Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 66Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Molecular aspects of signalling in diabesity
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Luis Sobrevia, Gernot Desoye (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 7, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

DNA methylation and chromatin modifiers in colorectal cancer
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Veronika Vymetalkova, Pavel Vodicka, Sona Vodenkova, Sergio Alonso, Regine Schneider-StockAbstractColorectal carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving the accumulation of genetic alterations over time that ultimately leads to disease progression and metastasis. Binding of transcription factors to gene promoter regions alone cannot explain the complex regulation pattern of gene expression during this process. It is the chromatin structure that allows for a high grade of regulatory flexibility for gene expression. Posttransl...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Anatomy and physiology of the nutritional system
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Saverio CintiAbstractThe organisms of mammals are composed of organs cooperating as systems that are organized to perform functions which allow the survival of the individual and maintenance of the species. Thus, to reach the main goals of these functions we need systems that ensure nutrient uptake and distribution, thermogenesis, oxygen uptake and distribution, the discharge of toxic internal by-products, the defense from internal and external pathogens, gamete fertilization, and the fine-tuning of the activity of all the tissu...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - April 11, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Approaches to functionally validate candidate genetic variants involved in colorectal cancer predisposition
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Laia Bonjoch, Pilar Mur, Coral Arnau-Collell, Gardenia Vargas-Parra, Bahar Shamloo, Sebastià Franch-Expósito, Marta Pineda, Gabriel Capellà, Batu Erman, Sergi Castellví-BelAbstractMost next generation sequencing (NGS) studies identified candidate genetic variants predisposing to colorectal cancer (CRC) but do not tackle its functional interpretation to unequivocally recognize a new hereditary CRC gene. Besides, germline variants in already established hereditary CRC-predisposing genes or somatic varian...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - April 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MicroRNA-215: From biology to theranostic applications
Publication date: Available online 26 March 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Petra Vychytilova-Faltejskova, Ondrej SlabyAbstractMicroRNA-215 (miR-215) is one of the extensively studied microRNAs (miRNAs) in human diseases, especially in different types of cancer, where it plays various roles in the initiation and progression of tumors. There is also a high conservation of miR-215 among wide range of different species indicating that this miRNA may have vital functions that are maintained during evolution. During the last ten years, significant efforts were dedicated to uncover molecular mechanisms of miR...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 27, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Functional roles of the human ribonuclease A superfamily in RNA metabolism and membrane receptor biology
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Heng-Huan Lee, Ying-Nai Wang, Mien-Chie HungAbstractThe human ribonuclease A (hRNase A) superfamily is comprised of 13 members of secretory RNases, most of which are recognized as catabolic enzymes for their ribonucleolytic activity to degrade ribonucleic acids (RNAs) in the extracellular space, where they play a role in innate host defense and physiological homeostasis. Interestingly, human RNases 9–13, which belong to a non-canonical subgroup of the hRNase A superfamily, are ribonucleolytic activity-deficient proteins wi...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 25, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Update on genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer and polyposis
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Laura Valle, Richarda M. de Voer, Yael Goldberg, Wenche Sjursen, Asta Försti, Clara Ruiz-Ponte, Trinidad Caldés, Pilar Garré, Maren F. Olsen, Margareta Nordling, Sergi Castellvi-Bel, Kari HemminkiAbstractThe present article summarizes recent developments in the characterization of genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). The main themes covered include new hereditary CRC and polyposis syndromes, non-CRC hereditary cancer genes found mutated in CRC patients, strategies used to identify novel causal ge...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 19, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Altered foetoplacental vascular endothelial signalling to insulin in diabesity
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Fabián Pardo, Mario Subiabre, Gonzalo Fuentes, Fernando Toledo, Luis Silva, Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Luis SobreviaAbstractObesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are diseases associated with hypertension and metabolic alterations. A significant group of patients present both obesity and T2DM, a condition defined as diabesity. One of the metabolic features in these conditions is the clinical presentation of insulin resistance. Several tissues, including the liver, skeletal muscle, and vasculature, and patients with T2D...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 8, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Glioma progression in diabesity
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Sebastián Alarcón, Ignacio Niechi, Fernando Toledo, Luis Sobrevia, Claudia QuezadaAbstractDiabetes mellitus, obesity, and cancer are diseases that in recent years have caused a large number of deaths worldwide, so have been in the front line of biomedical research. On the other hand, obesity is a risk factor for several types of cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic disorder and global inflammatory environment seen in obese patients is also critical for the treatment of both diabetes mellitus and glioma...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - March 5, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of Organ and Tissue Fibrosis
Publication date: February 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 65Author(s): Maurizio Parola, Massimo Pinzani (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 11, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 11, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mendelian randomisation: A powerful and inexpensive method for identifying and excluding non-genetic risk factors for colorectal cancer
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Alex J. Cornish, Ian P.M. Tomlinson, Richard S. HoulstonAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in economically developed countries and a major cause of cancer-related mortality. The importance of lifestyle and diet as major determinants of CRC risk is suggested by differences in CRC incidence between countries and in migration studies. Previous observational epidemiological studies have identified associations between modifiable environmental risk factors and CRC, but these studies can be susceptible t...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - February 5, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Involvement of A2B adenosine receptors as anti-inflammatory in gestational diabesity
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Carolina Cabalín, Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Fernando Toledo, Luis SobreviaAbstractPregnant women that are obese may develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) configuring a new metabolic condition referred to as gestational diabesity. The metabolic alterations seen in gestational diabesity include a combination of an exacerbated pro-inflammatory state and fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction. Also, gestational diabesity associates with supra-physiological extracellular concentration of adenosine in the foetoplacental ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - January 26, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Impaired signalling pathways mediated by extracellular vesicles in diabesity
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Tamara Sáez, Fernando Toledo, Luis SobreviaAbstractDiabesity, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the most prevalent diseases nowadays and associate with high risk of cardiovascular complications. The impaired signalling pathways associated with the metabolism of D-glucose, lipids, and insulin have been studied for many years aiming to understand the cellular mechanisms of these diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, carry different microRNAs or proteins as cargoes, ac...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - January 15, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Diabesity-associated oxidative and inflammatory stress signalling in the early human placenta
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Denise Hoch, Martin Gauster, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon, Gernot DesoyeAbstractEarly pregnancy is characterized by a series of complex and tightly regulated events to ultimately establish implantation and early placental development. One of the key events is the opening of the decidual spiral arteries into the intervillous space. It leads to a rise in oxygen tension in the intervillous space and the placenta and will induce transcriptional and translational changes of oxygen-sensitive molecules including antioxidants.Diabetes an...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Diabesity and mood disorders: Multiple links through the microbiota-gut-brain axis
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Aitak Farzi, Ahmed M. Hassan, Geraldine Zenz, Peter HolzerAbstractThe global prevalence of diabesity is on the rise, and the clinical, social and economic health burden arising from this epidemic is aggravated by a significant co-morbidity of diabesity with neuropsychiatric disease, particularly depression. Importantly, not only is the prevalence of mood disorders elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, depressed patients are also more prone to develop diabetes. This reciprocal relationship calls for a molecular and system...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - December 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and development of insulin resistance in adipose, skeletal, liver, and foetoplacental tissue in diabesity
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Mario Subiabre, Fernando Toledo, Fabián Pardo, Luis SobreviaAbstractDiabesity is an abnormal metabolic condition shown by patients with obesity that develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with diabesity present with insulin resistance, reduced vascular response to insulin, and vascular endothelial dysfunction. Along with the several well-described mechanisms of insulin resistance, a state of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, where the primary human targets are the adipose tissue, liver, s...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 28, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Diabesity and antidiabetic drugs
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Joseph M. Pappachan, Cornelius J. Fernandez, Elias C. ChackoAbstractThe prevalence of “diabesity” – diabetes related to obesity – has increased tremendously over the past few decades because of the global obesity epidemic. Although bariatric surgery is the best treatment option for patients with diabesity, a majority of patients are managed only with antidiabetic drugs for various reasons. Diabetes control with antidiabetic agents may affect diabesity outcomes positively or negatively because of their ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 16, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Intestinal fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Antonio Di SabatinoAbstractExtensive tissue fibrosis is the end-stage process of a number of chronic conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), ulcerative jejunoileitis, and radiation enteritis. Fibrogenesis is a physiological, reparative process that may become harmful as a consequence of the persistence of a noxious agent, after an excessive duration of the healing process. In this case, after replacement of dead or injure...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - November 3, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 64Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 25, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Diabesity and brain disturbances: A metabolic perspective
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Susana Cardoso, Paula I. MoreiraAbstractThe last decades have been marked by an increased prevalence in non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as by population aging and age-related (brain) diseases. The current notion that the brain and the body are interrelated units is gaining the attention of the scientific and medical community. Growing evidence demonstrates that there is a significant overlap in risk, comorbidity, and pathophysiological mechanisms across obesity, T2D and brain disturb...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 17, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Endocannabinoids, exercise, pain, and a path to health with aging
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Bruce A. WatkinsAbstractPhysical activity is an important lifestyle factor for growth, development, and sustained health throughout life. In recent years, the benefits of physical activity have drawn more attention to its physiological effects on the body, including well-being. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a focal point to ascertain the mechanisms for how exercise benefits the body and how it reduces or controls pain. The ECS, its ligands [the endocannabinoids (eCB)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes for the ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Docosanoids and elovanoids from omega-3 fatty acids are pro-homeostatic modulators of inflammatory responses, cell damage and neuroprotection
We present an overview of how a) NPD1 selectively mediates preconditioning rescue of RPE and PR cells; b) NPD1 restores aberrant neuronal networks in experimental epileptogenesis; c) the decreased ability to biosynthesize NPD1 in memory hippocampal areas of early stages of Alzheimer's disease takes place; d) NPD1 protection of dopaminergic circuits in an in vitro model using neurotoxins; and e) bioactivity elicited by DHA and NPD1 activate a neuroprotective gene-expression program that includes the expression of Bcl-2 family members affected by Aβ42, DHA, or NPD1. In addition, we highlight ELOVL4 (ELOngation of Very L...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Liver fibrosis: Pathophysiology, pathogenetic targets and clinical issues
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Maurizio Parola, Massimo PinzaniAbstractThe progression of chronic liver diseases (CLD), irrespective of etiology, involves chronic parenchymal injury, persistent activation of inflammatory response as well as sustained activation of liver fibrogenesis and wound healing response. Liver fibrogenesis, is a dynamic, highly integrated molecular, cellular and tissue process responsible for driving the excess accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e., liver fibrosis) sustained by an eterogeneous population of hep...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Copyright Information
Publication date: October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 63Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Signaling by Reactive Oxygen Species
Publication date: October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 63Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox-signals and macrophage biology
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard BrüneAbstractMacrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of ‘altered self’, which explains the role of macrophages...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Oxidation of cardiac myofilament proteins: Priming for dysfunction?
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Friederike Cuello, Ilka Wittig, Kristina Lorenz, Philip EatonAbstractOxidants are produced endogenously and can react with and thereby post-translationally modify target proteins. They have been implicated in the redox regulation of signal transduction pathways conferring protection, but also in mediating oxidative stress and causing damage. The difference is that in scenarios of injury the amount of oxidants generated is higher and/or the duration of oxidant exposure sustained. In the cardiovascular system, oxidants are import...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 24, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in chronic lung disease: From mitochondrial dysfunction to dysregulated redox signaling
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Albert van der Vliet, Yvonne M.W. Janssen-Heininger, Vikas AnathyAbstractThe lung is a delicate organ with a large surface area that is continuously exposed to the external environment, and is therefore highly vulnerable to exogenous sources of oxidative stress. In addition, each of its approximately 40 cell types can also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), as byproducts of cellular metabolism and in a more regulated manner by NOX enzymes with functions in host defense, immune regulation, and cell proliferation or differen...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Developmental pathways in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Diptiman Chanda, Eva Otoupalova, Samuel R. Smith, Thomas Volckaert, Stijn P. De Langhe, Victor J. ThannickalAbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and terminal lung disease with no known cure. IPF is a disease of aging, with median age of diagnosis over 65 years. Median survival is between 3 and 5 years after diagnosis. IPF is characterized primarily by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, resulting in reduced gas exchange and impaire...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MicroRNA in lung cancer: role, mechanisms, pathways and therapeutic relevance
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Mohammad Askandar Iqbal, Shweta Arora, Gopinath Prakasam, George A. Calin, Mansoor Ali SyedAbstractLung cancer is the cardinal cause of cancer-related deaths with restricted recourse of therapy throughout the world. Clinical success of therapies is not very promising due to - late diagnosis, limited therapeutic tools, relapse and the development of drug resistance. Recently, small ∼20–24 nucleotides molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) have come into the limelight as they play outstanding role in the process of tumorig...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 18, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and leukocyte-endothelium adhesion: Novel anti-atherosclerotic actions
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ella J. Baker, M. Hayati Yusof, Parveen Yaqoob, Elizabeth A. Miles, Philip C. CalderAbstractEndothelial cells (ECs) play a role in the optimal function of blood vessels. When endothelial function becomes dysregulated, the risk of developing atherosclerosis increases. Specifically, upregulation of adhesion molecule expression on ECs promotes the movement of leukocytes, particularly monocytes, into the vessel wall. Here, monocytes differentiate into macrophages and may become foam cells, contributing to the initiation and progres...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Control of SUMO and Ubiquitin by ROS: Signaling and disease implications
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Nicolas Stankovic-Valentin, Frauke MelchiorAbstractReversible post-translational modifications (PTMs) ensure rapid signal transmission from sensors to effectors. Reversible modification of proteins by the small proteins Ubiquitin and SUMO are involved in virtually all cellular processes and can modify thousands of proteins. Ubiquitination or SUMOylation is the reversible attachment of these modifiers to lysine residues of a target via isopeptide bond formation. These modifications require ATP and an enzymatic cascade composed of...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cardiac fibrosis: Cell biological mechanisms, molecular pathways and therapeutic opportunities
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Nikolaos G. FrangogiannisAbstractCardiac fibrosis is a common pathophysiologic companion of most myocardial diseases, and is associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and adverse outcome. Because the adult mammalian heart has negligible regenerative capacity, death of a large number of cardiomyocytes results in reparative fibrosis, a process that is critical for preservation of the structural integrity of the infarcted ventricle. On the other hand, pathophysiologic stimuli, such as pressure overload, ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 2, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New pro-resolving n-3 mediators bridge resolution of infectious inflammation to tissue regeneration
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Charles N. Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond DalliAbstractWhile protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which i...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

FFA4 (GPR120) as a fatty acid sensor involved in appetite control, insulin sensitivity and inflammation regulation
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Dong-Soon ImAbstractUnsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of ins...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox-signals and macrophage biology (for the upcoming issue of molecular aspects of medicine on signaling by reactive oxygen species)
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard BrüneAbstractMacrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of ‘altered self’, which explains the role of macrophages...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue biology
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan KopeckyAbstractThis review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of fatty acids and their endocannabinoid-like derivatives in the molecular regulation of appetite
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Renger F. WitkampAbstractIntake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in t...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): R.J.Scott Lacombe, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P. BazinetAbstractDocosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the b...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox control in cancer development and progression
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Valeska Helfinger, Katrin SchröderAbstractCancer is the leading cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular diseases. This has been the case for the last few decades despite there being an increase in the number of cancer treatments. One reason for the apparent lack of drug effectiveness might be, at least in part, due to unspecificity for tumors; which often leads to substantial side effects. One way to improve the treatment of cancer is to increase the specificity of the treatment in accordance with the concept of indivi...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D. ByrneAbstractFor many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain om...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

ROS signaling and ER stress in cardiovascular disease
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Cristhiaan D. Ochoa, Ru Feng Wu, Lance S. TeradaAbstractThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces the vast majority of all proteins secreted into the extracellular space, including hormones and cytokines, as well as cell surface receptors and other proteins which interact with the environment. Accordingly, this organelle controls essentially all vital links to a cell's external milieu, responding to systemic metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and mechanical stimuli. The central role the ER plays in meeting protein synthetic and q...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine: A neurotrophic and neuroprotective metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Hee-Yong Kim, Arthur A. SpectorAbstractN-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide) is an endocannabinoid-like metabolite endogenously synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the brain. Although its biosynthetic mechanism has yet to be established, there is a closely linked relationship between the levels of synaptamide and its precursor DHA in the brain. Synaptamide at nanomolar concentrations promotes neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis in deve...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Biological activities of non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (NEO-PUFAs) derived from EPA and DHA: New anti-arrhythmic compounds?
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Jean-Marie Galano, Jérôme Roy, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Jean-Yves Le Guennec, Camille Oger, Marie DemionAbstractω3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) have several biological properties including anti-arrhythmic effects. However, there are some evidences that it is not solely ω3 PUFAs per se that are biologically active but the non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (NEO-PUFAs) like isoprostanes and neuroprostanes. Recent question arises how these molecu...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

More than a syllable in fib-ROS-is: The role of ROS on the fibrotic extracellular matrix and on cellular contacts
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Julius Grosche, Juliane Meißner, Johannes A. EbleAbstractFibrosis is characterized by excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the ECM changes during fibrosis not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, the composition is altered as the expression of various ECM proteins changes. Moreover, also posttranslational modifications, secretion, deposition and crosslinkage as well as the proteolytic degradation of ECM components run differently during fibrosis. As several of these processes involve redox ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids, membrane remodeling and cancer prevention
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Natividad R. Fuentes, Eunjoo Kim, Yang-Yi Fan, Robert S. ChapkinAbstractProteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vegetable-derived bioactive nitrate and cardiovascular health
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Catherine P. Bondonno, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Alex H. Liu, Nicola P. Bondonno, Natalie C. Ward, Kevin D. Croft, Jonathan M. HodgsonAbstractVegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include re...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Many tocopherols, one vitamin E
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Angelo AzziAbstractFour tocopherols are available in nature and are absorbed with the diet, but only one RRR-α-tocopherol satisfies the criteria of being a vitamin. The biological activity of the different tocopherols studied in the rat by the resorption-gestation test has been inconsistently extrapolated to human beings where the tocopherols have no influence on a successful pregnancy. Diminution of RRR-α-tocopherol intake results in diseases characterized by ataxia, whose pathogenetic mechanism, despite vigorous claims, has ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research