The biology and rationale of targeting nectin-4 in urothelial carcinoma
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00394-5New and more effective treatments are urgently needed for bladder cancer. This Review discusses the role of nectin-4 as a therapeutic target for enfortumab vedotin (an antibody–drug conjugate) in locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma and outlines related clinical data. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 25, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elisabeth I. Heath Jonathan E. Rosenberg Source Type: research

Retzius-sparing RARP: improving functional outcomes
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 25 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00405-5Retzius-sparing prostatectomy is an alternative approach to standard robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Many surgeons advocate this technique as data suggest that it provides better early functional results than the standard approach without compromising oncological outcomes. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 25, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Antonio Galfano Aldo Massimo Bocciardi Source Type: research

Revolutionizing care for rare genitourinary tumours
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 24 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00402-8Management of rare genitourinary malignancies often depends on individual physicians’ discretion, resulting in non-standardized care. Furthermore, patients experience worse clinical outcomes than patients with common malignancies. Collaborative efforts such as the Global Society of Rare Genitourinary Tumors (GSRGT) are therefore necessary. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 24, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Necchi Filippo Pederzoli Marco Bandini Philippe E. Spiess Source Type: research

Sperm ion channels and transporters in male fertility and infertility
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 19 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00390-9Mammalian sperm must respond to a variety of cues, and dynamic regulation of ion signalling is, therefore, essential for sperm cells to adapt to their environment. In this Review, the authors describe the ion channels and membrane receptors controlling sperm activity, in particular the principal Ca2+-selective plasma membrane ion channel CatSper, and consider how sperm ion channels and membrane receptors are attractive targets for therapeutics and how these signalling processes might have implications for assisted reproductive technol...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Huafeng Wang Luke L. McGoldrick Jean-Ju Chung Source Type: research

Cannabinoid signalling and effects of cannabis on the male reproductive system
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 19 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00391-8Many aspects of human male reproduction can be modulated by cannabinoids and endocannabinoids (eCBs). Preclinical studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in negative modulation of testosterone secretion, but the effect of in vivo exposure to cannabinoids on spermatogenesis remains a matter of debate. An improved understanding of the complex crosstalk between cannabinoids and eCBs might enable targeting of the ECS for modulation of human fertility. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mauro Maccarrone Cinzia Rapino Felice Francavilla Arcangelo Barbonetti Source Type: research

Surgical management of high-risk, localized prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00384-7Radical prostatectomy is increasingly used as a first-line treatment for patients with high-risk, localized prostate cancer. Here, Wilkins and colleagues highlight the heterogeneous outcomes of these men and discuss the role of this approach in individualized, multimodal prostate cancer therapy. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lamont J. Wilkins Jeffrey J. Tosoian Debasish Sundi Ashley E. Ross Dominic Grimberg Eric A. Klein Brian F. Chapin Yaw A. Nyame Source Type: research

Patient-derived tumour models for personalized therapeutics in urological cancers
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00389-2In this Review, van de Merbel et al. provide a comprehensive overview of the current patient-derived tumour models in use for urological cancers and discuss their advantages and limitations, as well as their potential for personalized treatment. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Arjanneke F. van de Merbel Geertje van der Horst Gabri van der Pluijm Source Type: research

Combined immune checkpoint inhibition for high-risk urothelial carcinoma
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00398-1Combined immune checkpoint inhibition for high-risk urothelial carcinoma (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

PIEZO2 in urinary function
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00395-4PIEZO2 in urinary function (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tim Thomas Source Type: research

Low prescribing rates of phytotherapy for LUTS
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00397-2Low prescribing rates of phytotherapy for LUTS (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

Serum MMP7 levels could guide metastatic therapy for prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00396-3Serum MMP7 levels could guide metastatic therapy for prostate cancer (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 blockade in advanced urothelial cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00399-0Neoadjuvant anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 blockade in advanced urothelial cancer (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Tregunna Source Type: research

Animal models of naturally occurring stone disease
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 06 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00387-4Animal models that naturally and spontaneously form uroliths — including domestic dogs and cats, and a variety of other captive and wild species, such as otters, dolphins and ferrets — are an underused resource in the study of human stone disease and offer many potential opportunities for improving insight into stone pathogenesis. Improved collaboration between urologists, basic scientists and veterinarians is warranted to further our understanding of how stones form and to consider possible new preventive and therapeutic ...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - November 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ashley Alford Eva Furrow Michael Borofsky Jody Lulich Source Type: research

Urology teaching in UK medical schools: does it prepare doctors adequately?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 21 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00393-6Exposure to urology is essential for medical undergraduates to prepare them with the competencies required to manage basic urological conditions and to generate interest in the specialty. However, despite the existence of national curricula, the lack of urological exposure and falling competition ratios indicate a need for an evaluation of urological teaching in medical schools. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexander Ng Alexander Light Vinson Wai-Shun Chan Aqua Asif Nikita R. Bhatt Veeru Kasivisvanathan Source Type: research

Salvage radiotherapy: a new standard of care
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 19 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00392-7Salvage radiotherapy: a new standard of care (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Peter Sidaway Source Type: research

Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma: biology, natural history and management
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 13 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00382-9In this Review, Blum et al. summarize the current knowledge on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma, a diagnosis characterized by the presence of sarcomatoid dedifferentiation and a poor prognosis. They discuss the origin, presentation, molecular biology and treatment of this disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 13, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kyle A. Blum Sounak Gupta Satish K. Tickoo Timothy A. Chan Paul Russo Robert J. Motzer Jose A. Karam A. Ari Hakimi Source Type: research

Targetable gene fusions and aberrations in genitourinary oncology
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 12 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00379-4This Review summarizes current knowledge of the main gene fusions in genitourinary malignancies, discusses their growing importance in the understanding of the biology of tumours, and highlights their potential use as targets for precision medicine approaches. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 12, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Filippo Pederzoli Marco Bandini Laura Marandino Siraj M. Ali Russell Madison Jon Chung Jeffrey S. Ross Andrea Necchi Source Type: research

The complex genetics of epigenetics in urothelial carcinomas
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 09 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00386-5Cancer sequencing studies have revealed that urothelial carcinomas harbour recurrent mutations in multiple genes that control epigenetics. A major challenge for basic and clinical researchers is to convert this genetic information into biological and pathological insights, as well as to tailor novel therapeutic modalities for individual patients with bladder cancer. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ian J. Frew H. T. Marc Timmers Roland Sch üle Christian Gratzke Source Type: research

Plastic exposure and urological malignancies — an emerging field
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 07 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00385-6Plastics have an integral role in our daily lives but at a considerable cost to the environment and, as we are now learning, to human health. Increased plastic exposure has been linked to compromised endocrine function, reproductive health and semen quality and, potentially, urological cancers. However, the long-term consequences of plastic exposure remain to be seen. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sunil H. Patel Meredith Metcalf Trinity J. Bivalacqua Max Kates Source Type: research

Is PFOA a renal carcinogen?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 06 October 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00388-3Is PFOA a renal carcinogen? (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - October 5, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

The effect of early puberty suppression on treatment options and outcomes in transgender patients
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 23 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0372-2For transgender people who experience gender dysphoria as children, in whom impending puberty is unacceptable for their psychosocial health and wellness, pubertal blockade is a therapeutic option. In this Review, the authors discuss pubertal blockade and its implications for fertility preservation, surgical care and psychosocial health, all of which must be considered and discussed with the patient and their family and/or legal guardian before initiation. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leonidas Panagiotakopoulos Veenod Chulani Atsuko Koyama Krista Childress Michelle Forcier Gwen Grimsby Katherine Greenberg Source Type: research

Biomarkers 101 — personalizing therapy for RCC
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 23 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00380-xBiomarkers 101 — personalizing therapy for RCC (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David Killock Source Type: research

Autonomous surgery in the era of robotic urology: friend or foe of the future surgeon?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 23 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0375-zIn this Perspective, Connor et al. examine the current status of autonomous technologies in robotic-assisted surgery in urology and discuss the future role of the urological surgeon in an era of increasing use of automation and artificial intelligence. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 22, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Martin J. Connor Prokar Dasgupta Hashim U. Ahmed Asif Raza Source Type: research

Psychosocial benefits of sperm banking might outweigh costs
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 21 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00383-8Young-adult cancer survivors report psychosocial distress from infertility. National guidelines recommend pretreatment referrals for sperm cryopreservation, but a study examining use of stored semen among survivors concluded that low uptake might equate to economic unfeasibility. However, examination of sociodemographic factors and psychosocial outcomes suggests that maintaining future opportunities for parenthood might outweigh the ongoing storage costs. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leena Nahata Gwendolyn P. Quinn Source Type: research

Final SPARTAN data show OS benefit
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 18 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00381-wFinal SPARTAN data show OS benefit (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 17, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

Circadian rhythm and erectile function: is there a penile clock?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 17 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00376-7Disruption of the circadian clock has been associated with pathological conditions including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, depression and neurodegenerative diseases. Disturbed sleep patterns have now been associated with reduced erectile function. The mechanisms behind this effect are unclear but could include hypoxia signalling and low testosterone. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 16, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Linda Vignozzi Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Optimizations to keep gonorrhoea treatable and reduce antimicrobial resistance selection
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 14 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00378-5Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae compromises gonorrhoea treatment worldwide. Novel and optimized treatments and/or treatment strategies that effectively eradicate the infection with low selection of resistance are imperative. A new prospective clinical study provides further evidence that resistance-guided treatment of gonorrhoea with single-dose oral ciprofloxacin is efficacious in relevant settings and can reduce the selection pressure for resistance. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 13, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Magnus Unemo Source Type: research

Gender-affirming therapy linked to mental health
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-00377-6Gender-affirming therapy linked to mental health (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Caroline Barranco Source Type: research

Antibiotics impair immunotherapy for urothelial cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 08 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0373-1Pooled clinical trial data reveal that antibiotics worsen progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial cancer receiving anti-PDL1 therapy. Consensus guidelines for antibiotic use in these patients, as well as diagnostic tools and corrective measures, are needed to decrease primary resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lisa Derosa Laurence Zitvogel Source Type: research

DOT1L in prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 07 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0374-0DOT1L in prostate cancer (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - September 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tim Thomas Source Type: research

Current evidence on screening for renal cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 28 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0363-3Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence is increasing worldwide. Here, the authors consider the potential benefits and harms of screening for RCC and discuss whether enough evidence is available to begin a clinical trial of RCC screening. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Juliet Usher-Smith Rebecca K. Simmons Sabrina H. Rossi Grant D. Stewart Source Type: research

Epidemiology, definition and treatment of complicated urinary tract infections
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 25 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0362-4Complicated UTI (cUTI) incidence and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among uropathogens are increasing. Here, the authors discuss different cUTI classification systems, describe current understanding of the aetiology of cUTIs and outline clinical studies of novel antibiotics in patients with cUTIs or pyelonephritis and the use of UTI as a model for other infection types in clinical studies. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 24, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Florian M. E. Wagenlehner Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen Tommaso Cai Bela Koves Jennifer Kranz Adrian Pilatz Zafer Tandogdu Source Type: research

Personalized care for male LUTS: have we attained the holy grail?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 24 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0371-3Personalized decision-making is the ultimate goal of managing men with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostatic obstruction. Urodynamics can provide valuable information in these patients and a recent multicentre randomized trial has highlighted important findings warranting consideration, as well as indicating that further insights are needed. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 23, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sachin Malde Eskinder Solomon Source Type: research

Making love in the time of corona — considering relationships in lockdown
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 20 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0365-1The COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly put a strain on relationships. For some couples, lockdown has meant long periods of separation, whereas for others, lockdown has resulted in months of isolation together. In this Viewpoint, three experts consider the effects of the pandemic on relationships and suggest ways in which lockdown can become a positive experience for couples making love in the time of corona. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 19, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marieke Dewitte Chantelle Otten Lauren Walker Source Type: research

Understanding genomics and the immune environment of penile cancer to improve therapy
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 18 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0359-zIn this Review, Aydin et al. discuss our current knowledge of the genomic, molecular and immunological make-up of penile squamous cell carcinoma and the findings of research studies to explore future therapeutic approaches in this disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 17, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ahmet Murat Aydin Jad Chahoud Jacob J. Adashek Mounsif Azizi Anthony Magliocco Jeffrey S. Ross Andrea Necchi Philippe E. Spiess Source Type: research

NRG1 can promote antiandrogen resistance
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 11 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0370-4NRG1 can promote antiandrogen resistance (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rebecca Kelsey Source Type: research

ADXBLADDER test better than cytology for NMIBC follow-up monitoring
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 11 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0368-yADXBLADDER test better than cytology for NMIBC follow-up monitoring (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

RCT of group versus individual PFMT
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 11 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0367-zRCT of group versus individual PFMT (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

3-monthly HIV screening is best for young MSM
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 11 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0369-x3-monthly HIV screening is best for young MSM (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

cfDNA methylation analysis detects RCC
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 11 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0366-0cfDNA methylation analysis detects RCC (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - August 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tim Thomas Source Type: research

Differential mTORC1 pathways in BHD
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 30 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0364-2Differential mTORC1 pathways in BHD (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Annette Fenner Source Type: research

Depression and prostate cancer: implications for urologists and oncologists
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 30 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0354-4Sharpley et al. describe the prevalence and effects of depression in men with prostate cancer and explore the causes and factors contributing to depression. They discuss depression definitions applicable to this patient population, how depression can be identified in the clinical setting and treatment considerations. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 29, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Christopher F. Sharpley David R. H. Christie Vicki Bitsika Source Type: research

Author Correction: NICE’s rejection of pembrolizumab for platinum-refractory urothelial carcinoma: is there a greater good?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 27 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0361-5Author Correction: NICE’s rejection of pembrolizumab for platinum-refractory urothelial carcinoma: is there a greater good? (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 26, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shilpa Gupta Ashish M. Kamat Source Type: research

The Movember Prostate Cancer Landscape Analysis: an assessment of unmet research needs
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 22 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0349-1The Movember global Landscape Analysis Committee (LAC) was established to act as an independent group of experts across urology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, radiology, pathology, translational research, health economics and patient advocacy to identify the highest priority research needs across the prostate cancer biomedical research domain. Findings from the landscape analysis illustrate the research priorities in prostate cancer and will enable Movember to focus on specific needs, with particular investment in research to reduc...
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 21, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michelle M. Kouspou Jenna E. Fong Nadine Brew Sarah T. F. Hsiao Seanna L. Davidson Peter L. Choyke Tony Crispino Suneil Jain Guido W. Jenster Beatrice S. Knudsen Jeremy L. Millar Nicole Mittmann Charles J. Ryan Bertrand Tombal Mark Buzza Source Type: research

Rethinking prostate cancer screening: could MRI be an alternative screening test?
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 21 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0356-2Here, the authors describe the characteristics of an ideal screening test for prostate cancer and examine why PSA fails to meet these attributes. They discuss whether an abbreviated MRI protocol could be an alternative or additional screening test for prostate cancer and explore its inherent challenges and potential solutions. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 20, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David Eldred-Evans Henry Tam Heminder Sokhi Anwar R. Padhani Mathias Winkler Hashim U. Ahmed Source Type: research

Trained immunity as a molecular mechanism for BCG immunotherapy in bladder cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 16 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0346-4The precise mechanism of action by which BCG acts in bladder cancer therapy is unclear. BCG induces a non-specific enhancement of the biological function of innate immune cells, creating an immunological memory known as trained immunity. In this Perspective, the authors propose that trained immunity could be an important mechanism mediating BCG immunotherapy and could contribute to a personalized approach to BCG therapy in patients with bladder cancer. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 15, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jelmer H. van Puffelen Samuel T. Keating Egbert Oosterwijk Antoine G. van der Heijden Mihai G. Netea Leo A. B. Joosten Sita H. Vermeulen Source Type: research

The immune response to infection in the bladder
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 13 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0350-8Lacerda Mariano and Ingersoll discuss how bacterial urinary tract infection affects the bladder, focusing on the development of immune responses and the cells and pathways that mediate immunity. They also highlight therapeutic approaches to bladder infection that are currently under development. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 12, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Livia Lacerda Mariano Molly A. Ingersoll Source Type: research

Targeting DNA repair defects in prostate cancer
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0360-6Targeting DNA repair defects in prostate cancer (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Clemens Thoma Source Type: research

Tracking prostate cancer development at the single-cell level
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 10 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0358-0A new study describes the effects of androgen status on the different cell types in mouse and human prostates, illustrating the potential of single-cell RNA sequencing to study specific biological processes in unprecedented detail. Translating these new insights into clinical use will increase precision and personalization of prostate cancer treatment. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wout Devlies Frank Claessens Source Type: research

Roles for urothelium in normal and aberrant urinary tract development
Nature Reviews Urology, Published online: 09 July 2020; doi:10.1038/s41585-020-0348-2In this Review, Jackson and colleagues discuss the critical role of the urothelium in both normal urinary tract development and in congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract. Urothelial remodelling in congenital obstructive uropathy is also discussed. (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Source: Nature Reviews Urology - July 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ashley R. Jackson Christina B. Ching Kirk M. McHugh Brian Becknell Source Type: research