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Large-scale randomized clinical trials of bioactives and nutrients in relation to human health and disease prevention - Lessons from the VITAL and COSMOS trials
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D. Sesso, JoAnn E. Manson Several bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supple...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of extracellular vesicles in glioma progression
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Claudia Quezada, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Daniel Uribe, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Rody San Martín, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia The role of extracellular vesicles in cancer biology has emerged as a focus of the study of great importance and has been shown to directly influence tumour development in several cancers including brain tumours, such as gliomas. Gliomas are the most aggressive brain tumours, and in the last time, a considerable effort has been made to understand their b...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 14, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Foetoplacental communication via extracellular vesicles in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Delia I. Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M. Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively partic...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Exosomes and their role in the intercellular trafficking of normal and disease associated prion proteins
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lesley Cheng, Wenting Zhao, Andrew F. Hill Over the past decade, small extracellular vesicles called exosomes have been observed to harbour protein and genetic cargo that can assist in health and also cause disease. Many groups are extensively investigating the mechanisms involved that regulate the trafficking and packaging of exosomal contents and how these processes may be deregulated in disease. Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders and are characterized by the presence of detectable misfolded prion...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 9, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The influence of tumour-derived extracellular vesicles on local and distal metastatic dissemination
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Laura Nogués, Alberto Benito-Martin, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropi...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 6, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Nutrition epidemiology of flavan-3-ols: The known unknowns
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Gunter G.C. Kuhnle Nutritional epidemiology has an important role, as it can provide long-term data from large populations and does not rely on surrogate markers for morbidity/mortality. Meaningful interpretation and applications of outcomes from epidemiological studies depend on the accurate assessment of dietary intake, which is currently mainly based on a combination of self-reporting and food composition data. Flavan-3-ols are a group of bioactives (non-essential dietary components with significant impact on health) tha...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Emerging role of extracellular vesicles as a senescence-associated secretory phenotype: Insights into the pathophysiology of lung diseases
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Tsukasa Kadota, Yu Fujita, Yusuke Yoshioka, Jun Araya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya Aging is a major risk factor for the development of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. A main aspect of aging is the impaired function of maintaining homeostasis in the organs and body, which is associated with cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is recognized as the state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of cell...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF in organ fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Barbara Mara Klinkhammer, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor Fibrosis is part of a tissue repair response to injury, defined as increased deposition of extracellular matrix. In some instances, fibrosis is beneficial; however, in the majority of diseases fibrosis is detrimental. Virtually all chronic progressive diseases are associated with fibrosis, representing a huge number of patients worldwide. Fibrosis occurs in all organs and tissues, becomes irreversible with time and further drives loss of tissue function. Various cells...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles in neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins,...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Constructing cell lineages from single-cell transcriptomes
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Jinmiao Chen, Laurent Rénia, Florent Ginhoux Advances in single-cell RNA-sequencing have helped reveal the previously underappreciated level of cellular heterogeneity present during cellular differentiation. A static snapshot of single-cell transcriptomes provides a good representation of the various stages of differentiation as differentiation is rarely synchronized between cells. Data from numerous single-cell analyses has suggested that cellular differentiation and development can be conceptualized as continuous p...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles in obesity and diabetes mellitus
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Fabián Pardo, Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Bastián Sobrevia, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia Cell-to-cell communication happens via diverse mechanisms including the synthesis, release and transfer to target cells of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs include nanovesicles (i.e., exosomes) and microvesicles, including apoptotic bodies. The amount and cargo of released EVs, which consist of microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, proteins, DNA, among other molecules, are altered in obesity and diabetes mellitus. EVs from these dise...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles compartment in liquid biopsies: Clinical application
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Gorjana Rackov, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido Liquid biopsy is becoming a new source of biomarkers that complement and resolve some of the most important limitations of surgical biopsy, which are the accessibility to the diseased tissue and its heterogeneity, especially relevant for tumors. The diseased tissues release their molecule content to the bloodstream in free form, inside a cell or within extracellular vesicles (EVs). While the ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Exosomes and cardioprotection – A critical analysis
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Sean M. Davidson, Derek M. Yellon Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by numerous cell types that appear to have diverse beneficial effects on the injured heart. Studies using exosomes from stem cells or from the blood have indicated that they are able to protect the heart both in models of acute ischaemia and reperfusion, and during chronic ischaemia. In addition to decreasing initial infarct size, they are able to stimulate angiogenesis, reduce fibrosis and remodelling, alter immune cell function and improve long-te...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 17, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The PDGF/PDGFR pathway as a drug target
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Natalia Papadopoulos, Johan Lennartsson Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration, primarily of cells of mesenchymal origin. Dysfunction of PDGF signaling has been observed in a wide array of pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, neurological conditions and atherosclerosis. Reported abnormalities of the PDGF pathway include overexpression or amplification of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), gain of function point mutations or activating chromosomal translocations. Curren...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 17, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Laser microdissection: A powerful tool for genomics at cell level
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Claudia Bevilacqua, Bertrand Ducos Laser microdissection (LM) has become widely democratized over the last fifteen years. Instruments have evolved to offer more powerful and efficient lasers as well as new options for sample collection and preparation. Technological evolutions have also focused on the post-microdissection analysis capabilities, opening up investigations in all disciplines of experimental and clinical biology, thanks to the advent of new high-throughput methods of genome analysis, including RNAseq and proteo...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 15, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles: Novel mediator for cell to cell communications in liver pathogenesis
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Pradip B. Devhare, Ratna B. Ray Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane derived nanometer-sized vesicles. EVs are released by normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. Transferring biological information via EVs to neighboring cells and inter-cellular communication not only maintain physiological functions, but also involve in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this review is to disc...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 11, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion of ( −)-epicatechin: A review of recent findings
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Gina Borges, Javier I. Ottaviani, Justin J.J. van der Hooft, Hagen Schroeter, Alan Crozier This paper reviews pioneering human studies, their limitations and recent investigations on the absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (aka bioavailability) of (–)-epicatechin. Progress has been made possible by improvements in mass spectrometric detection when coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and through the increasing availability of authentic reference compounds of in vivo metabolites of (&nda...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 10, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of dietary flavonoid action in neuronal function and neuroinflammation
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Baptiste N. Jaeger, Sarah L. Parylak, Fred H. Gage Flavonoids are a class of plant-derived dietary polyphenols that have attracted attention for their pro-cognitive and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity of flavonoids and their extensive in vivo metabolism suggest that a variety of cellular targets in the brain are likely to be impacted by flavonoid consumption. Initially characterized as antioxidants, flavonoids are now believed to act directly on neurons and glia via the interaction with major signal transductio...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 10, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF-C and PDGF-D in ocular diseases
Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Anil Kumar, Xuri Li PDGFs and their receptors are critical regulators of numerous tissues and organs, including the eye. Extensive studies have shown that PDGFs and their receptors play critical roles in many ocular neovascular diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In addition, PDGFs and PDGFRs are also important players in ocular diseases involving the degeneration of retinal neuronal and vascular cells, such as glaucoma and retinitis...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 28, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Platelet-derived growth factor-C and -D in the cardiovascular system and diseases
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Chunsik Lee, Xuri Li The cardiovascular system is among the first organs formed during development and is pivotal for the formation and function of the rest of the organs and tissues. Therefore, the function and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system are finely regulated by many important molecules. Extensive studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors are critical regulators of the cardiovascular system. Even though PDGF-C and PDGF-D are relatively new members of the PDGF family, th...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

FFA4 (GPR120) as a fatty acid sensor involved in appetite control, insulin sensitivity and inflammation regulation
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Dong-Soon Im Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of insulin ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 12, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGFs and their receptors in vascular stem/progenitor cells: Functions and therapeutic potential in retinal vasculopathy
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Weisi Lu, Xuri Li Vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) include endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells. VSCs can produce functional and mature vascular cells required to build blood vessels. VSCs therefore play critical roles in vascular repair and regeneration, particularly, in various retinal vasculopathies, in which vascular defects are a devastating pathology. The platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are important regulators of n...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 12, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Emerging role of extracellular vesicles in musculoskeletal diseases
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Cameron Murphy, Joseph Withrow, Monte Hunter, Yutao Liu, Yao Liang Tang, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W. Hamrick Research into the biology of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, has expanded significantly with advances in EV isolation techniques, a better understanding of the surface markers that characterize exosomes and microvesicles, and greater information derived from –omics approaches on the proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) transported by EVs. We have recently discovered a...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 11, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Microfluidic single-cell technology in immunology and antibody screening
We describe current limitations and provide an outlook on important future applications. (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 24, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Single cell epigenome sequencing technologies
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang Epigenetic regulation plays crucial roles in the development and disease processes. Since different cell types with distinct epigenetic characteristics are always intermingled together in the tissues or organs, the single cell analysis provides a universal resolution for dissecting their intrinsic complexities. In this review, we discuss recent advances of developing single cell epigenome sequencing techniques for profiling DNA modifications (5mC, 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC), chromatin accessibility, histone mo...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 22, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Single cell analysis of normal and leukemic hematopoiesis
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Benjamin J. Povinelli, Alba Rodriguez-Meira, Adam J. Mead The hematopoietic system is well established as a paradigm for the study of cellular hierarchies, their disruption in disease and therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. Traditional approaches to study hematopoiesis involve purification of cell populations based on a small number of surface markers. However, such population-based analysis obscures underlying heterogeneity contained within any phenotypically defined cell population. This heterogeneity can only be re...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 8, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vegetable-derived bioactive nitrate and cardiovascular health
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Catherine P. Bondonno, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Alex H. Liu, Nicola P. Bondonno, Natalie C. Ward, Kevin D. Croft, Jonathan M. Hodgson Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects in...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 7, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New pro-resolving n-3 mediators bridge resolution of infectious inflammation to tissue regeneration
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Charles N. Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond Dalli While protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is now...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

High-dimension single-cell analysis applied to cancer
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lili Wang, Kenneth J. Livak, Catherine J. Wu High-dimension single-cell technology is transforming our ability to study and understand cancer. Numerous studies and reviews have reported advances in technology development. The biological insights gleaned from single-cell technology about cancer biology are less reviewed. Here we focus on research studies that illustrate novel aspects of cancer biology that bulk analysis could not achieve, and discuss the fresh insights gained from the application of single-cell technology acro...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 31, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The secrets of the cell
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Mikael Kubista, Jacqueline Dreyer-Lamm, Anders Ståhlberg (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 24, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Extracellular ATP and adenosine: The yin and yang in immune responses?” [Molecular Aspects of Medicine 55 (2017) 9-19]
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): M.M. Faas, T. Saez, P. de Vos (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 17, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Resolution of vascular injury: Specialized lipid mediators and their evolving therapeutic implications
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Bian Wu, Giorgio Mottola, Melinda Schaller, Gilbert R. Upchurch, Michael S. Conte Acute vascular injury occurs in a number of important clinical contexts, including spontaneous disease-related events (e.g. plaque rupture, thrombosis) and therapeutic interventions such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery. Endothelial cell (EC) disruption exposes the underlying matrix, leading to a rapid deposition of platelets, coagulation proteins, and leukocytes. A thrombo-inflammatory response ensues characterized by leukocyte recrui...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 4, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Single-cell RNA sequencing: Technical advancements and biological applications
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Eva Hedlund, Qiaolin Deng Cells are the basic building blocks of organisms and each cell is unique. Single-cell RNA sequencing has emerged as an indispensable tool to dissect the cellular heterogeneity and decompose tissues into cell types and/or cell states, which offers enormous potential for de novo discovery. Single-cell transcriptomic atlases provide unprecedented resolution to reveal complex cellular events and deepen our understanding of biological systems. In this review, we summarize and compare single-cell RNA sequen...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Technical aspects and recommendations for single-cell qPCR
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Anders Ståhlberg, Mikael Kubista Single cells are basic physiological and biological units that can function individually as well as in groups in tissues and organs. It is central to identify, characterize and profile single cells at molecular level to be able to distinguish different kinds, to understand their functions and determine how they interact with each other. During the last decade several technologies for single-cell profiling have been developed and used in various applications, revealing many novel findings. ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Identifying cell populations with scRNASeq
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Tallulah S. Andrews, Martin Hemberg Single-cell RNASeq (scRNASeq) has emerged as a powerful method for quantifying the transcriptome of individual cells. However, the data from scRNASeq experiments is often both noisy and high dimensional, making the computational analysis non-trivial. Here we provide an overview of different experimental protocols and the most popular methods for facilitating the computational analysis. We focus on approaches for identifying biologically important genes, projecting data into lower dimensions a...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 26, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bile acids, roles in integrative physiology and pathophysiology
Publication date: August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 56 Author(s): David H. Volle (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 12, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Personalized microbiome dynamics – Cytometric fingerprints for routine diagnostics
Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Christin Koch, Susann Müller Microbiomes convoy human life in countless ways. They are an essential part of the human body and interact with its host in countless ways. Currently, extensive microbiome analyses assessing the microbiomes' composition and functions based on sequencing information are still far away from being routine analyses due to the complexity of applied techniques and data analysis, their time demand as well as high costs. With the growing demand for on-time community assessment and monitoring of its dyna...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 9, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of bile acid mediated inflammation in the liver
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Man Li, Shi-Ying Cai, James L. Boyer Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and are the major component in bile. Impaired bile flow leads to cholestasis that is characterized by elevated levels of bile acid in the liver and serum, followed by hepatocyte and biliary injury. Although the causes of cholestasis have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms as to how bile acids initiate liver injury remain controversial. In this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of bile acid induced liver injury. Th...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 1, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Interactions between gut bacteria and bile in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Sarah L. Long, Cormac G.M. Gahan, Susan A. Joyce Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the intestine to aid the digestion of dietary lipids. The host enzymes that contribute to bile acid synthesis in the liver and the regulatory pathways that influence the composition of the total bile acid pool in the host have been well established. In addition, the gut microbiota provides unique contributions to the diversity of bile acids in the bile acid pool. Gut microbial enzymes contribute significan...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - June 21, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Adenosine – from molecular mechanisms to pathophysiology
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Luis Sobrevia, Bertil Fredholm (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - June 20, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Many tocopherols, one vitamin E
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Angelo Azzi Four tocopherols are available in nature and are absorbed with the diet, but only one RRR-α-tocopherol satisfies the criteria of being a vitamin. The biological activity of the different tocopherols studied in the rat by the resorption-gestation test has been inconsistently extrapolated to human beings where the tocopherols have no influence on a successful pregnancy. Diminution of RRR-α-tocopherol intake results in diseases characterized by ataxia, whose pathogenetic mechanism, despite vigorous claims, ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - June 20, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bile acids and gestation
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Saraid McIlvride, Peter H. Dixon, Catherine Williamson There are numerous profound maternal physiological changes that occur from conception onwards and adapt throughout gestation in order to support a healthy pregnancy. By the time of late gestation, when circulating pregnancy hormones are at their highest concentrations, maternal adaptations include relative hyperlipidemia, hypercholanemia and insulin resistance. Bile acids have now been established as key regulators of metabolism, and their role in gestational changes in meta...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 19, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Pro-resolving mediators in the regulation of periodontal disease
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Thomas E. Van Dyke Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting structures of the dentition that is initiated by bacteria that form a biofilm on the surface of the teeth. The pathogenesis of the disease is a result of complex interactions between the biofilm and the host response that results in dysbiosis of the microbiome and dysregulation of the inflammatory response. Current data suggest that the excess inflammation associated with periodontitis is due to a failure of resolution of inflammation pathways. In this...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 19, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bronchoprotective mechanisms for specialized pro-resolving mediators in the resolution of lung inflammation
Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Melody G. Duvall, Thayse R. Bruggemann, Bruce D. Levy Bronchi are exposed daily to irritants, microbes and allergens as well as extremes of temperature and acid. The airway mucosal epithelium plays a pivotal role as a sentinel, releasing alarmins when danger is encountered. To maintain homeostasis, an elaborate counter-regulatory network of signals and cellular effector mechanisms are needed. Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) are chemical mediators that enact resolution programs in response to injury, infection or aller...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 18, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bile acids and male fertility: From mouse to human?
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lauriane Sèdes, Emmanuelle Martinot, Marine Baptissart, Silvère Baron, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H. Volle Next to their involvement in digestion, bile acids have been defined as signaling molecules. They have been demonstrated to control many physiological functions among which lipid homeostasis, glucose and energy metabolisms. Bile acids are ligands of several receptors and multiple studies using transgenic mouse models defined the major roles of their respective nuclear and membrane receptors...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 16, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Specialized pro-resolving mediators in renal fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Eoin P. Brennan, Antonino Cacace, Catherine Godson Inflammation and its timely resolution play a critical role in effective host defence and wound healing. Unresolved inflammatory responses underlie the pathology of many prevalent diseases resulting in tissue fibrosis and eventual organ failure as typified by kidney, lung and liver fibrosis. The role of autocrine and paracrine mediators including cytokines, prostaglandins and leukotrienes in initiating and sustaining inflammation is well established. More recently a physiologica...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 12, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Berry anthocyanin intake and cardiovascular health
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Aedín Cassidy Over half of all cardiovascular (CV) events could be prevented by improved diet. This is reflected in government targets for fruit/vegetable intake, yet these are variable across the world (UK: 5-a-day; USA: 9-a-day), do not identify specific fruits/vegetables, and prove hard to achieve. Mounting evidence from prospective studies, supported by recent randomised controlled trials suggest that the benefits of fruits/vegetables may be due to bioactive substances called flavonoids. Specifically one sub-class of ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 11, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Actions of SPM in regulating host responses in arthritis
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Mauro Perretti, Lucy V. Norling The discovery and identification of omega-3 fatty acid derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) provides a molecular mechanism for the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation in patients suffering from arthritis. Here we review the plethora of bioactions of SPM in the context of joint diseases, focusing on both cellular targets and molecular mechanisms. Whenever possible, a parallel to clinical and preclinical data produced with fish oil supplementation is made to strengthen the mec...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 6, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of bile acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Monica D. Chow, Yi-Horng Lee, Grace L. Guo Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is growing in prevalence worldwide. It is marked by the presence of macrosteatosis on liver histology but is often clinically asymptomatic. However, it can progress into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis which is a more severe form of liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis. Further progression leads to cirrhosis, which predisposes patients to hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. The mechanism by which simple steatosis progresses to stea...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 6, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bile acids and colon cancer: Is FXR the solution of the conundrum?
Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Raffaella Maria Gadaleta, Oihane Garcia-Irigoyen, Antonio Moschetta Diet and lifestyle habits have a profound impact on the pathophysiology of many diseases. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and its etiology is strongly influenced by nutrition and high fat/high carbohydrate Western-style diet. Human epidemiological and animal studies have shown that colonic cancer risk is also related to faecal bile acid concentration. Abnormally high levels of bile acids (BA) trigger the colonic mucosa with a ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - April 22, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research