First Records of Rare Ascomycete Fungi, Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bartalinia robillardoides, and Collariella carteri from Freshwater Samples in Korea.
Authors: Nguyen TTT, Hee Lee S, Jeong Jeon S, Burm Lee H Abstract The distribution and occurrence of rare ascomycete fungi within freshwater samples in Korea was investigated. Three rare fungal strains, CNUFC-YR537-1, CNUFC-CNUP1-1, and CNUFC-NDR3-1, were isolated using serial dilution method. On the basis of their morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of their internal transcribed spacer regions and 28S rDNA sequences, the three isolates were identified as Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bartalinia robillardoides, and Collariella carteri, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first records of r...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Diversity of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces Species Isolated from Freshwater Environments in Korea.
Authors: Heo I, Hong K, Yang H, Lee HB, Choi YJ, Hong SB Abstract In order to elucidate the fungal diversity and community structure in freshwater environments, numerous fungal strains were isolated from freshwater, submerged soils, twigs, dead insects, etc. Among them, the present study has focused specifically on Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species, which produce diverse useful metabolites in general. Twelve strains of Aspergillus isolated were identified as A. japonicus (n = 5), A. tubingensis (3), A. niger (2), and A. flavus (2), 10 strains of which belong to Aspergillus section Nigr...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Characterization of Three Species of Sordariomycetes Isolated from Freshwater and Soil Samples in Korea.
Authors: Lee SH, Park HS, Nguyen TTT, Lee HB Abstract During a survey of fungal diversity in the class Sordariomycetes, 3 fungal strains, CNUFC-KMHY6-1, CNUFC-MSW24-2-11, and CNUFC-GW2S-4 were isolated from soil and freshwater samples, respectively in Korea. The strains were analyzed both morphologically and phylogenetically on the basis of internal transcribed spacer and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene sequences. On the basis of their morphology and phylogeny, CNUFC-KMHY6-1, CNUFC-MSW24-2-11, and CNUFC-GW2S-4 isolates were identified as Arcopilus aureus, Memnoniella echinata, and Stachybotrys sansevi...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Molecular and Morphological Confirmation of Three Undescribed Species of Mortierella from Korea.
Authors: Nguyen TTT, Park SW, Pangging M, Lee HB Abstract Three fungal isolates designated as CNUFC-YR329-1, CNUFC-PTS103-1, and CNUFC-PTS2-1 were discovered during a survey of fungal diversity of the order Mortierellales from freshwater and pine tree rhizosphere soil samples in Korea. The strains were analyzed morphologically and phylogenetically based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA gene sequences. Based on their morphology and phylogeny, the three isolates were identified as Mortierella elongata, M. horticola, and M. humilis, respectively. To the best of our know...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

An Enzymolysis-Assisted Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation Method for the Yeast-Like Cells of Tremella fuciformis.
In this study, an enzymolysis-assisted ATMT method was developed. The degradation degree of YLCs depends on the concentration and digestion time of Lywallzyme. Lower concentration (≤0.1%) of Lywallzyme was capable of formation of limited wounds on the surface of YLCs and has less influence on their growth. In addition, there is no significant difference of YLCs growth among groups treated with 0.1% Lywallzyme for different time. The binary vector pGEH under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter was utilized to transform the enzymolytic wounded YLCs with different conce...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Alternaria yunnanensis sp. nov., a New Alternaria Species Causing Foliage Spot of Rubber Tree in China.
Authors: Cai ZY, Liu YX, Shi YP, Dai LM, Li LL, Mu HJ, Lv ML, Liu XY Abstract A new species of Alternaria causing leaf spots on the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Yunnan, China, was isolated, examined, and illustrated. Morphologically, it belongs to the section Porri of Alternaria, which produces relatively large conidia and a simple or branched, filamentous long beak. It is, however, characterized by conidiophores gradually enlarging near the apex into a clavate conidiogenous cell and long ellipsoid to obclavate, smooth-walled conidia with a long filamentous beak. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS ...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Control of Anthracnose and Gray Mold in Pepper Plants Using Culture Extract of White-Rot Fungus and Active Compound Schizostatin.
In this study, we assayed the antimicrobial activities of CF obtained from white-rot fungus against various plant pathogens and evaluated its efficacy for controlling anthracnose and gray mold in pepper plants. The CF inhibited the mycelial growth of various fungal plant pathogens, but not of bacterial pathogens. Diluted concentrations of CF significantly suppressed the severity of anthracnose and gray mold in pepper fruits. Furthermore, the incidence of anthracnose in field conditions was reduced by treatment with a 12.5% dilution of CF. The active compound responsible for the antifungal and disease control activity was i...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Development of a Novel Spawn (Block Spawn) of an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, in Liquid Culture and its Cultivation Evaluation.
In this study, three small blocks of lignocellulosic agro-wastes and one block of a synthetic matrix were prepared as support for growing Pleurotus ostreatus in liquid medium. Mycelium-adsorbed blocks were then evaluated for their potential as block spawn for fructification. Our results indicated that the edible fungus was adsorbed and abundantly grew internally and externally on loofah sponge and synthetic polyurethane foam (PUF) supports and also has the ability to attach and grow on the surface of sugarcane bagasse and corncob supports. The mycelia of P. ostreatus adhered on corncob exhibited the highest metabolic activ...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Anti-Melanogenic Effect from Submerged Mycelial Cultures of Ganoderma weberianum.
In this study, we investigated the anti-melanogenic activity from the submerged mycelial culture of Ganoderma weberianum and elucidated the skin lightening mechanism by B16-F10 murine melanoma cells. From the cellular context, several fractionated mycelium samples exhibited anti-melanogenic activity by reducing more than 40% extracellular melanin content of B16-F10 melanoma cells. In particular, the fractionated chloroform extract (CF-F3) inhibited both secreted and intracellular melanin with the lowest dosage (25 ppm). Further analysis demonstrated that CF-F3 inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity without altering ...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

A New Record and Characterization of Asparagus Purple Spot Caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Korea.
Authors: Han JH, Shin JH, Fu T, Kim KS Abstract In 2017, small, elliptical, brownish purple spots on spears and ferns of asparagus were found in fields of Gangwon-do. The isolated fungal species was identified as an ascomycete Stemphylium vesicarium based on morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenic analyses including nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and cytochrome b (cytb). A pathogenicity test revealed that S. vesicarium was the causal agent of purple spot disease on asparagus. The occurrence of purple spots caused by S. ...
Source: Mycobiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

New Records of Aspergillus allahabadii and Penicillium sizovae from Crop Field Soil in Korea.
Authors: Tagele SB, Adhikari M, Gurung SK, Lee HG, Kim SW, Kim HS, Ju HJ, Gwon BH, Kosol S, Lee HB, Lee YS Abstract Two new records of Trichocomaceae, namely Aspergillus allahabadii and Penicillium sizovae, were isolated in 2016 during a survey of fungal diversity in different crop fields locations in Gyeongnam, Korea. These species were identified based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis using internal transcribed spacer region and β-tubulin-encoding gene sequence data. A. allahabadii and P. sizovae have not yet been reported in Korea. Thus, this is the first report of these species in Kore...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Candelaria asiatica, an Ignored New Species from South Korea.
Authors: Liu D, Hur JS Abstract The genus Candelaria is characterized by a micro-foliose to micro-fruticose thallus and contains eight species, two of which were reported in South Korea. During the excursion of a Korean lichen flora investigation, some suspected Candelaria concolor specimens were collected, and their morphological, chemical, molecular phylogenetic, and geographic analyses were conducted. The samples eventually proved to be a new species, Candelaria asiatica, which can be recognized by a small, yellow lobate thallus with a pulverulent surface, and a fragile lobe margin with blastidia or phyllidia-li...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Amylosporus sulcatus sp. nov. (Russulales, Basidiomycota) from Southern China.
Authors: Huang FC, Liu B, Wu H, Qin PS, Li JF Abstract Amylosporus sulcatus sp. nov. is described from Nonggang Nature Reserve, southern China, on the basis of morphological and molecular data. The morphological description and illustrations for the new species are provided. The species is characterized by pileate and stipitate basidiocarps. The pileus surface is obviously concentrically and radiately sulcate and tomentum, and the pore surface is snow white. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA confirmed it to be a new species. PMID:...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Three Zygomycetous Fungi in Korea: Backusella circina, Circinella muscae, and Mucor ramosissimus.
Authors: Nguyen TTT, Lee HB Abstract While surveying undiscovered fungal taxa in Korea, three rare zygomycetous fungal strains, CNUFC-PTF2-1, CNUFC-TF3-1, and CNUFC-ESAF3-1, were isolated from soil, leaf, and freshwater samples, respectively. The strains were analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically based on the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S rDNA sequences. Sequence analysis of the two loci revealed that the isolates, CNUFC-PTF2-1, CNUFC-TF3-1, and CNUFC-ESAF3-1, were identified as Backusella circina, Circinella muscae, and Mucor ramosissimus, respectively. These species have not yet been p...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Four New Records of Ascomycete Species from Korea.
Authors: Nguyen TTT, Pangging M, Lee SH, Lee HB Abstract While evaluating fungal diversity in freshwater, grasshopper feces, and soil collected at Dokdo Island in Korea, four fungal strains designated CNUFC-DDS14-1, CNUFC-GHD05-1, CNUFC-DDS47-1, and CNUFC-NDR5-2 were isolated. Based on combination studies using phylogenies and morphological characteristics, the isolates were confirmed as Ascodesmis sphaerospora, Chaetomella raphigera, Gibellulopsis nigrescens, and Myrmecridium schulzeri, respectively. This is the first records of these four species from Korea. PMID: 30637141 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Acaulosproa koreana, a New Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Glomeromycota) Associated with Roots of Woody Plants in Korea.
Authors: Lee EH, Park SH, Eo JK, Ka KH, Eom AH Abstract A new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota), Acaulospora koreana, was isolated from forest soils in South Korea. This novel fungus was collected from the rhizosphere of Lindera obtusiloba and Styrax obassia in forest and propagated with Sorghum bicolor in pot. Morphological characteristics of spores of A. koreana are rarely distinguished from Acaulospora mellea, which is reported as one of the most abundant mycorrhizal species in Korea. However, molecular evidence of rDNA sequence using improved primers for glomeromycotan fungal identificatio...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Comparison of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZymes) Repertoire of Flammulina ononidis.
Authors: Park YJ, Kong WS Abstract Whole-genome sequencing of Flammulina ononidis, a wood-rotting basidiomycete, was performed to identify genes associated with carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). A total of 12,586 gene structures with an average length of 2009 bp were predicted by the AUGUSTUS tool from a total 35,524,258 bp length of de novo genome assembly (49.76% GC). Orthologous analysis with other fungal species revealed that 7051 groups contained at least one F. ononidis gene. In addition, 11,252 (89.5%) of 12,586 genes for F. ononidis proteins had orthologs among the Dikarya, and F. ononidi...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Genomic Insights into the Rice Blast Fungus through Estimation of Gene Emergence Time in Phylogenetic Context.
Authors: Choi J, Lee JJ, Jeon J Abstract The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is an important pathogen of rice plants. It is well known that genes encoded in the genome have different evolutionary histories that are related to their functions. Phylostratigraphy is a method that correlates the evolutionary origin of genes with evolutionary transitions. Here we applied phylostratigraphy to partition total gene content of M. oryzae into distinct classes (phylostrata), which we designated PS1 to PS7, based on estimation of their emergence time. Genes in individual phylostrata did not show significant biases in th...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Diversity and Bioactive Potential of Culturable Fungal Endophytes of Medicinal Shrub Berberis aristata DC.: A First Report.
This study is an important step towards tapping endophytic fungal diversity for bioactive metabolites which could be a step forward towards development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID: 30637145 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Scratching Stimuli of Mycelia Influence Fruiting Body Production and ROS-Scavenging Gene Expression of Cordyceps militaris.
Authors: Liu GQ, Qiu XH, Cao L, Han RC Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris is a valuable medicinal ascomycete, which degenerates frequently during subsequent culture. To avoid economic losses during industrialized production, scratching stimuli of mycelia was introduced to improve the fruiting body production. The present results indicated that higher yields and biological efficiency were obtained from two degenerate strains (YN1-14 and YN2-7) but not from g38 (an insertional mutant in Rhf1 gene with higher yields and shorter growth periods). Furthermore, the growth periods of the fruiting bodi...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Influence of Ectomycorrhizal Colonization on Cesium Uptake by Pinus densiflora Seedlings.
We examined the effect of colonization by the EM fungus Astraeus hygrometricus on the uptake of cesium (Cs) and potassium (K) by Pinus densiflora seedlings. Pine seedlings exhibited enhanced growth after the EM formation due to the colonization by A. hygrometricus. Additionally, the shoot Cs concentration increased after the EM formation when Cs was not added to the medium. This suggests that A. hygrometricus might be able to solubilize Cs fixed to soil particles. Moreover, the shoot K concentration increased significantly after the EM formation when Cs was added. However, there were no significant differences in the root ...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Morphological Characteristic Regulation of Ligninolytic Enzyme Produced by Trametes polyzona.
Authors: Lueangjaroenkit P, Teerapatsakul C, Chitradon L Abstract A newly isolated white rot fungal strain KU-RNW027 was identified as Trametes polyzona, based on an analysis of its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic data. Aeration and fungal morphology were important factors which drove strain KU-RNW027 to secrete two different ligninolytic enzymes as manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase. Highest activities of MnP and laccase were obtained in a continuous shaking culture at 8 and 47 times higher, respectively, than under static conditions. Strain KU-RNW027 existed as pellets and free form mycelial cl...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Activation of the Mating Pheromone Response Pathway of Lentinula edodes by Synthetic Pheromones.
Authors: Ha B, Kim S, Kim M, Ro HS Abstract Pheromone (PHB)-receptor (RCB) interaction in the mating pheromone response pathway of Lentinula edodes was investigated using synthetic PHBs. Functionality of the C-terminally carboxymethylated synthetic PHBs was demonstrated by concentration-dependent induction of a mating-related gene (znf2) expression and by pseudoclamp formation in a monokaryotic strain S1-11 of L. edodes. Treatment with synthetic PHBs activated the expression of homeodomain genes (HDs) residing in the A mating type locus, and of A-regulated genes, including znf2, clp1, and priA, as well as genes in ...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Bremia itoana (Oomycota, Peronosporales), a Specialized Downy Mildew Pathogen on an East Asian Plant, Crepidiastrum sonchifolium (Asteraceae).
Authors: Choi YJ, Park JH, Lee J, Shin HD Abstract Crepidiastrum sonchifolium, a flowering plant in the daisy family (Asteraceae), is native to East Asia. In Korea, this plant is a locally cultivated vegetable, and its market size is gradually growing. Since the plants with downy mildew infection were initially found at a private farm of Chuncheon city, the occurrences have continued in commercial farms of other regions, highlighting that this disease is spreading throughout Korea. The pathogen was attributed to a member of the genus Bremia that contains many specialized species, each of which displays a narrow hos...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Development of Polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers using High-Throughput Sequencing in Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).
Authors: Lee HY, Raveendar S, An H, Oh YL, Jang KY, Kong WS, Ryu H, So YS, Chung JW Abstract The white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the most widely cultivated species of edible mushroom. Despite its economic importance, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of this species. Illumina paired-end sequencing produced 43,871,558 clean reads and 69,174 contigs were generated from five offspring. These contigs were subsequently assembled into 57,594 unigenes. The unigenes were annotated with reference genome in which 6,559 unigenes were associated with clusters, indicating orthologous gen...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

A Novel Rapid Fungal Promoter Analysis System Using the Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Gene, npgA, in Aspergillus nidulans.
Authors: Song HY, Choi D, Han DM, Kim DH, Kim JM Abstract To develop a convenient promoter analysis system for fungi, a null-pigment mutant (NPG) of Aspergillus nidulans was used with the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) gene, npgA, which restores the normal pigmentation in A. nidulans, as a new reporter gene. The functional organization of serially deleted promoter regions of the A. nidulans trpC gene and the Cryphonectria parasitica crp gene in filamentous fungi was representatively investigated to establish a novel fungal promoter assay system that depends on color complementation of the NPG mutant wi...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Dual Biocontrol Potential of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Isaria javanica, for Both Aphids and Plant Fungal Pathogens.
In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the dual biocontrol potential of two fungal isolates identified by morphological and phylogenetic analyses as Isaria javanica. Both these isolates caused mortality in the greater wax moth, and hence can be considered entomopathogens. Spores of the isolates were also pathogenic to nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), with an LC50 value of 107 spores/mL 4 days after inoculation and an LT50 of 4.2 days with a dose of 108 spores/mL. In vitro antifungal assays also demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of two fungi that are pathogenic ...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial and Antitumor Photodynamic Effects of Phleichrome from the Phytopathogenic Fungus Cladosporium Phlei.
Authors: So KK, Chun J, Kim DH Abstract Fungal perylenequinones have photodynamic activity and are promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, we investigated the bactericidal and antitumor activities of phleichrome from the fungal perylenequinone family in vitro. Photodynamic bactericidal activity of phleichrome was analyzed by agar-well diffusion method under dark and illuminated conditions. The photodynamic antitumor activity of phleichrome was analyzed in MCF-7, HeLa, SW480, and HepG2 human cancer cell lines using in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Photodynamic bactericidal activities against Gr...
Source: Mycobiology - January 15, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

New Report of Three Unrecorded Species in Trichoderma harzianum Species Complex in Korea.
Authors: Jang S, Kwon SL, Lee H, Jang Y, Park MS, Lim YW, Kim C, Kim JJ Abstract The genus Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota) consists of globally distributed fungi. Among them, T. harzianum, one of the most commonly collected Trichoderma species, had been known as a polyphyletic or aggregate species. However, a total of 19 species were determined from the polyphyletic groups of T. harzianum. Thus, we explored Korean "T. harzianum" specimens that were collected in 2013-2014. These specimens were re-examined based on a recent study with translate elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1α) sequences to reve...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

New Species and New Record of Genus Chrysothrix (Chrysotrichaceae, Arthoniales) from South Korea and Chile.
In this study, investigations of lichen mycota in South Korea and Chile from 2010 to 2017 have been done, and some Chrysothrix specimens were collected, based on the morphological and chemical study on these specimens, five species were confirmed in this study, including one new species from Chile, Chrysothrix chilensis D. Liu & J.-S Hur, and one new record from South Korea, C. xanthina (Vain.) Kalb. Meanwhile, detail description and illustration for each species were present in this study. PMID: 30294478 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Taxonomy of the Golovinomyces cynoglossi Complex (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) Disentangled by Phylogenetic Analyses and Reassessments of Morphological Traits.
Authors: Braun U, Bradshaw M, Zhao TT, Cho SE, Shin HD Abstract The name Golovinomyces cynoglossi s. lat. is traditionally applied to a complex of morphologically similar powdery mildews on hosts of the plant family Boraginaceae. The current species-level taxonomy within this complex is ambiguous due to the lack of phylogenetic examinations. The present study applied phylogenetic methods to clarify the taxonomy of G. cynoglossi s. lat. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA ITS sequences retrieved from Asian, European and North American specimens revealed that G. cynoglossi s. lat. collections from different hosts involved ...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Two Rare Mucoralean Species with Specific Habitats.
Authors: Lee SH, Nguyen TTT, Lee HB Abstract The order Mucorales, the largest in number of species within the Mucoromycotina, comprises typically fast-growing saprotrophic fungi. During a study of the fungal diversity of undiscovered taxa in Korea, two novel mucoralean strains, CNUFC-GWD3-9 and CNUFC-EGF1-4, were isolated from specific habitats including freshwater and fecal samples, respectively. On the basis of their morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit ribosomal DNA, the CNUFC-GWD3-9 and CNUFC-EGF1-4 isolates were confirmed to be Gilbertella persica...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Diversity and Ecology of Myxomycetes from K ├╝tahya and Konya (Turkey) with Four New Records.
In this study, we examined myxomycetes that developed in moist chamber cultures of substrata material collected from Kütahya and Konya provinces in Turkey. We collected bark samples from living trees, plant litter from the ground, standing dead wood or stumps, and downed and decayed wood or bark and placed them in the moist chamber cultures. We identified 36 species belonging to 12 genera of myxomycetes. The species determined are listed, and four new records, Didymium balearicum Ing, Macbrideola oblonga Pando & Lado, Paradiacheopsis erythropodia (Ing) Nann-Bremek. and Perichaena pedata (Lister & G. Lister) G....
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Influence of Temperature on the Bacterial Community in Substrate and Extracellular Enzyme Activity of Auricularia cornea.
In this study, lignin peroxidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase, and cellulose in A. cornea fruiting bodies were tested under five different temperatures (20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C) in three different culture periods (10 days, 20 days and 30 days). In addition, the V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the substrate of A. cornea cultivated for 30 days at different temperatures were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in the substrate. Temperature...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

LAMMER Kinase Lkh1 Is an Upstream Regulator of Prk1-Mediated Non-Sexual Flocculation in Fission Yeast.
Authors: Park YD, Kwon SJ, Bae KS, Park HM Abstract The cation-dependent galactose-specific flocculation activity of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe null mutant of lkh1 +, the gene encoding LAMMER kinase homolog, has previously been reported by our group. Here, we show that disruption of prk1 +, another flocculation associated regulatory kinase encoding gene, also resulted in cation-dependent galactose-specific flocculation. Deletion of prk1 increased the flocculation phenotype of the lkh1 + null mutant and its overexpression reversed the flocculation of cells caused by lkh1 deletion. Transcript levels of prk1 + were...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

The Major Postharvest Disease of Onion and Its Control with Thymol Fumigation During Low-Temperature Storage.
Authors: Ji SH, Kim TK, Keum YS, Chun SC Abstract Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the major vegetable crops in Korea that are damaged and lost by pathogenic fungal infection during storage due to a lack of proper storage conditions. The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate control measure using thymol to increase the shelf life of onions. To control fungal infections that occur during low-temperature storage, it is necessary to identify the predominant fungal pathogens that appear in low-temperature storage houses. Botrytis aclada was found to be the most predominant fungal pathogen during low-tempera...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Verticillium Wilt of Okra Caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in China.
Authors: Yan WX, Shi YX, Chai AL, Xie XW, Guo MY, Li BJ Abstract Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) has gained more popularity as an economically significant plant for its nutritional and medicinal value, especially in China. During 2014-2016, the root disease of okra was discovered in four okra commercial fields surveyed in China. A fungul was isolated from the infected tissues, and was identified by Verticillium dahliae based on morphological characteristics. Pathogenicity test demonstrated that the fungus was pathogenic on okra, and fulfilled Koch's postulates. The analysis of three sequences revealed 99-...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Discovery of Two Chrysosporium Species with Keratinolytic Activity from Field Soil in Korea.
Authors: Gurung SK, Adhikari M, Kim SW, Bazie S, Kim HS, Lee HG, Kosol S, Lee HB, Lee YS Abstract In an ongoing survey of Korean indigenous fungi, two fungal strains (KNU16-74 and KNU16-99) belonging to the genus Chrysosporium were isolated from field soil in Gyeongnam, Korea. Morphological characterization and phylogenetic analysis using sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions were carried out to confirm its precise identification. These strains were identified as Chrysosporium indicum (KNU16-74) and Chrysosporium fluviale (KNU16-99). To examine the keratin degradation efficiency of these two fungal sp...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Investigation of Filamentous Fungi Producing Safe, Functional Water-Soluble Pigments.
In conclusion, P. miczynskii KUC1721, Trichoderma sp. 1 KUC1716, and T. afroharzianum KUC21213 were the best fungal candidates to be industrial producers of safe, functional water-soluble pigments. PMID: 30294487 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Morphology and Molecular Characterization of Alternaria argyranthemi on Chrysanthemum coronarium in China.
Authors: Luo H, Xia ZZ, Chen YY, Zhou Y, Deng JX Abstract Chrysanthemum coronarium is an economically important plant in Asia, and used medicinally, ornamentally and as a vegetable. In April 2017, leaf spot disease on C. coronarium was observed in Shiyan, Hubei, China. A single-spore isolate was obtained and identified based on morphology and sequence analysis using four regions (rDNA ITS, GAPDH, EF-1α, and RPB2). The results indicated that the fungus is Alternaria argyranthemi. The pathogenicity tests revealed that the species could cause severe leaf spot and blight disease on the host. This is the first rep...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Timing of Fusarium Head Blight Infection in Rice by Heading Stage.
This study will contribute to uncovering the infection process of this pathogen in rice. PMID: 30294489 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on Growth of Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. and Biocontrol Activity of Pseudomonas protegens AS15 against Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Stored Rice Grains.
In this study, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (10, 20, 30, and 40 °C) and relative humidities (RHs; 12, 44, 76, and 98%) on populations of predominant grain fungi (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium fellutanum, and Penicillium islandicum) and the biocontrol activity of Pseudomonas protegens AS15 against aflatoxigenic A. flavus KCCM 60330 in stored rice. Populations of all the tested fungi in inoculated rice grains were significantly enhanced by both increased temperature and RH. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that one unit increase of tem...
Source: Mycobiology - October 10, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

First Report of Eight Milkcap Species Belonging to Lactarius and Lactifluus in Korea.
Authors: Lee H, Park JY, Wisitrassameewong K, Kim MJ, Park MS, Kim NK, Lee JK, Lim YW Abstract Lactarius and Lactifluus are milkcaps that are characterized by the secretion of latex. These two genera are part of a globally distributed cosmopolitan group of ectomycorrhizal fungi that is an important food resource in various ecosystems. Recently, the taxonomy of Lactarius and Lactifluus has been revised based on molecular phylogenetics. Despite the importance of these taxa, Korean species of both genera are poorly understood. In an effort to describe milkcap species that are indigenous to Korea, a long-term study has...
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Guild Patterns of Basidiomycetes Community Associated With Quercus mongolica in Mt. Jeombong, Republic of Korea.
In this study, we investigated basidiomycetes communities associated with Quercus mongolica using 454 pyrosequencing. We attempted to detect guild pattern (ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungal communities) by comparing the influence of geography and source (root and surrounding soil). A total of 515 mOTUs were detected from root (321) and soil (394) of Q. mongolica at three sites of Mt. Jeombong in Inje County. We found that patterns of diversity and community structure were different depending on the guilds. In terms of alpha diversity, only ectomycorrhizal fungi showed significant differences between sources. In terms ...
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Yield, Nutritional Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Pleurotus ostreatus on Corncobs Supplemented with Herb Residues.
Authors: Jin Z, Li Y, Ren J, Qin N Abstract Improper disposal of herb residues in China has caused severe problems to the surrounding environment and human safety. Three herb residues, i.e., compound Kushen injection residues (CKI) and part one and part two of Qizhitongluo Capsule residues (QC1 and QC2, respectively), were used for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. The effect of the supplementation of corncobs (CC) with different herb residues on yield, nutritional composition, and antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus was investigated. Compared to the control, the higher mycelial growth rate was observed on s...
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Screening and Evaluation of Yeast Antagonists for Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea on Strawberry Fruits.
In this study, 24 strains of yeast with antagonistic ability against gray mold were isolated, and the antifungal activity of the volatile and diffusible metabolites was evaluated. Putative mechanisms of action associated with the biocontrol capacity of yeast strains against B. cinerea were studied through in vitro and in vivo assays. The volatile organic compounds produced by the Galactomyces candidum JYC1146 could be useful in the biological control of plant pathogens and therefore are potential alternative fungicides with low environmental impact. PMID: 29998031 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Antifungal Effects of Silver Phytonanoparticles from Yucca shilerifera Against Strawberry Soil-Borne Pathogens: Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina.
Authors: Ruiz-Romero P, Valdez-Salas B, González-Mendoza D, Mendez-Trujillo V Abstract In the present study, the characterization and properties of silver nanoparticles from Yucca shilerifera leaf extract (AgNPs) were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peaked at 460 nm, which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experimental results showed silver nanoparticles had Z-average diameter of 729 nm with lower stability (195.1 mV). Additionally, our date...
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Biocontrol Activity of Volatile-Producing Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas protegens Against Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. Predominant in Stored Rice Grains: Study II.
In this study, the biocontrol activities of these strains were evaluated against Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium fellutanum, and Penicillium islandicum, which are predominant in stored rice grains. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the bacterial strains were evaluated against the fungi on media and rice grains, respectively. The antifungal activities of the volatiles produced by the strains against fungal development and population were also tested using I-plates. In in vitro tests, the strains produced secondary metabolites capable of reducing conidial germination, germ-tube elongation...
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

The Uneven Distribution of Mating Type Genes in Natural and Cultivated Truffle Orchards Contributes to the Fructification of Tuber indicum.
This study investigates the distributional pattern of T. indicum MAT genes in the ectomycorhizosphere soil and ascocarp gleba from different regions, which may provide a foundation for the cultivation of T. indicum. PMID: 29998034 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Development of a Molecular Marker for Fruiting Body Pattern in Auricularia auricula-judae.
Authors: Yao FJ, Lu LX, Wang P, Fang M, Zhang YM, Chen Y, Zhang WT, Kong XH, Lu J, Honda Y Abstract The fruiting body pattern is an important agronomic trait of the edible fungus Auricularia auricula-judae, and an important breeding target. There are two types of fruiting body pattern: the cluster type and the chrysanthemum type. We identified the fruiting body pattern of 26 test strains, and then constructed two different near-isogenic pools. Then, we developed sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) molecular markers associated with the fruiting body pattern based on sequence-related amplified polymorphism...
Source: Mycobiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research