Zinc Import Mediated by AdcABC is Critical for Colonization of the Dental Biofilm by Streptococcus mutans in an Animal Model
In this study, we sought to identify and characterize the zinc uptake system(s) ofS. mutans, a keystone pathogen in dental caries and a causative agent of bacterial endocarditis. Different than other pathogenic bacteria, including several streptococci, that encode multiple zinc import systems, bioinformatic analysis indicated that theS. mutans core genome encodes a single, highly conserved, zinc importer commonly known as AdcABC. Inactivation of the genes coding for the metal ‐binding AdcA (ΔadcA) or both AdcC ATPase and AdcB permease ( ΔadcCB) severely impaired the ability ofS. mutans to grow under zinc ‐d...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - April 6, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tridib Ganguly, Alexandra M. Peterson, Jessica K. Kajfasz, Jacqueline Abranches, Jos é A. Lemos Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Platelet and Neutrophil Responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis in Human Whole Blood
This study evaluates the role ofP.gingivalis on platelet expression of CD62P, platelet ‐neutrophil interactions, and labeled neutrophil associated DNA. Human whole blood was preincubated with varyingP.gingivalis concentrations with or without subsequent addition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Flow cytometry was employed to measure CD62P expression in platelets using PerCP ‐anti‐CD61 and PE‐anti‐CD62P, platelet‐neutrophil interactions using PerCP‐anti‐CD61 and FITC‐anti‐CD16, and the release of neutrophil DNA using FITC‐anti‐CD16 and Sytox Blue labeling. Preincubation with high (6.25 x 106 CFU/mL) l...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - April 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: William A. Chen, Hansel M. Fletcher, Kimberly J. Payne, Sheryl Aka, Melanie B. Thornburg, Joseph D. Gheorghe, Shahnaj Binte Safi, David Shavlik, Udochukwu Oyoyo, Danilo S. Boskovic Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

TPCA ‐1 negatively regulates inflammation mediated by NF‐κB pathway in mouse chronic periodontitis model
AbstractThe dysregulation of immune system plays a crucial function in periodontitis development. Pro ‐inflammatory cytokines are thought to be critical for the generation and development of periodontitis. The enhanced activity of osteoclasts contributes to periodontitis pathogenesis. Nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) signaling pathway directly enhances osteoclast differentiation and maturation. 2‐ [(aminocarbonyl)amino]‐5‐(4‐fluorophenyl)‐3‐thiophenecarboxamide (TPCA‐1) is a IκB kinases (IKK) inhibitor. This research aimed to investigate whether TPCA‐1 had influence on the pathogenesis of c...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 30, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bo Wang, Shizhu Bai, Jiang Wang, Nan Ren, Rui Xie, Geng Cheng, Yan Yu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

sRNA23392 packaged by Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles promotes oral squamous cell carcinomas migration and invasion by targeting desmocollin ‐2
In this study, we foundP. gingivalis OMVs promote the invasion and migration of OSCC cells in vitro. Further research showed that sRNA23392 was abundant inP. gingivalis OMVs and it promoted the invasion and migration of OSCC cells by targeting Desmocollin ‐2 (DSC2). DSC2, a desmosomal cadherin family member, has been found to be involved in tumor progression. sRNA23392 inhibitors attenuatedP. gingivalis OMV ‐induced migration and invasion of OSCC cells. Collectively, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sRNA23392 inP. gingivalis OMVs is a novel mechanism of the host ‐pathogen interaction, wherebyP. ...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dongjuan Liu, Sai Liu, Junchao Liu, Lei Miao, Shuwei Zhang, Yaping Pan Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

The multifaceted roles of antimicrobial peptides in oral diseases
AbstractAntimicrobial peptides are naturally occurring protein molecules with antibacterial, antiviral and/or antifungal activity. Some antimicrobial peptides kill microorganisms through direct binding with negatively charged microbial surfaces. This action disrupts the cytoplasmic membrane and leads to the leakage of the cytoplasm. In addition, they are involved in the innate immune response. Antimicrobial peptides play an important role in oral health, as natural antimicrobial peptides are the first line of host defence in response to microbial infection. The level of natural antimicrobial peptides increases during sever...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: John Yun Niu, Iris Xiaoxue Yin, May Lei Mei, William Ka Kei Wu, Quan ‐Li Li, Chun Hung Chu Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Porphyromonas gingivalis induced up ‐regulation of PD‐L1 in colon carcinoma cells
In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that peptidoglycan ofP. gingivalis plays a major role in PD ‐L1 up‐regulation in colon cancer cells. In addition, the mechanism of PD‐L1 up‐regulation depends on NOD 1 and NOD 2 and involves activation of RIP2 and MAPK signaling pathways. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Doaa Adel ‐Khattab, Sabine Groeger, Eugen Domann, Trinad Chakraborty, Günter Lochnit, Joerg Meyle Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Development of an FhbB based chimeric vaccinogen that elicits antibodies that block Factor H binding and cleavage by the periopathogen Treponema denticola
This study is the first to extend this approach to the development of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine (or monoclonal Ab) for periodontal disease. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nathaniel S. O'Bier, Dhara T. Patel, Lee D. Oliver, Daniel P. Miller, Richard T. Marconi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Polyamines in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of respiratory tract
Convergent mechanisms of polyamine biosynthesis do exist across the border of species and genus level. The pool of extracellular polyamines formed by secretion of the commensals and the host may be one of the signaling molecules that might contribute toward the alterations in the expression of virulence factors in bacterial pathogens. AbstractPolyamines are positively charged hydrocarbons that are essential for the growth and cellular maintenance in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Polyamines have been demonstrated to play a role in bacterial pathogenicity and biofilm formation. However, the role of extracellular polyamines as ...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rajashri Banerji, Poonam Kanojiya, Amrita Patil, Sunil D. Saroj Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Multiple factors are involved in regulation of extracellular membrane vesicle biogenesis in Streptococcus mutans
This study showed that when added to the culture medium, MVs significantly enhancedS. mutans biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose and regardless of whether human saliva was also added. Multiple factors including 4 ’‐phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp), di‐adenylyl cyclase (Dac) and phosphodiesterase (PdeA) were found to play significant roles in regulation of MV production. AbstractStreptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of human dental caries, produces membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain protein and extracellular DNA. In this study, functional genomics, along with in vitro biofilm m...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zezhang T. Wen, Ashton N. Jorgensen, Xiaochang Huang, Kassapa Ellepola, Lynne Chapman, Hui Wu, L. Jeannine Brady Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

PG1659 functions as anti ‐sigma factor to extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83
The sigma factor RopE plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance and the virulence regulatory network inP. gingivalis. Collectively, the data in this report have demonstrated the functional properties of anti ‐sigma factor PG1659 in its modulation of RopE inP. gingivalis. It is likely that PG1659 is involved in a complex regulatory network that may represent a yet ‐to‐be described oxidative stress resistance pathway inP. gingivalis. AbstractAnti ‐sigma factors play a critical role in regulating the expression of sigma factors in response to environmental stress signals.PG1659 is cotranscribed with an up...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuetan Dou, Hiel Rutanhira, Norbert Schormann, Champion Deivanayagam, Hansel M. Fletcher Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Activity of Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume extract against the biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide synthesis of Streptococcus mutans
The extract ofLigustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume, mainly composed of Ligurobustosides, exhibits antimicrobial activity against oral pathogenStreptococcus mutans. AbstractLigustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume is utilized as a traditional Chinese herbal tea with various health benefits and protective effects.Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic oral bacteria species. The present study aimed to assess the influence ofLigustrum robustum extract (LRE) on the biofilm formation ofS.mutans and the mechanism of its action, as well as to identify its chemical components. For chemical identification, HPLC ‐MS and nuclear magnet...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhong Zhang, Jumei Zeng, Xuedong Zhou, Qianda Xu, Chenghui Li, Yiduo Liu, Chaoliang Zhang, Liu Wang, Weicai Zeng, Yuqing Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces a proatherosclerotic response in human endothelial cells in a three ‐dimensional collagen scaffold model
This study characterizes a three ‐dimensional model with human coronary artery endothelial cells on three‐dimensional (HCAEC‐3D) type I collagen scaffolds to evaluate whether infection withAggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces a proinflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis. The HCAEC ‐3D culture was physicochemically characterized with regard to biocompatibility and barrier function. Then, the culture was infected withA. actinomycetemcomitans strain ATCC 29522 at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:100. Cultures without infection and stimulated withA. actinomycetemcomitans lip...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria A. Torres, Diego F. Gualtero, Gloria I. Lafaurie, Marta R. Fontanilla Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Modified SHI medium supports growth of a disease ‐state subgingival polymicrobial community in vitro
AbstractDeveloping a laboratory model of oral polymicrobial communities is essential for in vitro studies of the transition from healthy to diseased oral plaque. SHI medium is an enriched growth medium capable of supporting in vitro biofilms with similar diversity to healthy supragingival inocula; however, this medium does not maintain the diversity of gram ‐negative bacteria more associated with subgingival plaque. Here, we systematically modified SHI medium components to investigate the impacts of varying nutrients and develop a medium capable of supporting a specific disease‐state subgingival community. A diseased s...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eleanor I. Lamont, Archita Gadkari, Kristopher A. Kerns, Thao T. To, Diane Daubert, Georgios Kotsakis, Batbileg Bor, Xuesong He, Jeffrey S. McLean Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Towards defining the outer membrane proteome of Porphyromonas gingivalis
Porphyromonas gingivalis cell showing different types of outer membrane ‐associated proteins with their localization and function. AbstractPorphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram ‐negative anaerobic pathogen found in subgingival plaque associated with progressive periodontitis. Proteins associated with the outer membrane (OM) of Gram‐negative pathogens are particularly important for understanding virulence and for developing vaccines. The aim of this study was to establi sh a reliable list of outer membrane associated proteins (Omps) for this organism. Starting with a list of 99 experimentally determined Omps, severa...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Paul D. Veith, Dhana G. Gorasia, Eric C. Reynolds Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Lactobacilli postbiotics reduce biofilm formation and alter transcription of virulence genes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
AbstractPeriodontitis is characterized by a dysbiotic microbial community and treatment strategies include the reestablishment of symbiosis by reducing pathogens abundance.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is frequently associated with rapidly progressing periodontitis. Since the oral ecosystem may be affected by metabolic end ‐products of bacteria, we evaluated the effect of soluble compounds released by probiotic lactobacilli, known as postbiotics, on Aa biofilm and expression of virulence‐associated genes. Cell‐free pH‐neutralized supernatants (CFS) ofLactobacillus rhamnosus Lr32,L.rhamnosus HN001,Lacto...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - March 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karin H. Ishikawa, Manuela R. Bueno, Dione Kawamoto, Maria R. L. Simionato, Marcia P. A. Mayer Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

PG1659 functions as anti ‐sigma factor to extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83
The sigma factor RopE plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance and the virulence regulatory network inP. gingivalis. Collectively, the data in this report have demonstrated the functional properties of anti ‐sigma factor PG1659 in its modulation of RopE inP. gingivalis. It is likely that PG1659 is involved in a complex regulatory network that may represent a yet ‐to‐be described oxidative stress resistance pathway inP. gingivalis. AbstractAnti ‐sigma factors play a critical role in regulating the expression of sigma factors in response to environmental stress signals.PG1659 is cotranscribed with an up...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - January 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuetan Dou, Hiel Rutanhira, Norbert Schormann, Champion Deivanayagam, Hansel M. Fletcher Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Periodontal Pathogens ’ strategies disarm neutrophils to promote dysregulated inflammation
Neutrophils normally play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in the oral cavity, but both established and emerging periodontal pathogens evade and manipulate neutrophil functional mechanisms to initiate and maintain a cycle of inflammation that results in periodontitis. Here, we review the effect of established and emerging periodontal pathogens on each neutrophil function and link the aberrant neutrophil phenotype to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. AbstractPeriodontitis is an irreversible, chronic inflammatory disease where inflammophilic pathogenic microbial communities accumulate in the gingival crevice. Neut...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Irina Miralda, Silvia M. Uriarte Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Activity of Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume extract against the biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide synthesis of Streptococcus mutans
The extract ofLigustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume, mainly composed of Ligurobustosides, exhibits antimicrobial activity against oral pathogenStreptococcus mutans. AbstractLigustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume is utilized as a traditional Chinese herbal tea with various health benefits and protective effects.Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic oral bacteria species. The present study aimed to assess the influence ofLigustrum robustum extract (LRE) on the biofilm formation ofS.mutans and the mechanism of its action, as well as to identify its chemical components. For chemical identification, HPLC ‐MS and nuclear magnet...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhong Zhang, Jumei Zeng, Xuedong Zhou, Qianda Xu, Chenghui Li, Yiduo Liu, Chaoliang Zhang, Liu Wang, Weicai Zeng, Yuqing Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Periodontal Pathogens ’ strategies disarm neutrophils to promote dysregulated inflammation
Neutrophils normally play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in the oral cavity, but both established and emerging periodontal pathogens evade and manipulate neutrophil functional mechanisms to initiate and maintain a cycle of inflammation that results in periodontitis. Here, we review the effect of established and emerging periodontal pathogens on each neutrophil function and link the aberrant neutrophil phenotype to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. AbstractPeriodontitis is an irreversible, chronic inflammatory disease where inflammophilic pathogenic microbial communities accumulate in the gingival crevice. Neut...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Irina Miralda, Silvia M. Uriarte Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

PG1659 functions as anti ‐sigma factor to extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE in Porphyromonas gingivalis W83
SummaryAnti ‐sigma factors play a critical role in regulating the expression of sigma factors in response to environmental stress signals.PG1659 is cotranscribed with an upstream genePG1660 (rpoE), which encodes for a sigma factor that plays an important role in oxidative stress resistance and the virulence regulatory network ofP. gingivalis.PG1659, which is annotated as a hypothetical gene, is evaluated in this study. PG1659, composed of 130 amino acids, is predicted to be transmembrane protein with a single calcium (Ca2+) binding site. InP. gingivalis FLL358 ( ΔPG1659::ermF), therpoE gene was highly upregulated c...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuetan Dou, Hiel Rutanhira, Norbert Schormann, Champion Deivanayagam, Hansel M Fletcher Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Lactobacilli Postbiotics reduce biofilm formation and alter transcription of virulence genes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
AbstractPeriodontitis is characterized by a dysbiotic microbial community and treatment strategies include the reestablishment of symbiosis by reducing pathogens abundance.Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) is frequently associated with rapidly progressing periodontitis. Since the oral ecosystem may be affected by metabolic ‐end‐products of bacteria, we evaluated the effect of soluble compounds released by probiotic lactobacilli, known as postbiotics, on Aa biofilm and expression of virulence‐associated genes. Cell‐free pH‐neutralized supernatants (CFS) ofLactobacillus rhamnosus Lr32,L. rhamnosus HN001,La...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karin Hitomi Ishikawa, Manuela Rocha Bueno, Dione Kawamoto, Maria Regina Lorenzetti Simionato, Marcia Pinto Alves Mayer Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Examination of gene expression in saliva samples from COVID ‐19 patients to study the host defense response against SARS‐CoV‐2 in the oral cavity
(Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gill Diamond, Erika L. Figgins, Tanya Robinson, Michal Senitko, George E. Abraham, Haley B. Williams, Meredith Sloan, Anna Owings, Hannah Laird, Yilianys Pride, Kenneth J. Wilson, Mohammad Hasan, Adam Parker, Sarah C. Glover Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Examination of gene expression in saliva samples from COVID ‐19 patients to study the host defense response against SARS‐CoV‐2 in the oral cavity
Molecular Oral Microbiology, EarlyView. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gill Diamond, Erika L. Figgins, Tanya Robinson, Michal Senitko, George E. Abraham, Haley B. Williams, Meredith Sloan, Anna Owings, Hannah Laird, Yilianys Pride, Kenneth J. Wilson, Mohammad Hasan, Adam Parker, Sarah C. Glover Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces a proatherosclerotic response in human endothelial cells in a three ‐dimensional collagen scaffold model
This study characterizes a three ‐dimensional model with human coronary artery endothelial cells on three‐dimensional (HCAEC‐3D) type I collagen scaffolds to evaluate whether infection withAggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces a proinflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis. The HCAEC ‐3D culture was physicochemically characterized with regard to biocompatibility and barrier function. Then, the culture was infected withA. actinomycetemcomitans strain ATCC 29522 at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:100. Cultures without infection and stimulated withA. actinomycetemcomitans lip...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria A. Torres, Diego F. Gualtero, Gloria I. Lafaurie, Marta R. Fontanilla Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Activity of Ligustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume extract against the biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide synthesis of Streptococcus mutans
AbstractLigustrum robustum (Roxb.) Blume is utilized as a traditional Chinese herbal tea with various health benefits and protective effects.Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic oral bacteria species. The present study aimed to assess the influence ofLigustrum. robustum extract (LRE) on the biofilm formation ofS.mutans and the mechanism of its action, as well as to identify its chemical components. For chemical identification, HPLC ‐MS and NMR were applied and four identified phytochemicals were reported (Ligurobustoside B, Ligurobustoside N, Ligurobustoside J and Ligurobustoside C). The dose‐dependent (0.5 ...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhong Zhang, Jumei Zeng, Xuedong Zhou, Qianda Xu, Chenghui Li, Yiduo Liu, Chaoliang Zhang, Liu Wang, Weicai Zeng, Yuqing Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Development of an FhbB based chimeric vaccinogen that elicits antibodies that block Factor H binding and cleavage by the periopathogen Treponema denticola
This study is the first to extend this approach to the development of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine (or monoclonal Ab) for periodontal disease. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nathaniel S. O'Bier, Dhara T. Patel, Lee D. Oliver, Daniel P. Miller, Richard T. Marconi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Examination of gene expression in saliva samples from COVID ‐19 patients to study the host defense response against SARS‐CoV‐2 in the oral cavity
AbstractInfection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS ‐CoV‐2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), which presents with respiratory symptoms including fever, sore throat, cough and congestion, suggesting that infection of the oral cavity and nasopharynx (ONP) is an obligate step in its pathogenesis. Consistent with this role in the initial infection, oral and nasopharyngeal epithelial cells express the SARS‐CoV‐2 spike protein receptor, angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (1), and RT‐PCR based testing can routinely detect SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA within both the nasal and buccal tiss...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gill Diamond, Erika L. Figgins, Tanya Robinson, Michal Senitko, George E. Abraham, Haley B. Williams, Meredith Sloan, Anna Owings, Hannah Laird, Yilianys Pride, Kenneth J. Wilson, Mohammad Hasan, Adam Parker, Sarah C. Glover Tags: LETTER TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces a proatherosclerotic response in human endothelial cells in a three ‐dimensional collagen scaffold model
This study characterizes a three ‐dimensional model with human coronary artery endothelial cells on three‐dimensional (HCAEC‐3D) type I collagen scaffolds to evaluate whether infection withAggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces a proinflammatory response associated with atherosclerosis. The HCAEC ‐3D culture was physicochemically characterized in regard to biocompatibility and barrier function. Then, the culture was infected withA. actinomycetemcomitans strain ATCC 29522 at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 1:1, 1:10, and 1:100. Cultures without infection and stimulated withA. actinomycetemcomitans lipop...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria A. Torres, Diego F. Gualtero, Gloria I. Lafaurie, Marta R. Fontanilla Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Molecular Oral Microbiology, Volume 35, Issue 6, Page i-iii, December 2020. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Identification of Streptococcus mutans genes involved in fluoride resistance by screening of a transposon mutant library
We describe here the construction and characterization of a mariner ‐based transposon system designed to be used inS. mutans, which is also potentially applicable to other streptococci. To identify genetic determinants of fluoride resistance inS. mutans, we constructed a library ofS. mutans transposon insertion mutants and screened this library to identify mutants exhibiting fluoride resistance phenotype. Two mutants were found to carry transposon insertion in two different genetic loci (smu.396 andsmu.1291c), respectively. Our subsequent genetic study indicates the fluoride ‐resistant phenotype for the mutant with the...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jie Yu, Yaqi Wang, Dongmei Han, Wei Cao, Lanyan Zheng, Zhoujie Xie, Hao Liu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Comprehensive profiling of protein lysine acetylation and its overlap with lysine succinylation in the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriated strain ATCC 33277
This study provides a significant beginning for further investigating the role of Kac and Ksuc in the pathogenicity ofP. gingivalis. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jumei Zeng, Leng Wu, Qiushi Chen, Lingyun Wang, Wei Qiu, Xin Zheng, Xiaoming Yin, Jie Liu, Yan Ren, Yuqing Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Role of the RprY response regulator in P. gingivalis community development and virulence
In this study, we examined cross‐phosphorylation of RprY on tyrosine residues and its importance for RprY function. We show that RprY reacts with phosphotyrosine antibodies, and found that the t yrosine (Y) residue at position 41 is predicted to be solvent accessible. Loss of RprY increased the level of heterotypic community development withStreptococcus gordonii, and the community ‐suppressive function of RprY required Y41. Expression of the Mfa1 fimbrial adhesin was increased in therprY mutant and in the mutant complemented withrprY containing a Y41F mutation. In a microscale thermophoresis assay, recombinant RprY pr...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Daonan Shen, John D. Perpich, Kendall S. Stocke, Lan Yakoumatos, Zackary R. Fitzsimonds, Chengcheng Liu, Daniel P. Miller, Richard J. Lamont Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Enhanced biofilm formation of Streptococcus gordonii with lipoprotein deficiency
In this study, we investigated the role of lipoproteins ofS. gordonii in the bacterial biofilm formation using its lipoprotein ‐deficient strain (Δlgt). TheS. gordonii Δlgt exhibited increased biofilm formation on the human dentin slices or on the polystyrene surfaces compared to the wild ‐type strain, while its growth rate did not differ from that of the wild‐type. In addition, theS. gordonii Δlgt strain exhibited the enhanced LuxS mRNA expression and AI ‐2 production, which is known to be a positive regulator of biofilm formation, compared to the wild‐type. Concordantly, the augmented biofilm ...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ok ‐Jin Park, Solmin Jung, Taehwan Park, A Reum Kim, Dongwook Lee, Hyun Jung Ji, Ho Seong Seo, Cheol‐Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Platelet plug formation in whole blood is enhanced in the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis
AbstractPorphyromonas gingivalis is a gram ‐negative anaerobic bacterium and an etiologic agent of adult periodontitis. By inducing a dysbiotic state within the host microbiota it contributes to a chronic inflammatory environment in the oral cavity. Under some circumstances, the oral bacteria may gain access to systemic circulation. While the most widely recognized function of platelets is to reduce hemorrhage in case of vascular damage, it is known that platelets are also involved in the hematologic responses to bacterial infections. Some pathogenic bacteria can interact with platelets, triggering their activation and a...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: William A. Chen, Hansel M. Fletcher, Joseph D. Gheorghe, Udochukwu Oyoyo, Danilo S. Boskovic Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
Molecular Oral Microbiology, Volume 35, Issue 6, Page i-iii, December 2020. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Multiple factors are involved in regulation of extracellular membrane vesicle biogenesis in Streptococcus mutans
This study showed that when added to the culture medium, MVs significantly enhancedS. mutans biofilm formation especially in the presence of sucrose and regardless of whether human saliva was also added. Multiple factors including 4 ’‐phosphopantetheinyl transferase (Sfp), di‐adenylyl cyclase (Dac) and phosphodiesterase (PdeA) were found to play significant roles in regulation of MV production. AbstractStreptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent of human dental caries, produces membrane vesicles (MVs) that contain protein and extracellular DNA. In this study, functional genomics, along with in vitro biofilm m...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zezhang T. Wen, Ashton N. Jorgensen, Xiaochang Huang, Kassapa Ellepola, Lynne Chapman, Hui Wu, L. Jeannine Brady Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Modified SHI medium supports growth of a disease ‐state subgingival polymicrobial community in vitro
AbstractDeveloping a laboratory model of oral polymicrobial communities is essential for in vitro studies of the transition from healthy to diseased oral plaque. SHI medium is an enriched growth medium capable of supporting in vitro biofilms with similar diversity to healthy supragingival inocula; however, this medium does not maintain the diversity of gram ‐negative bacteria more associated with subgingival plaque. Here, we systematically modified SHI medium components to investigate the impacts of varying nutrients and develop a medium capable of supporting a specific disease‐state subgingival community. A diseased s...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - December 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eleanor I. Lamont, Archita Gadkari, Kristopher A. Kerns, Thao T. To, Diane Daubert, Georgios Kotsakis, Batbileg Bor, Xuesong He, Jeffrey S. McLean Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Development of an FhbB based chimeric vaccinogen that elicits antibodies that block Factor H binding and cleavage by the periopathogen Treponema denticola
This study is the first to extend this approach to the development of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine (or monoclonal Ab) for periodontal disease. (Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology)
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - November 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nathaniel S. OBier, Dhara T. Patel, Lee D. Oliver, Daniel P. Miller, Richard T. Marconi Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A double ‐edged sword: Role of butyrate in the oral cavity and the gut
AbstractButyrate, a four ‐carbon short‐chain fatty acid (SCFA), is a metabolite of anaerobic bacteria. Butyrate has primarily been described as an energy substance in the studies on the digestive tract. The multiple mechanisms of its protective function in the gut and on underlying diseases (including metabolic diseases , diseases of the nervous system, and osteoporosis) via interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells have been well documented. There are many butyrogenic bacteria in the oral cavity as well. As essential components of the oral microbiome, periodontal pathogens are also able to gene rat...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - November 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiaoyuan Guan, Wenjing Li, Huanxin Meng Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Towards defining the outer membrane proteome of Porphyromonas gingivalis
Porphyromonas gingivalis cell showing different types of outer membrane ‐associated proteins with their localization and function. AbstractPorphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram ‐negative anaerobic pathogen found in subgingival plaque associated with progressive periodontitis. Proteins associated with the outer membrane (OM) of Gram‐negative pathogens are particularly important for understanding virulence and for developing vaccines. The aim of this study was to establi sh a reliable list of outer membrane associated proteins (Omps) for this organism. Starting with a list of 99 experimentally determined Omps, severa...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - November 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Paul D. Veith, Dhana G. Gorasia, Eric C. Reynolds Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Modified SHI ‐medium supports growth of a disease‐state subgingival polymicrobial community in vitro
SummaryDeveloping a laboratory model of oral polymicrobial communities is essential forin vitro studies of the transition from healthy to diseased oral plaque. SHI ‐medium is an enriched growth medium capable of supportingin vitro biofilms with similar diversity to healthy supragingival inocula; however, this medium does not maintain the diversity of gram ‐negative bacteria more associated with subgingival plaque. Here, we systematically modified SHI‐medium components to investigate the impacts of varying nutrients and develop a medium capable of supporting a specific disease‐state subgingival community. A periodon...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - November 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eleanor I. Lamont, Archita Gadkari, Kristopher A. Kerns, Thao T. To, Diane Daubert, Georgios Kotsakis, Batbileg Bor, Xuesong He, Jeffrey S. McLean Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A double ‐edged sword: Role of butyrate in the oral cavity and the gut
AbstractButyrate, a four ‐carbon short‐chain fatty acid (SCFA), is a metabolite of anaerobic bacteria. Butyrate has primarily been described as an energy substance in the studies on the digestive tract, the largest microorganism reservoir in the human body. The multiple mechanisms of its protective function in the gut a nd on underlying diseases (including metabolic diseases, diseases of the nervous system, and osteoporosis) via interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells have been well documented. There are many butyrogenic bacteria in the oral cavity as well. As essential components of the oral micr...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - November 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiaoyuan Guan, Wenjing Li, Huanxin Meng Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Periodontal Pathogens ’ strategies disarm neutrophils to promote dysregulated inflammation.
SummaryPeriodontitis is an irreversible, chronic inflammatory disease where inflammophilic pathogenic microbial communities accumulate in the gingival crevice. Neutrophils are a major component of the innate host response against bacterial challenge, and under homeostatic conditions, their microbicidal functions typically protect the host against periodontitis. However, a number of periodontal pathogens developed survival strategies to evade neutrophil microbicidal functions while promoting inflammation, which provides a source of nutrients for bacterial growth. Research on periodontal pathogens has largely focused on a fe...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - October 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Irina Miralda, Silvia M Uriarte Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research

Towards defining the outer membrane proteome of Porphyromonas gingivalis
SummaryPorphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram ‐negative anaerobic pathogen found in subgingival plaque associated with progressive periodontitis. Proteins associated with the outer membrane (OM) of Gram‐negative pathogens are particularly important for understanding virulence and for developing vaccines. The aim of this study was to establi sh a reliable list of outer membrane associated proteins (Omps) for this organism. Starting with a list of 99 experimentally determined Omps, several bioinformatics tools were used to predict a further 52 proteins, leading to a predicted OM proteome of 151 proteins. The tools used inclu...
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - October 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Paul D. Veith, Dhana G. Gorasia, Eric C. Reynolds Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research