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Mitochondrial Metabolism Power SIRT2-Dependent Deficient Traffic Causing Alzheimer ’s-Disease Related Pathology
AbstractMultiple lines of evidence state a major role for mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) etiopathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) triggered by mitochondrial deficits that lead to neurodegeneration remain elusive. Herein, we propose a new mechanism by which mitochondrial loss of potential leads to a dysfunction in autophagy/mitophagy due to the overactivati on of SIRT2, a tubulin deacetylase that regulates microtubule network acetylation, and provide insights into the association between metabolism, phosphorylation, and Aβ aggregation. We observed an increase in SIRT2...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expression of the Parkinson ’s Disease-Associated Gene Alpha-Synuclein is Regulated by the Neuronal Cell Fate Determinant TRIM32
AbstractAlpha-synuclein is an abundant neuronal protein which has been associated with physiological processes like synaptic function, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation but also with pathological neurodegeneration. Indeed,alpha-synuclein (snca) is one of the major genes implicated in Parkinson ’s disease (PD). However, little is known about the regulation ofalpha-synuclein expression. Unveiling the mechanisms that control its regulation is of high importance, as it will enable to further investigate and comprehend the physiological role of alpha-synuclein as well as its potential contribution in the aetiolog...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-term Ameliorative Effects of the Antidepressant Fluoxetine Exposure on Cognitive Deficits in 3  × TgAD Mice
AbstractFluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is neuroprotective; therefore, it has been applied to treat some neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, chronic fluoxetine exposure has short-term effects on Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). However, the long-term ameliorative effects of fluoxetine exposure on AD have not been reported. In the present study, 6-month-old 3 × TgAD mice were treated with fluoxetine for 15 days, and then the influence of fluoxetine was detected at 20 days after the drug withdrawal. We found that chronic fluoxetine treatment ameliorated cognitive def...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-Term Mangiferin Extract Treatment Improves Central Pathology and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1 Mice
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia; however, available treatments have had limited success. Therefore AD patients are in tremendous need of new pharmacological approaches that may delay or slow the progression of the disease. In addition to the classical neuropathological featur es, immunological and inflammatory processes are also involved in AD pathogenesis. Naturally occurring compounds, such asMangifera indica Linn (MGF) extracts have previously been shown to significantly reduce peripheral inflammatory processes. In order to explore the role of MGF in AD central pathology...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protein Profile and Morphological Alterations in Penumbra after Focal Photothrombotic Infarction in the Rat Cerebral Cortex
AbstractAfter ischemic stroke, cell damage propagates from infarct core to surrounding tissues (penumbra). To reveal proteins involved in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in penumbra, we studied protein expression changes in 2-mm ring around the core of photothrombotic infarct induced in the rat brain cortex by local laser irradiation after administration of Bengal Rose. The ultrastructural study showed edema and degeneration of neurons, glia, and capillaries. Morphological changes gradually decreased across the penumbra. Using the antibody microarrays, we studied changes in expression of>200 neuronal proteins in p...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid-Potentiated Spinal Microglia Activation Contributes to Preoperative Anxiety-Induced Postoperative Hyperalgesia
AbstractClinically, preoperative anxiety adversely affected postoperative hyperalgesia. As stress-induced glucocorticoids (GCs) were reported to sensitize the activation of microglia, the present study investigated whether and how GCs and microglia played in the process of preoperative anxiety-induced postoperative hyperalgesia. The study used an animal model that exposed rats to single prolonged stress (SPS) procedure to induce preoperative anxiety-like behaviors 24  h before the plantar incisional surgery. Behavioral testing revealed that preoperative SPS enhanced the mechanical allodynia induced by plantar incision...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mangiferin Upregulates Glyoxalase 1 Through Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling in Central Neurons Cultured with High Glucose
AbstractMangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone, has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective actions. Our previous study showed that mangiferin could attenuate diabetes-associated cognitive impairment of rats by enhancing the function of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) in brain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Glo-1 upregulation by mangiferin in central neurons exposed to chronic high glucose may be related to activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway. Compared with normal glucose (25  mmol/L) culture, Glo-1 protein, mRNA, and activity levels were markedly decreased in primary hippocampal and cerebral cortica...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Interaction of TXNIP and AFq1 Genes Increases the Susceptibility of Schizophrenia
AbstractAlthough previous studies showed the reduced risk of cancer in patients with schizophrenia, whether patients with schizophrenia possess genetic factors that also contribute to tumor suppressor is still unknown. In the present study, based on our previous microarray data, we focused on the tumor suppressor genesTXNIP andAF1q, which differentially expressed in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 413 patients and 578 healthy controls were recruited. We found no significant differences in genotype, allele, or haplotype frequencies at the selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2236566 and rs7211 inT...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tandem Delivery of Multiple Therapeutic Genes Using Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Improves Symptomatic Outcomes in ALS
This study confirms an increased addressed homing and notable survivability of triple-transfected cells in lumbar spinal cord, yielding a remarkably enhanced therapeutic potential of hUCBMCs overexpre ssing neurotrophic factors. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Chronic Postnatal Stress Induces Depressive-like Behavior in Male Mice and Programs second-Hit Stress-Induced Gene Expression Patterns of OxtR and AvpR1a in Adulthood
AbstractChronic stress (CS) during early life represents a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. According to the Two/Multiple-Hit hypothesis, the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders usually involves multiple stressors experienced subsequently during different phases of life. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms modulating neuronal and behavioral changes induced by multiple stress experiences are just poorly understood. Since the oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic systems are neuroendocrine modulators involved in environmentally driven adaptations of stress sensitivit...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Identification of Novel Compound Mutations in PLA2G6 -Associated Neurodegeneration Patient with Characteristic MRI Imaging
In conclusion, the identification of the “eye-of-the-tiger”-like sign in the globus pallidus of the patient expands the phenotypic spectrum ofPLA2G6-associated disorders and reveals its value in differential diagnosis ofPLA2G6-associated disorders. (Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Associations of rs3740677 within GAB2 Gene with LOAD in Chinese Han Population
AbstractGRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2) has been identified as a crucial factor in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), and ten common variants withinGAB2 have been detected to be associated with AD onset risk in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we first screened a common locus (rs3740677) in 3 ′ UTR ofGAB2 sequence which is targeted by the miRNA-185 and initiatively explored the probable associations of rs3740677 with risk for late-onset AD (LOAD) in a large scale case –control study from Chinese Han populations (992 LOAD patients and 1358 healthy subjects). Eventually, the genotype (P&thinsp...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory cell-related transcription factor signaling in children with autism
AbstractAutism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by stereotypic repetitive behaviors, impaired social interactions, and communication deficits. Numerous immune system abnormalities have been described in individuals with autism including abnormalities in the ratio of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells; however, the expression of the transcription factors responsible for the regulation and differentiation of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells has not previously been evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children with autism (AU) or typically developing (TD) control children were stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate 1...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Barhl2 Determines the Early Patterning of the Diencephalon by Regulating Shh
AbstractThe diencephalon is the primary relay network transmitting sensory information to the anterior forebrain. During development, distinct progenitor domains in the diencephalon give rise to the pretectum (p1), the thalamus and epithalamus (p2), and the prethalamus (p3), respectively.Shh plays a significant role in establishing the progenitor domains. However, the upstream events influencing the expression ofShh are largely unknown. Here, we show thatBarhl2 homeobox gene is expressed in the p1 and p2 progenitor domains and the in zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) and regulates the acquisition of identity of progenitor...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dodecafluoropentane Improves Neurological Function Following Anterior Ischemic Stroke
This study investigated shortened dosage schedules of DDFPe in nonstandard posterior (NSTND) strokes following occlusions of the posterior cerebral arteries. DDFPe given at shortened schedules of 30 or 60-min injection intervals will reduce neurological deficits, percent stroke volume (%SV), and serum glutamate levels in NSTND ischemic strokes. New Zealand White rabbits (N = 26) were randomly placed into three groups: A (n = 9) controls given saline injections every 60 min, B (n = 9) 2 % DDFPe given IV every 30 min, and C (n = 8) DDFPe every 60 min. Injections beg...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Regulation of SET Gene Expression by NFkB
AbstractSET is elevated and mislocalized in the neuronal cytoplasm in brains of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) patients. Cytoplasm SET leads to inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A and is involved in the tau pathology. However, the regulation of SET gene expression remains elusive. In the present study, we cloned a 1399-bp segment of the 5′ flanking region of the hu man SET gene and identified that the transcription start site (TSS) of SET transcript 1 is located at 123 bp upstream of the translation start site ATG in exon 1. Sequence analysis reveals several putative regulatory elements ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Noggin Along with a Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Containing Long Motif of Laminin Induces Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression
AbstractTyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting step in catecholamine synthesis in which its activity influences Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and IQ of schizophrenia patients, has been studied for a long time. In the meantime, the present investigation assessed the effect of noggin and type of self-assembling nanofibers in TH gene over-expression by neuron-like cells derived from human endometrial-derived stromal cells (hEnSCs). Neuroblastoma cells and hEnSCs encapsulated into nanofibers including Matrigel, (RADA)4, laminin, and BMHP-1 motif bounded to (RADA)4 and their cell viability were studied for 48  ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

DAPK1 Signaling Pathways in Stroke: from Mechanisms to Therapies
AbstractDeath-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, plays important roles in diverse apoptosis pathways not only in tumor suppression but also in neuronal cell death. The requirement of DAPK1 catalytic activity for its proposed cell functions and the elevation of catalytic activity of DAPK1 in injured neurons in models of neurological diseases, such as ischemia and epilepsy, validate that DAPK1 can be taken as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases. Recent studies show that DAPK1-NR2B, DAPK1-DANGER, DAPK1-p53, and DAPK1-Tau are currently known path...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Noggin Along with a Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Containing Long Motif of Laminin Induces Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Expression
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism on Striatum Structural Covariance Networks in Alzheimer ’s Disease
In this study, we investigated the possible structural covariance networks that may be modulated by this functional polymorphism in patients with Alzheimer ’s disease. Structural covariance networks were constructed by 3D T1 magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were divided into two groups: Met-carriers (n = 91) and Val-homozygotes (n = 101). Seed-based analysis was performed focusing on triple-network models and six striatal networks. Neurobehavioral scores served as the major outcome factors. The role of seed or peak cluster volumes, or a covariance strength showing Met-carriers > &n...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Spatholobi Caulis Extract on Neuronal Damage and Focal Ischemic Stroke/Reperfusion Injury
AbstractNeuronal apoptotic cell death plays an important role in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and ischemic stroke. Spatholobi Caulis (SC) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, viral infection, and anemia. However, the protective effects of SC extract (SCE) against apoptotic cell death in the brain h ave not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of SCE against neuronal injury etoposide-induced neurotoxicity and in rats subjected to focal transient ischemic stroke middle cerebral artery oc...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Functional Role of Matrix gla Protein in Glioma Cell Migration
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor subtype. Despite that metastasis of GBM beyond the central nervous system (CNS) is rare, its malignancy is attributed to the highly infiltration trait, leading to the difficulty of complete surgical excision. Matrix gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent small secretory protein, and functions as a calcification inhibitor. The involvement of MGP function in glioma cell dynamics remains to be clarified. The study showed that a low proliferative rat C6 glioma cell line named as C6-2 exhibited faster migratory and invasive capability compar...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Presenilin-1 Delta E9 Mutant Induces STIM1-Driven Store-Operated Calcium Channel Hyperactivation in Hippocampal Neurons
This study examines the effect of the FAD presenilin mutant that lacks the ninth exon (PS1 ∆E9) and does not undergo endoproteolysis on store-operated calcium (SOC) entry. Significant enhancement of SOC channel activation was detected by electrophysiological measurements in hippocampal neurons with PS1 ∆E9 mutant expression. Here, we show that (i) the hyperactivation of SOC channels i s mediated by the STIM1 sensor and can be attenuated by STIM1 knockdown or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate application, (ii) the STIM2 is not involved in pathological changes of SOC entry, (iii) the pathological SOC entry demonstrates proper...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Variants in the PRPF8 Gene are Associated with Glaucoma
AbstractGlaucoma is the cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Mutations in six genes have been associated with juvenile- and adult-onset familial primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) prior to this report but they explain only a small proportion of the genetic load. The aim of the study is to identify the novel genetic cause of the POAG in the families with adult-onset glaucoma. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on DNA of two affected individuals, and predicted pathogenic variants were evaluated for segregation in four affected and three unaffected Dutch family members by Sanger sequencing. We identified a patho...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: miR-124 Acts as a Tumor Suppressor in Glioblastoma via the Inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Enhances Gene Expression of Selected Sirtuins and APP Cleaving Enzymes in Amyloid Beta Cytotoxicity
This study focused on a role of PARP1 in the regulation of gene expression for SIRTs and beta-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) cleaving enzymes under Aβ42 oligomers (AβO) toxicity inpheochromocytoma cells (PC12) in culture. Moreover, the effect of endogenously liberated A β peptides in PC12 cells stably transfected with human gene for APP wild-type (APPwt) was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that AβO enhanced transcription of presenilins (Psen1 andPsen2), the crucial subunits of γ-secretase. Aβ peptides in APPwt cells activated expression of β-secretase (Bace1),Psen1,Psen2, andPa...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Endogenous Expression of ODN-Related Peptides in Astrocytes Contributes to Cell Protection Against Oxidative Stress: Astrocyte-Neuron Crosstalk Relevance for Neuronal Survival
AbstractAstroglial cells are important actors in the defense of brain against oxidative stress injuries. Glial cells synthesize and release the octadecaneuropeptide ODN, a diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)-related peptide, which acts through its metabotropic receptor to protect neurons and astrocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The purpose of the present study is to examine the contribution of the endogenous ODN in the protection of astrocytes and neurons from moderate oxidative stress. The administration of H2O2 (50  μM, 6 h) induced a moderate oxidative stress in cultured astrocytes, i.e., an inc...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-depressant Effects of Resveratrol: a Review
AbstractMajor depression is a public health problem, affecting 121 million people worldwide. Patients suffering from depression present high rates of morbidity, causing profound economic and social impacts. Furthermore, patients with depression present cognitive impairments, which could influence on treatment adherence and long-term outcomes. The pathophysiology of major depression is not completely understood yet but involves reduced levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, bioenergetics, and redox disturbances, as well as inflammation and neuronal loss. Treatment with anti-depressants provides a complete remission of sympt...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Fgf9 Y162C Mutation Alters Information Processing and Social Memory in Mice
In this study, we examined the role ofFgf9 in different brain functions by analyzing the behavior ofFgf9Y162C mutant mice, anFgf9 allele without the confounding systemic effects of otherFgf9 genetic models. Here, we show that this mutation caused altered locomotor and exploratory reactivity to novel, mildly stressful environments. In addition, mutants showed heightened acoustic startle reactivity as well as impaired social discrimination memory. Notably, there was a substantial decrease in the level of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis with no difference in hippocampal neurogenesis. Collectively, our findings indicate a ro...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Fos Protein as a Marker of Neuronal Activity: a Useful Tool in the Study of the Mechanism of Action of Natural Products with Analgesic Activity
AbstractPain treatment is still ineffective in many conditions and remains one of the greatest challenges of modern medicine. Historically, due to the incredible variety of pharmacologically promising natural products (NPs) and the chemical complexity of their compounds, scientists have explored their use as a source of treatment for diseases or symptomatology. Fos protein and its precursor, the gene c-Fos, have been the subject of study in relation to the pathophysiology of pain as a possible tool to aid in its understanding. More recently, it has become a useful tool in the study of NPs with analgesic profile. Thus, this...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 10, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Increased Training Intensity Induces Proper Membrane Localization of Actin Remodeling Proteins in the Hippocampus Preventing Cognitive Deficits: Implications for Fragile X Syndrome
AbstractBehavioral intervention therapy has proven beneficial in the treatment of autism and intellectual disabilities (ID), raising the possibility of certain changes in molecular mechanisms activated by these interventions that may promote learning. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autistic features and intellectual disability and can serve as a model to examine mechanisms that promote learning. FXS results from mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (Fmr1) that prevents expression of the Fmr1 protein (FMRP), a messenger RNA (mRNA) translation regulator at synapses....
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 8, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: The Lesion Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in 5XFAD Mouse Model in the Three-Dimensional Level of Whole Brain
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Vertebrate Presynaptic Active Zone Assembly: a Role Accomplished by Diverse Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
AbstractAmong all the biological systems in vertebrates, the central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex, and its function depends on specialized contacts among neurons called synapses. The assembly and organization of synapses must be exquisitely regulated for a normal brain function and network activity. There has been a tremendous effort in recent decades to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms participating in the formation of new synapses and their organization, maintenance, and regulation. At the vertebrate presynapses, proteins such as Piccolo, Bassoon, RIM, RIM-BPs, CAST/ELKS, liprin- α, and ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exclusive Activation of Caspase-3 in Mossy Fibers and Altered Dynamics of Autophagy Markers in the Mice Hippocampus upon Status Epilepticus Induced by Kainic Acid
This study addresses the role of autophagy upon status epilepticus (SE) that has been induced by kainic acid (KA) in the C57BL/6 strain which is classified as seizure resistant. We analyzed the dynamics in the expression of autophagic and cell death markers in the hippocampus upon SE. Immunofluorescence data show that KA did not induce neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 –CA3 subfields; however, it leads to an exclusive activation of caspase-3 in the mossy fibers. We also found alterations in the expression of core proteins of the autophagic machinery. Levels of MAP1LC3, phospho-mTOR/mTOR, and Beclin 1 were signifi...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 6, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: MiR-154 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Glioblastoma by Targeting Wnt5a
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Note to: The Crucial Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-5-Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Axis in ICH-Induced Neuronal Injury of Rat Model
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: The Development of Translational Biomarkers as a Tool for Improving the Understanding, Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - July 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genome-wide Analysis of RAR β Transcriptional Targets in Mouse Striatum Links Retinoic Acid Signaling with Huntington’s Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders
We report the first genome-wide analysis of RAR transcriptional targets in the brain. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing and transcriptomic analysis of RAR β-null mutant mice, we identified genomic targets of RARβ in the striatum. Characterization of RARβ transcriptional targets in the mouse striatum points to mechanisms through which RAR may control brain functions and display neuroprotective activity. Namely, our data indicate with statistical sig nificance (FDR 0.1) a strong contribution of RARβ in controlling neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and transcrip...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

PICALM rs3851179 Variant Confers Susceptibility to Alzheimer ’s Disease in Chinese Population
AbstractThe association between PICALM rs3851179 variant and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) has been well established by previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies in European population. Recent studies investigated the association between PICALM rs3851179 and AD susceptibility in Chinese population. However, these studies reported consiste nt and inconsistent results. Here, we selected 9435 samples including 3704 AD cases and 5731 controls from previous studies and evaluated this association using a meta-analysis method for additive model. We did not observe significant genetic heterogenei...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mutation Screening of the CHCHD10 Gene in Chinese Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
AbstractMutations in the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein 10 gene (CHCHD10), involved in mitochondrial function, have recently been reported as a causative gene of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to obtain the mutation prevalence ofCHCHD10 and the phenotypes with mutations in Chinese ALS patients. A cohort of 499 ALS patients including 487 sporadic ALS (SALS) and 12 familial ALS (FALS), from the Department of Neurology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, were screened for mutations of all exons of theCHCHD10 gene by Sanger sequencing. Novel candidate mutat...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of YKL-40 in Patients with Glioblastoma: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the prognostic value of YKL-40 in glioblastoma patients. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies relating to YKL-40 and prognosis of glioblastoma patients. Studies reporting estimates for overall survival by YKL-40 expression in glioblastoma patients were considered eligible. A meta-analysis of included studies was performed using fixed- or random-effect model to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95  % confidence interval (95%CI). Eight studies were ultimately considered eligible and included into the meta-analysis. Those eight studies include...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alzheimer ’s Disease is an Important Risk Factor of Fractures: a Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies
AbstractThe risk of fracture in individuals with Alzheimer ’s disease had not been fully quantified. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies was performed to estimate the impact of Alzheimer’s disease on risk of fractures. Pubmed and Embase were searched for eligible cohort studies assessing the association between Alzheimer’s disease and risk of fractures. The overall relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model to evaluate the association. Six cohort studies with a total of 137,986 participants were included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of a tot...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: A Therapeutic Insight of Niacin and Coenzyme Q10 against Diabetic Encephalopathy in Rats
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Transitional Progenitors during Vertebrate Retinogenesis
(Source: Molecular Neurobiology)
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neonatal Immune Challenge with Lipopolysaccharide Triggers Long-lasting Sex- and Age-related Behavioral and Immune/Neurotrophic Alterations in Mice: Relevance to Autism Spectrum Disorders
AbstractEarly-life challenges, particularly infections and stress, are related to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Here, we conducted a wide range of behavioral tests in periadolescent (postnatal day (PN) 35) and adult (PN70) Swiss mice neonatally challenged with LPS on PN5 and -7, to unveil behavioral alterations triggered by LPS exposure. Immune and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor —BDNF) alterations were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC), and hypothalamus (HT). Since the incidence and clinical manifestations of neurodevelopmental disorders presen...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A New Hope for a Devastating Disease: Hydrogen Sulfide in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractHydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been regarded as the third gaseous transmitter alongside nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In mammalian brain, H2S is produced redundantly by four enzymatic pathways, implying its abundance in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S has been found to induce the formation of long-term potential in neuronal cells by augmenting the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Likewise, it also actively takes part in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ and pH homeostasis in both neuronal cells and glia cells. Intriguingly, emerging evidence indicates a connection of H2S wi...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Memory and Learning Dysfunction Following Copper Toxicity: Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Basis
We report excitotoxicity, apoptosis, and astrocytic reaction of the hippocampus and frontal cortex with memory dysfunction in rat model of Cu toxicity. Thirty-six rats were divided into group I (control) and group II (100  mg/kgBwt/day CuSO4 orally). Y-maze was performed for memory and learning at 0, 30, 60, and 90  days. Frontal and hippocampal free Cu concentration, oxidative stress markers [glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant toxicity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA)], and glutamate were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, and ELISA, respectively.N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sex Bias in Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Neuroinflammation: Relevance for Dimethyl Fumarate Immunomodulatory/Anti-oxidant Action
AbstractIn the present study, upon showing sexual dimorphism in dimethyl fumarate (DMF) efficacy to moderate the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Dark Agouti rats, cellular and molecular substrate of this dimorphism was explored. In rats of both sexes, DMF administration from the day of immunization attenuated EAE severity, but this effect was more prominent in males leading to loss of the sexual dimorphism observed in vehicle-administered controls. Consistently, in male rats, DMF was more efficient in diminishing the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes infiltrating spinal cord (SC) and thei...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exploring the Validity of Proposed Transgenic Animal Models of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
AbstractAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, behavioral, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Symptoms of this disorder are managed by treatment with methylphenidate, amphetamine, and/or atomoxetine. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but substantial evidence indicates that this disorder has a significant genetic component. Transgenic animals have become an essential tool in uncovering the genetic factors underlying ADHD. Although they cannot accurately reflect the human condition, they can provide insights into the disorder that can...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Enhances Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Neural Stem Cell Pool, and Early Neurogenesis in Adult Rats
AbstractAlthough neurogenesis occurs in restricted regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) produce very few neurons during ageing or after injury. We have recently discovered that the endogenous bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a strong inhibitor of mitochondrial apoptosis and a neuroprotective in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders, also enhances NSC proliferation, self-renewal, and neuronal conversion by improving mitochondrial integrity and function of NSCs. In the present study, we explore the effect of TUDCA on regulation of NSC fate in neurogenic niches, the subventricular ...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - May 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Source Type: research