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More than a syllable in fib-ROS-is: The role of ROS on the fibrotic extracellular matrix and on cellular contacts
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Julius Grosche, Juliane Meißner, Johannes A. Eble Fibrosis is characterized by excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the ECM changes during fibrosis not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, the composition is altered as the expression of various ECM proteins changes. Moreover, also posttranslational modifications, secretion, deposition and crosslinkage as well as the proteolytic degradation of ECM components run differently during fibrosis. As several of these processes involve redox react...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Biological activities of non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (NEO-PUFAs) derived from EPA and DHA: New anti-arrhythmic compounds?
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Jean-Marie Galano, Jérôme Roy, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Jean-Yves Le Guennec, Camille Oger, Marie Demion ω3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) have several biological properties including anti-arrhythmic effects. However, there are some evidences that it is not solely ω3 PUFAs per se that are biologically active but the non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (NEO-PUFAs) like isoprostanes and neuroprostanes. Recent question arises how these molecules t...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 28, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine: A neurotrophic and neuroprotective metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Hee-Yong Kim, Arthur A. Spector N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide) is an endocannabinoid-like metabolite endogenously synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the brain. Although its biosynthetic mechanism has yet to be established, there is a closely linked relationship between the levels of synaptamide and its precursor DHA in the brain. Synaptamide at nanomolar concentrations promotes neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis in developin...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 27, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

ROS signaling and ER stress in cardiovascular disease
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Cristhiaan D. Ochoa, Ru Feng Wu, Lance S. Terada The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces the vast majority of all proteins secreted into the extracellular space, including hormones and cytokines, as well as cell surface receptors and other proteins which interact with the environment. Accordingly, this organelle controls essentially all vital links to a cell's external milieu, responding to systemic metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and mechanical stimuli. The central role the ER plays in meeting protein synthetic and qualit...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 22, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D. Byrne For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 22, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox control in cancer development and progression
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Valeska Helfinger, Katrin Schröder Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular diseases. This has been the case for the last few decades despite there being an increase in the number of cancer treatments. One reason for the apparent lack of drug effectiveness might be, at least in part, due to unspecificity for tumors; which often leads to substantial side effects. One way to improve the treatment of cancer is to increase the specificity of the treatment in accordance with the concept of individuali...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Recommending flavanols and procyanidins for cardiovascular health: Revisited
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Javier I. Ottaviani, Christian Heiss, Jeremy P.E. Spencer, Malte Kelm, Hagen Schroeter The last 8 years have seen significant developments in our understanding of dietary flavanols and procyanidins in the context of human health and nutrition. During the same time, recognition of the importance of nutrition in primary disease prevention and health maintenance has increased. In addition, the concept of dietary bioactives (food constituents that although not essential to human life and procreation, may nevertheless play an im...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Subpopulations of extracellular vesicles and their therapeutic potential
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Cecilia Lässer, Su Chul Jang, Jan Lötvall Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have over the last 10–15 years been recognized to convey key messages in the molecular communication between cells. Indeed, EVs have the capacity to shuttle proteins, lipids, and nucleotides such as RNA between cells, leading to an array of functional changes in the recipient cells. Importantly, the EV secretome changes significantly in diseased cells and under conditions of cellular stress. More recen...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF-C and PDGF-D signaling in vascular diseases and animal models
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Erika Folestad, Anne Kunath, Dick Wågsäter Members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family are well known to be involved in different pathological conditions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by the PDGF signaling have been well studied. Nevertheless, there is much more to discover about their functions and some important questions to be answered. This review summarizes the known roles of two of the PDGFs, PDGF-C and PDGF-D, in vascular diseases. There are clear implications for these gro...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 14, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Plant bioactives and redox signaling: ( –)-Epicatechin as a paradigm
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Cesar G. Fraga, Patricia I. Oteiza, Monica Galleano Polyphenols are bioactives claimed to be responsible for some of the health benefits provided by fruit and vegetables. It is currently accepted that the bioactivities of polyphenols can be mostly ascribed to their interactions with proteins and lipids. Such interactions can affect cell oxidant production and cell signaling, and explain in part the ability of polyphenols to promote health. EC can modulate redox sensitive signaling by: i) defining the extent of oxidant level...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): R.J.Scott Lacombe, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P. Bazinet Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 9, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox-signals and macrophage biology (for the upcoming issue of molecular aspects of medicine on signaling by reactive oxygen species)
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard Brüne Macrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of ‘altered self’, which explains the role of macrophages duri...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Flavonoids and the gastrointestinal tract: Local and systemic effects
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): P.I. Oteiza, C.G. Fraga, D.A. Mills, D.H. Taft The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue biology
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of fatty acids and their endocannabinoid-like derivatives in the molecular regulation of appetite
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Renger F. Witkamp Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the or...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF/PDGFR axis in the neural systems
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ernest T. Chivero, Shilpa Buch Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are expressed in several cell types including the brain cells such as neuronal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Emerging evidence shows that PDGF-mediated signaling regulates diverse functions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptogenesis, modulation of ligand-gated ion channels, and development of specific ty...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 8, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Large-scale randomized clinical trials of bioactives and nutrients in relation to human health and disease prevention - Lessons from the VITAL and COSMOS trials
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D. Sesso, JoAnn E. Manson Several bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supple...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of extracellular vesicles in glioma progression
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Claudia Quezada, Ángelo Torres, Ignacio Niechi, Daniel Uribe, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Rody San Martín, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia The role of extracellular vesicles in cancer biology has emerged as a focus of the study of great importance and has been shown to directly influence tumour development in several cancers including brain tumours, such as gliomas. Gliomas are the most aggressive brain tumours, and in the last time, a considerable effort has been made to understand their b...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 14, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Foetoplacental communication via extracellular vesicles in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Delia I. Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M. Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively partic...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Exosomes and their role in the intercellular trafficking of normal and disease associated prion proteins
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lesley Cheng, Wenting Zhao, Andrew F. Hill Over the past decade, small extracellular vesicles called exosomes have been observed to harbour protein and genetic cargo that can assist in health and also cause disease. Many groups are extensively investigating the mechanisms involved that regulate the trafficking and packaging of exosomal contents and how these processes may be deregulated in disease. Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders and are characterized by the presence of detectable misfolded prion...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 9, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The influence of tumour-derived extracellular vesicles on local and distal metastatic dissemination
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Laura Nogués, Alberto Benito-Martin, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key mediators of intercellular communication that have been ignored for decades. Tumour cells benefit from the secretion of vesicles as they can influence the behaviour of neighbouring tumour cells within the tumour microenvironment. Several studies have shown that extracellular vesicles play an active role in pre-metastatic niche formation and importantly, they are involved in the metastatic organotropi...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 6, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Nutrition epidemiology of flavan-3-ols: The known unknowns
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Gunter G.C. Kuhnle Nutritional epidemiology has an important role, as it can provide long-term data from large populations and does not rely on surrogate markers for morbidity/mortality. Meaningful interpretation and applications of outcomes from epidemiological studies depend on the accurate assessment of dietary intake, which is currently mainly based on a combination of self-reporting and food composition data. Flavan-3-ols are a group of bioactives (non-essential dietary components with significant impact on health) tha...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Emerging role of extracellular vesicles as a senescence-associated secretory phenotype: Insights into the pathophysiology of lung diseases
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Tsukasa Kadota, Yu Fujita, Yusuke Yoshioka, Jun Araya, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya Aging is a major risk factor for the development of chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. A main aspect of aging is the impaired function of maintaining homeostasis in the organs and body, which is associated with cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is recognized as the state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of cell...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF in organ fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Barbara Mara Klinkhammer, Jürgen Floege, Peter Boor Fibrosis is part of a tissue repair response to injury, defined as increased deposition of extracellular matrix. In some instances, fibrosis is beneficial; however, in the majority of diseases fibrosis is detrimental. Virtually all chronic progressive diseases are associated with fibrosis, representing a huge number of patients worldwide. Fibrosis occurs in all organs and tissues, becomes irreversible with time and further drives loss of tissue function. Various cells...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles in neurodegenerative diseases
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Tommaso Croese, Roberto Furlan Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all neural cells, including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. The lack of adequate technology has not halted neuroscientists from investigating EVs as a mean to decipher neurodegenerative disorders, still in search of comprehensible pathogenic mechanisms and efficient treatment. EVs are thought to be one of ways neurodegenerative pathologies spread in the brain, but also one of the ways the brain tries to displace toxic proteins,...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Constructing cell lineages from single-cell transcriptomes
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Jinmiao Chen, Laurent Rénia, Florent Ginhoux Advances in single-cell RNA-sequencing have helped reveal the previously underappreciated level of cellular heterogeneity present during cellular differentiation. A static snapshot of single-cell transcriptomes provides a good representation of the various stages of differentiation as differentiation is rarely synchronized between cells. Data from numerous single-cell analyses has suggested that cellular differentiation and development can be conceptualized as continuous p...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles in obesity and diabetes mellitus
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Fabián Pardo, Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Bastián Sobrevia, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia Cell-to-cell communication happens via diverse mechanisms including the synthesis, release and transfer to target cells of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs include nanovesicles (i.e., exosomes) and microvesicles, including apoptotic bodies. The amount and cargo of released EVs, which consist of microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, proteins, DNA, among other molecules, are altered in obesity and diabetes mellitus. EVs from these dise...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles compartment in liquid biopsies: Clinical application
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Gorjana Rackov, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido Liquid biopsy is becoming a new source of biomarkers that complement and resolve some of the most important limitations of surgical biopsy, which are the accessibility to the diseased tissue and its heterogeneity, especially relevant for tumors. The diseased tissues release their molecule content to the bloodstream in free form, inside a cell or within extracellular vesicles (EVs). While the ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Exosomes and cardioprotection – A critical analysis
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Sean M. Davidson, Derek M. Yellon Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by numerous cell types that appear to have diverse beneficial effects on the injured heart. Studies using exosomes from stem cells or from the blood have indicated that they are able to protect the heart both in models of acute ischaemia and reperfusion, and during chronic ischaemia. In addition to decreasing initial infarct size, they are able to stimulate angiogenesis, reduce fibrosis and remodelling, alter immune cell function and improve long-te...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 17, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The PDGF/PDGFR pathway as a drug target
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Natalia Papadopoulos, Johan Lennartsson Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration, primarily of cells of mesenchymal origin. Dysfunction of PDGF signaling has been observed in a wide array of pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, neurological conditions and atherosclerosis. Reported abnormalities of the PDGF pathway include overexpression or amplification of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), gain of function point mutations or activating chromosomal translocations. Curren...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 17, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Laser microdissection: A powerful tool for genomics at cell level
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Claudia Bevilacqua, Bertrand Ducos Laser microdissection (LM) has become widely democratized over the last fifteen years. Instruments have evolved to offer more powerful and efficient lasers as well as new options for sample collection and preparation. Technological evolutions have also focused on the post-microdissection analysis capabilities, opening up investigations in all disciplines of experimental and clinical biology, thanks to the advent of new high-throughput methods of genome analysis, including RNAseq and proteo...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 15, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles: Novel mediator for cell to cell communications in liver pathogenesis
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Pradip B. Devhare, Ratna B. Ray Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane derived nanometer-sized vesicles. EVs are released by normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and carry lipids, proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs, and even DNA out of cells. Transferring biological information via EVs to neighboring cells and inter-cellular communication not only maintain physiological functions, but also involve in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this review is to disc...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 11, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion of ( −)-epicatechin: A review of recent findings
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Gina Borges, Javier I. Ottaviani, Justin J.J. van der Hooft, Hagen Schroeter, Alan Crozier This paper reviews pioneering human studies, their limitations and recent investigations on the absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (aka bioavailability) of (–)-epicatechin. Progress has been made possible by improvements in mass spectrometric detection when coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and through the increasing availability of authentic reference compounds of in vivo metabolites of (&nda...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 10, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of dietary flavonoid action in neuronal function and neuroinflammation
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Baptiste N. Jaeger, Sarah L. Parylak, Fred H. Gage Flavonoids are a class of plant-derived dietary polyphenols that have attracted attention for their pro-cognitive and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity of flavonoids and their extensive in vivo metabolism suggest that a variety of cellular targets in the brain are likely to be impacted by flavonoid consumption. Initially characterized as antioxidants, flavonoids are now believed to act directly on neurons and glia via the interaction with major signal transductio...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 10, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF-C and PDGF-D in ocular diseases
Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Anil Kumar, Xuri Li PDGFs and their receptors are critical regulators of numerous tissues and organs, including the eye. Extensive studies have shown that PDGFs and their receptors play critical roles in many ocular neovascular diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In addition, PDGFs and PDGFRs are also important players in ocular diseases involving the degeneration of retinal neuronal and vascular cells, such as glaucoma and retinitis...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 28, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Platelet-derived growth factor-C and -D in the cardiovascular system and diseases
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Chunsik Lee, Xuri Li The cardiovascular system is among the first organs formed during development and is pivotal for the formation and function of the rest of the organs and tissues. Therefore, the function and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system are finely regulated by many important molecules. Extensive studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors are critical regulators of the cardiovascular system. Even though PDGF-C and PDGF-D are relatively new members of the PDGF family, th...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 13, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

FFA4 (GPR120) as a fatty acid sensor involved in appetite control, insulin sensitivity and inflammation regulation
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Dong-Soon Im Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of insulin ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 12, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGFs and their receptors in vascular stem/progenitor cells: Functions and therapeutic potential in retinal vasculopathy
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Weisi Lu, Xuri Li Vascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) include endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells. VSCs can produce functional and mature vascular cells required to build blood vessels. VSCs therefore play critical roles in vascular repair and regeneration, particularly, in various retinal vasculopathies, in which vascular defects are a devastating pathology. The platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are important regulators of n...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 12, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Emerging role of extracellular vesicles in musculoskeletal diseases
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Cameron Murphy, Joseph Withrow, Monte Hunter, Yutao Liu, Yao Liang Tang, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W. Hamrick Research into the biology of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, has expanded significantly with advances in EV isolation techniques, a better understanding of the surface markers that characterize exosomes and microvesicles, and greater information derived from –omics approaches on the proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) transported by EVs. We have recently discovered a...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 11, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Microfluidic single-cell technology in immunology and antibody screening
We describe current limitations and provide an outlook on important future applications. (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 24, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Single cell epigenome sequencing technologies
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang Epigenetic regulation plays crucial roles in the development and disease processes. Since different cell types with distinct epigenetic characteristics are always intermingled together in the tissues or organs, the single cell analysis provides a universal resolution for dissecting their intrinsic complexities. In this review, we discuss recent advances of developing single cell epigenome sequencing techniques for profiling DNA modifications (5mC, 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC), chromatin accessibility, histone mo...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 22, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Single cell analysis of normal and leukemic hematopoiesis
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Benjamin J. Povinelli, Alba Rodriguez-Meira, Adam J. Mead The hematopoietic system is well established as a paradigm for the study of cellular hierarchies, their disruption in disease and therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. Traditional approaches to study hematopoiesis involve purification of cell populations based on a small number of surface markers. However, such population-based analysis obscures underlying heterogeneity contained within any phenotypically defined cell population. This heterogeneity can only be re...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 8, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vegetable-derived bioactive nitrate and cardiovascular health
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Catherine P. Bondonno, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Alex H. Liu, Nicola P. Bondonno, Natalie C. Ward, Kevin D. Croft, Jonathan M. Hodgson Vegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects in...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 7, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New pro-resolving n-3 mediators bridge resolution of infectious inflammation to tissue regeneration
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Charles N. Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond Dalli While protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is now...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

High-dimension single-cell analysis applied to cancer
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Lili Wang, Kenneth J. Livak, Catherine J. Wu High-dimension single-cell technology is transforming our ability to study and understand cancer. Numerous studies and reviews have reported advances in technology development. The biological insights gleaned from single-cell technology about cancer biology are less reviewed. Here we focus on research studies that illustrate novel aspects of cancer biology that bulk analysis could not achieve, and discuss the fresh insights gained from the application of single-cell technology acro...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 31, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The secrets of the cell
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Mikael Kubista, Jacqueline Dreyer-Lamm, Anders Ståhlberg (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 24, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Extracellular ATP and adenosine: The yin and yang in immune responses?” [Molecular Aspects of Medicine 55 (2017) 9-19]
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): M.M. Faas, T. Saez, P. de Vos (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 17, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Resolution of vascular injury: Specialized lipid mediators and their evolving therapeutic implications
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Bian Wu, Giorgio Mottola, Melinda Schaller, Gilbert R. Upchurch, Michael S. Conte Acute vascular injury occurs in a number of important clinical contexts, including spontaneous disease-related events (e.g. plaque rupture, thrombosis) and therapeutic interventions such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery. Endothelial cell (EC) disruption exposes the underlying matrix, leading to a rapid deposition of platelets, coagulation proteins, and leukocytes. A thrombo-inflammatory response ensues characterized by leukocyte recrui...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 4, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Single-cell RNA sequencing: Technical advancements and biological applications
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Eva Hedlund, Qiaolin Deng Cells are the basic building blocks of organisms and each cell is unique. Single-cell RNA sequencing has emerged as an indispensable tool to dissect the cellular heterogeneity and decompose tissues into cell types and/or cell states, which offers enormous potential for de novo discovery. Single-cell transcriptomic atlases provide unprecedented resolution to reveal complex cellular events and deepen our understanding of biological systems. In this review, we summarize and compare single-cell RNA sequen...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 2, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Technical aspects and recommendations for single-cell qPCR
Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017 Source:Molecular Aspects of Medicine Author(s): Anders Ståhlberg, Mikael Kubista Single cells are basic physiological and biological units that can function individually as well as in groups in tissues and organs. It is central to identify, characterize and profile single cells at molecular level to be able to distinguish different kinds, to understand their functions and determine how they interact with each other. During the last decade several technologies for single-cell profiling have been developed and used in various applications, revealing many novel findings. ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 30, 2017 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research