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In Vitro Effects of Cognitives and Nootropics on Mitochondrial Respiration and Monoamine Oxidase Activity
AbstractImpairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracet am) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synt...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ER Stress Induced by Tunicamycin Triggers α-Synuclein Oligomerization, Dopaminergic Neurons Death and Locomotor Impairment: a New Model of Parkinson’s Disease
In this study, we developed a new ER stress rat model employing the well-known ER stressor tunicamycin (Tm). To evaluate if ER stress was able to induce PD features, we performed an intranigral injection of Tm (0.1 μg/cerebral hemisphere) and animals (male Wistar rats) were analyzed 7 days post injection. The classical 6-OHDA neurotoxin model (1 μg/cerebral hemisphere) was used as an established positive control for PD. We show that Tm injection induced locomotor impairment, dopaminergic neuro ns death, and activation of astroglia. In addition, we observed an extensive α-synuclein oligomerization...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Demyelination-Induced Inflammation Attracts Newly Born Neurons to the White Matter
AbstractThere is compelling evidence that microglial activation negatively impacts neurogenesis. However, microglia have also been shown to promote recruitment of newly born neurons to injured areas of the gray matter. In the present study, we explored whether demyelination-triggered inflammation alters the process of neurogenesis in the white matter. A 2- μl solution of 0.04 % ethidium bromide was stereotaxically injected into the corpus callosum of adult male rats. Brain inflammation was dampened by daily injections of progesterone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) for 14 days. Control rats received oil (s.c.). Newly bor...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pterostilbene Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Nox2-Related Oxidative Stress
In conclusion, our study suggests that PTE attenuates EBI following SAH possibly via the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and Nox2-related oxidative stress. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gene Expression Profiling Stratifies IDH1-Mutant Glioma with Distinct Prognoses
AbstractIsocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 mutation is one of the most important genetic aberrations in glioma. Even several genetic events have refined its prognostic value, the genome-wide expression alteration has not been systematically profiled. In this work, RNA-seq expression data from 310 patients in the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database were included as training set, while another 297 patients with microarray data were used as internal validation set. An independent cohort of GSE16011 (n = 205) constituted an external validation set. Approximately one fifth of the genes were differentially expressed in L...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of ACYP2 and TSPYL6 Genetic Polymorphisms with Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Han Chinese Population
In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms ofACYP2 andTSPYL6 are associated with increased risk of developing ischemic stroke. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to validate our findings. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hyperpalatable Diet and Physical Exercise Modulate the Expression of the Glial Monocarboxylate Transporters MCT1 and 4
AbstractHyperpalatable diets (HP) impair brain metabolism, and regular physical exercise has an apparent opposite effect. Here, we combined a prior long-term exposure to HP diet followed by physical exercise and evaluated the impact on some neuroenergetic components and on cognitive performance. We assessed the extracellular lactate concentration, expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and mitochondrial function in the hippocampus. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed 4  months with HP or a control diet. Subsequently, they were divided in the following groups: control diet sedentary (C...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Slovak Patients: over 10-Year Period Review
AbstractCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, but rapidly progressive, up to now untreatable and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is difficult; however, it can be facilitated by suitable biomarkers. Aim of the present study is to compare levels of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (total tau protein, phosphorylated-tau protein, protein 14-3-3 and amyloid beta) in Slovak population of CJD suspect cases, retrospectively in over a 10-year period. One thousand three hundred sixty-four CSF samples from patients with suspect CJD, forming a homogenous group in terms of geographic...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bee Venom Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Neuroinflammation in an Animal Model of Vascular Dementia
In this study, we investigated whether bee venom (BV) improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: a sham group (n = 15), BCCAO control group (n = 15), and BV-treated BCCAO group (n = 15). BCCAO animals were treated with 0.1 μg/g BV at ST36 (“Joksamli” acupoint) four times every other day. In order to investigate the effect of BV treatment on cognitive function, we performed aY-maze test. In order to uncover any potential relationship between these results and neuroinflammatio...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intranasal Administration of TAT-Conjugated Lipid Nanocarriers Loading GDNF for Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (ND), characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. Current available treatments in clinical practice cannot halt the progression of the disease. During the last few years, growt h factors (GFs) have been raised as a promising therapeutic approach to address the underlying neurodegenerative process. Among others, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a widely studied GF for PD. However, its clinical use is limited due to its short half life, rapid degradation rate , and ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased Levels of Brain Adrenomedullin in the Neuropathology of Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of synaptic contacts caused in part by cytoskeleton disruption. Adrenomedullin (AM) is involved in physiological functions such as vasodilation, hormone secretion, antimicrobial activity, cellular growth, and angiogenesis. In neurons, AM and related pep tides are associated with some structural and functional cytoskeletal proteins, causing microtubule destabilization. Here, we describe the relationships between AM and other signs of AD in clinical specimens. Frontal cortex from AD patients and controls were studied for AM, acetylated tubulin, NCAM, Ox-42,...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Retina of Osteopontin deficient Mice in Aging
This study demonstrates the influence of OPN on astrocytes and RGCs, whereby the absence of OPN in the retina diminishes the area occupied by astrocytes and produces a secondary reduction in the number of RGCs. Accordingly, OPN could be a target to develop therapies to combat neurodegenerative diseases and astrocytes may represent a key mediator of such effects. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Baicalein on Acrolein-induced Neurotoxicity in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System of Rat Brain
In conclusion, our data suggest that baicalein is neuroprotective via inhibiting oxidative stress, protein conjugation, and inflammation. Furthermore, baicalein pre vents acrolein-induced program cell deaths, suggesting that baicalein is therapeutically useful for slowing PD progression. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotection and CD131/GDNF/AKT Pathway of Carbamylated Erythropoietin in Hypoxic Neurons
AbstractCarbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO), an EPO derivative, is attracting widespread interest due to neuroprotective effects without erythropoiesis. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms behind CEPO-mediated neuroprotection. In primary neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and mice with hypoxia-reoxygenation, the neuroprotection and possible molecular mechanism of CEPO were performed by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR, and ELISA. The comparisons were analyzed by ANOVA followed by unpaired two-tailed Student ’st test. Both CEPO and EPO showed the neuroprotect...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma miR-34a-5p and miR-545-3p as Early Biomarkers of Alzheimer ’s Disease: Potential and Limitations
AbstractPlasma microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Here, we explored their use as early sensors of the preclinical phase of the disease, when brain pathology is being developed and no cognitive loss is detected. For this purpose, we analyzed a set of ten mature plasma miRNAs in symptomatic patients with AD from a cohort that also included healthy controls (HC) and patients with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (PAD) (cohort 1). Plasmas from subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were used to control for disease specificity. We found that miR-15b-5p, m...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Simvastatin and Cilostazol in l -Methionine-Induced Vascular Dementia in Rats
AbstractVascular dementia (VaD) is a degenerative cerebrovascular disorder that leads to progressive decline in cognitive abilities and memory. Several reports demonstrated that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are principal pathogenic factors in VaD. The present study was constructed to determine the possible neuroprotective effects of simvastatin in comparison with cilostazol in VaD induced byl-methionine in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group), group II receivedl-methionine (1.7  g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days. The remaining two groups received simvastatin (50 ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Autophagy Inhibition Favors Survival of Rubrospinal Neurons After Spinal Cord Hemisection
We examined the function and effects of the modulation of autophagy on the fate of axotomized rubrospinal neurons in a rat model of spinal cord dorsal hemisection (SCH) at the cervical level. Following SCH, we observed an accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes (APs) in the axotomized neurons 1 and 5  days after injury. Furthermore, this accumulation was not attributed to greater initiation of autophagy but was caused by a decrease in AP clearance, as demonstrated by the build-up of p62, a widely used marker of the induction of autophagy. In axotomized rubrospinal neurons, the disruption of aut ophagic flux correl...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identification of CHCHD10 Mutation in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer Disease
AbstractCHCHD10 gene has been identified to be associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Considering the clinical phenotype and pathology characterization were overlapped between FTD and Alzheimer disease (AD), and so far, no systematic analysis ofCHCHD10 mutation was conducted in patients with AD in Asian population. Therefore, we screened of all exons inCHCHD10 in a cohort of 484 AD patients (60 with family history) from Mainland China. A heterozygous variant p.A35D (c.104C>A), previously reported in a patient with FTD in Italian population, was identified in a female patie...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differentiation of Spermatogonia Stem Cells into Functional Mature Neurons Characterized with Differential Gene Expression
AbstractTransplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons. The neuronal differentiation of ES-like cel...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sigmoid Sinus Characteristics Correlate with Early Clinical and Imaging Surrogates in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke
AbstractCerebral venous outflow may play a decisive role in acute ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the relation of cerebral sinus vein characteristics with clinical and imaging surrogates of early outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We evaluated cerebral vein characteristics in 212 patients with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive stroke confirmed by CT angiography CTA within 6  h from symptom onset. Readout parameters included volume and density of the sigmoid sinus (SS) and density of the superior sagittal sinus (SupSagS). These were correlated with early clinical outcome defined as hospital death (HD), final...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Ubiquitin Ligase COP1 Promotes Glioma Cell Proliferation by Preferentially Downregulating Tumor Suppressor p53
AbstractHuman glioma causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma progression are still largely unknown. COP1 (constitutively photomorphogenic 1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is important in cell survival, development, cell growth, and cancer biology by regulating different substrates. As is well known, both tumor suppressor p53 and oncogenic protein c-JUN could be ubiquitinated and degraded by ubiquitin ligase COP1, which may be the reason that COP1 serves as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in different cancer types. Up to now, the possible role of COP1 in human g...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Purmorphamine as a Shh Signaling Activator Small Molecule Promotes Motor Neuron Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Nanofibrous PCL Scaffold
In this study, we investigated the effect of the PMA on Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) differentiation into motor neuronal lineages instead of sonic hedgehog (Sh h) on PCL scaffold. After exposing to induction media for 15 days, the cells were characterized for expression of motor neuron markers including PAX6, NF-H, Islet1, HB9, and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by quantitative reverse transcription (PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Our results demonstrat ed that induced WJ-MSCs with PMA could significantly express motor neuron markers in RNA and protein levels 15 days post induction. Thes...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Hemisected Spinal Cord Using Human Endometrial Stem Cells, Poly ε-Caprolactone Scaffolds, and Crocin as a Neuroprotective Agent
AbstractLoss of motor and sensory function as a result of neuronal cell death and axonal degeneration are the hallmarks of spinal cord injury. To overcome the hurdles and achieve improved functional recovery multiple aspects, it must be taken into account. Tissue engineering approaches by coalescing biomaterials and stem cells offer a promising future for treating spinal cord injury. Here we investigated human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) as our cell source. Electrospun poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were used for hEnSC adhesion and growth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the attachment and sur...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cholinergic Oculomotor Nucleus Activity Is Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation Negatively Impacting on Cognition
We examined c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) expressions as indicators of neuronal activity as well as a familiarity-based memory test. The animals were distributed in groups: control, REMSD, and sleep rebound (REB). At the end of the different REMSD (24, 48, 72, and 96  h) and REB (24 h) time points, the rats were immediately tested in the object recognition test and then the brains were collected. Results indicated that OCM neurons presented an increased activity, due to ChaT-labeling associated with REMSD that negatively correlated (r = −0.32) with the cognitive performance. This sugg...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differentiation Induces Dramatic Changes in miRNA Profile, Where Loss of Dicer Diverts Differentiating SH-SY5Y Cells Toward Senescence
In conclusion, decreased Dicer level enforces differentiating cells to senescence, and differentiating SH-SY5Y cells needs increased expression of P53 to cope up with changes in protein levels of mature neurons. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vasopressin Impairment During Sepsis Is Associated with Hypothalamic Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway and Microglial Activation
AbstractPrevious studies have shown that in the early phase of sepsis, the plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) is increased, but in the late phase, its levels remain inadequately low, despite of persistent hypotension. One hypothesis suggested for this relative deficiency is apoptosis of vasopressinergic neurons. Here, we investigated apoptosis pathways in the hypothalamus during sepsis, as well as mechanisms underlying this process. Male Wistar rats were submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or nonmanipulated (naive) as control. After 6 and 24  h, the animals were decapitated and bra...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of CD40 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders
This study aimed to estimate the potential association ofCD40 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to NMOSD. Four SNPs (rs1883832, rs3765459, rs4810485, and rs6074022) were selected and genotyped in a Chinese cohort comprising 162 patients with NMOSD and 237 healthy controls.P values, odds ratios (ORs), and 95  % confidential intervals (CI) for four test models (allelic, additive, dominant, and recessive) were used to assess relationships betweenCD40 and NMOSD. Results showed that the rs3765459 variant was significantly associated with increased risk of NMOSD in allelic model (OR  = 1.48, 95 % CI 1.10...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Metabolism Power SIRT2-Dependent Deficient Traffic Causing Alzheimer ’s-Disease Related Pathology
AbstractMultiple lines of evidence state a major role for mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) etiopathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) triggered by mitochondrial deficits that lead to neurodegeneration remain elusive. Herein, we propose a new mechanism by which mitochondrial loss of potential leads to a dysfunction in autophagy/mitophagy due to the overactivati on of SIRT2, a tubulin deacetylase that regulates microtubule network acetylation, and provide insights into the association between metabolism, phosphorylation, and Aβ aggregation. We observed an increase in SIRT2...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expression of the Parkinson ’s Disease-Associated Gene Alpha-Synuclein is Regulated by the Neuronal Cell Fate Determinant TRIM32
AbstractAlpha-synuclein is an abundant neuronal protein which has been associated with physiological processes like synaptic function, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation but also with pathological neurodegeneration. Indeed,alpha-synuclein (snca) is one of the major genes implicated in Parkinson ’s disease (PD). However, little is known about the regulation ofalpha-synuclein expression. Unveiling the mechanisms that control its regulation is of high importance, as it will enable to further investigate and comprehend the physiological role of alpha-synuclein as well as its potential contribution in the aetiolog...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-term Ameliorative Effects of the Antidepressant Fluoxetine Exposure on Cognitive Deficits in 3  × TgAD Mice
AbstractFluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is neuroprotective; therefore, it has been applied to treat some neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, chronic fluoxetine exposure has short-term effects on Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). However, the long-term ameliorative effects of fluoxetine exposure on AD have not been reported. In the present study, 6-month-old 3 × TgAD mice were treated with fluoxetine for 15 days, and then the influence of fluoxetine was detected at 20 days after the drug withdrawal. We found that chronic fluoxetine treatment ameliorated cognitive def...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-Term Mangiferin Extract Treatment Improves Central Pathology and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Mice
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia; however, available treatments have had limited success. Therefore AD patients are in tremendous need of new pharmacological approaches that may delay or slow the progression of the disease. In addition to the classical neuropathological featur es, immunological and inflammatory processes are also involved in AD pathogenesis. Naturally occurring compounds, such asMangifera indica Linn (MGF) extracts have previously been shown to significantly reduce peripheral inflammatory processes. In order to explore the role of MGF in AD central pathology...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protein Profile and Morphological Alterations in Penumbra after Focal Photothrombotic Infarction in the Rat Cerebral Cortex
AbstractAfter ischemic stroke, cell damage propagates from infarct core to surrounding tissues (penumbra). To reveal proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in penumbra, we studied protein expression changes in 2-mm ring around the core of photothrombotic infarct induced in the rat brain cortex by local laser irradiation after administration of Bengal Rose. The ultrastructural study showed edema and degeneration of neurons, glia, and capillaries. Morphological changes gradually decreased across the penumbra. Using the antibody microarrays, we studied changes in expression of>200 neuronal proteins in p...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid-Potentiated Spinal Microglia Activation Contributes to Preoperative Anxiety-Induced Postoperative Hyperalgesia
AbstractClinically, preoperative anxiety adversely affected postoperative hyperalgesia. As stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs) were reported to sensitize the activation of microglia, the present study investigated whether and how GCs and microglia played in the process of preoperative anxiety-induced postoperative hyperalgesia. The study used an animal model that exposed rats to single prolonged stress (SPS) procedure to induce preoperative anxiety-like behaviors 24  h before the plantar incisional surgery. Behavioral testing revealed that preoperative SPS enhanced the mechanical allodynia induced by plantar incision...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mangiferin Upregulates Glyoxalase 1 Through Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling in Central Neurons Cultured with High Glucose
AbstractMangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone, has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective actions. Our previous study showed that mangiferin could attenuate diabetes-associated cognitive impairment of rats by enhancing the function of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) in brain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Glo-1 upregulation by mangiferin in central neurons exposed to chronic high glucose may be related to activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway. Compared with normal glucose (25  mmol/L) culture, Glo-1 protein, mRNA, and activity levels were markedly decreased in primary hippocampal and cerebral cortica...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Interaction of TXNIP and AFq1 Genes Increases the Susceptibility of Schizophrenia
AbstractAlthough previous studies showed the reduced risk of cancer in patients with schizophrenia, whether patients with schizophrenia possess genetic factors that also contribute to tumor suppressor is still unknown. In the present study, based on our previous microarray data, we focused on the tumor suppressor genesTXNIP andAF1q, which differentially expressed in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 413 patients and 578 healthy controls were recruited. We found no significant differences in genotype, allele, or haplotype frequencies at the selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2236566 and rs7211 inT...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tandem Delivery of Multiple Therapeutic Genes Using Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Improves Symptomatic Outcomes in ALS
This study confirms an increased addressed homing and notable survivability of triple-transfected cells in lumbar spinal cord, yielding a remarkably enhanced therapeutic potential of hUCBMCs overexpre ssing neurotrophic factors. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chronic Postnatal Stress Induces Depressive-like Behavior in Male Mice and Programs second-Hit Stress-Induced Gene Expression Patterns of OxtR and AvpR1a in Adulthood
AbstractChronic stress (CS) during early life represents a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. According to the Two/Multiple-Hit hypothesis, the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders usually involves multiple stressors experienced subsequently during different phases of life. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms modulating neuronal and behavioral changes induced by multiple stress experiences are just poorly understood. Since the oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic systems are neuroendocrine modulators involved in environmentally driven adaptations of stress sensitivit...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identification of Novel Compound Mutations in PLA2G6 -Associated Neurodegeneration Patient with Characteristic MRI Imaging
In conclusion, the identification of the “eye-of-the-tiger”-like sign in the globus pallidus of the patient expands the phenotypic spectrum ofPLA2G6-associated disorders and reveals its value in differential diagnosis ofPLA2G6-associated disorders. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Associations of rs3740677 within GAB2 Gene with LOAD in Chinese Han Population
AbstractGRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) has been identified as a crucial factor in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), and ten common variants withinGAB2 have been detected to be associated with AD onset risk in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we first screened a common locus (rs3740677) in 3 ′ UTR ofGAB2 sequence which is targeted by the miRNA-185 and initiatively explored the probable associations of rs3740677 with risk for late-onset AD (LOAD) in a large scale case –control study from Chinese Han populations (992 LOAD patients and 1358 healthy subjects). Eventually, the genotype (P&thinsp...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory cell-related transcription factor signaling in children with autism
AbstractAutism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by stereotypic repetitive behaviors, impaired social interactions, and communication deficits. Numerous immune system abnormalities have been described in individuals with autism including abnormalities in the ratio of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells; however, the expression of the transcription factors responsible for the regulation and differentiation of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells has not previously been evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children with autism (AU) or typically developing (TD) control children were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 1...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Barhl2 Determines the Early Patterning of the Diencephalon by Regulating Shh
AbstractThe diencephalon is the primary relay network transmitting sensory information to the anterior forebrain. During development, distinct progenitor domains in the diencephalon give rise to the pretectum (p1), the thalamus and epithalamus (p2), and the prethalamus (p3), respectively.Shh plays a significant role in establishing the progenitor domains. However, the upstream events influencing the expression ofShh are largely unknown. Here, we show thatBarhl2 homeobox gene is expressed in the p1 and p2 progenitor domains and the in zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) and regulates the acquisition of identity of progenitor...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dodecafluoropentane Improves Neurological Function Following Anterior Ischemic Stroke
This study investigated shortened dosage schedules of DDFPe in nonstandard posterior (NSTND) strokes following occlusions of the posterior cerebral arteries. DDFPe given at shortened schedules of 30 or 60-min injection intervals will reduce neurological deficits, percent stroke volume (%SV), and serum glutamate levels in NSTND ischemic strokes. New Zealand White rabbits (N = 26) were randomly placed into three groups: A (n = 9) controls given saline injections every 60 min, B (n = 9) 2 % DDFPe given IV every 30 min, and C (n = 8) DDFPe every 60 min. Injections beg...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Regulation of SET Gene Expression by NFkB
AbstractSET is elevated and mislocalized in the neuronal cytoplasm in brains of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) patients. Cytoplasm SET leads to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A and is involved in the tau pathology. However, the regulation of SET gene expression remains elusive. In the present study, we cloned a 1399-bp segment of the 5′ flanking region of the hu man SET gene and identified that the transcription start site (TSS) of SET transcript 1 is located at 123 bp upstream of the translation start site ATG in exon 1. Sequence analysis reveals several putative regulatory elements ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Noggin Along with a Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Containing Long Motif of Laminin Induces Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression
AbstractTyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting step in catecholamine synthesis in which its activity influences Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and IQ of schizophrenia patients, has been studied for a long time. In the meantime, the present investigation assessed the effect of noggin and type of self-assembling nanofibers in TH gene over-expression by neuron-like cells derived from human endometrial-derived stromal cells (hEnSCs). Neuroblastoma cells and hEnSCs encapsulated into nanofibers including Matrigel, (RADA)4, laminin, and BMHP-1 motif bounded to (RADA)4 and their cell viability were studied for 48  ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

DAPK1 Signaling Pathways in Stroke: from Mechanisms to Therapies
AbstractDeath-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, plays important roles in diverse apoptosis pathways not only in tumor suppression but also in neuronal cell death. The requirement of DAPK1 catalytic activity for its proposed cell functions and the elevation of catalytic activity of DAPK1 in injured neurons in models of neurological diseases, such as ischemia and epilepsy, validate that DAPK1 can be taken as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases. Recent studies show that DAPK1-NR2B, DAPK1-DANGER, DAPK1-p53, and DAPK1-Tau are currently known path...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Noggin Along with a Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Containing Long Motif of Laminin Induces Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism on Striatum Structural Covariance Networks in Alzheimer ’s Disease
In this study, we investigated the possible structural covariance networks that may be modulated by this functional polymorphism in patients with Alzheimer ’s disease. Structural covariance networks were constructed by 3D T1 magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were divided into two groups: Met-carriers (n = 91) and Val-homozygotes (n = 101). Seed-based analysis was performed focusing on triple-network models and six striatal networks. Neurobehavioral scores served as the major outcome factors. The role of seed or peak cluster volumes, or a covariance strength showing Met-carriers > &n...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Spatholobi Caulis Extract on Neuronal Damage and Focal Ischemic Stroke/Reperfusion Injury
AbstractNeuronal apoptotic cell death plays an important role in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and ischemic stroke. Spatholobi Caulis (SC) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, viral infection, and anemia. However, the protective effects of SC extract (SCE) against apoptotic cell death in the brain h ave not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of SCE against neuronal injury etoposide-induced neurotoxicity and in rats subjected to focal transient ischemic stroke middle cerebral artery oc...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional Role of Matrix gla Protein in Glioma Cell Migration
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor subtype. Despite that metastasis of GBM beyond the central nervous system (CNS) is rare, its malignancy is attributed to the highly infiltration trait, leading to the difficulty of complete surgical excision. Matrix gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent small secretory protein, and functions as a calcification inhibitor. The involvement of MGP function in glioma cell dynamics remains to be clarified. The study showed that a low proliferative rat C6 glioma cell line named as C6-2 exhibited faster migratory and invasive capability compar...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Presenilin-1 Delta E9 Mutant Induces STIM1-Driven Store-Operated Calcium Channel Hyperactivation in Hippocampal Neurons
This study examines the effect of the FAD presenilin mutant that lacks the ninth exon (PS1 ∆E9) and does not undergo endoproteolysis on store-operated calcium (SOC) entry. Significant enhancement of SOC channel activation was detected by electrophysiological measurements in hippocampal neurons with PS1 ∆E9 mutant expression. Here, we show that (i) the hyperactivation of SOC channels i s mediated by the STIM1 sensor and can be attenuated by STIM1 knockdown or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate application, (ii) the STIM2 is not involved in pathological changes of SOC entry, (iii) the pathological SOC entry demonstrates proper...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research