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Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Is a Novel Diagnostic Biomarker of Mitochondrial Diseases
We examined consecutive patients with mitochondrial diseases, in comparison with patients with non-mitochondrial disease neuromuscular disorders and healthy controls. The serum concentrations of growth differentiation factor 15 were measured by ELISA, and compared with those of FGF21, lactate, and creatine kinase. We also evaluated the correlations between growth differentiation factor 15 concentrations and the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale, numbers of ragged-red fibers, and COX-negative fibers in the biopsied muscles. The median serum growth differentiation factor 15 concentration was significantly elevated ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Enhancement of Neural Stem Cell Survival, Proliferation, Migration, and Differentiation in a Novel Self-Assembly Peptide Nanofibber Scaffold
In this study, a novel three-dimensional scaffold (RADA4GGSIKVAV; R-GSIK) was designed by adding glycine and serine between RADA4 and IKVAV to promote the strength of the peptide. The cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) in R-GSIK were investigated and compared to laminin-coated, two-dimensional, and Puramatrix cultures. The scanning electron microscopy studies of the R-GSIK showed an open porous structure and a suitable surface area available for cell interaction. R-GSIK promoted the cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, and migration compared...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

SIRP Alpha Protein Downregulates in Human Astrocytoma: Presumptive Involvement of Hsa-miR-520d-5p and Hsa-miR-520d-3p
AbstractAstrocytomas are the most common brain tumors with poor survival in malignant forms. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRP alpha) is a transmembrane protein expressed on immune cells and macrophages and is reported to modulate tumor cell phagocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of miR-520d-5p and miR-520d-3p in regulation of SIRP alpha expression. Here, we report mRNA and protein expression profile of SIRP alpha in 39 surgically resected human astrocytoma tissue samples and 14 control brain tissue samples. Transcript expression pattern was studied by real-time PCR while Western blotting a...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bioinformatic Profiling Identifies a Glucose-Related Risk Signature for the Malignancy of Glioma and the Survival of Patients
In this study, we identified that glucose-related gene sets could distinguish the clinical and molecular features of gliomas, involved in the malignancy of gliomas. And then, we developed a glucose-related prognostic signature for patients with glioblastoma in the CGGA dataset, validat ed in other additional public datasets. GSEA illustrated that tumor with higher risk score of glucose-related signature could correlate with cell cycle phase. In addition, blood glucose concentration was associated with the malignancy of glioma and the survival of patients. These results might provi de new view for the research of glioma mal...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

MFG-E8 Selectively Inhibited A β-Induced Microglial M1 Polarization via NF-κB and PI3K-Akt Pathways
AbstractActivated microglia are classified into two specific states: classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) subtypes. It is believed that the polarization of M1/M2 phenotype plays an important role in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms regulating this process remain unclear. Thus, we addressed this question focusing on milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8). MFG-E8 is a unique protein which can bind to microglia and regulate its inflammatory responses. It is speculated that i t might play a role in the balance of microglial polarization. In the current study, we used ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Postnatal Administration of Dizocilpine Inhibits Neuronal Excitability in PFC and Induces Social Deficits Detected by MiceProfiler
In this study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal administration of MK-801 on social interaction and explored the possible mechanisms. Postnatal day-7 mice were intraperitoneally injected with MK-801 twice daily for 5  days, and their social interaction repertoire was monitored by a computerized video in the 10th week. The contact event, relative position event, stop-state, and dynamic event were analyzed with MiceProfiler automatic idTracker system. The results showed that MK-801 reduced the number of the conta ct events, relative position events, and stop-states, while increased the number and duration of dynamic...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modeling of Autism Using Organoid Technology
AbstractAutism is a neurodevelopmental disease caused by multiple mutations during development. However, a suitable disease model to study the molecular pathway of disease onset and progression is not available. Although many studies have used human stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells to investigate the disease pathogenesis, these stem cell techniques are limited in their abilities to study the pathology and mechanism of pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism. Therefore, researchers are focusing on the strengths of three-dimensional (3D) structures mimicking organs...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Neuroprotection by Chlorpromazine and Promethazine in Severe Transient and Permanent Ischemic Stroke
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: The Critical Role of SRPK1 in EMT of Human Glioblastoma in the Spinal Cord
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Potential and Paracrine Activity of Stromal Vs. Culture-Expanded hMSC Derived from Wharton Jelly under Co-Cultured with Hippocampal Organotypic Slices
AbstractRegardless of enormous translational progress in stem cell clinical application, our knowledge about biological determinants of transplantation-related protection is still limited. In addition to adequate selection of the cell source well dedicated to a specific disease and optimal standardization of all other pre-transplant procedures, we have decided to focus more attention to the impact of culture time and environment itself on molecular properties and regenerative capacity of cell cultured in vitro. The aim of this investigation was to determine neuroprotection-linked cell phenotypic and functional changes that...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expression of BC1 Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory in Alzheimer ’s Disease Via APP Translation
This study provides a novel mechanism underlying aggregation of Aβ peptides via BC1 induction of APP mRNA translation and hence warrants a promising target for AD therapy. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A New Conditionally Immortalized Human Fetal Brain Pericyte Cell Line: Establishment and Functional Characterization as a Promising Tool for Human Brain Pericyte Studies
AbstractWhile pericytes wrap around microvascular endothelial cells throughout the human body, their highest coverage rate is found in the brain. Brain pericytes actively contribute to various brain functions, including the development and stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), tissue regeneration, and brain inflammation. Accordingly, detailed characterization of the functional nature of brain pericytes is important for understanding the mechanistic basis of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Herein, we report on the development of a new human brain pericyte cell line, hereafter referred to as the human brain p...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Overexpression of 5-Lipoxygenase Worsens the Phenotype of a Mouse Model of Tauopathy
AbstractBrain accumulation of increasing amount of phosphorylated microtubule associated tau protein is one the major hallmark lesions of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and related tauopathies. Consistent evidence from clinical and animal studies has shown that neuroinflammation characterizes these diseases. The 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) is an enzyme protein whose metabolic products are lipids with potent inflammatory actions. Previously, we showed tha t blockade of 5LO activation ameliorates the phenotype of the htau transgenic mice. Here, by employing a vector system to overexpress 5LO in the brain of the same mouse model, w...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impairment of Thiamine Transport at the GUT-BBB-AXIS Contributes to Wernicke ’s Encephalopathy
AbstractWernicke ’s encephalopathy, a common neurological disease, is caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Neuropathy resulting from thiamine deficiency is a hallmark of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in chronic alcohol users. The underlying mechanisms of this deficiency and progression of neuropathy remain to be understood. To uncover the unknown mechanisms of thiamine deficiency in alcohol abuse, we used chronic alcohol consumption or thiamine deficiency diet ingestion in animal models. Observations from animal models were validated in primary human neuronal culture for neurodegenerative process. We em ployed r...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Rescue of Hippocampal Fear Learning Deficits in Fragile X Syndrome
AbstractFragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability and results from loss of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). In neurons, FMRP controls the translation of synaptic plasticity proteins that are implicated in learning and memory. FMRP also regulates development- and experience-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling within dendritic spines through the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Modulation of Rac1 activity is critical during synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory. We have previously shown that FXS mouse models exhibit learning and memory deficits as...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Toll-Like Receptor-3 Mediates HIV-1-Induced Interleukin-6 Expression in the Human Brain Endothelium via TAK1 and JNK Pathways: Implications for Viral Neuropathogenesis
AbstractHIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is associated with blood-brain-barrier (BBB) inflammation, and inflammation involves toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling. It is not known whether primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), the major BBB component, express TLRs or whether TLRs are involved in BBB dysfunction and HAND. We demonstrate that HBMEC express TLR3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 10, and TLR3 was the most abundant. HIV-1 and TLR3 activation increased endothelial TLR3 transcription and expression. HIV-1-positive human subjects showed significantly higher TLR3 expression in brain tissues and...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Down Syndrome iPSC-Derived Astrocytes Impair Neuronal Synaptogenesis and the mTOR Pathway In Vitro
AbstractSeveral methods have been used to study the neuropathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS), such as mouse aneuploidies, post mortem human brains, and in vitro cell culture of neural progenitor cells. More recently, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has offered new approaches in investigation, providing a valuable tool for studying specific cell types affected by DS, especially neurons and astrocytes. Here, we investigated the role of astrocytes in DS developmental disease and the impact of the astrocyte secretome in neuron mTOR signaling and synapse formation using iPSC derived from DS and wild-type (WT) sub...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Turning Death to Growth: Hematopoietic Growth Factors Promote Neurite Outgrowth through MEK/ERK/p53 Pathway
AbstractStem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are the essential hematopoietic growth factors to control hematopoiesis. However, the role of SCF and G-CSF in the central nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated the involvement of MEK/ERK/p53 signaling in SCF  + G-CSF-enhanced neurite extension. Cortical neurons dissected from embryonic rat brains were seeded onto the membranes of transwell inserts, and neurite outgrowth was determined by using both the neurite outgrowth quantification assay kit and immunostaining of β III tubulin. Quantitative RT-...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mitochondria-Bound Hexokinase (mt-HK) Activity Differ in Cortical and Hypothalamic Synaptosomes: Differential Role of mt-HK in H 2 O 2 Depuration
AbstractGlucose and oxygen are vital for the brain, as these molecules provide energy and metabolic intermediates that are necessary for cell function. The glycolysis pathway and mitochondria play a pivotal role in cell energy metabolism, which is closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Hexokinase (HK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism that modulates the level of brain mitochondrial ROS by recycling ADP for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Here, we hypothesize that the control of mitochondrial metabolism by hexokinase differs in distinct areas of the brain, such as the cortex and hypoth...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Angiotensin II Causes Neuronal Damage in Stretch-Injured Neurons: Protective Effects of Losartan, an Angiotensin T 1 Receptor Blocker
AbstractAngiotensin II (Ang II) is a mediator of oxidative stress via activation/induction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We investigated the hypothesis that overproduction of Ang II during traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces the activation of the oxidative stress, which triggers neuroinflammation and cell apoptosis in a cell culture model of neuronal stretch injury. We first established that stretch injury causes a rapid increase in the level of Ang II, which causes the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 β and TNF-&...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma miR-124 Is a Promising Candidate Biomarker for Human Intracerebral Hemorrhage Stroke
AbstractStroke causes death or long-term disabilities and threatens the general health of the population worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that miRNAs are dysregulated and can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis in stroke. The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of all the stroke cases. However, at present, little is known regarding the functions and clinical implications of miRNAs in ICH. In the present study, we established the collagenase-induced rat ICH model to mimic human ICH syndrome. We profiled the expression of 728 rat miRNAs at different time points in rat brain tissues and plasm...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

S-Adenosylmethionine Promotes Oxidative Stress and Decreases Na + , K + -ATPase Activity in Cerebral Cortex Supernatants of Adolescent Rats: Implications for the Pathogenesis of S-Adenosylhomocysteine Hydrolase Deficiency
AbstractS-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) concentrations are highly elevated in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency, who are clinically characterized by cerebral symptoms whose pathogenesis is still unknown. In the present work, we investigated the effects of AdoMet on redox homeostasis and on the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase in the cerebral cortex of young rats. AdoMet caused lipid peroxidation (increase of malondialdehyde concentrations) and protein oxidation (increase of carbonyl formation and decrease of sulfhydryl content). AdoMet also reduced the antioxidant def...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Neuroprotective Effect of the Glutamate Receptor Antagonist MK801 on Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes Secondary to Experimental Cerebral Malaria
AbstractCerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication ofPlasmodium falciparum infection, which can result in long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits despite successful anti-malarial therapy. Due to the substantial social and economic burden of CM, the development of adjuvant therapies is a scientific goal of highest priority. Apart from vascular and immune responses, changes in glutamate system have been reported in CM pathogenesis suggesting a potential therapeutic target. Based on that, we hypothesized that interventions in the glutamatergic system induced by blockage of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) recepto...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Transcriptional Changes of trim Genes Associated with Parkinson ’s Disease on a Model of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
AbstractOver the last few years, in vitro models, based on patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have received considerable attention for modeling different neurodegenerative disorders. Using this model, we analyzed transcription of 15 tripartite motif (trim) genes in iPSCs, derived from the different groups: Parkinson ’s disease (PD) patients bearing mutations in different genes, patient with the sporadic form of PD, and the healthy individuals. The transcription was observed during neuronal differentiation of the cells in vitro into neuronal stem cells and terminally differentiated neurons. The tr...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ketamine Self-Administration Reduces the Homeostasis of the Glutamate Synapse in the Rat Brain
AbstractKetamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor with psychotomimetic and reinforcing properties, although recent work has pointed out its antidepressant action following acute exposure. Our aim was to investigate the expression of crucial components of the glutamate synapse following chronic ketamine self-administration (S/A), focusing our attention on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (Hip), two brain regions involved in compulsive drug-seeking and drug-related cognitive disorders. Rats self-administered ketamine at a sub-anesthetic dose for 5 –6 weeks and were sacr...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: CXCL12/CXCR4 Axis Upregulates Twist to Induce EMT in Human Glioblastoma
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: Nuclear Protein C23 on the Cell Surface Plays an Important Role in Activation of CXCR4 Signaling in Glioblastoma
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to “SDF-1/CXCR4 Axis Regulates Cell Cycle Progression and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via Up-regulation of Survivin in Glioblastoma”
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 30, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

In Vitro Effects of Cognitives and Nootropics on Mitochondrial Respiration and Monoamine Oxidase Activity
AbstractImpairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracet am) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synt...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

ER Stress Induced by Tunicamycin Triggers α-Synuclein Oligomerization, Dopaminergic Neurons Death and Locomotor Impairment: a New Model of Parkinson’s Disease
In this study, we developed a new ER stress rat model employing the well-known ER stressor tunicamycin (Tm). To evaluate if ER stress was able to induce PD features, we performed an intranigral injection of Tm (0.1 μg/cerebral hemisphere) and animals (male Wistar rats) were analyzed 7 days post injection. The classical 6-OHDA neurotoxin model (1 μg/cerebral hemisphere) was used as an established positive control for PD. We show that Tm injection induced locomotor impairment, dopaminergic neuro ns death, and activation of astroglia. In addition, we observed an extensive α-synuclein oligomerization...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Demyelination-Induced Inflammation Attracts Newly Born Neurons to the White Matter
AbstractThere is compelling evidence that microglial activation negatively impacts neurogenesis. However, microglia have also been shown to promote recruitment of newly born neurons to injured areas of the gray matter. In the present study, we explored whether demyelination-triggered inflammation alters the process of neurogenesis in the white matter. A 2- μl solution of 0.04 % ethidium bromide was stereotaxically injected into the corpus callosum of adult male rats. Brain inflammation was dampened by daily injections of progesterone (5 mg/kg, s.c.) for 14 days. Control rats received oil (s.c.). Newly bor...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Pterostilbene Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome and Nox2-Related Oxidative Stress
In conclusion, our study suggests that PTE attenuates EBI following SAH possibly via the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and Nox2-related oxidative stress. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gene Expression Profiling Stratifies IDH1-Mutant Glioma with Distinct Prognoses
AbstractIsocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 mutation is one of the most important genetic aberrations in glioma. Even several genetic events have refined its prognostic value, the genome-wide expression alteration has not been systematically profiled. In this work, RNA-seq expression data from 310 patients in the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database were included as training set, while another 297 patients with microarray data were used as internal validation set. An independent cohort of GSE16011 (n = 205) constituted an external validation set. Approximately one fifth of the genes were differentially expressed in L...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of ACYP2 and TSPYL6 Genetic Polymorphisms with Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Han Chinese Population
In conclusion, the genetic polymorphisms ofACYP2 andTSPYL6 are associated with increased risk of developing ischemic stroke. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to validate our findings. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hyperpalatable Diet and Physical Exercise Modulate the Expression of the Glial Monocarboxylate Transporters MCT1 and 4
AbstractHyperpalatable diets (HP) impair brain metabolism, and regular physical exercise has an apparent opposite effect. Here, we combined a prior long-term exposure to HP diet followed by physical exercise and evaluated the impact on some neuroenergetic components and on cognitive performance. We assessed the extracellular lactate concentration, expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and mitochondrial function in the hippocampus. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed 4  months with HP or a control diet. Subsequently, they were divided in the following groups: control diet sedentary (C...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Slovak Patients: over 10-Year Period Review
AbstractCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, but rapidly progressive, up to now untreatable and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is difficult; however, it can be facilitated by suitable biomarkers. Aim of the present study is to compare levels of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (total tau protein, phosphorylated-tau protein, protein 14-3-3 and amyloid beta) in Slovak population of CJD suspect cases, retrospectively in over a 10-year period. One thousand three hundred sixty-four CSF samples from patients with suspect CJD, forming a homogenous group in terms of geographic...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bee Venom Ameliorates Cognitive Dysfunction Caused by Neuroinflammation in an Animal Model of Vascular Dementia
In this study, we investigated whether bee venom (BV) improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: a sham group (n = 15), BCCAO control group (n = 15), and BV-treated BCCAO group (n = 15). BCCAO animals were treated with 0.1 μg/g BV at ST36 (“Joksamli” acupoint) four times every other day. In order to investigate the effect of BV treatment on cognitive function, we performed aY-maze test. In order to uncover any potential relationship between these results and neuroinflammatio...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intranasal Administration of TAT-Conjugated Lipid Nanocarriers Loading GDNF for Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder (ND), characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. Current available treatments in clinical practice cannot halt the progression of the disease. During the last few years, growt h factors (GFs) have been raised as a promising therapeutic approach to address the underlying neurodegenerative process. Among others, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a widely studied GF for PD. However, its clinical use is limited due to its short half life, rapid degradation rate , and ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased Levels of Brain Adrenomedullin in the Neuropathology of Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of synaptic contacts caused in part by cytoskeleton disruption. Adrenomedullin (AM) is involved in physiological functions such as vasodilation, hormone secretion, antimicrobial activity, cellular growth, and angiogenesis. In neurons, AM and related pep tides are associated with some structural and functional cytoskeletal proteins, causing microtubule destabilization. Here, we describe the relationships between AM and other signs of AD in clinical specimens. Frontal cortex from AD patients and controls were studied for AM, acetylated tubulin, NCAM, Ox-42,...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Retina of Osteopontin deficient Mice in Aging
This study demonstrates the influence of OPN on astrocytes and RGCs, whereby the absence of OPN in the retina diminishes the area occupied by astrocytes and produces a secondary reduction in the number of RGCs. Accordingly, OPN could be a target to develop therapies to combat neurodegenerative diseases and astrocytes may represent a key mediator of such effects. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Baicalein on Acrolein-induced Neurotoxicity in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System of Rat Brain
In conclusion, our data suggest that baicalein is neuroprotective via inhibiting oxidative stress, protein conjugation, and inflammation. Furthermore, baicalein pre vents acrolein-induced program cell deaths, suggesting that baicalein is therapeutically useful for slowing PD progression. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotection and CD131/GDNF/AKT Pathway of Carbamylated Erythropoietin in Hypoxic Neurons
AbstractCarbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO), an EPO derivative, is attracting widespread interest due to neuroprotective effects without erythropoiesis. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms behind CEPO-mediated neuroprotection. In primary neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and mice with hypoxia-reoxygenation, the neuroprotection and possible molecular mechanism of CEPO were performed by immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, Western blot, RT-PCR, and ELISA. The comparisons were analyzed by ANOVA followed by unpaired two-tailed Student ’st test. Both CEPO and EPO showed the neuroprotect...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plasma miR-34a-5p and miR-545-3p as Early Biomarkers of Alzheimer ’s Disease: Potential and Limitations
AbstractPlasma microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential biomarkers in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Here, we explored their use as early sensors of the preclinical phase of the disease, when brain pathology is being developed and no cognitive loss is detected. For this purpose, we analyzed a set of ten mature plasma miRNAs in symptomatic patients with AD from a cohort that also included healthy controls (HC) and patients with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (PAD) (cohort 1). Plasmas from subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were used to control for disease specificity. We found that miR-15b-5p, m...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Simvastatin and Cilostazol in l -Methionine-Induced Vascular Dementia in Rats
AbstractVascular dementia (VaD) is a degenerative cerebrovascular disorder that leads to progressive decline in cognitive abilities and memory. Several reports demonstrated that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are principal pathogenic factors in VaD. The present study was constructed to determine the possible neuroprotective effects of simvastatin in comparison with cilostazol in VaD induced byl-methionine in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group), group II receivedl-methionine (1.7  g/kg, p.o.) for 32 days. The remaining two groups received simvastatin (50 ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Autophagy Inhibition Favors Survival of Rubrospinal Neurons After Spinal Cord Hemisection
We examined the function and effects of the modulation of autophagy on the fate of axotomized rubrospinal neurons in a rat model of spinal cord dorsal hemisection (SCH) at the cervical level. Following SCH, we observed an accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes (APs) in the axotomized neurons 1 and 5  days after injury. Furthermore, this accumulation was not attributed to greater initiation of autophagy but was caused by a decrease in AP clearance, as demonstrated by the build-up of p62, a widely used marker of the induction of autophagy. In axotomized rubrospinal neurons, the disruption of aut ophagic flux correl...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identification of CHCHD10 Mutation in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer Disease
AbstractCHCHD10 gene has been identified to be associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Considering the clinical phenotype and pathology characterization were overlapped between FTD and Alzheimer disease (AD), and so far, no systematic analysis ofCHCHD10 mutation was conducted in patients with AD in Asian population. Therefore, we screened of all exons inCHCHD10 in a cohort of 484 AD patients (60 with family history) from Mainland China. A heterozygous variant p.A35D (c.104C>A), previously reported in a patient with FTD in Italian population, was identified in a female patie...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differentiation of Spermatogonia Stem Cells into Functional Mature Neurons Characterized with Differential Gene Expression
AbstractTransplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ESCs are not usable clinically due to immunological and ethical limitations. The identification of an alternative safe cell source opens novel options via autologous transplantation in neuro-regeneration circumventing these problems. Here, we examined the neurogenic capacity of embryonic stem-like cells (ES-like cells) derived from the testis using neural growth factor inducers and utilized them to generate functional mature neurons. The neuronal differentiation of ES-like cel...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sigmoid Sinus Characteristics Correlate with Early Clinical and Imaging Surrogates in Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke
AbstractCerebral venous outflow may play a decisive role in acute ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the relation of cerebral sinus vein characteristics with clinical and imaging surrogates of early outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We evaluated cerebral vein characteristics in 212 patients with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusive stroke confirmed by CT angiography CTA within 6  h from symptom onset. Readout parameters included volume and density of the sigmoid sinus (SS) and density of the superior sagittal sinus (SupSagS). These were correlated with early clinical outcome defined as hospital death (HD), final...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Ubiquitin Ligase COP1 Promotes Glioma Cell Proliferation by Preferentially Downregulating Tumor Suppressor p53
AbstractHuman glioma causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma progression are still largely unknown. COP1 (constitutively photomorphogenic 1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is important in cell survival, development, cell growth, and cancer biology by regulating different substrates. As is well known, both tumor suppressor p53 and oncogenic protein c-JUN could be ubiquitinated and degraded by ubiquitin ligase COP1, which may be the reason that COP1 serves as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor in different cancer types. Up to now, the possible role of COP1 in human g...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Purmorphamine as a Shh Signaling Activator Small Molecule Promotes Motor Neuron Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Nanofibrous PCL Scaffold
In this study, we investigated the effect of the PMA on Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) differentiation into motor neuronal lineages instead of sonic hedgehog (Sh h) on PCL scaffold. After exposing to induction media for 15 days, the cells were characterized for expression of motor neuron markers including PAX6, NF-H, Islet1, HB9, and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by quantitative reverse transcription (PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Our results demonstrat ed that induced WJ-MSCs with PMA could significantly express motor neuron markers in RNA and protein levels 15 days post induction. Thes...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research