The antimalarial agent artesunate causes sperm DNA damage and hepatic antioxidant defense in mice
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Supriya Singh , Anirudha Giri , Sarbani Giri Artesunate is an artemisinin derivative effective against multidrug resistant malaria. We analyzed the effects of artesunate 40mg/kg b.w. as a single dose (ART1) or 13.3mg/kg b.w. for 3 days at 24 hr intervals (ART2) on mice spermatozoa at morphological and molecular level, and hepatic antioxidant status following 24 hr and 35 days following exposures in vivo. Artesunate significantly reduced epididymal sperm count and increased the frequency...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 15, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of chromosomal damage, cytostasis, cytotoxicity, oxidative DNA damage and their association with body-mass index in obese subjects
This study was conducted to evaluate cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) assay parameters and plasma concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and their relationship with age, body-mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in 83 obese, 21 over-weight and 21 normal-weight subjects. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), nuclear buds (NBUD), and apoptotic and necrotic cells in lymphocytes of obese subjects were found to be significantly higher than those found in normal-weight and over-weight subjects (p <0.01 and p <0.05), whereas plasma concentration...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The predominant role of apoptosis in γH2AX formation induced by aneugens is useful for distinguishing aneugens from clastogens
Publication date: 1 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 771 Author(s): Asako Harada , Kaori Matsuzaki , Akira Takeiri , Masayuki Mishima The phosphorylated form of the histone protein H2AX, called γH2AX, is recognized as a useful biomarker not only for DNA double-strand breaks but also for a wide range of other DNA damage. An increasing number of publications propose γH2AX to be measured when determining genotoxicity, phototoxicity, and the effectiveness of cancer therapy. Because γH2AX is also generated by apoptosis, a γH2AX-assay might...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of single-cell gel electrophoresis data: Combination of variance analysis with sum of ranking differences
Publication date: 1 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 771 Author(s): Károly Héberger , Stoimir Kolarević , Margareta Kračun-Kolarević , Karolina Sunjog , Zoran Gačić , Zoran Kljajić , Milena Mitrić , Branka Vuković-Gačić Specimens of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from five sites in the Boka Kotorska Bay (Adriatic Sea, Montenegro) during the period summer 2011–autumn 2012. Three types of tissue, haemolymph, digestive gland were used for assessment of DNA damage. Images of randomly selected cells were analyzed...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

DNA damage caused by inorganic particulate matter on Raji and HepG2 cell lines exposed to ultraviolet radiation
This study investigated the DNA damage induced by two major inorganic particulate matter compounds found in diesel exhaust, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, on Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. We found a dose-dependent positive correlation of accumulated DNA damage at concentrations of ammonium nitrate (25μg/ml, 50μg/ml, 100μg/ml, 200μg/ml, 400μg/ml) with ultraviolet exposure (250J/m2, 400J/m2, 600J/m2, 850J/m2), as measured by the comet assay in both cell lines. There was a significant difference between the treated ammonium nitrate samples and negative contro...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Insecticidal and genotoxic potential of two semi-synthetic derivatives of dillapiole for the control of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Pedro Rauel Cândido Domingos , Ana Cristina da Silva Pinto , Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos , Míriam Silva Rafael The effects of two semi-synthetic dillapiole derivatives, ethyl-ether dillapiole and n-butyl ether dillapiole, on eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti were studied in view of the need for expansion and renovation of strategic action to control this mosquito – the vector of Dengue virus –, which currently shows a high resistance to chemical insecticides. Eg...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Pig-a mutation assay in vivo-tools for genotoxicity testing from a regulatory perspective: A study of benzo[a]pyrene in Ogg1−/− mice
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Anne Graupner , Christine Instanes , Stephen D. Dertinger , Jill Mari Andersen , Birgitte Lindeman , Tonje Danielsen Rongved , Gunnar Brunborg , Ann-Karin Olsen The OECD has developed test guidelines (TG) to identify agents with genotoxic effects. The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay is currently being prepared to become such a TG. The performance of a combined SCGE/Pig-a gene mutation study was evaluated with the prototypical genotoxicant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) a...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of potential antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of the olive oil by-product “alperujo”, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and verbascoside
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Jaouad Anter , Inmaculada Tasset , Sebastián Demyda-Peyrás , Isidora Ranchal , Miguel Moreno-Millán , Magdalena Romero-Jimenez , Jordi Muntané , María Dolores Luque de Castro , Andrés Muñoz-Serrano , Ángeles Alonso-Moraga Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the “Mediterranean diet”. The olive oil industry generates large quantities of a by-product called “alperujo” (AL) during the two-phase centrifugation sys...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Potential genotoxic effects of low-intensity ultrasound on fibroblasts, evaluated with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Ion Udroiu , Fabio Domenici , Claudia Giliberti , Angelico Bedini , Raffaele Palomba , Fabio Luongo , Deleana Pozzi , Federico Bordi , Agostina Congiu Castellano Although medical ultrasound offers compelling opportunities to improve therapy in principle, progress in the field has been limited because of an insufficient understanding of the potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ultrasound on biological systems. This paper is mainly focused on an in vitro study of effects with respect ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

DNA damage in organs of female and male mice exposed to nonylphenol, as a single agent or in combination with ionizing irradiation: A comet assay study
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Małgorzata M. Dobrzyńska The effect of nonylphenol (NP; either alone or in combination with ionizing radiation) on the induction of DNA strand breaks in mouse somatic cells has been examined. Male and female mice were repeatedly irradiated with X-rays (0.05 or 0.10Gy), injected with NP (25 or 50mg/kg bw), or both (0.05Gy+25mg/kg bw NP or 0.10Gy+50mg/kg bw NP), for 2 weeks, 5 days/week. Liver, spleen, femora, lungs and kidneys were removed from each animal for the comet assay. NP-induced D...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Inter-laboratory validation of the in-vivo flow cytometric micronucleus analysis method (MicroFlow®) in China
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Yan Chang , Changhui Zhou , Fanghua Huang , Dorothea K. Torous , Yang Luan , Chang Shi , Hongling Wang , Xin Wang , Na Wei , Zhenna Xia , Zhaomin Zhong , Ming Zhang , Fengjun An , Yiyi Cao , Xingchao Geng , Ying Jiang , Qing Ju , Yongsheng Yu , Jiangbo Zhu , Stephen D. Dertinger , Bo Li , Mingyang Liao , Bojun Yuan , Tianbao Zhang , Jinbao Yu , Zhongchun Zhang , Qingli Wang , Jing Ma Although inter-laboratory validation efforts of the in-vivo micronucleus (MN) assay based on flow cytometry ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Induction of microtubule damage in Allium cepa meristematic cells by pharmaceutical formulations of thiabendazole and griseofulvin
Publication date: 15 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 772 Author(s): Nancy B. Andrioli , Sonia Soloneski , Marcelo L. Larramendy , Marta D. Mudry Microtubules (MT) are formed by the assembly of α- and β-tubulins and MT-associated proteins. We characterized the effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing the microtubule disruptors thiabendazole (TBZ) and griseofulvin (GF) on the mitotic machinery of plant (A. cepa) meristematic cells. GF concentrations between 10 and 250μg/ml were tested. GF induced mitotic index inhibition and genotoxic e...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) using young adult rats
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Shoji Matsumura , Naohiro Ikeda , Shuichi Hamada , Wakako Ohyama , Yumi Wako , Kazufumi Kawasako , Toshio Kasamatsu , Naohiro Nishiyama The in vivo genotoxicity of CI Solvent Yellow 14 (Sudan I) was examined using repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus (MN) assays in young adult rats. Sudan I is a mono-azo dye based on aniline and 1-amino-2-hydroxynaphthalene. This dye was demonstrated as a rat liver carcinogen in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay, and g...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxic effects of CdS quantum dots and Ag2S nanoparticles in fish cell lines (RTG-2)
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Marco Munari , Joachim Sturve , Giada Frenzilli , Matthew B. Sanders , Andrea Brunelli , Antonio Marcomini , Marco Nigro , Brett P. Lyons The increasing use of nanotechnologies will lead to significant releases of engineered nanoparticles into the aquatic environment, where their impact is still poorly characterized. In the present paper, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of CdS quantum dots (QDs) and silver sulphide (Ag2S) coated with methyl polyethylene glycol (M-PEG) were inves...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Assessment of methyl methanesulfonate using the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay in young adult rats
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Shigeharu Muto , Katsuya Yamada , Tatsuya Kato , Yumi Wako , Kazufumi Kawasako , Yumiko Iwase , Yoshifumi Uno A repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats was conducted with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) as a part of a collaborative study supported by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test/the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society–Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group. MMS is a classical DNA-reactive carcinogen, but it is not a liver carcinogen. ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Critical issues with the in vivo comet assay: A report of the comet assay working group in the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT)
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Günter Speit , Hajime Kojima , Brian Burlinson , Andrew R. Collins , Peter Kasper , Ulla Plappert-Helbig , Yoshifumi Uno , Marie Vasquez , Carol Beevers , Marlies De Boeck , Patricia A. Escobar , Sachiko Kitamoto , Kamala Pant , Stefan Pfuhler , Jin Tanaka , Dan D. Levy As a part of the 6th IWGT, an expert working group on the comet assay evaluated critical topics related to the use of the in vivo comet assay in regulatory genotoxicity testing. The areas covered were: identificati...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Effects of barley β-glucan on radiation damage in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Laleh Ghavami , Bahram Goliaei , Bita Taghizadeh , Alireza Nikoofar Damage to normal tissue is an obstacle to radiotherapy of cancer. We have tested whether barley β-glucan can enhance radioprotection in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxicity of β-glucan was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A clonogenic assay was used to study the sensitivity of cells to β-glucan, ionizing radiation (2–8Gy), a...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The in vivo Pig-a assay: A report of the International Workshop On Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) Workgroup
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): B. Bhaskar Gollapudi , Anthony M. Lynch , Robert H. Heflich , Stephen D. Dertinger , Vasily N. Dobrovolsky , Roland Froetschl , Katsuyoshi Horibata , Michelle O. Kenyon , Takafumi Kimoto , David P. Lovell , Leon F. Stankowski Jr. , Paul A. White , Kristine L. Witt , Jennifer Y. Tanir The in vivo Pig-a assay uses flow cytometry to measure phenotypic variants for antibody binding to cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. There is good evidence suggesting that ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of DRDE-07 and its analogs against sulfur mustard in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 773 Author(s): Vinod Vijayan , Uma Pathak , Ghansham Pundilikji Meshram Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM), a chemical warfare agent, is classified as a class I human carcinogen by IARC. No effective antidote against this agent is available. The synthetic aminothiol, amifostine, earlier known as WR-2721, has been extensively used as a chemical radioprotector for normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. SM is a radiomimetic agent; this prompted us to evaluate the protective efficacy ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Role of DNA methylation in the adaptive responses induced in a human B lymphoblast cell line by long-term low-dose exposures to γ-rays and cadmium
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 773 Author(s): Shuang Ye , Dexiao Yuan , Yuexia Xie , Yan Pan , Chunlin Shao The possible involvement of epigenetic factors in health risks due to exposures to environmental toxicants and ionizing radiation is poorly understood. We have tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation contributes to the adaptive response (AR) to ionizing radiation or Cd. Human B lymphoblast cells HMy2.CIR were irradiated (0.032Gy γ-rays) three times per week for 4 weeks or exposed to CdCl2 (0.005, 0.01, or 0.1μM) for 3 mont...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane does not alter redox status in patients undergoing surgical procedures
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 773 Author(s): José Eduardo B. Orosz , Leandro G. Braz , Ana Lucia A. Ferreira , Rosa Beatriz Amorim , Daisy Maria F. Salvadori , Kyung-Jin Yeum , José Reinaldo C. Braz , Mariana G. Braz Despite the effectiveness and safety of anesthetics, some unanswered questions remain concerning their toxicity and effects on cellular redox balance. To test for possible toxic effects of balanced anesthesia maintained with the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, we evaluated oxidative stress during and after gener...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Construction of dose response calibration curves for dicentrics and micronuclei for X radiation in a Serbian population
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 773 Author(s): J. Pajic , B. Rakic , D. Jovicic , A. Milovanovic Biological dosimetry using chromosome damage biomarkers is a valuable dose assessment method in cases of radiation overexposure with or without physical dosimetry data. In order to estimate dose by biodosimetry, any biological dosimetry service have to have its own dose response calibration curve. This paper reveals the results obtained after irradiation of blood samples from fourteen healthy male and female volunteers in order to establish biodo...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Effect of dose-rate and irradiation geometry on the biological response of normal cells and cancer cells under radiotherapeutic conditions
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 773 Author(s): K. Ślosarek , M. Konopacka , J. Rogoliński , A. Sochanik Biological efficacy of radiation depends on its energy, dose, dose rate, and on the type of cell irradiated. Changes in the radiation-energy spectrum due to passage through absorbing and scattering media affect the variability of biological responses of the cells. We investigated the impact of photon-radiation dose rate on the biological response of both normal and cancer cells in culture exposed to radiation in various positions (relati...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

HSP90 inhibitor CH5164840 induces micronuclei in TK6 cells via an aneugenic mechanism
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 773 Author(s): Kaori Matsuzaki , Asako Harada , Kenji Tanaka , Akira Takeiri , Masayuki Mishima Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a promising druggable target for therapy of conditions including cancer, renal disease, and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the possible beneficial effects of HSP90 inhibitors, some of these agents present a genotoxicity liability. We have examined the mode of action of micronucleus formation in TK6 cells by a novel and highly specific HSP90 inhibitor, CH5164840, by means...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of a herbicide formulation containing 3,6-dichloro-2-metoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) in circulating blood cells of the tropical fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus
This study represents the first evidence of acute lethal and sublethal effects exerted by dicamba on a piscine species native to Argentina. The results could indicate that dicamba-based formulation Banvel® is the less toxic emerging pollutant reported so far for C. decemmaculatus. Finally, our findings highlight the properties of this herbicide that jeopardize nontarget living species exposed to this agrochemical. Graphical abstract (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxicity assessment of cerium oxide nanoparticles in female Wistar rats after acute oral exposure
In this study, acute oral toxicity of CeO2 NPs and their microparticles (MPs; bulk) was carried out in female albino Wistar rats. The CeO2 NPs and CeO2 MPs were characterized utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for the size, distribution and surface charge respectively. The genotoxicity studies were conducted using micronucleus test (MNT), comet and chromosomal aberration (CA) assays. Results revealed that at high dose (1000mg/kg bw) CeO2 NPs induced significant DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and liver cells, micronucleus form...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes
Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): M.O. Obiakor , J.C. Okonkwo , C.D. Ezeonyejiaku Genotoxicity of Anambra River was studied by micronucleus (MN) assay of preponderant fish species in the river. The micronucleus indices obtained were used as biomarker to estimate and predict pollution profile and possible danger of feeding on the aquatic species. Micronuclei profile of the fish was measured from gill and kidney erythrocytes using microscopic technique. Season, species and location effects on micronuclei, together with thei...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Cadmium-induced genotoxicity in human osteoblast-like cells
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Helena Oliveira , Cristina Monteiro , Francisco Pinho , Sónia Pinho , José Miguel P. Ferreira de Oliveira , Conceição Santos Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread heavy metal used in numerous industrial processes. Cd exerts toxicological effects mostly in kidney and liver. Bone is also an important target of Cd, however, the cellular mechanisms of Cd toxicological effects in the bone cells are still poorly understood. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate th...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of in vivo genotoxicity by thioacetamide in a 28-day repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using male young adult rats
In this study, thioacetamide (TAA) was tested in 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays to assess the performance of the assay. The test substance, TAA, was administered orally to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats once daily for 14 or 28 days at a dosage of 5, 10 or 20mg/kg/day. Hepatocytes were collected approximately 24h after the last TAA administration, and the incidence of micronuclei was assessed. In this study, bone marrow micronucleus assays were also conducted in the same animals. The 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays indicated that none of the TAA dosages significantly increased the proportion of micronucleated hepatocytes. Bone m...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

An evaluation of genotoxicity in human neuronal-type cells subjected to oxidative stress under an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Gianfranco Giorgi , Mariangela Lecciso , Miriam Capri , Stella Lukas Yani , Angela Virelli , Ferdinando Bersani , Brunella Del Re The possible genotoxicity of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) exposure is still a controversial topic. The most of the reported data suggests that it alone does not affect DNA integrity, but several recent reports have suggested that sinusoidal ELF-MF may increase the effect of known genotoxic agents. Only a few studies deal with non sinusoidal ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of in vivo mutagenicity of hydroquinone in Muta™ mice
Publication date: Available online 28 October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Mariko Matsumoto , Shoji Masumori , Mutsuko Hirata-Koizumi , Atsushi Ono , Masamitsu Honma , Kazuhito Yokoyama , Akihiko Hirose Hydroquinone (HQ) is used in skin bleaching agents, hair dyes, and finger nail treatments. Many skin-lightening cosmetics that contain HQ are currently marketed in Japan. Concerns have been expressed regarding health risks to the general population because the carcinogenicity of HQ was previously suggested in animal studies. HQ induced hepatocellular adenomas an...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of a repeated dose liver micronucleus assay in rats treated with two genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, dimethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene: The possibility of integrating micronucleus tests with multiple tissues into a repeated dose general toxicity study
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Rie Takashima , Hironao Takasawa , Kazufumi Kawasako , Wakako Ohyama , Emiko Okada , Kazunori Narumi , Yohei Fujiishi , Yumi Wako , Katsuaki Yasunaga , Akiko Hattori , Masayoshi Kawabata , Kiyoko Nakadate , Munehiro Nakagawa , Shuichi Hamada As part of a collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) of the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS) in the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS), the present study evaluated the effectiveness of the...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The evaluation of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay with p-dimethylaminoazobenzene
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yasushi Shimada , Hajime Sui , Yumi Wako , Kazufumi Kawasako The micronucleus induction by p-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB), a genotoxic rat liver carcinogen, was assessed in the liver and bone marrow of young adult rats after the repeated administration of DAB for 14 (Lab. 1) and 28 (Lab. 2) days. Three dose levels, 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day, were used for the investigations in both labs. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner aft...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in field plants for monitoring radiation-induced genotoxicity of the environment
Publication date: 1 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 774 Author(s): Yoshito Watanabe , Yoshihisa Kubota , Shoichi Fuma , Maruyama Kouichi , San’ei Ichikawa , Masahide Kubota , Satoshi Yoshida Effective biomonitoring for detection of radiation-induced genotoxicity of contaminants in natural environments involves testing of field plants for cytogenetic changes. To increase the efficiency and precision of cytogenetic analyses of field plants that have naturally high individual variability, an improved micronucleus assay is proposed that employs a cytokines...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

In vivo Comet assay – statistical analysis and power calculations of mice testicular cells
This study aims to identify a statistic suitably summarizing the % tail DNA of mice testicular samples in Comet assay studies. A second aim is to provide curves for this statistic outlining the number of animals and gels to use. The current study was based on 11 compounds administered via oral gavage in three doses to male mice: CAS no. 110-26-9, CAS no. 512-56-1, CAS no. 111873-33-7, CAS no. 79-94-7, CAS no. 115-96-8, CAS no. 598-55-0, CAS no. 636-97-5, CAS no. 85-28-9, CAS no. 13674-87-8, CAS no. 43100-38-5 and CAS no. 60965-26-6. Testicular cells were examined using the alkaline version of the Comet assay and the DNA da...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Activation of Toll-like receptors by intestinal microflora reduces radiation-induced DNA damage in mice
Publication date: 1 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 774 Author(s): Hong Chen , Zhi-Dong Wang , Mao-Sheng Chen , Xue-Qing Zhang , Li-Ping Shen , Jian-Xiang Zhang , Ying Chen Activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling by intestinal microflora-derived bacterial products plays a key role in injury defence for the host. We investigated the role of TLRs activated by intestinal microflora in radiation-induced DNA damage in mice. We analyzed DNA damage induced by 2Gy γ-ray radiation in an intestinal commensal bacteria-depleted mouse model (CD group), i...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay
Publication date: 1 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 774 Author(s): Adrien Dhyèvre , Anne Sophie Foltête , Delphine Aran , Serge Muller , Sylvie Cotelle In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Cyto-genotoxicity assessment of potential radioprotector, 3,3′-diselenodipropionic acid (DSePA) in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes
In conclusion our results confirm the nongenotoxic nature of the DSePA and validate its radioprotective efficacy and mechanisms of action in model cellular systems. Graphical abstract (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Sex-specific dose-response analysis of genotoxicity in cyproterone acetate-treated F344 rats
Publication date: 1 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 774 Author(s): Wei Ding , Michelle E. Bishop , Mason G. Pearce , Kelly J. Davis , Gene A. White , Lascelles E. Lyn-Cook , Mugimane G. Manjanatha Cyproterone acetate (CPA), a synthetic hormonal drug, induces rat liver tumors in a sex-specific manner, with five-fold higher doses needed to induce liver tumors in male rats compared to females. In order to evaluate the potential of the in vivo alkaline Comet assay to predict the sex-specific carcinogenicity of CPA, CPA-induced direct DNA damage (DNA strand break...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Recommended protocols for the liver micronucleus test: Report of the IWGT working group
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yoshifumi Uno , Takeshi Morita , Mirjam Luijten , Carol Beevers , Shuichi Hamada , Satoru Itoh , Wakako Ohyama , Hironao Takasawa At the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), the liver micronucleus test working group discussed practical aspects of the in vivo rodent liver micronucleus test (LMNT). The group members focused on the three methodologies currently used, i.e., a partial hepatectomy (PH) method, a juvenile/young rat (JR) method, and a repeated-dose (RD) met...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Exome-wide mutation profile in benzo[a]pyrene-derived post-stasis and immortal human mammary epithelial cells
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Paul L. Severson , Lukas Vrba , Martha R. Stampfer , Bernard W. Futscher Genetic mutations are known to drive cancer progression and certain tumors have mutation signatures that reflect exposures to environmental carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has a known mutation signature and has proven capable of inducing changes to DNA sequence that drives normal pre-stasis human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) past a first tumor suppressor barrier (stasis) and toward immortality. We analyzed norm...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Investigations into the genotoxic potential of olive extracts
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2014 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): David Kirkland , James Edwards , Tina Woehrle , Paul Beilstein The phenolic anti-oxidant 3-hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major constituent of olives and olive oil. Published data showed it was negative in the Ames test at concentrations up to 5μL per plate, but did induce chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. HIDROX, an olive extract containing approximately 2.4% HT, was reported as both positive and equivocal in an Ames test in different papers from the same laboratory. Negative r...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 14, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of isatin in mammalian cells in vivo
Publication date: 3 February 2011 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 719, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Priscila de Matos Cândido-Bacani , Mariana Bisarro dos Reis , Juliana Mara Serpeloni , Tamara Regina Calvo , Wagner Vilegas , Eliana Aparecida Varanda , Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione) is a synthetically versatile substrate used for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds and as a raw material for drug synthesis. Isatin and its derivatives demonstrate anticonvulsant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer properties. We evalu...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The effects of dietary supplementation of methionine on genomic stability and p53 gene promoter methylation in rats
This study investigated the genotoxicity of a methionine-supplemented diet. It also investigated the diet's effects on glutathione levels, SAM and SAH concentrations and the gene methylation pattern of p53. Wistar rats received either a methionine-supplemented diet (2% methionine) or a control diet (0.3% methionine) for six weeks. The methionine-supplemented diet was neither genotoxic nor antigenotoxic to kidney cells, as assessed by the comet assay. However, the methionine-supplemented diet restored the renal glutathione depletion induced by doxorubicin. This fact may be explained by the transsulfuration pathway, which co...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and its isolated toxins on human lymphocytes
Publication date: 18 September 2011 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 724, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Silvana Marcussi , Paulo R.S. Santos , Danilo L. Menaldo , Lucas B. Silveira , Norival A. Santos-Filho , Maurício V. Mazzi , Saulo L. da Silva , Rodrigo G. Stábeli , Lusânia M. Greggi Antunes , Andreimar M. Soares In the present study, experiments were carried out to evaluate the mutagenic potential and genotoxic effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and its isolated toxins on human lymphocytes, using the micronucleus and comet assays. Sig...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

An evaluation, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test, of the antigenotoxic effects of chlorophyll b in mice
Publication date: 9 October 2011 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 725, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Juliana Mara Serpeloni , Denise Grotto , Alexandre Ferro Aissa , Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante , Maria de Lourdes Pires Bianchi , Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes We investigated the effects of the dietary pigment chlorophyll b (CLb) on cisplatin (cDDP)-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage, using the comet assay in mouse peripheral blood cells and the micronucleus (MN) test in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. We also tested for thiobarbituric acid reactive substance...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

DNA damage in patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery under inhalation or intravenous anesthesia
In conclusion, general anesthesia with inhaled ISF and SVF or iv PF did not induce DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in peripheral lymphocytes. Therefore, our results show that the genotoxic risk of these anesthetics, for healthy patients undergoing minimally invasive otorhinological surgery, is low or even absent. Highlights ► We investigated the genotoxic effects of two inhaled and one intravenous anesthetic. ► We evaluated healthy patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery. ► Comet assay was analyzed before, during and on the day following surgical procedure. ► No significant increase in DNA damage...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

In vitro genotoxicity testing strategy for nanomaterials and the adaptation of current OECD guidelines
In this report, we therefore consider the in vitro OECD genotoxicity test battery including the Ames, micronucleus and HPRT forward mutation assays, and their potential role in the safety assessment of nanomaterial induced DNA damage in vitro. Highlights ► We consider current in vitro OECD genotoxicity tests for nanomaterials. ► Ames test does not appear to be suitable for nanomaterial assessment. ► In vitro HPRT and micronucleus assays require nanomaterial specific protocols. ► We recommend a strategic in vitro genotoxicity testing strategy for nanomaterials. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Envir...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Exposure of pregnant mice to carbon black by intratracheal instillation: Toxicogenomic effects in dams and offspring
Publication date: 14 June 2012 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 745, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Petra Jackson , Karin S. Hougaard , Ulla Vogel , Dongmei Wu , Lorraine Casavant , Andrew Williams , Mike Wade , Carole L. Yauk , Håkan Wallin , Sabina Halappanavar Exposure to nanomaterials (NM) during sensitive developmental stages may predispose organisms to diseases later in life. However, direct translocation of NM from mother to fetus through the placenta is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that pulmonary exposure to NM and NM-induced response, such as...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of genotoxicity and oxidative damage in painters exposed to low levels of toluene
Publication date: 4 July 2012 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 746, Issue 1 Author(s): Angela M. Moro , Natália Brucker , Mariele Charão , Rachel Bulcão , Fernando Freitas , Marília Baierle , Sabrina Nascimento , Juliana Valentini , Carina Cassini , Mirian Salvador , Rafael Linden , Flávia Thiesen , Andréia Buffon , Rafael Moresco , Solange C. Garcia Toluene is an organic solvent used in numerous processes and products, including industrial paints. Toluene neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity are well recognized; however, its ge...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - November 3, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research