[ 18 F]-FDG-PET/CT and [ 18 F]-FAZA-PET/CT Hypoxia Imaging of Metastatic Thyroid Cancer: Association with Short-Term Progression After Radioiodine Therapy
AbstractPurposeTo examine the relationships between 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]-FDG) and hypoxia tracer [18F]fluoro-azomycinarabinofuranoside ([18F]-FAZA) and between131I and [18F]-FAZA uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and to evaluate imaging features associated with short-term progression after131I therapy.ProceduresThe study population was 20 patients (17 women and 3 men; mean age, 67  years) with metastatic thyroid cancer who underwent both [18F]-FDG- and [18F]-FAZA-positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations before131I therapy. Short-term response to r...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - August 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Application of [ 68 Ga]PSMA PET/CT in Diagnosis and Management of Prostate Cancer Patients
AbstractPurposeThe early and accurate diagnosis of locoregional recurrence or metastasis in prostate cancer (PC) has a significant impact on treatment options. Prostatic-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomograph (CT) imaging has recently been introduced as a novel procedure in managing PC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of [68Ga]PSMA PET/CT in managing PC patients and to compare the detection rate of PET/CT and bone scans (BSs) in detecting bone metastasis.ProceduresWe evaluated 415 patients with PC who underwent [68Ga]PSMA PET/CT between March 2015 and...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Fluorine-18-Labeled PET Radiotracers for Imaging Tryptophan Uptake and Metabolism: a Systematic Review
AbstractDue to its metabolismvia the serotonin and kynurenine pathways, tryptophan plays a key role in multiple disease processes including cancer. Imaging tryptophan uptake and metabolismin vivo can be achieved with tryptophan derivative positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. While human studies with such tracers have been confined to C-11-labeled compounds, preclinical development of F-18-labeled tryptophan-based radiotracers has surged in recent years. We performed a systematic review of studies reporting on such F-18-labeled tryptophan tracers to summarize and compare their biological characteristics and thei...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Preclinical Evaluation and Dosimetry of [ 111 In] CHX-DTPA-scFv78-Fc Targeting Endosialin/Tumor Endothelial Marker 1 (TEM1)
In the original article, some numerical values in the following paragraph were reported incorrectly. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

High-Yielding Radiosynthesis of [ 68 Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 Using a Low-Cost Microfluidic Device
ConclusionsA simple, low-cost, dose-on-demand radiosynthesis strategy, such as the chip presented here, represents an opportunity to reduce the financial barriers associated with PET imaging. While this study focused on a device for [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11, the technology is also applicable to a wide range of other tracers where low-cost, automated, dose-on-demand production is highly desirable. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - July 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging for Super-Resolution Preclinical Cardiac PET
ConclusionsOur results provided a proof-of-concept that image quality of cardiac PET in fast-beating rodent hearts can be significantly improved by ultrasound-based SR, a portable low-cost technique. Improved PET imaging of the rodent heart may allow new explorations of physiological and pathological situations related with cardiac metabolism. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 29, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

In vivo Characterization of Four 18 F-Labeled S1PR1 Tracers for Neuroinflammation
ConclusionAmong these four new PET tracers,18F-TZ4877 showed the most favorable profile for assessing S1PR1 expression in the EAE rat model of MS. Further characterization of these radiotracers in other models of neuroinflammation is warranted to identify a promising18F-labeled tracer for imaging S1PR1in vivo. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 29, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PET Detection of Cerebral Necrosis Using an Infarct-Avid Agent 2-Deoxy-2-[ 18 F]Fluoro- d -Glucaric Acid (FGA) in a Mouse Model of the Brain Stroke
In this study, we investigated a recently reported positron emission tomography (PET) agent 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucaric acid (FGA) to determine necrotic core in a model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (t-MCAO) in mice.ProceduresThe radiopharmaceutical, FGA, was synthesized by controlled, rapid, and quantitative oxidation of clinical doses of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) in a one-step reaction using a premade kit. Brain stroke was induced in the left cerebral hemisphere of CD-1 mice by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 1  h, and then allowing reperfusion by removing the occlusion. One...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 16, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracting and Selecting Robust Radiomic Features from PET/MR Images in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
ConclusionsThe present study analyzed and identified robust features extracted from tumor volumes on PET/MR, which can provide guidance and promote standardization for PET/MR radiomic studies in NPC. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 15, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Fluorescence Labeling of Circulating Tumor Cells with a Folate Receptor-Targeted Molecular Probe for Diffuse In Vivo Flow Cytometry
ConclusionsThis work demonstrates the feasibility of labeling CTCs with a cell-surface receptor-targeted probe for DiFC, greatly expanding the potential utility of the method for pre-clinical animal models. Because DiFC uses diffuse light, this method could be also used to enumerate CTCs in larger animal models and potentially even in humans. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 9, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mistiming Death: Modeling the Time-Domain Variability of Tumor Apoptosis and Implications for Molecular Imaging of Cell Death
ConclusionsThese studies illustrate the effect of uncertainty of apoptosis initiation on the predictive power of PET/SPECT apoptosis imaging agents and suggest that long integration times are required to surmount uncertainty in the time domain of this biological process. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 9, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

In Vivo Evaluation of Indium-111 –Labeled 800CW as a Necrosis-Avid Contrast Agent
Conclusions[111In]In-DOTA-PEG4-800CW can be used to image tumor necrosisin vitro andin vivo. Further research will elucidate the application of [111In]In-DOTA-PEG4-800CW or other radiolabeled hydrophilic cyanines for the detection of necrosis caused by chemotherapy or other anti-cancer therapies. This can provide valuable prognostic information in treatment of solid tumors. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Lactate Production Precedes Inflammatory Cell Recruitment in Arthritic Ankles: an Imaging Study
ConclusionsOur study demonstrated the presence of a very early metabolic shift in arthritic joints independent of phagocytic immune cell recruitment. Thus, hyperpolarized 1-13C-pyruvate represents a promising tracer to monitor acute arthritic joint inflammation, even with minor ankle swelling. Furthermore, translated to the clinics, these methods add a detailed characterization of disease status and could substantially support patient stratification and therapy monitoring. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Deep Learning for Virtual Histological Staining of Bright-Field Microscopic Images of Unlabeled Carotid Artery Tissue
ConclusionsThis virtual staining method significantly mitigates the typically laborious and time-consuming histological staining procedures and could be augmented with other label-free microscopic imaging modalities. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy Following the Coadministration of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid and Second Window Indocyanine Green in Rodent and Human Glioblastomas
ConclusionOur results provide the first direct comparison of the diagnostic utility of SWIGvs 5-ALA in both rodent and human HGG. Given the broader clinical utility of SWIG compared with 5-ALA, our data supports the use of SWIG in tumor surgery to improve the extent of safe resections.Clinical TrialNCT02710240 (US National Library of Medicine Registry;https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02710240?id=NCT02710240&draw=2&rank=1). (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Preclinical PET Studies of [ 11 C]UCB-J Binding in Minipig Brain
Conclusions[11C]UCB-J PET is a validin vivo marker of synaptic density in the minipig brain, with binding values close to those reported for humans. Minipig models of disease could be valuable for investigating the efficacy of putative neuroprotective agents for preserving synaptic function in future non-invasive, longitudinal studies. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - June 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Preclinical ImmunoPET Imaging of Glioblastoma-Infiltrating Myeloid Cells Using Zirconium-89 Labeled Anti-CD11b Antibody
ConclusionThese data establish that [89Zr]anti-CD11b Ab immunoPET targets CD11b+ cells (TAMCs) with high specificity in a mouse model of GBM, demonstrating the potential for non-invasive quantification of tumor-infiltrating CD11b+ immune cells during disease progression and immunotherapy in patients with GBM. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Clostridium difficile Infection with PET/CT Imaging in a Mouse Model
AbstractPurposeExisting clinical or microbiological scores are not sensitive enough to obtain prompt identification of patients at risk of complicatedClostridium difficile infection (CDI). Our aim was to use a CDI animal model to evaluate 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) as a marker of severe course of infection.ProceduresCDI was induced with cefoperazone for 10  days followed by clindamycin 1 day beforeC. difficile inoculation. Mice were divided into wild type (n = 6), antibiotic without infection (ACn = 4), h001-infected (n = 5...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Temporal Dynamics of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species and NF- κB Activation During Acute and Chronic T Cell–Driven Inflammation
ConclusionsNoninvasivein vivo imaging is capable of assessing the temporal dynamics of ROS/RNS production and NF- κB activation during progression from acute to chronic DTHR and enables monitoring of anti-inflammatory treatment responses. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Measuring Kidney Perfusion, pH, and Renal Clearance Consecutively Using MRI and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography
AbstractPurpose:  To establish multi-modal imaging for the assessment of kidney pH, perfusion, and clearance rate using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in healthy mice. Kidney pH and perfusion values were measured on a pixel-by-pixel basis using the MRI acidoCEST an d FAIR-EPI methods. Kidney filtration rate was measured by analyzing the renal clearance rate of IRdye 800 using MSOT. To test the effect of one imaging method on the other, a set of 3 animals were imaged with MSOT followed by MRI, and a second set of 3 animals were imaged with MRI followed by MSOT. In a su...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Whole-Body Integrated [ 68 Ga]PSMA-11-PET/MR Imaging in Patients with Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Whole-Body PET/CT as the Standard of Reference
ConclusionsIntegrated [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET/MRI provides a similarly high diagnostic performance for localization of recurrent PC as PET/CT. For the detection of local recurrences [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET/MRI is superior compared with [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET/CT. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Preoperative Prediction of Extracapsular Extension: Radiomics Signature Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Stage Prostate Cancer
AbstractPurposeTo investigate and validate the potential role of a radiomics signature in predicting the side-specific probability of extracapsular extension (ECE) of prostate cancer (PCa).ProceduresThe preoperative magnetic resonance imaging data of 238 prostatic samples from 119 enrolled PCa patients were retrospectively assessed. The samples with were randomized in a two-to-one ratio into training (n = 74) and validation (n = 45) datasets. The radiomics features were derived from T2-weighted images (T2WIs). The optimal radiomics features were identified from the least absolute shrinkage and s...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The Current Role of Microfluidics in Radiofluorination Chemistry
AbstractThe current utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is limited due to the high costs associated with production facility start-up and operations; subsequently, there has been a movement towards microfluidic synthesis of radiolabeled imaging pharmaceuticals (tracers). In this review, we summarize the current status of microfluidic radiosynthesis units for producing fluorine-18 labeled PET imaging tracers, including a discussion of the relative strengths and weaknesses of such devices. In addition, we provide a brief overview of the radiotracers that have been produced using microfluidic devices to ...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Longitudinal PET Imaging to Monitor Treatment Efficacy by Liposomal Irinotecan in Orthotopic Patient-Derived Pancreatic Tumor Models of High and Low Hypoxia
ConclusionsHypoxia modulation may play a role in nal-IRI ’s mechanism of action. Nal-IRI demonstrated greater anti-tumor activity in the more aggressive and hypoxic tumor model. Furthermore, hypoxia imaging provided early prediction of treatment response. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A Novel PET Probe for Brown Adipose Tissue Imaging in Rodents
ConclusionsUnlike [18F]FDG, [18F]BODIPY 1 showed prominent accumulation in BAT under both inactive and stimulated status. [18F]BODIPY 1 may serve as a valuable BAT PET agent to possibly assess BAT mitochondria density, thus BAT thermogenic capacity after further evaluation. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Initial Evaluation of AF78: a Rationally Designed Fluorine-18-Labelled PET Radiotracer Targeting Norepinephrine Transporter
ConclusionsThe new PET radiotracer [18F]AF78 demonstrated high affinity for NET and favourable biodistribution in rats. A structure-activity relationship between radiotracer structures and affinity for NET was revealed, which may serve as the basis for the further design of NET targeting radiotracers with favourable features. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Quantitative Assessment of Age-Associated Alterations in Brain Vasculature in Wild-Type Mice and in Bigenic Mice that Model Alzheimer ’s Disease
ConclusionsThe results demonstrate that even subtle changes in vessel morphology can be noninvasively quantified. This is of great interest for AD, but also to other models of neurodegenerative diseases involving macrovascular dysfunction. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Methods for Optimal Radiomics-Based Differentiation Between Recurrence and Inflammation: Application to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Post-therapy PET/CT Images
ConclusionThis study identified the most accurate and reliable machine learning methods, which could enhance the application of radiomics methods in the precision of diagnosis of NPC. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Investigation of Cerebral O-(2-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Uptake in Rat Epilepsy Models
ConclusionsThere was no evidence for increased cerebral [18F]FET uptake after epileptic seizures neither in the rat models nor in patients. The SE model even showed decreased [18F]FET uptake throughout the brain. We conclude that epileptic seizuresper se do not cause a longer lasting increased [18F]FET accumulation and are unlikely to be a major cause of pitfall for brain tumor diagnostics. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 14, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Volumetric Optoacoustic Tomography Differentiates Myocardial Remodelling
ConclusionsClear differences in the PTT, ICG perfusion and cardiac cycle patterns were identified between the different models and days post MI. Overall, the results highlight the unique capacity of VOT for multi-parametric characterization of morphological and functional changes in murine models of MI. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 11, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A Multi-Ligand Imaging Study Exploring GABAergic Receptor Expression and Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractPurposeThe γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and essential for normal brain function. The GABAergic system has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and respond adaptively to excitatory toxicity. The association of the GABAergic system and inflammation in patients with m ultiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown. In this pilot study, thein vivo relationship between GABAA binding and the innate immune response is explored using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C] flumazenil (FMZ) and [11C]-PK11195 PET (PK-PET), a measure of activated microglia/macrophages.Procedure...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 11, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The Effects of an Albumin Binding Moiety on the Targeting and Pharmacokinetics of an Integrin α v β 6 -Selective Peptide Labeled with Aluminum [ 18 F]Fluoride
ConclusionBoth compounds were prepared using standard chemistries; affinity and selectivity for integrin αvβ6 in vitro remained unaffected by the albumin binding moiety.In vivo, the albumin binding moiety resulted in prolonged circulation and higher αvβ6-targeted uptake. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 7, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Assessing Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neuron Progenitor Transplants Using Non-invasive Imaging Techniques
ConclusionsIn summary, our findings support the transplantation of hPSC-derived DAPCs as a safe treatment for PD. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - May 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

[ 18 F]AZD2461, an Insight on Difference in PARP Binding Profiles for DNA Damage Response PET Imaging
ConclusionTaken together, we show the importance of screening the PARP selectivity profile of radiolabelled PARP inhibitors for use as PET imaging agents. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - April 27, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Monitoring the Crosstalk Between the Estrogen Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 with PET
ConclusionFES-PET imaging can detect changes in ER expression induced by HER2-targeted treatment and therefore can be used to investigate the crosstalk between ER and HER2 in a noninvasive manner. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - April 13, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

SimPET: a Preclinical PET Insert for Simultaneous PET/MR Imaging
ConclusionsWe demonstrated that the SimPET scanner has a high count rate performance and excellent spatial resolution. The combined SimPET/M7 enabled simultaneous PET/MR imaging studies with no remarkable mutual interference between the two imaging modalities. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - April 13, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PET/MRI Radiomics in Rectal Cancer: a Pilot Study on the Correlation Between PET- and MRI-Derived Image Features with a Clinical Interpretation
ConclusionsIn conclusion, several clinically relevant correlations were observed between PET and MRI imaging features. These findings show how the use of both modalities provides complementary information. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - April 8, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Evaluation of Two Optical Probes for Imaging the Integrin αvβ6− In Vitro and In Vivo in Tumor-Bearing Mice
This article was updated to correct the axes in Figures  4e and 5d. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - April 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Imaging CXCR4 Expression with Iodinated and Brominated Cyclam Derivatives
ConclusionsImaging CXCR4 expression with halogenated cyclam derivatives was successful in s.c. located tumors, but not in CNS located tumors. This was largely due to the following: (i) the hydrophilicity of the radiolabeled analogues —as reflected in the “measured” radiotracer distribution (LogD) in octanol/PBS—which stands in contrast to the structure-based estimate of LogP, which was the rationale for initiating the study and (ii) the presence of a modest BTB in intracranial U87-CXCR4 gliomas and an intact BBB/BTB in t he intracranial PCNSL animal model. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - April 1, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

GABA A Receptors in the Mongolian Gerbil: a PET Study Using [ 18 F]Flumazenil to Determine Receptor Binding in Young and Old Animals
AbstractPurposePlastic changes in the central auditory system involving the GABAergic system accompany age-related hearing loss. Such processes can be investigated with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]flumazenil ([18F]FMZ). Here, [18F]FMZ PET-based modeling approaches allow a simple and reliable quantification of GABAA receptor binding capacity revealing regional differences and age-related changes.ProceduresSixty-minute list-mode PET acquisitions were performed in 9 young (range 5 –6 months) and 11 old (range 39–42 months) gerbils, starting simultaneously with the injection of [...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide as a New Reporter and Drug-Screening Platform: Implications for Preventing Hepatitis B Virus Infections
ConclusionsNTCP and ICG form an ideal reporter system with extensive applications in cancer biology, robust drug –drug interactions, and drug screening in HBV/HDV infections. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Clinical Applications for Radiotracer Imaging of Lower Extremity Peripheral Arterial Disease and Critical Limb Ischemia
AbstractPeripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the non-coronary vessels that is characterized by lower extremity tissue ischemia, claudication, increased prevalence of lower extremity wounds and amputations, and impaired quality of life. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) represents the severe stage of PAD and is associated with additional risk for wound formation, amputation, and premature death. Standard clinical tools utilized for assessing PAD and CLI primarily focus on anatomical evaluation of peripheral vascular lesions or hemodynamic assessment of the peripheral circulation. Evaluatio...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Density in the “Higher-Order” Thalamus Projecting to the Prefrontal Cortex in Humans: a PET Study
ConclusionsThis particular neurochemical organization of the thalamus supports a major role of the cholinergic system in the loops between the thalamus and the prefrontal cortex. The highest nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the « higher-order thalamus » could partly explain the beneficial effect of acute nicotine on attentional and executive functions and possibly the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Neurokinin-1 Receptor –Targeted Technetium-99m Conjugate for Neuroendocrine Cancer Imaging
ConclusionThe excellent tumor contrast afforded by our NK1R-targeted radioimaging agent exhibits properties that could improve early diagnosis and staging of many neuroendocrine tumors. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Distribution of Brown Adipose Tissue Radiodensity in Young Adults: Implications for Cold [ 18 F]FDG-PET/CT Analyses
ConclusionTherefore, all future human studies using static [18F]FDG-PET/CT scans should include BAT in the radiodensity range from − 50 to − 10 HU. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Performance Evaluation of a Newly Developed MR-Compatible Mobile PET Scanner with Two Detector Layouts
This article was updated to correct the “greater than or equal to” (≥) symbols in Tables 4 and 5, which incorrectly appeared as “greater than” (>) symbols. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 10, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Body Mass Index and Age Effects on Brain 11 β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: a Positron Emission Tomography Study
ConclusionsIn vivo PET imaging demonstrated, for the first time, correlation of higher BMI (obesity) with lower levels of the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 in the brain and correlation of increased 11β-HSD1 levels in the brain with advancing age. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 4, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Radiotheranostic Targeting Cancer Stem Cells in Human Colorectal Cancer Xenografts
ConclusionsOur results suggest that the CSC-targeting RIT can effectively reduce CSCs which consequently inhibits tumor development. The radioiodinated mAb cocktail may generate enhanced CSC-targeting specificity. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - March 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Effects of Fever on 18 F-FDG Distribution In Vivo : a Preliminary Study
AbstractPurposeElevated body temperature might change glucose metabolism in human organs. The purpose of this study is to explore18F-FDG distribution in febrile patients on the day of18F-FDG PET/CT scanning and compare it with patients with a normal temperature.Procedures18F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 69 febrile patients and 82 patients with a normal temperature. Patient sociodemographic data, blood glucose levels before PET/CT, body temperature on the day of the exam, and laboratory test results were collected. Maximal standard uptake values (SUVmax) in the brain, mediastinal blood pool, liver, spleen, and the bone marro...
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - February 25, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Monitoring CD8a + T Cell Responses to Radiotherapy and CTLA-4 Blockade Using [ 64 Cu]NOTA-CD8a PET Imaging
ConclusionIn the present study, we demonstrated that [64Cu]NOTA-CD8a was able to detect treatment-induced changes in CD8a+ infiltration in murine CT26 colon tumors following a common preclinical combination treatment protocol. Overall, [64Cu]NOTA-CD8a exhibited good prognostic and predictive value. We suggest that [64Cu]NOTA-CD8a PET imaging can be used as an early biomarker of response to therapy in preclinical models. (Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology)
Source: Molecular Imaging and Biology - February 21, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research