Dominant lethal mutation test in male mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Shunxing Zhu, Jie Zhang, Chun Liu, Qina He, Vijayalaxmi, Thomas J. Prihoda, Jian Tong, Yi Cao Adult male ICR mice were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 1.6 mW/cm2 power intensity (whole body average specific absorption rate of 0.731W/kg) for 4 hour/day for 15 days. At the end of exposure, each mouse was caged with 3 mature virgin female mice for mating. After 7 days, each male mouse was transferred to a fresh cage and mated with a second batch of 3 fem...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - July 18, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Quantification of Kras mutant fraction in the lung DNA of mice exposed to aerosolized particulate vanadium pentoxide by inhalation
This study investigated whether Kras mutation is an early event in the development of lung tumors induced by inhalation of particulate vanadium pentoxide (VP) aerosols. A National Toxicology Program tumor bioassay of inhaled particulate VP aerosols established that VP-induced alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas of the B6C3F1 mouse lung carried Kras mutations at a higher frequency than observed in spontaneous mouse lung tumors. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) characterize any Kras mutational response with respect to VP exposure concentration, and 2) investigate the possibility that amplification of preexisting Kras mutation...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - July 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Marked contribution of alternative end-joining to chromosome-translocation-formation by stochastically induced DNA double-strand-breaks in G2-phase human cells
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Aashish Soni , Maria Siemann , Gabriel E. Pantelias , George Iliakis Ionizing radiation (IR) induces double strand breaks (DSBs) in cellular DNA, which if not repaired correctly can cause chromosome translocations leading to cell death or cancer. Incorrect joining of DNA ends generating chromosome translocations can be catalyzed either by the dominant DNA-PKcs-dependent, classical non-homologous end-joining (c-NHEJ), or by an alternative end-joining (alt-EJ) process, functioning as backup to...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - July 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Alternative end-joining repair pathways are the ultimate backup for abrogated classical non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair: Implications for the formation of chromosome translocations
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): George Iliakis , Tamara Murmann , Aashish Soni DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most deleterious lesions for the integrity of the genome, as their misrepair can lead to the formation of chromosome translocations. Cells have evolved two main repair pathways to suppress the formation of these genotoxic lesions: homology-dependent, error-free homologous recombination repair (HRR), and potentially error-prone, classical, DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (c-NHEJ). The most salien...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - July 4, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of cII mutations in lung of male Big Blue mice exposed by inhalation to vanadium pentoxide for up to 8 weeks
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Mugimane G. Manjanatha , Sharon D. Shelton , Lynne Haber , Bhaskar Gollapudi , Judith A. MacGregor , Narayanan Rajendran , Martha M. Moore Chronic inhalation of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) increases the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar tumors in male and female B6C3F1 mice at 1, 2 or 4mg/m3. The genotoxicity of V2O5 has been extensively investigated in the literature with mixed results. In general, tests for gene mutations have been negative. Both positive and negative results were reported ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 30, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Male-mediated F1 effects in mice exposed to bisphenol A, either alone or in combination with X-irradiation
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Małgorzata M. Dobrzyńska , Aneta Gajowik , Joanna Radzikowska , Ewa J. Tyrkiel , Ewa A. Jankowska-Steifer We investigated the possible transmission of heritable changes via the sperm, following preconceptional exposure of mice to bisphenol A (BPA), either alone or in combination with X-irradiation. Males were exposed for 8 weeks to BPA, X-rays or both agents, and mated to unexposed females. Pre- and postnatal development of the offspring of exposed males was examined. Both BPA alone and t...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 30, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The micronucleus assay in mammalian cells in vitro to assess health benefits of various phytochemicals
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Roberta Meschini , Andrea Berni , Silvia Filippi , Gaetano Pepe , Maria Rosaria Grossi , Adayapalam T. Natarajan , Fabrizio Palitti We evaluated the protective effects of Gentiana lutea extracts (GLEx) and 6-Gingerol (6-G) on clastogenicity of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(α) anthracene (DMBA) in vitro on HepG2 cells using the frequencies of induced micronuclei (MN) as the end point. Pre-, post- and simultaneous treatments with GLEx or 6-G and the c...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 30, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Triage biodosimetry using centromeric/telomeric PNA probes and Giemsa staining to score dicentrics or excess fragments in non-stimulated lymphocyte prematurely condensed chromosomes
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Ioanna Karachristou , Maria Karakosta , Antonio Pantelias , Vasiliki I. Hatzi , Pantelis Karaiskos , Panagiotis Dimitriou , Gabriel Pantelias , Georgia I. Terzoudi The frequency of dicentric chromosomes in human peripheral blood lymphocytes at metaphase is considered as the “gold-standard” method for biological dosimetry and, presently, it is the most widely used for dose assessment. Yet, it needs lymphocyte stimulation and a 2-day culture, failing the requirement of rapid dose ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 26, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Investigation of micronucleus induction in MTH1 knockdown cells exposed to UVA, UVB or UVC
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Asal Fotouhi , Nicola Cornella , Mehrafarin Ramezani , Andrzej Wojcik , Siamak Haghdoost The longer wave parts of UVR can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can oxidize nucleotides in the DNA or in the nucleotide pool leading to mutations. Oxidized bases in the DNA are repaired mainly by the DNA base excision repair system and incorporation of oxidized nucleotides into newly synthesized DNA can be prevented by the enzyme MTH1. Here we hypothesize that the formatio...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 23, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Standards in biological dosimetry: A requirement to perform an appropriate dose assessment
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Philippe Voisin Every year, many countries perform a significant number of investigations based on biological radiation dose assessment to check suspected or true overexposure by irradiation of radiation workers and individuals of the general population. The scoring of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes has gradually become the “gold standard” for the biodosimetry-based assessment of accidental situations. Nevertheless, other “classical” biodosimetric methods...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 23, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Catherine C. Priestley , Joanne S. Walker , Michael R. O’Donovan , Ann Doherty As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Activation of the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway at low doses of ionization radiation
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Pau Castillo Bosch , Massimo Bogliolo , Jordi Surrallés Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare, clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive or X-linked genetic disease characterized by chromosome fragility, congenital malformations and cancer susceptibility. FA patients are usually radiosensitive when exposed to radiotherapy but the role of the FA in response to ionizing radiation (IR) is controversial. Here we have investigated IR-induced activation of the FA pathway by systematically analy...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 17, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) is a potential marker of radiation response and radiation sensitivity
In conclusion, the results suggest that GDF-15 works as a radiation inducible radiation resistance increasing factor in normal human fibroblast cells, acts by regulating the radiation-induced transcription of several genes and might serve as a radiation-induced early biomarker in exposed cells. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 17, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Re-analysis results using medians of the data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yoshifumi Uno , Takashi Omori The data from the JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay were reported and analyzed statistically using the simple means of % tail DNA. However, OECD test guideline TG 489 recommends use of the median for data analysis due to the hierarchical nature of the data. Comparison between the simple mean approach and the median based approach for positive/negative/equivocal chemical calls was conducted using the % tail D...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Modulation of radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by hypothermia
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Lei Cheng , Halina Lisowska , Alice Sollazzo , Aneta Wegierek-Ciuk , Katarzyna Stepień , Tomasz Kuszewski , Anna Lankoff , Siamak Haghdoost , Andrzej Wojcik Purpose Recent studies have shown that low temperature (hypothermia) at exposure can act in a radio-protective manner at the level of cytogenetic damage. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are not understood, but it was suggested to be due to hypothermia-induced perturbations of the cell cycle. The purpose of the present study was to de...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Cytogenetic evidence that dna topoisomerase ii is not involved in radiation induced chromsome-type aberrations
In this study ICRF-187 was used to evaluate the potential involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in the formation of the radiation-induced chromosome-type aberrations in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in human lymphocytes from three healthy male donors. This is based on many evidences that DNA topoisomerases are involved in DNA recombination, mainly of illegitimate type (non-homologous) both in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained clearly indicated that ICRF-187 did not induce per se any chromosomal damage. When challenged with the non-catalytic Topo II poison VP-16 (etoposide), which acts by stabilizing the “cleavab...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 15, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Assessment of dose and DNA damages in individuals exposed to low dose and low dose rate ionizing radiations during computed tomography imaging
Conclusion The results suggest that CT imaging delivers a considerable amount of radiation dose to the eye, forehead, and thyroid, and the observed increase in the CA and MN frequencies show low dose radiation effects calling for protective regulatory measures to increase patient’s safety. This study is the first attempt to indicate the trend of doses received by the patient’s eye, forehead and thyroid and measured directly in contrast to earlier values obtained by extrapolation from phantoms, and to assess the in vivo low dose effects in an Indian patient population undergoing CT procedures. (Source: Mutation ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A new genotoxicity assay based on p53 target gene induction
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Y. Zerdoumi , E. Kasper , F. Soubigou , S. Adriouch , G. Bougeard , T. Frebourg , J-M. Flaman The p53 tumor suppressor protein has emerged as a universal sensor of genotoxic stress that regulates the transcription of numerous genes required for appropriate cellular response to DNA damage. Therefore, transcriptional induction of p53 target genes can be considered as a global and early indicator of genotoxic stress. By performing expression microarrays and RNA-Seq analysis on wild-type and mut...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Relationships between p53 status, apoptosis and induction of micronuclei in different human and mouse cell lines in vitro: Implications for improving existing assays
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): James Whitwell , Robert Smith , Karen Jenner , Heather Lyon , Deborah Wood , Julie Clements , Kelly Aschcroft-Hawley , Bhaskar Gollapudi , David Kirkland , Elisabeth Lorge , Stefan Pfuhler , Jennifer Y. Tanir , Veronique Thybaud Accumulated evidence has shown that in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays produce high frequencies of “misleading” positive results, i.e. predicted hazard is not confirmed in in vivo and/or carcinogenicity studies [1], raising the question of releva...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

mBAND and mFISH analysis of chromosomal aberrations and breakpoint distribution in chromosome 1 of AG01522 human fibroblasts that were exposed to radiation of different qualities
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): F. Berardinelli , M. De Vitis , D. Nieri , R. Cherubini , V. De Nadal , S. Gerardi , C. Tanzarella , A. Sgura , A. Antoccia High-resolution multicolour banding FISH (mBAND) and multiplex FISH (mFISH) were used to analyse the aberrations of chromosome 1 in irradiated-AG01522 human primary fibroblasts. The cells were exposed to 1Gy of a panel of radiation of different qualities, such as X-rays, low-energy protons (28keV/μm), helium-ions (62keV/μm) and carbon-ions (96 and 252keV/μm). m...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

APE1/REF-1 down-regulation enhances the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide in a resistant glioblastoma cell line
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Ana P. Montaldi , Paulo R.D.V. Godoy , Elza T. Sakamoto-Hojo Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used for patients with glioblastoma (GBM); however, tumor cells frequently exhibit drug-resistance. Base excision repair (BER) has been identified as a possible mediator of TMZ resistance, and an attractive approach to sensitizing cells to chemotherapy. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1) is an essential enzyme with a role in the BER pathway by repairing abasic sites, and it a...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Investigation of micronuclei induction in MTH1 knockdown cells exposed to UVA, UVB or UVC
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Asal Fotouhi , Nicola Cornella , Mehrafarin Ramezani , Andrzej Wojcik , Siamak Haghdoost The longer wave parts of UVR can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can oxidize nucleotides in the DNA or in the nucleotide pool leading to mutations. Oxidized bases in the DNA are repaired mainly by the DNA base excision repair system and incorporation of oxidized nucleotides into newly synthesized DNA can be prevented by the enzyme MTH1. Here we hypothesize that the formatio...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Plumbagin alters telomere dynamics, induces DNA damage and cell death in human brain tumour cells
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Aik Kia Khaw , Safoura Sameni , Shriram Venkatesan , Guruprasad Kalthur , M. Prakash Hande Natural plant products may possess much potential in palliative therapy and supportive strategies of current cancer treatments with lesser cytotoxicity to normal cells compared to conventional chemotherapy. In the current study, anti-cancer properties of plumbagin, a plant-derived naphthoquinone, on brain cancer cells were determined. Plumbagin treatment resulted in the induction of DNA damage, cell cy...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Andrea De Amicis , Stefania De Sanctis , Sara Di Cristofaro , Valeria Franchini , Florigio Lista , Elisa Regalbuto , Emilio Giovenale , Gian Piero Gallerano , Paolo Nenzi , Roberto Bei , Massimo Fantini , Monica Benvenuto , Laura Masuelli , Elisa Coluzzi , Cristina Cicia , Antonella Sgura In recent years, terahertz (THz) radiation has been widely used in a variety of applications: medical, security, telecommunications and military areas. However, few data are available on the biological effe...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - June 12, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Global quantification of γH2AX as a triage tool for the rapid estimation of received dose in the event of accidental radiation exposure
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Muriel Viau , Isabelle Testard , Grace Shim , Luc Morat , Marie DelnaNormil , William M. Hempel , Laure Sabatier The phosphorylation of the H2AX histone to form γH2AX foci has been shown to be an accurate biomarker of ionizing radiation exposure. It is well established that there is a one-to-one correlation between the number of γH2AX foci and radiation-induced double strand breaks in cellular DNA, which can be translated to the received dose. However, manual counting of foci is ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 30, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Detection of micronuclei in hepatocytes isolated from young adult rats repeatedly treated with N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volumes 780–781 Author(s): Yukari Terashima , Ryohei Yokoi , Ikuro Takakura , Erika Saitou , Yumi Wako , Kazufumi Kawasako , Shinji Souma , Toru Tamura To assess the effectiveness of the multiple dose liver micronucleus (MN) assay, the induction of micronuclei by N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (NDPA), a genotoxic rodent carcinogen, was compared in hepatocytes (HEPs) and bone marrow (BM) cells. Young adult male rats were treated orally with NDPA at 6 weeks of age for 14 days using daily doses of 10, 20 and 40mg/kg. Sam...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Repeated-dose liver micronucleus test of 4,4′-methylenedianiline using young adult rats
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volumes 780–781 Author(s): Hisakazu Sanada , Naomi Koyama , Yumi Wako , Kazufumi Kawasako , Shuichi Hamada Liver micronucleus (MN) tests using partial hepatectomized rats or juvenile rats have been shown to be useful for the detection of hepatic carcinogens. Moreover, Narumi et al. established the repeated-dose liver MN test using young adult rats for integration into general toxicity. In the present study, in order to examine the usefulness of the repeated-dose liver MN test, we investigated MN induction with a ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of repeated dose micronucleus assays of the liver using N-nitrosopyrrolidine: A report of the collaborative study by CSGMT/JEMS.MMS
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volumes 780–781 Author(s): Izumi Ogawa , Soichiro Hagio , Satoshi Furukawa , Masayoshi Abe , Yusuke Kuroda , Seigo Hayashi , Yumi Wako , Kazufumi Kawasako The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay has the potential to detect liver carcinogens, and can be integrated into a general toxicological study. To assess the performance of the assay, N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was tested in 14- or 28-day RDLMN assays. NPYR was orally administered to rats at a daily dose of 25, 50 or ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic responses by natural and novel quercetin glycosides
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Anya Engen , Junko Maeda , David E. Wozniak , Colleen A. Brents , Justin J. Bell , Mitsuru Uesaka , Yasushi Aizawa , Takamitsu A. Kato The flavonoids quercetin, and its natural glycosides isoquercetin and rutin, are phytochemicals commonly consumed in plant-derived foods. Semi-synthetic water-soluble isoquercetin and rutin glycosides, maltooligosyl isoquercetin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin were developed by synthetic glycosylation to overcome solubility challenges for improv...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Ulla Plappert-Helbig , Ursula Junker-Walker , Hans-Joerg Martus As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treat...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A source of artifact in the lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): George R. Hoffmann , Carol L. Gray , Paulina B. Lange , Christie I. Marando The lacZ reversion assay in Escherichia coli measures point mutations that occur by specific base substitutions and frameshift mutations. The tester strains cannot use lactose as a carbon source (Lac−), and revertants are easily detected by growth on lactose medium (Lac+). Six strains identify the six possible base substitutions, and five strains measure +G, −G, −CG, +A and −A frameshifts. S...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

DNA damage in Fabry patients: An investigation of oxidative damage and repair
Publication date: Available online 28 April 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Giovana Brondani Biancini , Dinara Jaqueline Moura , Paula Regina Manini , Jéssica Lamberty Faverzani , Cristina Brinckmann Oliveira Netto , Marion Deon , Roberto Giugliani , Jenifer Saffi , Carmen Regla Vargas Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with loss of activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In addition to accumulation of α-galactosidase A substrates, other mechanisms may be involved in FD pathophysiology, such as inflammation and oxida...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yoshifumi Uno , Hajime Kojima , Takashi Omori , Raffaella Corvi , Masamistu Honma , Leonard M. Schechtman , Raymond R. Tice , Carol Beevers , Marlies De Boeck , Brian Burlinson , Cheryl A. Hobbs , Sachiko Kitamoto , Andrew R. Kraynak , James McNamee , Yuzuki Nakagawa , Kamala Pant , Ulla Plappert-Helbig , Catherine Priestley , Hironao Takasawa , Kunio Wada , Uta Wirnitzer , Norihide Asano , Patricia A. Escobar , David Lovell , Takeshi Morita , Madoka Nakajim , Yasuo Ohno , Makoto Hayashi T...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yoshifumi Uno , Hajime Kojima , Takashi Omori , Raffaella Corvi , Masamistu Honma , Leonard M. Schechtman , Raymond R. Tice , Brian Burlinson , Patricia A. Escobar , Andrew R. Kraynak , Yuzuki Nakagawa , Madoka Nakajim , Kamala Pant , Norihide Asano , David Lovell , Takeshi Morita , Yasuo Ohno , Makoto Hayashi The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously b...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Optimal dose selection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for the rat comet assay to evaluate DNA damage in organs with different susceptibility to cytotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Sachiko Kitamoto , Ryoko Matsuyama , Yasuaki Uematsu , Keiko Ogata , Mika Ota , Toru Yamada , Kaori Miyata , Hitoshi Funabashi , Koichi Saito The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is a promising technique to evaluate DNA damage in vivo. However, there is no agreement on a method to evaluate DNA damage in organs where cytotoxicity is observed. As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the com...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxicity evaluation of benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and trisodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid monohydrate using a combined rat comet/micronucleus assays
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Sachiko Kitamoto , Ryoko Matsuyama , Yasuaki Uematsu , Keiko Ogata , Mika Ota , Toru Yamada , Kaori Miyata , Juki Kimura , Hitoshi Funabashi , Koichi Saito As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined DNA damage in the liver, stomach, and bone marrow of rats dosed orally three times with up to 2000mg/kg of benzene, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and tris...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

In vitro genotoxicity testing of carvacrol and thymol using the micronucleus and mouse lymphoma assays
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Sara Maisanaba , Ana I. Prieto , Maria Puerto , Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena , Eşref Demir , Ricard Marcos , Ana M. Cameán Currently, antimicrobial additives derived from essential oils (Eos) extracted from plants or spices, such as Origanum vulgare, are used in food packaging. Thymol and carvacrol, the major EO compounds of O. vulgare, have demonstrated their potential use as active additives. These new applications use high concentrations, thereby increasing the concern regarding...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

A case-control study of genotoxicity endpoints in patients with papillary thyroid cancer
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Gerić Marko , Janušić Renato , Šarčević Božena , Garaj-Vrhovac Vera Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing cancer types worldwide. Using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assays, we performed a case-control study of 23 untreated papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients and 23 healthy volunteers. PTC patients showed higher basal DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CBMN assay indicated that the numbers of micronuclei, nuclear buds, and nucl...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

p-Chloroaniline, t-butylhydroquinone, and methyl carbamate: Rat in vivo comet test, JaCVAM trial phase 4.2
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): William Barfield , Brian Burlinson As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined p-Chloroaniline, t-butylhydroquinone, and methyl carbamate. All test materials and controls were dosed orally by gavage. p-Chloroaniline produced a statistically significant increase in the mean and median % tail intensity which was also outside of the historical control range in the liv...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yoshifumi Uno , Hajime Kojima , Makoto Hayashi (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Chad M. Thompson , Jeffrey C. Wolf , Reem H. Elbekai , Madhav G. Paranjpe , Jennifer M. Seiter , Mark A. Chappell , Ryan V. Tappero , Mina Suh , Deborah M. Proctor , Anne Bichteler , Laurie C. Haws , Mark A. Harris Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we condu...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - May 15, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Eight-year follow-up study of three individuals accidentally exposed to 60Co radiation: Chromosome aberration and micronucleus analysis
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Li Feng , Ling He , Yan Wang , Liqing Du , Chang Xu , Qiang Liu , Feiyue Fan We assessed dose levels and the persistence of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in three individuals in the 8 year following accidental 60Co radiation exposure. Venous blood samples were collected and used for analyses: traditional chromosome aberration (CA) measurement, G-banding, and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. For CA analysis, we scored dicentric chromosomes (dic) and rings (r) in pe...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 11, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Gene expression and epigenetic profiles of mammary gland tissue: Insight into the differential predisposition of four rat strains to mammary gland cancer
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 779 Author(s): Lidia Luzhna , Kristy Kutanzi , Olga Kovalchuk Rats are excellent experimental models for studying breast cancer, but rat strains differ in susceptibility. Among the four strains used in this study, Fischer rats are less susceptible to spontaneous breast cancer, yet they are highly prone to extremely severe metastatic and drug-resistant tumors, in those case where they actually develop the disease. In contrast, Sprague Dawley rats are the most susceptible to spontaneous breast cancer among the ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Capsaicin-induced genotoxic stress does not promote apoptosis in A549 human lung and DU145 prostate cancer cells
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 779 Author(s): Anna Lewinska , Paulina Jarosz , Joanna Czech , Iwona Rzeszutek , Anna Bielak-Zmijewska , Wioleta Grabowska , Maciej Wnuk Capsaicin is the major pungent component of the hot chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, which are consumed worldwide as a food additive. More recently, the selective action of capsaicin against cancer cells has been reported. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of a wide range of cancer cells in vitro, whereas being inactive against normal cell...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Genotoxicity of tungsten carbide–cobalt (WC–Co) nanoparticles in vitro: Mechanisms-of-action studies
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Volume 779 Author(s): Hélène Moche , Dany Chevalier , Hervé Vezin , Nancy Claude , Elisabeth Lorge , Fabrice Nesslany We showed previously that tungsten carbide–cobalt (WC–Co) nanoparticles (NP) can be used as a nanoparticulate positive control in some in vitro mammalian genotoxicity assays. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of action involved in WC–Co NP genotoxicity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and primary human lymphocytes, in vitro. Data from the micronucleus assay coup...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Summary of major conclusions from the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Hans-Joerg Martus , Makoto Hayashi , Masamitsu Honma , Peter Kasper , Bhaskar Gollapudi , Lutz Mueller , Rita Schoeny , Yoshifumi Uno , David J. Kirkland (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Results of the International Validation of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: Individual data for 1,2-dibromoethane, p-anisidine, and o-anthranilic acid in the 2nd step of the 4th phase Validation Study under the JaCVAM initiative
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Hironao Takasawa , Rie Takashima , Kazunori Narumi , Kazufumi Kawasako , Akiko Hattori , Masayoshi Kawabata , Shuichi Hamada As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative International Validation Study of an in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), p-anisidine (ASD), and o-anthranilic acid (ANT) to investigate the effectiveness of the comet assay in detecting genotoxic carcinogens. Each of the three test chemicals ...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Alkaline comet assay in liver and stomach, and micronucleus assay in bone marrow, from rats treated with 2-acetylaminofluorene, azidothymidine, cisplatin, or isobutyraldehyde
In conclusion, the in vivo comet assay is capable of detecting genotoxic effects of a variety of chemicals and may fill an important role in the genotoxicity test battery. (Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis)
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Micronucleus test in rodent tissues other than liver or erythrocytes: Report of the IWGT working group
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Yoshifumi Uno , Takeshi Morita , Mirjam Luijten , Carol Beevers , Shuichi Hamada , Satoru Itoh , Wakako Ohyama , Hironao Takasawa At the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing, the liver micronucleus test (MNT) working group briefly discussed the MNT using tissues other than liver/erythrocytes. Many tissues other than liver/erythrocytes have been studied, primarily for research purposes. They have included the colon and intestinal epithelium, skin, spleen, lung, stomach, bladder...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The JaCVAM international validation study on the in vivo comet assay: Selection of test chemicals
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015 Source:Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis Author(s): Takeshi Morita , Yoshifumi Uno , Masamitsu Honma , Hajime Kojima , Makoto Hayashi , Raymond R Tice , Raffaella Corvi , Leonard Schechtman The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) sponsored an international prevalidation and validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline pH comet assay. The main objective of the study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for correctly identifying genotoxic carcinogens, as compared with the traditional rat liv...
Source: Mutation Research Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis - April 10, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research