Five New Records of the Family Aspergillaceae in Korea, Aspergillus europaeus, A. pragensis, A. tennesseensis, Penicillium fluviserpens, and P. scabrosum.
Authors: Nguyen TTT, Pangging M, Bangash NK, Lee HB Abstract During an investigation of the fungi from the Aspergillaceae family obtained from different environmental sources in Korea, we isolated six strains, including CNUFC WJC9-1, CNUFC BPM36-33, CNUFC MSW6, CNUFC ESW1, CNUFC TM6-2, and CNUFC WD17-1. The morphology and phylogeny of these isolates were analyzed based on their partial β-tubulin (BenA) and calmodulin (CaM) gene sequences. Based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analyses, the isolates CNUFC WJC9-1, CNUFC BPM36-33, CNUFC TM6-2, and CNUFC WD17-1 were identified as A. europaeus, A....
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

New Species of Termitomyces (Lyophyllaceae, Basidiomycota) from Sabah (Northern Borneo), Malaysia.
In this study, we aim to describe another new species as an addition to the genus Termitomyces found within Sabah, Malaysia. We generated two new sequences (nrLSU and mtSSU) for the new species and a total of 28 nrLSU and mtSSU sequences were retrieved from GenBank for the phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. We identified that the new collection from Sabah province is a new species and named as Termitomyces gilvus based on the termites found in the mound. A phylogeny tree made from the concatenated genes of LSU and mtSSU suggests that T. gilvus is closely related to T. bulborhizus from C...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Comparative Genomics Uncovers the Genetic Diversity and Synthetic Biology of Secondary Metabolite Production of Trametes.
Authors: Zhang Y, Wang J, Yajun C, Zhou M, Wang W, Geng M, Xu D, Xu Z Abstract The carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes of Trametes contribute to polysaccharide degradation. However, the comprehensive analysis of the composition of CAZymes and the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of Trametes remain unclear. Here, we conducted comparative analysis, detected the CAZyme genes, and predicted the BGCs for nine Trametes strains. Among the 82,053 homologous clusters obtained for Trametes, we identified 8518 core genes, 60,441 accessory genes, and 13,094 specific genes. A large proportion of CAZyme genes were catalog...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Wild Strains and Cultivars Using Genomic SSR Markers in Lentinula edodes.
In conclusion, the usage of wild strains for the development of new cultivars could improve the adaptability of L. edodes to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID: 32363039 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Optimization of Citric Acid Production by Immobilized Cells of Novel Yeast Isolates.
In this study, 260 yeast strains were isolated from soil, bread, juices, and fruits wastes and preliminarily screened using bromocresol green agar plates for their ability to produce organic acids. Overall, 251 yeast isolates showed positive results, with yellow halos surrounding the colonies. Citric acid production by 20 promising isolates was evaluated using both free and immobilized cell techniques. Results showed that citric acid production by immobilized cells (30-40 g/L) was greater than that of freely suspended cells (8-19 g/L). Of the 20 isolates, two (KKU-L42 and KKU-L53) were selected for further an...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Talaromyces halophytorum sp. nov. Isolated from Roots of Limonium tetragonum in Korea.
Authors: You YH, Aktaruzzaman M, Heo I, Park JM, Hong JW, Hong SB Abstract Talaromyces halophytorum sp. nov. was isolated from the roots of halophyte Limonium tetragonum collected from Seocheon-gun, Korea in November 2015. It showed a slow growth on yeast extract sucrose agar at 25 °C, no growth at 4 °C or 37 °C and produced smooth-walled and globose to sub-globose conidia. T. halophytorum is phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Talaromyces species of section Trachyspermi based on multi-locus sequence typing results using partial fragments of β-tubulin, calmodulin,...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Soil Application of Metarhizium anisopliae JEF-314 Granules to Control, Flower Chafer Beetle, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis.
Authors: Kim S, Kim JC, Lee SJ, Lee MR, Park SE, Li D, Baek S, Shin TY, Gasmi L, Kim JS Abstract Root-feeding Scarabaeidae, particularly white grubs are considered among the most harmful coleopteran insect pests in turfgrass. In this work, sixteen entomopathogenic fungal species were assayed against flower chafer beetle, Protaetia brevitarsis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and Metarhizium anisopliae JEF-314 showed high virulence. The control ability of the isolate JEF-314 has been in detail tested for a model insect flower chafer beetle. Further analyses showed insect stage-dependent virulence where the fungal virulenc...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Antifungal Susceptibility Tests and the cyp51 Mutant Strains among Clinical Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Korean Multicenters.
Authors: Won EJ, Joo MY, Lee D, Kim MN, Park YJ, Kim SH, Shin MG, Shin JH Abstract We investigated the antifungal susceptibilities and the cyp51 mutant strains among Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates obtained from 10 university hospitals in Korea. Of the 84 isolates examined, two itraconazole-resistant isolates were found with no amino acid substitution in the cyp51A/cyp51B genes. However, 19 (23.2%) azole-susceptible isolates harbored amino acid substitutions: Nine isolates harbored one to five mutations in cyp51A with high polymorphism, and 11 isolates exhibited the same Q42L mutation in cyp51B. Overall, a ...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Cumulative Effects of Constituents from the Mushroom Calvatia nipponica on the Contractility of Penile Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle.
Authors: Lee S, Kim MJ, Lee BS, Ryoo R, Kim HK, Kim KH Abstract Calvatia nipponica, a puffball mushroom (Agaricaceae), is thought to be an aphrodisiac, as this mushroom is traditionally known to improve sexual function in males. As part of the systematic study to determine the bioactive secondary metabolites from C. nipponica responsible for aphrodisiac effects, chemical analysis of methanol (MeOH) extracts of the fruiting bodies of C. nipponica resulted in the isolation of two major compounds: N,N-dimethyl-anthranilic acid (1) and (7Z,10Z)-7,10-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (2). Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluate...
Source: Mycobiology - May 5, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

The Role of Pentraxin 3 in Aspergillosis: Reality and Prospects.
Authors: Kang Y, Yu Y, Lu L Abstract Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR), which is produced by several kinds of cells, such as neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells. PTX3 is known to play an important protective effect against Aspergillus. Genetic linkage in gene-targeted mice and human PTX3 plays a non-redundant role in the immune protection against specific pathogens, especially Aspergillus. Recent studies have shown that the polymorphism of PTX3 is associated with increased susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis (IA). In this review, we provide an overvi...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Two Novel Species Collected from Soil in Korea.
Authors: Das K, Lee SY, Jung HY Abstract Two fungal species of ascomycetes were discovered during the screening of soil microflora from the Gangwon Province in Korea: Didymella chlamydospora sp. nov. (YW23-14) and Microdochium salmonicolor sp. nov. (NC14-294). Morphologically, YW23-14 produces smaller chlamydospores (8.0-17.0 × 7.0-15.0 µm) than D. glomerata and D. musae. The strain NC14-294 was characterized by smaller conidiogenous cells (4.9-8.8 × 2.0-3.2 µm) compared with the closest strains M. fisheri and M. phragmitis. The detailed descriptions...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Diversity of Fungi in Soils with Different Degrees of Degradation in Germany and Panama.
In conclusion, the results of this work do not show any evident influence of soil degradation on communities of soil fungi in Germany or Panama. PMID: 32158602 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Four Unrecorded Mucor Species in Korea.
Authors: Nguyen TTT, Jeon YJ, Mun HY, Goh J, Chung N, Lee HB Abstract During an investigation of fungi of the order Mucorales from freshwater and sediment samples in Korea, we isolated six strains, NNIBRFG6649, NNIBRFG6255, NNIBRFG1498, CNUFC-YJ13, CNUFC-YR7, and NNIBRFG2739. The morphology and phylogeny of these strains were analyzed. Based on the morphological characteristics and molecular data from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the isolates NNIBRFG6649 and NNIBRFG6255 were identified as Mucor abundans, and M. aligarensis, respectively. The isolates NNIBRFG1498 and CNUFC-YJ13 were identified as M. moe...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Isolation, Screening, and Identification of Actinomycetes with Antifungal and Enzyme Activity Assays against Colletotrichum dematium of Sarcandra glabra.
In this study, 15 actinomycetes strains were isolated and among these, strains JT-2F, DT-3F, and JJ-3F, appeared to show antagonistic effects against anthracnose of S. glabra. The strains JT-2F and DT-3F were isolated from soil, while JJ-3F was isolated from plant stems. The antagonism rate of strain JT-2F was 86.75%, which was the highest value among the three strains. Additionally, the JT-2F strain also had the strongest antagonistic activity when the antagonistic activities were tested against seven plant pathogens. Strain JT-2F is able to produce proteases and cellulase to degrade the protein and cellulose components o...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Widespread Occurrence of a CYP51A Pseudogene in Calonectria pseudonaviculata.
In this study, we have analyzed the CYP51 paralogs for polymorphism in 26 genomes, representing geographically disparate populations of C. pseudonaviculata (n = 19) and C. henricotiae (n = 7), from the U.S., Europe, Asia, and New Zealand. The presence of a CYP51A pseudogene and lack of a functional CYP51A paralog in all C. pseudonaviculata genomes examined is a novel discovery for fungi and could have implications for the evolution of resistance to antifungal chemicals. PMID: 32158605 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Purification, Structural Characterization, and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Lentinus velutinus.
Authors: Udchumpisai W, Bangyeekhun E Abstract A polysaccharide (LVP) was purified from fruiting body of Lentinus velutinus by ethanol precipitation fractionation and DEAE and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The yield of purified polysaccharide was 0.025%. Molecular characteristics of LVP were determined by gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thin-layer chromatography. Our results revealed that LVP is a polysaccharide composed of only glucose units, and has a molecular weight of 336 kDa. Biological activity assays indicated that LVP exhibits both cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. L...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Analysis of the Bioactive Metabolites of the Endangered Mexican Lost Fungi Campanophyllum - A Report from India.
Authors: Borthakur M, Gurung AB, Bhattacharjee A, Joshi SR Abstract Meghalaya, (in India), in the region of the mega-biodiversity hotspots, is home to a plethora of wild mushrooms. The present study concerns the exploration of the order Agaricales, which includes rare gilled mushrooms considered endangered under IUCN A4c criteria, due to the declining habitat. Electron microscopy of the gill sections revealed an abundance of clamp connections, hyphal cell walls, cystidia, and basidia. This rare species which belongs to the family Cyphellaceae, exhibits morphological and molecular differences from the Cyphella spp. ...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Identification and Characterization of Gonatobotryum apiculatum Causing Leaf Spot and Blight on Sinowilsonia henryi.
Authors: Gao Y, Liu HF, Song ZX, Du XY, Deng JX Abstract Sinowilsonia henryi is a rare and endangered plant, as well as an endemic species in China. In July 2018, leaf spot and blight disease was observed on S. henryi in Yichang, Hubei, China. A fungus isolated from disease tissues was identified as Gonatobotryum apiculatum based on morphology and sequence analyses of ITS and LSU regions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the species belongs to Dothioraceae (Dothideales). Morphologically, the species produced two distinct types of conidia from authentic media, both conidia were described here. Pathogenicity test...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

First Report of Anthracnose of Shine Muscat Caused by Colletotrichum fructicola in Korea.
Authors: Lim YS, Hassan O, Chang T Abstract Anthracnose is one of the major problems for cultivating many crops, including vegetables, fruits, and trees. It is a continual threat for fruits grower worldwide. Colletotrichum fructicola was isolated from Shine Muscat berries showing typical anthracnose symptom in Korea. It was identified as C. fructicola based on morphology, pathological signs and concatenated sequences of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-tubulin-2, chitin synthase-1, calmodulin, and the Apn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer and partial mating type (...
Source: Mycobiology - March 13, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Arthonia dokdoensis and Rufoplaca toktoana - Two New Taxa from Dokdo Islands (South Korea).
Authors: Kondratyuk S, Lőkös L, Halda J, Lee BG, Jang SH, Woo JJ, Park JS, Oh SO, Han SK, Hur JS Abstract Arthonia dokdoensis sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus from the subcosmopolitan Arthonia molendoi complex growing on crustose thalli of species of the genus Orientophila (subfamily Xanthorioideae, Teloschistaceae), as well as the lichen species Rufoplaca toktoana sp. nov. (subfamily Caloplacoideae, Teloschistaceae) similar to Rufoplaca kaernefeltiana, both from Dokdo Islands, Republic of Korea, are described, illustrated, and compared with closely related taxa. In the phylogenetic tree of the Arthoniaceae b...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Macrolepiota in Korea: New Records and a New Species.
Authors: Cho HJ, Lee H, Park MS, Kim C, Wisitrassameewong K, Lupala A, Park KH, Kim MJ, Fong JJ, Lim YW Abstract The genus Macrolepiota (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is easy to recognize at the genus level because of big, fleshy basidiocarps with squamules covering the pileus; a single or double annulus; and big, thick-walled basidiospores with a germ pore. However, morphological identification is often unreliable in Macrolepiota due to similar morphological features among species. Due to the uncertainty of previous morphological identification in the genus Macrolepiota, it is necessary to re-examine Korean Macrolepi...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Macrofungal Survey of the Tian Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan.
Authors: Cho SE, Jo JW, Kim NK, Kwag YN, Han SK, Chang KS, Oh SH, Kim CS Abstract The Tian Shan mountain system is one of the large mountain ranges located in Central Asia. This region is globally recognized as mountain ranges, offering inestimable wealth in fauna and flora with significant biodiversity values. We surveyed macrofungal diversity of Tian Shan in Kyrgyzstan from 2016 to 2018. A collection of macrofungi was made, and these were subjected to sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis to ensure the identity of the collected macrofungi. Of those collected, 95 out of 100 specimens were successfully seq...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

A Survey of Termitomyces (Lyophyllaceae, Agaricales), Including a New Species, from a Subtropical Forest in Xishuangbanna, China.
Authors: Ye L, Karunarathna SC, Li H, Xu J, Hyde KD, Mortimer PE Abstract A survey of mushrooms was conducted in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China, in the rainy season (May to October) of 2012, 2013, and 2014, during which 16 specimens of Termitomyces were collected. Preliminary macro- and micro-characteristics, together with ITS sequence data, showed that four of the specimens belonged to a new species (Termitomyces fragilis), while the other 12 belonged to T. aurantiacus, T. eurrhizus, T. globules, T. microcarpus, and T. bulborhizus. In this paper, T. fragilis is introduced as a species new to science based o...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Two New Species of Placolecis (Lichenized Ascomycota) from China.
Authors: Yin AC, Wang XY, Liu D, Zhang YY, Yang MX, Li LJ, Wang LS Abstract Two new species of the lichen genus Placolecis are discovered in China, namely P. kunmingensis An. C. Yin & Li S. Wang and P. sublaevis An. C. Yin & Li S. Wang. The new combination P. loekoesiana (S.Y. Kondr., Farkas, J.J. Woo & Hur) An. C. Yin is proposed. Placolecis kunmingensis is characterized by having simple, spherical or ellipsoid, hyaline spores, and pear-shaped pycnidia; while P. sublaevis can be distinguished by its thallus forming larger aggregations with slightly flattened lobes at the thallus margin, and urn-shaped ...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Identification and Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Leaf Blight on White Spider Lilies (Crinum asiaticum and Hymenocallis littoralis) in Malaysia.
Authors: Huda-Shakirah AR, Kee YJ, Hafifi ABM, Mohamad Azni NN, Zakaria L, Mohd MH Abstract Crinum asiaticum and Hymenocallis littoralis, commonly known as spider lilies are bulbous perennial and herbaceous plants that widely planted in Malaysia as ornamental. During 2015-2016, symptom of leaf blight was noticed on the hosts from several locations in Penang. The symptom appeared as irregular brown to reddish lesions surrounded by yellow halos. As the disease progressed, the infected leaves became blighted, dried, and fell off with the presence of black microsclerotia and pycnidia on the lesions parts. The present s...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Fungal Endophytes of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa and Alnus alnobetula ssp. crispa and Their Potential to Tolerate Heavy Metals and to Promote Plant Growth.
This study reports the first step in finding the right fungal endophytic partners for two species of alder used in phytostabilization of metal-contaminated mining sites. PMID: 32010463 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Identification and Characterization of Fungi Contaminated in the Built-In Furniture of an Apartment Home.
This study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the fungi of the problem in one of the apartment houses where the fungi were claimed in the built-in furniture before the house owner moves in. Fungi present in the furniture installed in a main room, dress room, and kitchen side were visually and microscopically confirmed and purely isolated on PDA. The isolated fungi were identified by analyzing the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of the ITS, calmodulin gene, and TEF-1α gene. Aspergillus creber, A. niger, A. pseudoglacus, A. ruber, Cladosporium perangustum and Penicillium commune w...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Identification and Characterization of Two New S-Adenosylmethionine-Dependent Methyltransferase Encoding Genes Suggested Their Involvement in Stipe Elongation of Flammulina velutipes.
Authors: Huang Q, Mukhtar I, Zhang Y, Wei Z, Han X, Huang R, Yan J, Xie B Abstract Two new SAM-dependent methyltransferase encoding genes (fvsmt1 and fvsmt2) were identified from the genome of Flammulina velutipes. In order to make a comprehensive characterization of both genes, we performed in silico analysis of both genes and used qRT-PCR to reveal their expression patterns during the development of F. velutipes. There are 4 and 6 exons with total length of 693 and 978 bp in fvsmt2 and fvsmt1, respectively. The deduced proteins, i.e., FVSMT1 and FVSMT2 contained 325 and 230 amino acids with molecular weigh...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Cyberlindnera fabianii in Korea.
Authors: Park JH, Oh J, Sang H, Shrestha B, Lee H, Koo J, Cho SI, Choi JS, Lee MH, Kim J, Sung GH Abstract Invasive fungal infections caused by Cyberlindnera fabianii have recently increased. However, biochemical kits such as API 20 C AUX and Vitek-2C have misidentified this species as other Candida spp. such as C. pelliculosa or C. utilis due to no information of Cy. fabianii in yeast database. During our 2016-2017 surveys, eleven isolates of Cy. fabianii were obtained in International St. Mary's Hospital in Korea. Here, we describe its morphological and molecular characteristics and tested its antifungal s...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Conserved Roles of MonA in Fungal Growth and Development in Aspergillus Species.
In this study, we characterized the function of MonA, an orthologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mon1, in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and a toxigenic fungus A. flavus. In A. nidulans, the absence of AnimonA led to decreased fungal growth, reduced asexual reproduction, and defective cleistothecia production. In addition, AnimonA deletion mutants exhibited decreased spore viability, had reduced trehalose contents in conidia, and were sensitive to thermal stress. In A. flavus, deletion of AflmonA caused decreased fungal growth and defective production of asexual spores and sclerotia structures. Moreover, the absence ...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Genetically Independent Tetranucleotide to Hexanucleotide Core Motif SSR Markers for Identifying Lentinula edodes Cultivars.
Authors: Saito T, Sakuta G, Kobayashi H, Ouchi K, Inatomi S Abstract For the purpose of protecting the rights of Lentinula edodes breeders, we developed a new simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker set consisting only of genetically independent tetranucleotide or longer core motifs. Using available genome sequences for five L. edodes strains, we designed primers for 13 SSR markers that amplified polymorphic sequences in 20 L. edodes cultivars. We evaluated the independence of every possible marker pair based on genotype data. Consequently, eight genetically independent markers were selected. The polymorphic inf...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

A PAS-Containing Histidine Kinase is Required for Conidiation, Appressorium Formation, and Disease Development in the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.
In this study, targeted gene deletion was carried out to investigate the functional roles of the PAS-containing gene MoPAS1 (MGG_02665) in M. oryzae. The deletion mutant ΔMopas1 exhibited easily wettable mycelia, reduced conidiation, and defects in appressorium formation and disease development compared to the wild type and complemented transformant. Exogenous cAMP restored appressorium formation in ΔMopas1, but the shape of the restored appressorium was irregular, indicating that MoPAS1 is involved in sensing the hydrophobic surface. To examine the expression and localization of MoPAS1 in M. oryzae during appr...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Optimization of Protoplast Preparation and Regeneration of a Medicinal Fungus Antrodia cinnamomea.
Authors: Wu JD, Chou JC Abstract Antrodia cinnamomea is a unique medicinal fungus in Taiwan. It has been found rich in some pharmacologically active compounds for anti-cancer, hangover, and immune regulation etc. With the in-depth study of these components, it would be interesting and important to establish a molecular system for basic studies of A. cinnamomea. Thus, we would like to set up a foundation for this purpose by studying the A. cinnamomea protoplast preparation and regeneration. Firstly, we studied the optimization method of protoplast preparation of A. cinnamomea, and found various factors that may affe...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Antioxidant, Anti-Melanogenic and Anti-Wrinkle Effects of Phellinus vaninii.
In this study, the antioxidant, anti-xanthine oxidase, anti-melanogenic and anti-wrinkle effects of methanol (ME) and hot water (HE) extracts from the fruiting bodies of Phellinus vaninii were investigated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of 2.0 mg/mL HE (95.38%) was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (96.97%), the reference standard. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ME (98.19%) and HE (97.55%) were higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (92.66%) at 2.0 mg/mL. Neither ME nor HE was cytotoxic to murine melanoma B16-F10 cells at 25-750 &m...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Effect of Acaromyces Ingoldii Secondary Metabolites on the Growth of Brown-Rot (Gloeophyllum Trabeum) and White-Rot (Trametes Versicolor) Fungi.
Authors: Olatinwo R, So CL, Eberhardt TL Abstract We investigated the antifungal activities of an endophytic fungus identified as Acaromyces ingoldii, found on a loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine bolt in Louisiana during routine laboratory microbial isolations. The specific objectives were to determine the inhibitory properties of A. ingoldii secondary metabolites (crude extract) on the mycelial growth of a brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum and a white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, and to determine the effective concentration of A. ingoldii crude preparation against the two decay fungi in vitro. Results sho...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Optimization of Growth Medium and Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Laccase3 from Cryphonectria parasitica Using Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Jeong YS, So KK, Lee JH, Kim JM, Chun GT, Chun J, Kim DH Abstract Statistical experimental methods were used to optimize the medium for mass production of a novel laccase3 (Lac3) by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae TYEGLAC3-1. The basic medium was composed of glucose, casamino acids, yeast nitrogen base without amino acids (YNB w/o AA), tryptophan, and adenine. A one-factor-at-a-time approach followed by the fractional factorial design identified galactose, glutamic acid, and ammonium sulfate, as significant carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively. The steepest ascent method and response su...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

First Report of Buchwaldoboletus lignicola (Boletaceae), a Potentially Endangered Basidiomycete Species, in South Korea.
Authors: Jo JW, Kwag YN, Cho SE, Han SK, Han JG, Lim YW, Sung GH, Oh SH, Kim CS Abstract During the 2014 survey of the mushroom flora of Gwangneung forest in South Korea, we collected two specimens of boletoid mushroom growing on a felled tree of Pinus koraiensis. These specimens were characterized by a light brown to reddish-brown pileus with appressed tomentum, pore surface bluing instantly when bruised, golden-yellow mycelium at the base of stipe, and lignicolous habitat. Both specimens were identified as Buchwaldoboletus lignicola, a rare basidiomycete, based on morphological characteristics and sequences of in...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of 170 New gDNA-SSR Markers for Genetic Diversity in Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).
Authors: An H, Jo IH, Oh YL, Jang KY, Kong WS, Sung JK, So YS, Chung JW Abstract We designed 170 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on the whole-genome sequence data of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and selected 121 polymorphic markers. A total of 121 polymorphic markers, the average major allele frequency (MAF) and the average number of alleles (NA) were 0.50 and 5.47, respectively. The average number of genotypes (NG), observed heterozygosity (HO), expected heterozygosity (HE), and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 6.177, 0.227, 0.619, and 0.569, respectively. Pearson's correlation coe...
Source: Mycobiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Cytospora elaeagnicola sp. nov. Associated with Narrow-leaved Oleaster Canker Disease in China.
In this study, three fresh strains were isolated from the symptomatic branches of Elaeagnus angustifolia in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Morphological observation and multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS, LSU, ACT and RPB2) support these specimens are best accommodated as a distinct novel species of Cytospora. Cytospora elaeagnicola sp. nov. is introduced, having discoid, nearly flat, pycnidial conidiomata with hyaline, allantoid conidia, and differs from its relatives genetically and by host association. PMID: 31620308 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - October 19, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Phytopythium and Pythium Species (Oomycota) Isolated from Freshwater Environments of Korea.
This study could contribute to understand their distribution and ecological function in freshwater ecosystem. PMID: 31565462 [PubMed] (Source: Mycobiology)
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Pythium subutonaiense, A New Aquatic Oomycete from Southern China Based on Morphological and Molecular Characters.
Authors: Chen JJ, Zheng XB Abstract A new species, Pythium subutonaiense, isolated from aquatic environments (lake) in China is being described based on morphological characters and molecular evidence. The isolates grew at temperatures between 5 °C and 38 °C, and the optimum temperature was 30 °C, with a radial growth rate of 17.6 mm at 25 °C per day. It is homothallic and characterized by globose to sub-globose shaped and mostly terminal or sometimes catenulate hyphal swellings, filamentous non-inflated sporangia, and smooth oogonia with hypogynous and monoclinous...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Two New Species and a New Chinese Record of Hypocreaceae as Evidenced by Morphological and Molecular Data.
Authors: Zeng ZQ, Zhuang WY Abstract To explore species diversity of Hypocreaceae, collections from Guangdong, Hubei, and Tibet of China were examined and two new species and a new Chinese record were discovered. Morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses of the ITS, LSU, EF-1α, and RPB2 regions support their placements in Hypocreaceae and the establishments of the new species. Hypomyces hubeiensis sp. nov. is characterized by occurrence on fruitbody of Agaricus sp., concentric rings formed on MEA medium, verticillium-like conidiophores, subulate phialides, rod-shaped to narrowly ellipsoidal coni...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Biosynthetic Pathway of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Basidiomycetous Yeast Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis.
Authors: Bunsangiam S, Sakpuntoon V, Srisuk N, Ohashi T, Fujiyama K, Limtong S Abstract IAA biosynthetic pathways in a basidiomycetous yeast, Rhodosporidiobolus fluvialis DMKU-CP293, were investigated. The yeast strain showed tryptophan (Trp)-dependent IAA biosynthesis when grown in tryptophan supplemented mineral salt medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to further identify the pathway intermediates of Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis. The results indicated that the main intermediates produced by R. fluvialis DMKU-CP293 were tryptamine (TAM), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tryptophol (TOL), whereas...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Heterologous Expression of Rhizopus Oryzae CYP509C12 Gene in Rhizopus Nigricans Enhances Reactive Oxygen Species Production and 11 α-Hydroxylation Rate of 16α, 17-Epoxyprogesterone.
Heterologous Expression of Rhizopus Oryzae CYP509C12 Gene in Rhizopus Nigricans Enhances Reactive Oxygen Species Production and 11α-Hydroxylation Rate of 16α, 17-Epoxyprogesterone. Mycobiology. 2019;47(3):301-307 Authors: Shen C, Gao X, Li T, Zhang J, Gao Y, Qiu L, Zhang G Abstract The 11α-hydroxylation of 16α, 17-epoxyprogesterone (EP) catalyzed by Rhizopus nigricans is crucial for the steroid industry. However, lower conversion rate of the biohydroxylation restricts its potential industrial application. The 11α-steroid hydroxylase CYP509C12 from R. oryzae were reported t...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Bio-Sulfur Pre-Treatment Suppresses Anthracnose on Cucumber Leaves Inoculated with Colletotrichum orbiculare.
Authors: Ko EJ, Ho Shin Y, Hyun HN, Song HS, Hong JK, Jeun YC Abstract Bio-sulfur can be produced in the process of desulfurization from a landfill and collected by some microorganism such as Thiobacillus sp. as a sulfur element. In order to investigate practical use of bio-sulfur as an agent for controlling plant disease, in vitro antifungal activity of bio-sulfur was tested against Colletotrichum orbiculare known to cause cucumber anthracnose. Efficacy of bio-sulfur for suppressing anthracnose disease was also evaluated in vivo using cucumber leaves. Mycelial growth of C. orbiculare on medium containing bio-sulfu...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Antifungal Activities of Streptomyces blastmyceticus Strain 12-6 Against Plant Pathogenic Fungi.
Authors: Kim YJ, Kim JH, Rho JY Abstract Streptomyces blastmyceticus strain 12-6 was isolated from a forest soil sample of Cheonan area on the basis of strong antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi. Butanol extracts of the cultural filtrates were active against C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. gloeosporioides, F. oxysporum, and T. roseum. Active fractions were prepared by thin layer chromatography using silica gel plate; 12-6-2 (Rf 0.36), 12-6-3 (Rf 0.44). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the active fractions caused a change in surface texture of fungal spores from smooth surface to wrinkled surfa...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Bioactive Compound Produced by Endophytic Fungi Isolated From Pelargonium sidoides Against Selected Bacteria of Clinical Importance.
Authors: Manganyi MC, Tchatchouang CK, Regnier T, Bezuidenhout CC, Ateba CN Abstract Endophytic fungi have the ability to live inside the host plant tissues without causing neither symptoms of diseases/or harm. Opportunistic infections are accountable for majority of the outbreaks, thereby putting a burden on the health system. To investigate and characterize the bioactive compounds for the control of bacteria of clinical importance, extracts from endophytic fungi were isolated from indigenous South African medicinal plants. Extracts from endophytic fungi were isolated from 133 fungal strains and screened against G...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

Bisifusarium Delphinoides, an Emerging Opportunistic Pathogen in a Burn Patient with Diabetes Mellitus.
Authors: Park JH, Oh J, Song JS, Kim J, Sung GH Abstract An 82-year-old man with diabetes was admitted to the emergency department with a third-degree burn on his left leg. The deep swab specimen from his left leg was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar without cycloheximide and incubated at 25 °C for 5 days. On the basis of morphological characteristics and multigene phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA and partial fragments of beta-tubulin and translation elongation factor 1-alpha, the causal agent of fungal skin infection was identified as Bisifusariu...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

1H-NMR Analysis of Metabolic Changes Induced by Snf1/AMP-Activated Protein Kinase During Environmental Stress Responses.
Authors: Kim J, Oh J, Yoon DH, Sung GH Abstract AMP-activated protein kinase sucrose non-fermenting 1 (Snf1) is a representative regulator of energy status that maintains cellular energy homeostasis. In addition, Snf1 is involved in the mediation of environmental stress such as salt stress. Snf1 regulates metabolic enzymes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, indicating a possible role for Snf1 in metabolic regulation. In this article, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to profile the metabolic changes induced by Snf1 under environmental stress. According to our NMR data, we suggest that Snf1 pla...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research

A Rapid and Effective Colony PCR Procedure for Screening Transformants in Several Common Mushrooms.
In this study, an easy, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for screening mushroom transformants was developed: picking up a suitable amount of transformant's tissue (1-10 μg) to 20 μl 0.25% Lywallzyme solution, and vortexing for 10 s followed by incubation at 34 °C for 15 min. Finally, 2 μl of the suspension was used as templates to perform PCR and single target bands were successfully amplified from respective transformants of Tremella fuciformis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus tuber-regium. This procedure could be wi...
Source: Mycobiology - October 1, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Mycobiology Source Type: research