Diabesity and brain disturbances: A metabolic perspective
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Susana Cardoso, Paula I. MoreiraAbstractThe last decades have been marked by an increased prevalence in non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as by population aging and age-related (brain) diseases. The current notion that the brain and the body are interrelated units is gaining the attention of the scientific and medical community. Growing evidence demonstrates that there is a significant overlap in risk, comorbidity, and pathophysiological mechanisms across obesity, T2D and brain disturb...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 17, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Endocannabinoids, exercise, pain, and a path to health with aging
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Bruce A. WatkinsAbstractPhysical activity is an important lifestyle factor for growth, development, and sustained health throughout life. In recent years, the benefits of physical activity have drawn more attention to its physiological effects on the body, including well-being. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged as a focal point to ascertain the mechanisms for how exercise benefits the body and how it reduces or controls pain. The ECS, its ligands [the endocannabinoids (eCB)], receptors (CB1 and CB2), enzymes for the ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 6, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Docosanoids and elovanoids from omega-3 fatty acids are pro-homeostatic modulators of inflammatory responses, cell damage and neuroprotection
We present an overview of how a) NPD1 selectively mediates preconditioning rescue of RPE and PR cells; b) NPD1 restores aberrant neuronal networks in experimental epileptogenesis; c) the decreased ability to biosynthesize NPD1 in memory hippocampal areas of early stages of Alzheimer's disease takes place; d) NPD1 protection of dopaminergic circuits in an in vitro model using neurotoxins; and e) bioactivity elicited by DHA and NPD1 activate a neuroprotective gene-expression program that includes the expression of Bcl-2 family members affected by Aβ42, DHA, or NPD1. In addition, we highlight ELOVL4 (ELOngation of Very L...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - October 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Liver fibrosis: Pathophysiology, pathogenetic targets and clinical issues
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Maurizio Parola, Massimo PinzaniAbstractThe progression of chronic liver diseases (CLD), irrespective of etiology, involves chronic parenchymal injury, persistent activation of inflammatory response as well as sustained activation of liver fibrogenesis and wound healing response. Liver fibrogenesis, is a dynamic, highly integrated molecular, cellular and tissue process responsible for driving the excess accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components (i.e., liver fibrosis) sustained by an eterogeneous population of hep...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 15, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Copyright Information
Publication date: October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 63Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Signaling by Reactive Oxygen Species
Publication date: October 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 63Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox-signals and macrophage biology
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard BrüneAbstractMacrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of ‘altered self’, which explains the role of macrophages...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - September 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Oxidation of cardiac myofilament proteins: Priming for dysfunction?
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Friederike Cuello, Ilka Wittig, Kristina Lorenz, Philip EatonAbstractOxidants are produced endogenously and can react with and thereby post-translationally modify target proteins. They have been implicated in the redox regulation of signal transduction pathways conferring protection, but also in mediating oxidative stress and causing damage. The difference is that in scenarios of injury the amount of oxidants generated is higher and/or the duration of oxidant exposure sustained. In the cardiovascular system, oxidants are import...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 24, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in chronic lung disease: From mitochondrial dysfunction to dysregulated redox signaling
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Albert van der Vliet, Yvonne M.W. Janssen-Heininger, Vikas AnathyAbstractThe lung is a delicate organ with a large surface area that is continuously exposed to the external environment, and is therefore highly vulnerable to exogenous sources of oxidative stress. In addition, each of its approximately 40 cell types can also generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), as byproducts of cellular metabolism and in a more regulated manner by NOX enzymes with functions in host defense, immune regulation, and cell proliferation or differen...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Developmental pathways in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Diptiman Chanda, Eva Otoupalova, Samuel R. Smith, Thomas Volckaert, Stijn P. De Langhe, Victor J. ThannickalAbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and terminal lung disease with no known cure. IPF is a disease of aging, with median age of diagnosis over 65 years. Median survival is between 3 and 5 years after diagnosis. IPF is characterized primarily by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, resulting in reduced gas exchange and impaire...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 23, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

MicroRNA in lung cancer: role, mechanisms, pathways and therapeutic relevance
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Mohammad Askandar Iqbal, Shweta Arora, Gopinath Prakasam, George A. Calin, Mansoor Ali SyedAbstractLung cancer is the cardinal cause of cancer-related deaths with restricted recourse of therapy throughout the world. Clinical success of therapies is not very promising due to - late diagnosis, limited therapeutic tools, relapse and the development of drug resistance. Recently, small ∼20–24 nucleotides molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) have come into the limelight as they play outstanding role in the process of tumorig...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 18, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and leukocyte-endothelium adhesion: Novel anti-atherosclerotic actions
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ella J. Baker, M. Hayati Yusof, Parveen Yaqoob, Elizabeth A. Miles, Philip C. CalderAbstractEndothelial cells (ECs) play a role in the optimal function of blood vessels. When endothelial function becomes dysregulated, the risk of developing atherosclerosis increases. Specifically, upregulation of adhesion molecule expression on ECs promotes the movement of leukocytes, particularly monocytes, into the vessel wall. Here, monocytes differentiate into macrophages and may become foam cells, contributing to the initiation and progres...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 13, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Control of SUMO and Ubiquitin by ROS: Signaling and disease implications
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Nicolas Stankovic-Valentin, Frauke MelchiorAbstractReversible post-translational modifications (PTMs) ensure rapid signal transmission from sensors to effectors. Reversible modification of proteins by the small proteins Ubiquitin and SUMO are involved in virtually all cellular processes and can modify thousands of proteins. Ubiquitination or SUMOylation is the reversible attachment of these modifiers to lysine residues of a target via isopeptide bond formation. These modifications require ATP and an enzymatic cascade composed of...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 4, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cardiac fibrosis: Cell biological mechanisms, molecular pathways and therapeutic opportunities
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Nikolaos G. FrangogiannisAbstractCardiac fibrosis is a common pathophysiologic companion of most myocardial diseases, and is associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and adverse outcome. Because the adult mammalian heart has negligible regenerative capacity, death of a large number of cardiomyocytes results in reparative fibrosis, a process that is critical for preservation of the structural integrity of the infarcted ventricle. On the other hand, pathophysiologic stimuli, such as pressure overload, ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - August 2, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New pro-resolving n-3 mediators bridge resolution of infectious inflammation to tissue regeneration
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Charles N. Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond DalliAbstractWhile protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which i...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

FFA4 (GPR120) as a fatty acid sensor involved in appetite control, insulin sensitivity and inflammation regulation
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Dong-Soon ImAbstractUnsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of ins...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox-signals and macrophage biology (for the upcoming issue of molecular aspects of medicine on signaling by reactive oxygen species)
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Andreas Weigert, Andreas von Knethen, Dominik Fuhrmann, Nathalie Dehne, Bernhard BrüneAbstractMacrophages are known for their versatile role in biology. They sense and clear structures that contain exogenous or endogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This process is tightly linked to the production of a mixture of potentially harmful oxidants and cytokines. Their inherent destructive behavior is directed against foreign material or structures of ‘altered self’, which explains the role of macrophages...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue biology
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan KopeckyAbstractThis review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The role of fatty acids and their endocannabinoid-like derivatives in the molecular regulation of appetite
Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Renger F. WitkampAbstractIntake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in t...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): R.J.Scott Lacombe, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Richard P. BazinetAbstractDocosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the b...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Redox control in cancer development and progression
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Valeska Helfinger, Katrin SchröderAbstractCancer is the leading cause of death worldwide after cardiovascular diseases. This has been the case for the last few decades despite there being an increase in the number of cancer treatments. One reason for the apparent lack of drug effectiveness might be, at least in part, due to unspecificity for tumors; which often leads to substantial side effects. One way to improve the treatment of cancer is to increase the specificity of the treatment in accordance with the concept of indivi...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Evidence of efficacy and mechanism of action
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D. ByrneAbstractFor many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain om...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

ROS signaling and ER stress in cardiovascular disease
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Cristhiaan D. Ochoa, Ru Feng Wu, Lance S. TeradaAbstractThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces the vast majority of all proteins secreted into the extracellular space, including hormones and cytokines, as well as cell surface receptors and other proteins which interact with the environment. Accordingly, this organelle controls essentially all vital links to a cell's external milieu, responding to systemic metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and mechanical stimuli. The central role the ER plays in meeting protein synthetic and q...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine: A neurotrophic and neuroprotective metabolite of docosahexaenoic acid
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Hee-Yong Kim, Arthur A. SpectorAbstractN-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide) is an endocannabinoid-like metabolite endogenously synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in the brain. Although its biosynthetic mechanism has yet to be established, there is a closely linked relationship between the levels of synaptamide and its precursor DHA in the brain. Synaptamide at nanomolar concentrations promotes neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis in deve...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Biological activities of non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (NEO-PUFAs) derived from EPA and DHA: New anti-arrhythmic compounds?
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Jean-Marie Galano, Jérôme Roy, Thierry Durand, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Jean-Yves Le Guennec, Camille Oger, Marie DemionAbstractω3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFAs) have several biological properties including anti-arrhythmic effects. However, there are some evidences that it is not solely ω3 PUFAs per se that are biologically active but the non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (NEO-PUFAs) like isoprostanes and neuroprostanes. Recent question arises how these molecu...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

More than a syllable in fib-ROS-is: The role of ROS on the fibrotic extracellular matrix and on cellular contacts
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Julius Grosche, Juliane Meißner, Johannes A. EbleAbstractFibrosis is characterized by excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the ECM changes during fibrosis not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, the composition is altered as the expression of various ECM proteins changes. Moreover, also posttranslational modifications, secretion, deposition and crosslinkage as well as the proteolytic degradation of ECM components run differently during fibrosis. As several of these processes involve redox ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids, membrane remodeling and cancer prevention
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Natividad R. Fuentes, Eunjoo Kim, Yang-Yi Fan, Robert S. ChapkinAbstractProteins are often credited as the macromolecule responsible for performing critical cellular functions, however lipids have recently garnered more attention as our understanding of their role in cell function and human health becomes more apparent. Although cellular membranes are the lipid environment in which many proteins function, it is now apparent that protein and lipid assemblies can be organized to form distinct micro- or nanodomains that facilitate ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Vegetable-derived bioactive nitrate and cardiovascular health
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Catherine P. Bondonno, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Alex H. Liu, Nicola P. Bondonno, Natalie C. Ward, Kevin D. Croft, Jonathan M. HodgsonAbstractVegetable derived nitrate is now recognised as an important bioactive phytochemical with cardioprotective properties. Nitrate, through the recently described enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway, increases NO, a molecule pivotal for cardiovascular health. Clinical trials have observed that dietary nitrate has similar effects to NO when supplied exogenously. These effects include re...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Many tocopherols, one vitamin E
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Angelo AzziAbstractFour tocopherols are available in nature and are absorbed with the diet, but only one RRR-α-tocopherol satisfies the criteria of being a vitamin. The biological activity of the different tocopherols studied in the rat by the resorption-gestation test has been inconsistently extrapolated to human beings where the tocopherols have no influence on a successful pregnancy. Diminution of RRR-α-tocopherol intake results in diseases characterized by ataxia, whose pathogenetic mechanism, despite vigorous claims, has ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Copyright Information
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Bioactives and their impact on human health
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Cesar G. Fraga, Patricia I. Oteiza (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Nutrition epidemiology of flavan-3-ols: The known unknowns
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Gunter G.C. KuhnleAbstractNutritional epidemiology has an important role, as it can provide long-term data from large populations and does not rely on surrogate markers for morbidity/mortality. Meaningful interpretation and applications of outcomes from epidemiological studies depend on the accurate assessment of dietary intake, which is currently mainly based on a combination of self-reporting and food composition data.Flavan-3-ols are a group of bioactives (non-essential dietary components with significant impact on health) that is a po...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Large-scale randomized clinical trials of bioactives and nutrients in relation to human health and disease prevention - Lessons from the VITAL and COSMOS trials
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Susanne Rautiainen, Howard D. Sesso, JoAnn E. MansonAbstractSeveral bioactive compounds and nutrients in foods have physiological properties that are beneficial for human health. While nutrients typically have clear definitions with established levels of recommended intakes, bioactive compounds often lack such a definition. Although a food-based approach is often the optimal approach to ensure adequate intake of bioactives and nutrients, these components are also often produced as dietary supplements. However, many of these supplements ar...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion of (−)-epicatechin: A review of recent findings
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Gina Borges, Javier I. Ottaviani, Justin J.J. van der Hooft, Hagen Schroeter, Alan CrozierAbstractThis paper reviews pioneering human studies, their limitations and recent investigations on the absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (aka bioavailability) of (–)-epicatechin. Progress has been made possible by improvements in mass spectrometric detection when coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and through the increasing availability of authentic reference compounds of in vivo metabolites of (–)-ep...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Plant bioactives and redox signaling: (–)-Epicatechin as a paradigm
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Cesar G. Fraga, Patricia I. Oteiza, Monica GalleanoAbstractPolyphenols are bioactives claimed to be responsible for some of the health benefits provided by fruit and vegetables. It is currently accepted that the bioactivities of polyphenols can be mostly ascribed to their interactions with proteins and lipids. Such interactions can affect cell oxidant production and cell signaling, and explain in part the ability of polyphenols to promote health. EC can modulate redox sensitive signaling by: i) defining the extent of oxidant levels that c...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Flavonoids and the gastrointestinal tract: Local and systemic effects
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): P.I. Oteiza, C.G. Fraga, D.A. Mills, D.H. TaftAbstractThe gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of flavonoids, which ultimately define the health effects of these bioactives. These aspects are modulated by the interactions of flavonoids with other dietary components, environmental factors, the host, and the GI microbiota. Flavonoid can target molecules in the luminal content, the different GI tract cell types, and the microbiota. Importantly, flavonoid actions at the GI...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of dietary flavonoid action in neuronal function and neuroinflammation
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Baptiste N. Jaeger, Sarah L. Parylak, Fred H. GageAbstractFlavonoids are a class of plant-derived dietary polyphenols that have attracted attention for their pro-cognitive and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity of flavonoids and their extensive in vivo metabolism suggest that a variety of cellular targets in the brain are likely to be impacted by flavonoid consumption. Initially characterized as antioxidants, flavonoids are now believed to act directly on neurons and glia via the interaction with major signal transduction casca...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Recommending flavanols and procyanidins for cardiovascular health: Revisited
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Javier I. Ottaviani, Christian Heiss, Jeremy P.E. Spencer, Malte Kelm, Hagen SchroeterAbstractThe last 8 years have seen significant developments in our understanding of dietary flavanols and procyanidins in the context of human health and nutrition. During the same time, recognition of the importance of nutrition in primary disease prevention and health maintenance has increased. In addition, the concept of dietary bioactives (food constituents that although not essential to human life and procreation, may nevertheless play an important ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Berry anthocyanin intake and cardiovascular health
Publication date: June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 61Author(s): Aedín CassidyAbstractOver half of all cardiovascular (CV) events could be prevented by improved diet. This is reflected in government targets for fruit/vegetable intake, yet these are variable across the world (UK: 5-a-day; USA: 9-a-day), do not identify specific fruits/vegetables, and prove hard to achieve. Mounting evidence from prospective studies, supported by recent randomised controlled trials suggest that the benefits of fruits/vegetables may be due to bioactive substances called flavonoids. Specifically one sub-class of fla...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Sonja Djudjaj, Peter BoorAbstractRenal fibrosis is the final pathological process common to any ongoing, chronic kidney injury or maladaptive repair. It is considered as the underlying pathological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which affects more than 10% of world population and for which treatment options are limited. Renal fibrosis is defined by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which disrupts and replaces the functional parenchyma that leads to organ failure. Kidney's histological structure can be divide...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Organ and tissue fibrosis: Molecular signals, cellular mechanisms and translational implications
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ralf Weiskirchen, Sabine Weiskirchen, Frank TackeAbstractFibrosis denotes excessive scarring, which exceeds the normal wound healing response to injury in many tissues. Although the extracellular matrix deposition appears unstructured disrupting the normal tissue architecture and subsequently impairing proper organ function, fibrogenesis is a highly orchestrated process determined by defined sequences of molecular signals and cellular response mechanisms. Persistent injury and parenchymal cell death provokes tissue inflammation, ...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF/PDGFR axis in the neural systems
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ernest T. Chivero, Shilpa BuchAbstractPlatelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are expressed in several cell types including the brain cells such as neuronal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Emerging evidence shows that PDGF-mediated signaling regulates diverse functions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurogenesis, cell survival, synaptogenesis, modulation of ligand-gated ion channels, and development of specific types o...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board/Copyright Information
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): (Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine)
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF-C and PDGF-D signaling in vascular diseases and animal models
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Erika Folestad, Anne Kunath, Dick WågsäterAbstractMembers of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family are well known to be involved in different pathological conditions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by the PDGF signaling have been well studied. Nevertheless, there is much more to discover about their functions and some important questions to be answered. This review summarizes the known roles of two of the PDGFs, PDGF-C and PDGF-D, in vascular diseases. There are clear implications for these growth fa...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Platelet-derived growth factor-C and -D in the cardiovascular system and diseases
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Chunsik Lee, Xuri LiAbstractThe cardiovascular system is among the first organs formed during development and is pivotal for the formation and function of the rest of the organs and tissues. Therefore, the function and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system are finely regulated by many important molecules. Extensive studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors are critical regulators of the cardiovascular system. Even though PDGF-C and PDGF-D are relatively new members of the PDGF family, their c...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGFs and their receptors in vascular stem/progenitor cells: Functions and therapeutic potential in retinal vasculopathy
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Weisi Lu, Xuri LiAbstractVascular stem/progenitor cells (VSCs) include endothelial progenitor cells, smooth muscle progenitor cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal stem cells. VSCs can produce functional and mature vascular cells required to build blood vessels. VSCs therefore play critical roles in vascular repair and regeneration, particularly, in various retinal vasculopathies, in which vascular defects are a devastating pathology. The platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) are important regulators of numero...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF-C and PDGF-D in ocular diseases
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Anil Kumar, Xuri LiAbstractPDGFs and their receptors are critical regulators of numerous tissues and organs, including the eye. Extensive studies have shown that PDGFs and their receptors play critical roles in many ocular neovascular diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In addition, PDGFs and PDGFRs are also important players in ocular diseases involving the degeneration of retinal neuronal and vascular cells, such as glaucoma and retinitis pigm...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PDGF in organ fibrosis
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Barbara Mara Klinkhammer, Jürgen Floege, Peter BoorAbstractFibrosis is part of a tissue repair response to injury, defined as increased deposition of extracellular matrix. In some instances, fibrosis is beneficial; however, in the majority of diseases fibrosis is detrimental. Virtually all chronic progressive diseases are associated with fibrosis, representing a huge number of patients worldwide. Fibrosis occurs in all organs and tissues, becomes irreversible with time and further drives loss of tissue function. Various cells types...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The PDGF/PDGFR pathway as a drug target
Publication date: August 2018Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Volume 62Author(s): Natalia Papadopoulos, Johan LennartssonAbstractPlatelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) promotes cell proliferation, survival and migration, primarily of cells of mesenchymal origin. Dysfunction of PDGF signaling has been observed in a wide array of pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, neurological conditions and atherosclerosis. Reported abnormalities of the PDGF pathway include overexpression or amplification of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs), gain of function point mutations or activating chromosomal translocations. Current deve...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 11, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

New pro-resolving n-3 mediators bridge resolution of infectious inflammation to tissue regeneration
Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Charles N. Serhan, Nan Chiang, Jesmond DalliAbstractWhile protective, the acute inflammatory response when uncontrolled can lead to further tissue damage and chronic inflammation that is now widely recognized to play important roles in many commonly occurring diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic syndrome, and many other diseases of significant public health concern. The ideal response to initial challenges of the host is complete resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which i...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - July 5, 2018 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research