treatment of patients with the PD1 inhibitor pembrolizumab yields benefit in the second-line metastatic urothelial cancer setting. Two new trials have studied pembrolizumab monotherapy in other patients with urothelial carcinoma: an open-label phase II trial has enrolled patients with high-risk BCG-refractory non-muscle-invasive disease, and a phase III trial has compared three first-line treatment options for patients with metastatic disease. However, these trials have shown conflicting results. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching Source Type: research

Publisher Correction: Exercise-induced myokines and their effect on prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 06 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00501-0Publisher Correction: Exercise-induced myokines and their effect on prostate cancer (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 6, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jin-Soo Kim Daniel A. Galv ão Robert U. Newton Elin Gray Dennis R. Taaffe Source Type: research

Advances in stem cell research for the treatment of primary hypogonadism
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 29 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00480-2Testosterone replacement therapy for the treatment of primary hypogonadism in men is associated with multiple adverse effects including infertility. The re-establishment of testosterone-producing cell lineages using stem-cell-based therapy has had promising results in pre-clinical studies and could be used in transplantation therapy. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lu Li Vassilios Papadopoulos Source Type: research

Using oncolytic viruses to ignite the tumour immune microenvironment in bladder cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 28 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00483-zDespite the success of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) in other tumour types, the majority of ICI-treated patients with bladder cancer fail to respond. This lack of efficacy might be attributable to a lack of pre-existing immune reactive cells within the tumour immune microenvironment, which limits the efficacy of ICI. In this Review, Li and colleagues discuss how oncolytic virus therapy acts as a strategy to attract lymphocytes before implementation of ICI and consider the data supporting the use of combination approaches using oncoly...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 28, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Roger Li Jingsong Zhang Scott M. Gilbert Jos é Conejo-Garcia James J. Mul é Source Type: research

Exercise-induced myokines and their effect on prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 22 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00476-yExercise improves outcomes in prostate cancer, but the mechanisms behind this are poorly understood. This Review discusses exercise-induced blood alterations, with a focus on muscle-secreted myokines, which could have both direct and indirect effects on tumour proliferation. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jin-Soo Kim Daniel A. Galv ão Robert U. Newton Elin Grey Dennis R. Taaffe Source Type: research

Molecular determinants of disease severity in urinary tract infection
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 15 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00477-xIn this Review the authors describe advances in our understanding of the molecular determinants of urinary tract infection pathogenesis, focusing on specific host susceptibility factors and their consequences. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ines Ambite Daniel Butler Murphy Lam Yim Wan Therese Rosenblad Thi Hien Tran Sing Ming Chao Catharina Svanborg Source Type: research

100 years of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin immunotherapy: from cattle to COVID-19
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 15 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00481-1Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) has been used to prevent tuberculosis for a century and is also a standard approach for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, BCG also has a plethora of non-specific effects that occur via the induction of trained immunity and have raised the hypothesis that BCG vaccination could be used to protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this Perspective, the authors describe the history of BCG, discuss the mechanisms of its effects, and consider its potential rol...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Niyati Lobo Nathan A. Brooks Alexandre R. Zlotta Jeffrey D. Cirillo Stephen Boorjian Peter C. Black Joshua J. Meeks Trinity J. Bivalacqua Paolo Gontero Gary D. Steinberg David McConkey Marko Babjuk J. Alfred Witjes Ashish M. Kamat Source Type: research

Mirabegron safe and effective for NDO
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 15 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00494-wMirabegron safe and effective for NDO (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

Adjuvant nivolumab improves survival after radical cystectomy
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 15 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00493-xAdjuvant nivolumab improves survival after radical cystectomy (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

Seminal metabolomics distinguish Gleason grades
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 15 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00495-9Seminal metabolomics distinguish Gleason grades (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 15, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

A PROMPT response to STIs
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 14 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00492-yA PROMPT response to STIs (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Louise Stone Source Type: research

Combination treatment in advanced urothelial carcinoma
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00489-7Combination treatment in advanced urothelial carcinoma (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 10, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 inhibitors show promise in advanced kidney cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 03 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00487-9A new phase I clinical trial has demonstrated that belzutifan provides a route to sustained inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α in humans that is well tolerated and could be useful in the treatment of advanced clear cell kidney cancer. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Natalie Burrows Patrick H. Maxwell Source Type: research

Secondary malignancy after radiotherapy: not always a secondary concern
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 03 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41585-021-00486-wRadiotherapy is one of the most effective modalities for cancer treatment, but radiation-associated secondary malignancies are important potential morbidities. Here, we highlight a recent article that examines radiation-associated muscle-invasive bladder cancer and explore how we as clinicians should consider the management of secondary malignancies. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - June 3, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vishruth K. Reddy Neha Vapiwala Source Type: research