Metabolic regulation of inflammation
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 267 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.37 Authors: Timo Gaber, Cindy Strehl & Frank Buttgereit Immune cells constantly patrol the body via the bloodstream and migrate into multiple tissues where they face variable and sometimes demanding environmental conditions. Nutrient and oxygen availability can vary during homeostasis, and especially during the course of an immune response, creating a demand for immune (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Timo Gaber Cindy Strehl Frank Buttgereit Tags: Review Source Type: research

Systemic lupus erythematosus: Defective CD11b raises IFN levels in SLE
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 259 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.44 Author: Joanna Collison Genetic variants of ITGAM that produce integrin αM (also known as CD11b) with reduced activity are associated with increased levels of type I interferon (IFN) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), according to new research. “Mutations in the coding region of ITGAM, (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Therapy: Monitoring risk of anterior uveitis in AS
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 258 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.48 Author: Jessica McHugh In a study of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the rate of anterior uveitis was reduced upon treatment with adalimumab (n = 406) or infliximab (n = 605) compared with pretreatment rates. The opposite was seen in patients receiving etanercept treatment (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Risk Factors: Generational differences in arthritis prevalence
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 258 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.47 Author: Jessica McHugh A longitudinal study of four birth cohorts (1935–1944, n = 1,598; 1945–1954, n = 2,208; 1955–1964, n = 2,781; and 1965–1974, n = 2,230) found that succeeding generations had a higher prevalence of arthritis. Various risk factors were associated with arthritis (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: A new tool for measuring synovial inflammation
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 258 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.46 Author: Jessica McHugh Researchers have developed a new method for measuring knee joint effusion-synovitis volume, an MRI marker of synovial inflammation. This new approach gave reproducible volume measurements that were highly correlated with effusion-synovitis scores. In patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis who had low baseline levels of vitamin (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Infection: Therapeutics and risk of infection in pregnancy
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 258 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.45 Author: Jessica McHugh Data from a large-scale observational study of pregnant women with systemic inflammatory conditions (n = 4,961) shows that the risk of serious infection is similar among those taking steroids (3.4%), non-biologics (2.3%) or TNF inhibitors (1.5%). Comparisons between these groups found no statistically (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Spondyloarthropathies: How should axial spondyloarthritis be diagnosed?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 264 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.38 Authors: Jürgen Braun & Uta Kiltz Results from a cohort study are challenging the diagnostic algorithm proposed by the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society by showing that rheumatologists are not always confirming a diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis in patients with multiple features of spondyloarthritis. How will these results affect the future development of classification criteria? (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 16, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: J ürgen Braun Uta Kiltz Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Lupus nephritis: Novel role for BAFF in tertiary lymphoid neogenesis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 260 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.40 Author: Joanna Collison Research published in The Journal of Immunology reveals an unexpected role for B cell activating factor (BAFF, also known as TNF super family member 13B) in the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) in the kidneys of lupus-prone mice. “Although the presence of TLSs (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 16, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Systemic sclerosis: Knocking out FLI1 to clear the AIRE
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 259 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.39 Author: Jessica McHugh A new mouse model has shed light on the autoimmune phenotype observed in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and the unexplained tissue specificity of this disease. In this mouse model, conditional deletion of the transcription factor FLI1 in epithelial cells recapitulates the disease phenotype observed in patients (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 16, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Beyond citrullination: other post-translational protein modifications in rheumatoid arthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 331 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.15 Authors: Leendert A. Trouw, Theo Rispens & Rene E. M. Toes The presence of autoantibodies is one of the hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the past few decades, rheumatoid factors (autoantibodies that recognize the Fc-tail of immunoglobulins) as well as anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) have been studied intensively. ACPAs recognize post-translationally modified proteins in which (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Leendert A. Trouw Theo Rispens Rene E. M. Toes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Bone: Osteoblasts and global energy metabolism – beyond osteocalcin
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 261 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.35 Authors: Hong Zhou & Markus J. Seibel There is mounting evidence that osteoblasts are involved in the regulation of global energy metabolism. Although osteocalcin signalling remains important, the complexity of systemic energy storage and expenditure makes it likely that hitherto unknown factors are also involved in osteoblast-mediated regulation of metabolism. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Hong Zhou Markus J. Seibel Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Beyond TNF: TNF superfamily cytokines as targets for the treatment of rheumatic diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 217 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.22 Authors: Michael Croft & Richard M. Siegel TNF blockers are highly efficacious at dampening inflammation and reducing symptoms in rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and also in nonrheumatic syndromes such as inflammatory bowel disease. As TNF belongs to a superfamily of 19 structurally related proteins that (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Michael Croft Richard M. Siegel Tags: Review Source Type: research

Connective tissue diseases: Sj ögren syndrome genetics vary according to ancestry
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 202 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.36 Authors: Tove Ragna Reksten & Roland Jonsson A pioneering new study scrutinising the genetic aetiology of Sjögren syndrome across different ancestries and clinical subtypes shows that the striking heterogeneity of associations observed in Sjögren syndrome cannot be explained by subphenotype differences alone. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tove Ragna Reksten Roland Jonsson Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Systemic sclerosis: Antifibrotic effects of PDE4 blockade?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 198 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.34 Author: Sarah Onuora New research published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases suggests inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) could have disease-modifying antifibrotic effects in systemic sclerosis (SSc), particularly in those patients with inflammation-driven fibrosis. In preclinical models of SSc, PDE4 blockade prevented progression of chronic fibrosis and (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Experimental arthritis: Do you want to treat arthritis? IDO2!
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 196 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.33 Author: Joanna Collison Therapeutically targeting indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) using a specific monoclonal antibody alleviates experimental arthritis, according to new findings published in Clinical Immunology. “Treatment with anti-IDO2 antibody inhibits autoreactive T and B cell responses and alleviates joint inflammation in the KRN preclinical model of autoimmune (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Immunometabolism: IL-37 fights inflammation-induced fatigue
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 258 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.28 Author: Sarah Onuora New research by Giulio Cavalli and colleagues shows that the IL-1 family cytokine IL-37 not only has anti-inflammatory effects, but also induces metabolic reprogramming both in the context of inflammation-induced fatigue and in healthy mice. “We demonstrate a remarkable property of IL-37 to limit the (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The emerging safety profile of JAK inhibitors in rheumatic disease
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 234 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.23 Author: Kevin L. Winthrop Tofacitinib is the first Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor commercially approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This compound and a number of other JAK inhibitors are currently being tested in phase II and III trials for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Kevin L. Winthrop Tags: Review Source Type: research

Gout: Risk of premature death in gout unchanged for years
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 200 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.27 Authors: Chang-Fu Kuo & Shue-Fen Luo The increased risk of mortality in patients with gout is increasingly recognized, and multiple guidelines call for better management of this disease and its comorbidities. A new study, however, has found that excess mortality in patients with gout has remained unchanged since 1999. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Chang-Fu Kuo Shue-Fen Luo Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Baricitinib more effective than adalimumab
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 197 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.32 Author: Jessica McHugh Treatment with baricitinib, an orally administered inhibitor of Janus kinases 1 and 2, improved clinical features in patients with active RA and an inadequate response to methotrexate, and was more effective than adalimumab or placebo. 70% of patients treated with 4mg baricitinib daily achieved an (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Sirukumab effective in patients refractory to anti-TNF therapy
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 197 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.31 Author: Jessica McHugh In the phase III SIRROUND-T study, treatment with the IL-6-specific antibody sirukumab was well tolerated and showed clinical efficacy in patients with RA refractory to anti-TNF therapy. At week 16, 40% (117 of 292) of patients treated with 50 mg sirukumab every 4 weeks and (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vasculitis syndromes: Shared genetic risk for Beh çet disease and Crohn's disease
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 197 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.30 Author: Jessica McHugh Genotyping analysis of a Turkish cohort of 1,900 patients with Behçet disease and 1,779 controls, in addition to two replication cohorts, adds ADO–EGR2, RIPK2, LACC1, and IRF8 to the list of known suspectibility loci shared by Behçet disease and Crohn's disease. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: The lung as a site for anti-CCP generation?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 197 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.29 Author: Jessica McHugh In a study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with RA, 70% (14 of 20) and 25% (17 of 67), respectively, tested positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in their sputum, including some FDRs who were seronegative. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - March 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 244 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.7 Authors: Joost F. Swart, Eveline M. Delemarre, Femke van Wijk, Jaap-Jan Boelens, Jürgen Kuball, Jacob M. van Laar & Nico M. Wulffraat Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that is able to induce long-term, drug-free and symptom-free remission in several refractory autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Over 3,000 HSCT procedures for rheumatic and nonrheumatic severe autoimmune diseases have been performed worldwide. Specific conditioning regimens are (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joost F. Swart Eveline M. Delemarre Femke van Wijk Jaap-Jan Boelens J ürgen Kuball Jacob M. van Laar Nico M. Wulffraat Tags: Review Source Type: research

Spondyloarthropathies: Fine tuning the management of axial spondyloarthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 199 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.24 Authors: Daniel Wendling & Clément Prati Updated recommendations for the management of axial spondyloarthritis provide a useful framework for physicians treating this disease. However, the guidance on use of biologic therapies and treat-to-target strategies seems to raise more questions than it answers. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Daniel Wendling Cl ément Prati Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Spondyloarthropathies: E. coli links IBD to spondyloarthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 198 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.26 Author: Dario Ummarino Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but the mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been clarified. In a new study, Viladomiu and colleagues found that IgA-coated Escherichia Coli are enriched in patients with Crohn's disease-associated (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Dario Ummarino Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Inflammation: Hit the DEK!
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 196 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.25 Author: Sarah Onuora An aptamer targeting the nuclear chromatin protein DEK blocks neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and the development of arthritis in a mouse model, according to new research published in Nature Communications. “As DEK has been implicated in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 23, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Insight into rheumatological cause and effect through the use of Mendelian randomization
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 193 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.18 Author: Philip C. Robinson, Hyon K. Choi, Ron Do & Tony R. Merriman Nature Reviews Rheumatology12, 486–496 (2016) doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.102In the originally published version of the above Review, in the left-hand panel of Figure 2b the residuals were represented by horizontal rather than vertical double-headed arrows between the individual data (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 22, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Philip C. Robinson Hyon K. Choi Ron Do Tony R. Merriman Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Acute inflammatory arthritis: Potential therapies for chikungunya arthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 196 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.21 Author: Jessica McHugh Targeting T cells is emerging as a promising strategy for the treatment of chikungunya arthritis. Two independent studies published in Science Translational Medicine demonstrated amelioration of disease when targeting pathogenic CD4+ T cells in mice infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV).CHIKV disease (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 16, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: New player in RA pathogenesis brought to light
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 195 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.19 Author: Joanna Collison A novel subset of T cells is responsible for driving autoantibody production by B cells in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to new research published in Nature. These cells, dubbed T 'peripheral helper' cells, are expanded in patients with seropositive (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 16, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

What rheumatologists need to know about CRISPR/Cas9
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 205 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.6 Authors: Gary J. Gibson & Maozhou Yang CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has taken the research world by storm since its use in eukaryotes was first proposed in 2012. Publications describing advances in technology and new applications have continued at an unrelenting pace since that time. In this Review, we discuss the application (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Gary J. Gibson Maozhou Yang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Autophagy: controlling cell fate in rheumatic diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 193 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.17 Author: Jason S. Rockel & Mohit Kapoor Nature Reviews Rheumatology12, 517–53110.1038/nrrheum.2016.92(2016)In the above article, the sentence “The ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7 ubiquitylates autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) so that it can form a functional complex with ubiquitin-like protein ATG12” should have appeared as “The (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jason S. Rockel Mohit Kapoor Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Cartilage-targeting drug delivery: can electrostatic interactions help?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 183 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.210 Authors: Ambika G. Bajpayee & Alan J. Grodzinsky Current intra-articular drug delivery methods do not guarantee sufficient drug penetration into cartilage tissue to reach cell and matrix targets at the concentrations necessary to elicit the desired biological response. Here, we provide our perspective on the utilization of charge–charge (electrostatic) interactions to enhance drug (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Ambika G. Bajpayee Alan J. Grodzinsky Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research

Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in rheumatic autoimmune diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 141 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.217 Authors: Michele Bombardieri, Myles Lewis & Costantino Pitzalis Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis often occurs in the target tissues of patients with chronic rheumatic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome and other connective tissue disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus and myositis. However, the mechanisms of ectopic lymphoid-like structure (ELS) formation and function are (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Michele Bombardieri Myles Lewis Costantino Pitzalis Tags: Review Source Type: research

Paediatric rheumatic diseases: Navigating the transition from paediatric to adult care
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 138 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.16 Authors: Erica F. Lawson & Elizabeth D. Mellins New guidelines from EULAR and the Paediatric Rheumatology European Society recommend a set of quality standards for the care of young adults with childhood-onset rheumatic diseases during their transfer from paediatric to adult rheumatology care providers. Can the application of these guidelines prevent patients from getting lost in the system? (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Erica F. Lawson Elizabeth D. Mellins Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Inflammatory myopathies: Genetic associations with IBM
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 131 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.8 Author: Jessica McHugh The HLA region is strongly associated with inclusion body myositis (IBM), according to new findings published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, confirming an immune-related genetic component in this subtype of myositis. “While a degenerative component is recognised [in IBM], this is the first study to (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis: UCMA links cartilage and bone in OA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 130 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.9 Author: Sarah Onuora Changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone are interconnected in osteoarthritis (OA), but the molecular mechanisms underlying bone–cartilage interactions are incompletely understood. New research shows that the chondrocyte-specific protein unique cartilage matrix-associated protein (UCMA, also known as upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Vasculitis syndromes: Loss of immunoinhibitory checkpoint implicated in GCA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 129 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.20 Author: Sarah Onuora Therapeutic blockade of immunoinhibitory checkpoints has proved phenomenally successful in the treatment of many cancers: by hindering the function of inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), checkpoint blockers 'unleash' anti-tumour immune responses. However, the effects of immune checkpoint deficiency on susceptibility (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 9, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Sarah Onuora Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Mixing omics: combining genetics and metabolomics to study rheumatic diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 174 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.5 Authors: Cristina Menni, Jonas Zierer, Ana M. Valdes & Tim D. Spector Metabolomics is an exciting field in systems biology that provides a direct readout of the biochemical activities taking place within an individual at a particular point in time. Metabolite levels are influenced by many factors, including disease status, environment, medications, diet and, importantly, genetics. Thanks (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Cristina Menni Jonas Zierer Ana M. Valdes Tim D. Spector Tags: Review Source Type: research

Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity: emerging regulators in rheumatic diseases
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 164 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.218 Authors: Medya M. Shikhagaie, Kristine Germar, Suzanne M. Bal, Xavier Romero Ros & Hergen Spits Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Medya M. Shikhagaie Kristine Germar Suzanne M. Bal Xavier Romero Ros Hergen Spits Tags: Review Source Type: research

The changing role of TGF β in healthy, ageing and osteoarthritic joints
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 155 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.219 Author: Peter M. van der Kraan Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is a pleiotropic cytokine that is important in the regulation of joint homeostasis and disease. TGFβ signalling is induced by loading and has an important function in maintaining the differentiated phenotype of articular chondrocytes. Concentrations of active TGFβ differ greatly between (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Peter M. van der Kraan Tags: Review Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Defective IL-10-producing Breg cells
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 132 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.10 Author: Dario Ummarino IL-10-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells are defective and exist in fewer numbers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with healthy individuals, according to new research. “We have found a significantly lower number of CD19+CD27+IL-10+ B cells (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Dario Ummarino Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Undifferentiated arthritis: Features of UA that develops into RA revealed
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 130 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.14 Author: Joanna Collison After 2 years, only 47 (9.8%) of 277 patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) from the Norwegian Very Early Arthritis Clinic study went on to fulfil the 2010 ACR–EULAR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Characteristics of patients with UA that progressed to RA include older age, (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: S100A9 does not predict response to etanercept
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 130 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.13 Author: Joanna Collison Pretreatment serum levels of protein S100A9 in a UK cohort of 236 patients with RA did not correlate with EULAR response to etanercept, despite promising results from a previous small-scale study. Levels of S100A9 were not associated with moderate response (P = 0.957 (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Therapy: Retreatment with rituximab is beneficial in RA
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 130 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.12 Author: Joanna Collison Data on 1,530 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a real-life cohort from the CERERRA collaboration show that repeated cycles of rituximab provides clinical improvements. A significant (P (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Bone: miR-106b promotes osteoporosis in mice
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 130 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.11 Author: Joanna Collison The microRNA miR-106b contributes to osteoporosis by negatively regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation via the bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) signalling pathway, according to new research. In vitro, miR-106b negatively regulated osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Mice with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) expressed (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - February 2, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Joanna Collison Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

Therapy: Cardiovascular safety of celecoxib, naproxen and ibuprofen
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 136 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.4 Author: Michael T. Nurmohamed The PRECISION trial demonstrates that celecoxib is noninferior to ibuprofen and naproxen in regard to cardiovascular safety. Do these findings mark the end of the debate on this issue, or do aspects of the trial mean the implications for clinical practice are not clear-cut? (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 27, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Michael T. Nurmohamed Tags: News and Views Source Type: research

Inflammatory mechanisms in tendinopathy – towards translation
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 110 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.213 Authors: Neal L. Millar, George A. C. Murrell & Iain B. McInnes Tendinopathy is a multifactorial spectrum of tendon disorders that affects different anatomical sites and is characterized by activity-related tendon pain. These disorders are common, account for a high proportion (∼30%) of referrals to musculoskeletal practitioners and confer a large socioeconomic burden of disease. Our incomplete (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 25, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Neal L. Millar George A. C. Murrell Iain B. McInnes Tags: Review Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis in 2016: Anti-NGF treatments for pain — two steps forward, one step back?
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 76 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2016.224 Authors: Nancy E. Lane & Maripat Corr Inhibitors of β-nerve growth factor (NGF) have impressive effects in reducing musculoskeletal pain, but have also been associated with adverse events of unclear aetiology. Several studies in the past year have sought to clarify the relative benefits and risks of anti-NGF treatment. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 25, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Nancy E. Lane Maripat Corr Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Myositis in 2016: New tools for diagnosis and therapy
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 74 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.1 Author: Ingrid E. Lundberg In 2016, there have been several major scientific achievements related to myositis, including the discovery of a novel autoantibody and the relationship between autoantibodies and distinct clinical phenotypes. Advances in the way clinical trials are conducted have also led to breakthroughs in treatment strategies. (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 25, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Ingrid E. Lundberg Tags: Year in Review Source Type: research

Rheumatoid arthritis: Nicotine exacerbates arthritis
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 13, 132 (2017). doi:10.1038/nrrheum.2017.3 Author: Jessica McHugh Nicotine can induce neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation (a process known as NETosis), according to new research published in Rheumatology, providing a mechanism through which use of nicotine-containing products could contribute to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). “This work supports the hypothesis that smoking and nicotine (Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology)
Source: Nature Reviews Rheumatology - January 19, 2017 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Jessica McHugh Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research