High-resolution peripheral quantitative CT in rheumatology
This article is a very informative concise paper on MRI and musculoskeletal ultrasonography. However, we were surprised (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 20, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Cheryl BarnabeStephanie FinzelKathryn S. StokPiet Geusens Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

A pathogenetic role for IL-21 in primary Sjögren syndrome
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 368 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.225 Authors: Seung-Ki Kwok, Jennifer Lee, Di Yu, Kwi Young Kang, Mi-La Cho, Hae-Rim Kim, Ji Hyeon Ju, Sang-Heon Lee, Sung-Hwan Park & Ho-Youn Kim Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) characterize it as a highly complex process encompassing both the initiation of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive immune responses. IL-21 is receiving attention as a potential key player in the pathogenesis of pSS (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 13, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Seung-Ki KwokJennifer LeeDi YuKwi Young KangMi-La ChoHae-Rim KimJi Hyeon JuSang-Heon LeeSung-Hwan ParkHo-Youn Kim Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: hitting the target
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 290 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.212 Authors: Claas Hinze, Faekah Gohar & Dirk Foell The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is evolving. The growing number of effective drugs has led to successful treatment and prevention of long-term sequelae in most patients. Although patients with JIA frequently achieve lasting clinical remission, sustained remission off medication is still elusive for (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 6, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Claas HinzeFaekah GoharDirk Foell Tags: Review Source Type: research

Osteoimmunology in 2014: Two-faced immunology—from osteogenesis to bone resorption
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 74 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.219 Author: Hiroshi Takayanagi Even though activation of immunity is associated with bone destruction, new mechanisms have been described in 2014 through which immunology-associated pathways can cooperate to support osteogenesis. These advances support the view of the immune system as a central mechanism which can regulate bone homeostasis, regeneration and destruction. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 6, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Hiroshi Takayanagi Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Systemic sclerosis in 2014: Advances in cohort enrichment shape future of trial design
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 72 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.222 Authors: Yannick Allanore & Oliver Distler The treatment and study of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is entering a new era with the reporting and preparation of several randomized controlled trials according to an improved understanding of SSc pathogenesis. Advances in trial designs reported in 2014 should now be built upon with further improvements to patient selection to enable targeting of therapies to specific subgroups of patients with SSc. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 6, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Yannick AllanoreOliver Distler Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Paediatric rheumatology in 2014: Digging deeper for greater precision and more impact in JIA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 70 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.224 Authors: Berent Prakken & Alberto Martini Optimizing the management of childhood arthritis requires detailed knowledge of the disease in an individual patient. Advances in 2014 show how in-depth genetic studies and insights into immunopathogenesis could translate into clinical biomarkers and, eventually, individualized therapy. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 6, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Berent PrakkenAlberto Martini Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Connective tissue diseases: Adipocyte–myofibroblast transition: linking intradermal fat loss to skin fibrosis in SSc
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 63 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.223 Author: Sarah Onuora Myofibroblasts are considered the primary fibrogenic effector cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the origin of these cells within fibrotic lesions is a matter of debate. A new study published in Arthritis & Rheumatology shows that the majority of dermal myofibroblasts in fibrotic skin (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 6, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Origin and function of cartilage stem/progenitor cells in osteoarthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 206 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.200 Authors: Yangzi Jiang & Rocky S. Tuan Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. Injury to cartilage often progresses spatiotemporally from the articular surface to the subchondral bone, leading to development of degenerative joint (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 23, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Yangzi JiangRocky S. Tuan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Sequencing the functional antibody repertoire—diagnostic and therapeutic discovery
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 171 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.220 Author: William H. Robinson The development of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies has enabled large-scale characterization of functional antibody repertoires, a new method of understanding protective and pathogenic immune responses. Important parameters to consider when sequencing antibody repertoires include the methodology, the B-cell population and clinical characteristics of the individuals (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 23, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: William H. Robinson Tags: Review Source Type: research

A vascular mechanistic approach to understanding Raynaud phenomenon
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 146 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.195 Author: Nicholas A. Flavahan During exposure to cold, our bodies attempt to maintain normal core temperature by restricting heat loss through cutaneous vasoconstriction, and by increasing heat production through shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis. In selected areas of human skin (including on the fingers and toes), the vascular system has (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 23, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Nicholas A. Flavahan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis in 2014: Exciting times for RA research
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 69 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.216 Author: Paul Emery 2014 saw the emergence of a novel rheumatoid arthritis therapy to rival methotrexate, as well as advances in our understanding of mouse T-cell biology and of the cross-talk between the nervous system and the immune system. How will these advances affect the future of rheumatoid arthritis research and therapy? (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 23, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Paul Emery Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Clinical genetics in 2014: New monogenic diseases span the immunological disease continuum
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 67 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.215 Authors: Sinisa Savic & Michael F. McDermott Three monogenic diseases, with features of both autoinflammation and autoimmunity, were described for the first time in 2014. As well as providing insights into the molecular basis of several rare immunological disorders, the discoveries have implications for their diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 23, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sinisa SavicMichael F. McDermott Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Advances in biomarkers for paediatric rheumatic diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 265 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.208 Authors: Alessandro Consolaro, Giulia C. Varnier, Alberto Martini & Angelo Ravelli The search for biomarkers in paediatric rheumatic diseases, particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood lupus nephritis (LN), and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) is attracting increased interest. In JIA, a number of biomarkers have shown potential for predicting clinical phenotype, disease activity and severity, clinical (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 16, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Alessandro ConsolaroGiulia C. VarnierAlberto MartiniAngelo Ravelli Tags: Review Source Type: research

TLR4 signalling in osteoarthritis—finding targets for candidate DMOADs
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 159 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.209 Authors: Rodolfo Gómez, Amanda Villalvilla, Raquel Largo, Oreste Gualillo & Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common rheumatic disease, is characterized by joint-space narrowing due to progressive cartilage degradation and alterations in subchondral bone and the synovial membrane. These articular disturbances can have severe consequences, including pain, disability and loss of joint architectural integrity. Although the aetiology (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 16, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rodolfo GómezAmanda VillalvillaRaquel LargoOreste GualilloGabriel Herrero-Beaumont Tags: Review Source Type: research

Genetics: Mapping autoimmune disease epigenetics: what's on the horizon?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 131 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.210 Authors: Chrysothemis C. Brown & Lucy R. Wedderburn Can a patient's genotype provide insight into the mechanistic basis of autoimmune disease? A study integrating epigenetic data with finely mapped disease-associated variants sheds light on how noncoding variants might alter gene expression within specific immune cells, and hints at new possibilities for individualizing treatment of autoimmune rheumatic disorders. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 16, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Chrysothemis C. BrownLucy R. Wedderburn Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis in 2014: Changing how we define and treat patients with OA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 65 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.211 Authors: Rebecca F. Moyer & David J. Hunter Important advances in 2014 foster new perspectives on definitions of early and end-stage disease, and promote a shift in the clinical management of osteoarthritis (OA) through implementing treatment algorithms intended to minimize strain on current health-care models. Collectively, these changes shed new light on developing and optimizing approaches to OA treatment. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 16, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rebecca F. MoyerDavid J. Hunter Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: MicroRNA-mediated meniscal injury repair in rats
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 64 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.214 Author: Jenny Buckland The avascular nature of approximately two-thirds of the meniscus means that damage to this tissue can be difficult to repair and outcomes of current surgical procedures are often unsatisfactory. In search of new treatment approaches Kawanishi et al. investigated the therapeutic potential of (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 16, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jenny Buckland Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Inflammation feeds inflammation—HDAC5 downregulation leads to activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in RA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 64 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.213 Author: João H. Duarte New research in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases has revealed that IL-1β and TNF suppress the expression of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an effect that leads to an increase in the production of inflammatory (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 16, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: João H. Duarte Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vaccination of patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 135 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.206 Authors: Johanna Westra, Christien Rondaan, Sander van Assen & Marc Bijl Patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) are at increased risk of infections. This risk has been further increased by the introduction of biologic agents over the past two decades. One of the most effective strategies to prevent infection is vaccination. However, patients with an (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 9, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Johanna WestraChristien RondaanSander van AssenMarc Bijl Tags: Review Source Type: research

Spondyloarthropathies: Gut dysbiosis in ankylosing spondylitis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 1 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.207 Author: Caroline Barranco Evidence is accumulating for a role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of several spondyloarthropathies, including psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Newly published evidence now reveals a discrete microbial signature in the terminal ileum of patients with AS, versus healthy controls. “This finding (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - December 9, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Caroline Barranco Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Alternative pathways of osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory arthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 189 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.198 Authors: Iannis E. Adamopoulos & Elizabeth D. Mellins Osteoclasts are cells of haematopoietic origin that are uniquely specialized to degrade bone. Under physiological conditions, the osteoclastogenesis pathway depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1, also known as M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). However, an emerging hypothesis is that (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Iannis E. AdamopoulosElizabeth D. Mellins Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Autoimmunity: Basophils in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 129 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.199 Authors: Meenu Sharma & Jagadeesh Bayry Basophils are classically known for their pathogenic role in asthma and allergic skin conditions. However, reports suggest that basophil activation mediated by autoreactive IgE, thymic stromal lymphopoietin or Toll-like receptors has an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, eosinophilic oesophagitis and IgG4-related diseases, respectively. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Meenu SharmaJagadeesh Bayry Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Exercise as an anti-inflammatory therapy for rheumatic diseases—myokine regulation
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 86 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.193 Authors: Fabiana B. Benatti & Bente K. Pedersen Persistent systemic inflammation, a typical feature of inflammatory rheumatic diseases, is associated with a high cardiovascular risk and predisposes to metabolic disorders and muscle wasting. These disorders can lead to disability and decreased physical activity, exacerbating inflammation and the development of a network of chronic (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Fabiana B. BenattiBente K. Pedersen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: Arthroscopic debridement and capsular release in OA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 2 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.204 Isolated arthroscopic debridement and capsular release, in the absence of any other procedures, were associated with only temporary pain relief and improvement in motion in patients with shoulder osteoarthritis, according to a retrospective review of 33 patients seen by a single surgeon at Washington University. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: Multitarget induction therapy versus cyclophosphamide
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 2 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.203 In a 24-week study of adults with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, multitarget therapy with tacrolimus (4 mg/day) and mycophenolate mofetil (1 g/day) was more efficacious than intravenous cyclophosphamide (starting dose 0.75 and adjusted to 0.5–1.0 g/m2 body surface area every 4 weeks) as an (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vasculitis syndromes: Rituximab as remission maintenance therapy
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 2 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.202 Induction therapy with cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids results in remission in most patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis; however, many patients relapse on maintenance therapy with azathioprine or methotrexate. A study has now compared relapse rates in patients with vasculitis in complete remission (n (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Optimizing withdrawal of therapy to sustain remission
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 2 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.201 Author: Nicholas J. Bernard Two new rheumatoid arthritis (RA) trials report sustained remission after withdrawal of methotrexate plus biologic combination therapy, one with abatacept, published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, and the other with etanercept, published in The New England Journal of Medicine. Lead author of (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 25, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Nicholas J. Bernard Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Seronegative and seropositive RA: alike but different?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 8 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.194 Authors: Sofia Ajeganova & Tom W. J. Huizinga The presence or absence of autoantibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can guide clinical practice, but the role of autoantibody status in 'real life' is unclear. A cohort study from Canada provides clinical perspective on the presentation, prognosis and efficacy of treatment of patients with autoantibody-negative RA. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 18, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sofia AjeganovaTom W. J. Huizinga Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

The changing clinical picture and epidemiology of spondyloarthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 110 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.181 Author: Astrid van Tubergen In the past decade, major progress has been made in the recognition, classification and treatment of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Classification criteria have been developed for axial and peripheral SpA by the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) as a response to new insight into the clinical (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Astrid van Tubergen Tags: Review Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: who to treat with what agent?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 98 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.188 Authors: René Rizzoli & Emmanuel Biver Among the adverse events of glucocorticoid treatment are bone loss and fractures. Despite available, effective preventive measures, many patients receiving or initiating glucocorticoid therapy are not appropriately evaluated and treated for bone health and fracture risk. Populations with, or at risk of, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: René RizzoliEmmanuel Biver Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Developing new oral targeted therapies for RA can be challenging
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 4 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.187 Author: Roy M. Fleischmann The positive results of the phase II programme of fostamatinib, developed to target the spleen tyrosine kinase pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have not been replicated in phase III. What implications might the results have for the development of other oral inhibitors of intracellular kinases in the treatment of RA? (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Roy M. Fleischmann Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Connective tissue diseases: New criteria improve recognition of early systemic sclerosis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 3 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.191 Authors: Yoshihide Asano & Shinichi Sato In systemic sclerosis (SSc), new classification criteria highly sensitive to early and limited forms of the disease could facilitate not only the recognition of early SSc, but also the discovery of biomarkers of poor prognosis, with potential benefits for conducting clinical trials. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Yoshihide AsanoShinichi Sato Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Connective tissue diseases: Deficient antigen-specific T cell responses in SLE-prone mice
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 700 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.196 Author: João H. Duarte Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with this disease. In a study published in PLoS ONE, Lieberman and Tsokos show that lupus-prone mice have lower antigen-specific T cell responses to (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: João H. Duarte Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Inflammatory arthritis: Blood coagulation factor drives arthritis pathogenesis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 700 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.192 Author: Sarah Onuora Research now published in Blood reveals that the thrombin-activated coagulation transglutaminase factor XIII (fXIII) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis, contributing to the disease through distinct mechanisms linked to local joint inflammation and altered osteoclast function.“Elevated coagulation system activity, (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Methotrexate and bridging glucocorticoids in early RA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 698 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.197 Author: Sarah Onuora Intensive treat-to-target strategies are widely recommended for the initial treatment of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but questions remain about the ideal dosage and combination of drugs. The 16-week results of the care in early RA (CareRA) study suggest that, in a tight control (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 11, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatology in India—quo vadis?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 183 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.182 Author: Rohini Handa Rheumatology has been a neglected subspecialty in India. A staggering patient load, a severely inadequate number of trained rheumatology specialists, therapeutic nihilism and limited advocacy are some of the critical challenges that confront rheumatology care, and possibly explain the high rates of reliance on complementary (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 4, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Rohini Handa Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: Epigenetics of articular cartilage in knee and hip OA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 6 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.189 Authors: John Loughlin & Louise N. Reynard Epigenetic regulation is a vital driver of the aetiology of human disease, with research breakthroughs now occurring on a regular basis. Several studies investigating CpG methylation of cartilage DNA from patients with osteoarthritis are generating exciting insight into this common but complex disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 4, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: John LoughlinLouise N. Reynard Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Autoimmunity: Engineering mice to identify autoreactive T-cell antigens
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 697 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.190 Author: Nicholas J. Bernard Now published in the journal Science, Professor Shimon Sakaguchi and colleagues present a novel method of autoantigen discovery and a proof-of-principle, showing that the 60S ribosomal protein L23a (RPL23A) is an arthritogenic T-cell autoantigen. “By attenuation of T-cell receptor (TCR) signal strength,” says Sakaguchi, (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - November 4, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Nicholas J. Bernard Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Advances in arthroscopy—indications and therapeutic applications
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 77 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.174 Authors: Andrew J. Carr, Andrew J. Price, Sion Glyn-Jones & Jonathan L. Rees Advances in optical technology, instrumentation and implants now enable arthroscopic surgery to be performed on all large joints and most small joints of the limbs. Arthroscopic techniques are usually a development of surgical procedures previously performed through a large open incision, although the critical element (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 28, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Andrew J. CarrAndrew J. PriceSion Glyn-JonesJonathan L. Rees Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Anti-TNF and anti-IL-17 antibodies—better together!
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 699 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.183 Author: Jenny Buckland Combined blockade of TNF and IL-17 could be a therapeutic approach for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who fail to respond, or who lose responsiveness, to single-cytokine inhibition, according to a paper now published in Arthritis & Rheumatology.Georg Schett and colleagues from the (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 28, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jenny Buckland Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Connective tissue diseases: Disease activity in systemic sclerosis—now you see me
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 698 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.186 Could nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) be useful to assess disease activity in patients with systemic sclerosis, as well as for diagnostic and staging purposes? The results of a new cross-sectional study suggest they can. NVC and automated image analysis was used to assess all eight fingers (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 28, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid therapy in severe rhizarthrosis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 698 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.185 A recent report shows that intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid or betamethasone are similarly effective and well-tolerated treatments for Kellgren–Lawrence grade II–III rhizarthrosis. However, in the most severely affected patients (baseline functional index score ≥5 and pain score ≥3), hyaluronic acid led to substantially improved (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 28, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: Leptin levels linked to obesity-related knee OA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 698 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.184 Levels of the proinflammatory adipokine leptin contribute nearly half of the total effect of obesity on knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to a study using two different methods of mediation analysis. These findings add to the accumulating evidence of a pathogenetic role for metabolic factors (including (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 28, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Choline kinase—more than a cancer therapy target?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 699 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.180 Author: Nicholas J. Bernard “Blocking choline kinase suppressed the aggressive behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis and was highly effective in a preclinical model of arthritis,” says Monica Guma, corresponding author of a study published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.Choline kinase is a phosphotransferase enzyme (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 21, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Nicholas J. Bernard Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Sorting out the risks in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 119 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.167 Authors: Leonard H. Calabrese, Eamonn Molloy & Joseph Berger Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, opportunistic infection of the central nervous system, caused by reactivation of the ubiquitous JC virus. PML is a devastating disease that is frequently fatal, and although survival rates have improved, patients who survive PML often experience considerable neurological (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 14, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Leonard H. CalabreseEamonn MolloyJoseph Berger Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Connective tissue diseases: Primigravida is a risk factor for SLE flare
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 636 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.179 A retrospective analysis of 120 pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) identified first pregnancy as a risk factor for flare of disease activity during pregnancy. The investigators identified 47 episodes of flare (relapse rate 37.9%), the most common manifestations of which were renal, joint, (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 14, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Complementary and alternative therapy: No benefit from acupuncture for chronic knee pain
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 636 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.178 In a study in patients aged ≥50 years with moderate or severe chronic knee pain, neither laser acupuncture nor needle acupuncture was effective for improving pain or function. The trial allocated 282 community volunteers to treatment with needle acupuncture (n = 70), laser (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 14, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Spondyloarthropathies: Therapy influences herpes zoster risk in patients with PsA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 636 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.177 The risk of herpes zoster in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is influenced by a number of factors, according to a retrospective cohort study of 3,128 patients. A total of 182 herpes zoster events were recorded in the database between 2002 and 2013. Grouping of (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 14, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: Animal data show VEGF blocker inhibits post-traumatic OA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 10, 638 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.173 Author: Caroline Barranco Early treatment with the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab retards the development of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to new results published in Arthritis Research & Therapy.Masato Sato and colleagues' study shows that systemic bevacizumab treatment reduces synovitis, osteophyte formation and articular cartilage degradation in (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - October 7, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Caroline Barranco Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Fracture healing: mechanisms and interventions
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 11, 45 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.164 Authors: Thomas A. Einhorn & Louis C. Gerstenfeld Fractures are the most common large-organ, traumatic injuries to humans. The repair of bone fractures is a postnatal regenerative process that recapitulates many of the ontological events of embryonic skeletal development. Although fracture repair usually restores the damaged skeletal organ to its pre-injury cellular composition, (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - September 30, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Thomas A. EinhornLouis C. Gerstenfeld Tags: Review Source Type: research