Methods for improving thermal tolerance in military personnel prior to deployment
AbstractAcute exposure to heat, such as that experienced by people arriving into a hotter or more humid environment, can compromise physical and cognitive performance as well as health. In military contexts heat stress is exacerbated by the combination of protective clothing, carried loads, and unique activity profiles, making them susceptible to heat illnesses. As the operational environment is dynamic and unpredictable, strategies to minimize the effects of heat should be planned and conducted prior to deployment. This review explores how heat acclimation (HA) prior to deployment may attenuate the effects of heat by init...
Source: Military Medical Research - November 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Characteristics of cytokines in the sciatic nerve stumps and DRGs after rat sciatic nerve crush injury
ConclusionsIn summary, these findings provide an overview of the dynamic changes in cytokines in the SNs and DRGs at different time points after nerve crush injury in rats, elucidate the biological processes of differentially expressed cytokines, especially the important roles in inflammatory and immune responses after peripheral nerve injury, and thus might contribute to the identification of potential treatments for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - November 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects and mechanism of platelet-rich plasma on military drill injury: a review
AbstractMilitary drill injury is a significant part of military medical research. The increase of training intensity and changes in training methods lead to differences in injury types. The ideal therapeutic modality should allow rapid healing at a reasonable cost and minimize impact on patients ’ life. Platelet -rich plasma (PRP), a platelet concentrate, is rich in a variety of growth factors and widely used clinically as a minimally invasive treatment. It plays an important role in injury repair and rehabilitation. In this article, we review the therapeutic role of PRP in military drill injury and its possible unde...
Source: Military Medical Research - November 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of different plasma expanders on rats subjected to severe acute normovolemic hemodilution
AbstractBackgroundPlasma expanders are widely used for acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH). However, existing studies have not focused on large-volume infusion with colloidal plasma expanders, and there is a lack of studies that compare the effects of different plasma expanders.MethodsThe viscosity, hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of plasma expanders were determined by a cone-plate viscometer, Zetasizer and cut-off membrane, respectively. Sixty male rats were randomized into five groups with Gelofusine (Gel), Hydroxyethyl Starch 200/0.5 (HES200), Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 (HES130), Hydroxyet...
Source: Military Medical Research - November 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Biodegradable materials for bone defect repair
AbstractCompared with non-degradable materials, biodegradable biomaterials play an increasingly important role in the repairing of severe bone defects, and have attracted extensive attention from researchers. In the treatment of bone defects, scaffolds made of biodegradable materials can provide a crawling bridge for new bone tissue in the gap and a platform for cells and growth factors to play a physiological role, which will eventually be degraded and absorbed in the body and be replaced by the new bone tissue. Traditional biodegradable materials include polymers, ceramics and metals, which have been used in bone defect ...
Source: Military Medical Research - November 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Association between physiological responses after exercise at low altitude and acute mountain sickness upon ascent is sex-dependent
AbstractBackgroundAcute mountain sickness (AMS) is the mildest form of acute altitude illnesses, and consists of non-specific symptoms when unacclimatized persons ascend to elevation of ≥2500 m. Risk factors of AMS include: the altitude, individual susceptibility, ascending rate and degree of pre-acclimatization. In the current study, we examined whether physiological response at low altitude could predict the development of AMS.MethodsA total of 111 healthy adult healthy volunteers participated in this trial; and 99 (67 men and 32 women) completed the entire study protocol. Subjects were asked to complete a 9-mi...
Source: Military Medical Research - November 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into dopaminergic neuron-like cells using small molecules and protein factors
ConclusionWe developed a chemical cocktail of small molecules and protein factors to convert human fibroblasts into DA neuron-like cells without passing through a neural progenitor/stem cell intermediate stage. The induced DA neuron-like cells from human fibroblasts might provide a cellular source for cell-based therapy of Parkinson ’s disease in the future. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - November 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Extremity soft tissue coverage in the combat zone: use of pedicled flap transfers by the deployed orthopedic surgeon
ConclusionsSatisfying results can be achieved by simple pedicled flaps performed by orthopedic surgeons deployed in forward surgical units. Most complications were related to failure of bone infection treatment. The teaching of such basic reconstructive procedures should be part of the training for any military orthopedic surgeon.Trial registrationRetrospectively registered on January 2019 (n °2019–090 1-001). (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - October 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Preliminary evaluation of the Vision PERformance (VIPER) simulator
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - October 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Coronaviruses and gastrointestinal diseases
AbstractThe effects of coronaviruses on the respiratory system are of great concern, but their effects on the digestive system receive much less attention. Coronaviruses that infect mammals have shown gastrointestinal pathogenicity and caused symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. Available data have shown that human coronaviruses, including the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, mainly infect the respiratory system and cause symptoms such as cough and fever, while they may generate gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there is little about the relation between coronavirus and digestive system. This review specifically addresses th...
Source: Military Medical Research - October 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Re-expression of DIRAS3 and p53 induces apoptosis and impaired autophagy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
In this study, we sought to determine whether the concurrent re-expression of p53 and DIRAS3 could effectively induce head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell death.MethodsCAL-27 and SCC-25 cells were treated with Ad-DIRAS3 and rAd-p53 to induce re-expression of DIRAS3 and p53 respectively. The effects of DIRAS3 and p53 re-expression on the growth and apoptosis of HNSCC cells were examined by TUNEL assay, flow cytometric analysis and MTT. The effects of DIRAS3 and p53 re-expression on Akt phosphorylation, oncogene expression, and the interaction of 4E-BP1 with eIF4E were determined by real-time PCR, Western blott...
Source: Military Medical Research - October 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury in severely injured patients admitted to the intensive care unit
ConclusionWe found that age, APACHE II score, thoracic trauma, lactic acidosis, and dobutamine administration were independently associated with AKI. Trauma surgeons need to be aware of the increased odds of AKI if one of these factors is identified during the evaluation and treatment of injured patients. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - October 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Quetiapine augmentation of prolonged exposure therapy in veterans with PTSD and a history of mild traumatic brain injury: design and methodology of a pilot study
We report the study protocol of a pilot study funded under the South-Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center pilot study program from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. This randomized, open-label study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of completing a randomized trial of quetiapine vs. treatment as usual to promote patient engagement in PTSD patients with a history of mTBI.DiscussionWe expect that the success of this ongoing study should provide us with the preliminary data necessary to design a full-scale randomized trial. Positive efficacy results in a full- scale trial should inform...
Source: Military Medical Research - October 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Successful recovery of COVID-19-associated recurrent diarrhea and gastrointestinal hemorrhage using convalescent plasma
ConclusionWhen COVID-19 patients develop recurrent or refractory gastrointestinal symptoms and fail to respond to the available treatment, alternative therapy with convalescent plasma administration may be considered. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - September 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Mental health status in veterans residing in rural versus non-rural areas: results from the veterans ’ health study
ConclusionsRural residence is associated with lower mental health service use, but not with poor mental health in veterans with former warzone deployment, suggesting rural residence is possibly protective. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - September 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Creation of an optic nerve sheath diameter ultrasound model for NeuroICU education
ConclusionA simple 3D ballistic ONSD model allows learners to practice proper hand placement and pressure, basic landmarks, and ONSD measurement prior to operating on a human eye. This model is replicable and sustainable given that the globe and platform are composed of ballistics gel. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - September 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Efficient and rapid conversion of human astrocytes and ALS mouse model spinal cord astrocytes into motor neuron-like cells by defined small molecules
ConclusionThe results of the present study demonstrated the feasibility of chemically converting human and mouse astrocytes into motor neuron-like cells that are useful for neurodegenerative disease modeling and regenerative medicine. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - September 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management of COVID-19: An evidence-based clinical practice guideline (updated version)
AbstractThe novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued “A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)”; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guid...
Source: Military Medical Research - September 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Establishment and effectiveness evaluation of a scoring system for exertional heat stroke by retrospective analysis
ConclusionA total of 12 parameters – T, GCS, pH, Lac, PLT, PT, Fib, TnI, AST, TBIL, Cr and gastrointestinal AGI classification – are the EHSS parameters with the best effectiveness in evaluating the prognosis of EHS patients. As EHSS score increases, the mortality rate of EHS patients gradually increases. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - August 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Circadian misalignment on submarines and other non-24-h environments – from research to application
AbstractCircadian clocks have important physiological and behavioral functions in humans and other organisms, which enable organisms to anticipate and respond to periodic environmental changes. Disturbances in circadian rhythms impair sleep, metabolism, and behavior. People with jet lag, night workers and shift workers are vulnerable to circadian misalignment. In addition, non-24-h  cycles influence circadian rhythms and cause misalignment and disorders in different species, since these periods are beyond the entrainment ranges. In certain special conditions, e.g., on submarines and commercial ships, non-24-h watch ...
Source: Military Medical Research - August 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The impacts of infectious complications on outcomes in acute pancreatitis: a retrospective study
AbstractBackgroundThe occurrence of infectious complications characterizes the more severe forms of acute pancreatitis (AP) and is associated with high mortality. We investigated the effects of infection at different sites in patients with AP, including those with necrotizing pancreatitis (NP).MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of 285 patients who met the inclusion criteria for AP and were admitted to Tianjin Nankai Hospital between January 2016 and September 2019. According to the source of the culture positivity during hospitalization, patients were divided into four groups: sterile group(n = 148)...
Source: Military Medical Research - August 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Interpretations and comments for expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of heat stroke in China
This article aims to interpret and supplement the major updates to the new consensus. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - August 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Comparison of clinical laboratory tests between bacterial sepsis and SARS-CoV-2-associated viral sepsis
AbstractSepsis is a life-threatening condition that is characterized by multiple organ dysfunction due to abnormal host response to various pathogens, like bacteria, fungi and virus. The differences between viral and bacterial sepsis are indeed of great significance to deepen the understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis, especially under pandemics of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - August 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

EPAS1 and VEGFA gene variants are related to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness in Chinese Han population: a cross-sectional study
AbstractBackgroundMore people ascend to high altitude (HA) for various activities, and some individuals are susceptible to HA illness after rapidly ascending from plains. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a general complaint that affects activities of daily living at HA. Although genomic association analyses suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the genesis of AMS, no major gene variants associated with AMS-related symptoms have been identified.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, 604 young, healthy Chinese Han men were recruited in June and July of 2012 in Chengdu, and rapidly taken to above ...
Source: Military Medical Research - July 26, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of the success rate of heartbeat recovery in patients with prehospital cardiac arrest in the past 40  years in China
Conclusions(1) The HRR is time-sensitive, and early rescue can improve it. (2) CPR performed within the platinum ten minutes must be executed by the public, and other forces are auxiliary. (3) The concept of peri-cardiac arrest period (PCAP)  should be established and improved to guide CPR. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - July 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Validation of the age-adjusted shock index for pediatric casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan
ConclusionsWithin the combat setting, the age-adjusted pediatric shock index had moderate sensitivity and relatively poor specificity for predicting massive transfusion and death. Better scoring systems are needed to predict resource needs prior to arrival, that perhaps include other physiologic metrics. We were unable to validate the previously published findings within the combat trauma population. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - July 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Real-time ultrasound-guided external intracerebral hemorrhage drain placement
We report a new minimally invasive technique utilizing interventional ultrasound for precise external intracerebral hemorrhage drain (EICHD) placement in pigs. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - July 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Neuroregeneration and plasticity: a review of the physiological mechanisms for achieving functional recovery postinjury
AbstractNeuronal networks, especially those in the central nervous system (CNS), evolved to support extensive functional capabilities while ensuring stability. Several physiological “brakes” that maintain the stability of the neuronal networks in a healthy state quickly become a hinderance postinjury. These “brakes” include inhibition from the extracellular environment, intrinsic factors of neurons and the control of neuronal plasticity. There are distinct differences b etween the neuronal networks in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the CNS. Underpinning these differences is the trade-off be...
Source: Military Medical Research - June 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Incidence, casualties and risk characteristics of civilian explosion blast injury in China: 2000 —2017 data from the state Administration of Work Safety
ConclusionsThe incidence and civilian casualties due to explosions remain unacceptabe in developing China. Measures that mitigate the risk factors are of urgently required. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - June 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors associated with injuries during static line parachute training in Royal Thai Army
ConclusionsTo prevent military static line parachute injuries, the following factors should be taken into consideration: type of aircraft, aircraft exit, time of the day, equipment, motion sickness and wind speed.Trial registrationThe project was certified by the Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University (IRB No. 697/60). (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - June 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Pattern of liver injury in adult patients with COVID-19: a retrospective analysis of 105 patients
AbstractBackgroundRecent studies reported that patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) might have liver injury. However, few data on the combined analysis and change patterns of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) have been shown.MethodsThis is a single-center retrospective study. A total of 105 adult patients hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19 in Beijing Ditan Hospital between January 12, and March 17, 2020 were included, and divided into mild group (n = 79) and severe group(n = 26). We compared liver functional test results bet...
Source: Military Medical Research - June 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Models to predict injury, physical fitness failure and attrition in recruit training: a retrospective cohort study
ConclusionAttrition rate was similar between 28-day and 80-day courses. In comparison to the 80-day full course, the 28-day course had a lower rate of injury but a higher number of injuries per person-year and of fitness test failure. These findings suggest fitness level at the commencement of training is a critically important factor to consider when designing the course curriculum, particularly short courses. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - June 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Effects of Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine in a mouse model of tuberculosis: protective action and differentially expressed genes
ConclusionsM. vaccae vaccine provided good protection in mice againstM. tuberculosis infection, via a highly complex set of molecular changes. Our findings may provide clue to guide development of more effective vaccine against tuberculosis. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - June 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Practice parameters for the use of actigraphy in the military operational context: the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Operational Research Kit-Actigraphy (WORK-A)
ConclusionsDefault actigraphy methods are not the most accurate methods for characterizing soldier sleep, but reliable methods for characterizing operational sleep patterns is a necessary first step in developing strategies to improve soldier readiness. The WORK-A addresses this knowledge gap by providing practice parameters and a robust variety of measures with which to profile sleep behavior in service members. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - May 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Perceived infection transmission routes, infection control practices, psychosocial changes, and management of COVID-19 infected healthcare workers in a tertiary acute care hospital in Wuhan: a cross-sectional survey
ConclusionThe main perceived mode of transmission was not maintaining protection when working at a close distance and having intimate contact with infected cases. Positive psychological intervention is necessary. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - May 10, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sequential intraventricular injection of tigecycline and polymyxin B in the treatment of intracranial Acinetobacter baumannii infection after trauma: a case report and review of the literature
ConclusionsThe polymyxin B IV  + IVT pathway is an ideal treatment strategy for XDRA. baumannii. The tigecycline IVT pathway is also a safe treatment option. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - May 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Role of adjunctive treatment strategies in COVID-19 and a review of international and national clinical guidelines
AbstractThe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global struggle to cope with the sheer numbers of infected persons, many of whom require intensive care support or eventually succumb to the illness. The outbreak is managed by a combination of disease containment via public health measures and supportive care for those who are affected. To date, there is no specific anti-COVID-19 treatment. However, the urgency to identify treatments that could turn the tide has led to the emergence of several investigational drugs as potential candidates to improve outcome, especially in the severe to critically ill. While ...
Source: Military Medical Research - May 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Ex vivo limb perfusion for traumatic amputation in military medicine
AbstractBackgroundLimb loss has a drastic impact on a patient ’s life. Severe trauma to the extremities is common in current military conflicts. Among other aspects, “life before limb” damage control surgery hinders immediate replantation within the short post-traumatic timeframe, which is limited in part by the ischemic time for successful replantation. Ex vivo limb perfusion is currently being researched in animal models and shows promising results for its application in human limb replantation and allotransplantation.Presentation of the hypothesisThe current lack of replantation possibilities in milita...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Chitosan hydrogel encapsulated with LL-37 peptide promotes deep tissue injury healing in a mouse model
ConclusionChitosan hydrogel encapsulated with LL-37 is biocompatible and could promote the healing of pressure ulcers. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - April 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19
AbstractSince December 2019, a novel type of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan led to an outbreak throughout China and the rest of the world. To date, there have been more than 1,260,000 COVID-19 patients, with a mortality rate of approximately 5.44%. Studies have shown that coagulation dysfunction is a major cause of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Therefore, the People ’s Liberation Army Professional Committee of Critical Care Medicine and Chinese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis grouped experts from the frontline of the Wuhan epidemic to come together and develop an expert consensus on diagn...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Fit to fight – from military hygiene to wellbeing in the British Army
AbstractThis paper reviews the historical evolution of the language and organization surrounding the health of personnel in the British Army from ‘hygiene’ through  to ‘wellbeing’. It starts by considering the health of the army in the mid-nineteenth century and the emergence of military hygiene as a professional subject. It continues by looking at advances in military hygiene in the two world wars. Hygiene was replaced by the term ‘ health’ in the 1950s as the collective noun used by professionals working in this field. This unity split when the professions of occupational medicine...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Updating the diagnostic criteria of COVID-19 “suspected case” and “confirmed case” is necessary
AbstractOn 6 February 2020, our team had published a rapid advice guideline for diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection, and this guideline provided our experience and make well reference for fighting against this pandemic worldwide. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease, our awareness and knowledge are gradually increasing based on the ongoing research findings and clinical practice experience; hence, the strategies of diagnosis and treatment are also continually updated. In this letter, we answered one comment on our guideline and provided the newest diagnostic ...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Primary stratification and identification of suspected Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from clinical perspective by a simple scoring proposal
AbstractIn this Commentary, we would like to comment on the article titled “A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)” as a featured article inMilitary Medical Research. In the guideline, except for “confirmed cases”, “suspected cases”, “close contact” and “suspicious exposure” were defined by clinical perspective based on epidemiological risk, clinical symptoms and auxiliary examination. Combined with our experience, we introduced a simple scoring proposal additionally base...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult critical care patients in China
AbstractThrombocytopenia is a common complication of critical care patients. The rates of bleeding events and mortality are also significantly increased in critical care patients with thrombocytopenia. Therefore, the Critical Care Medicine Committee of Chinese People ’s Liberation Army (PLA) worked with Chinese Society of Laboratory Medicine, Chinese Medical Association to develop this consensus to provide guidance for clinical practice. The consensus includes five sections and 27 items: the definition of thrombocytopenia, etiology and pathophysiology, diagnos is and differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention. ...
Source: Military Medical Research - April 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Predictors of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients with coronary artery disease receiving contrast agents twice within 30  days
ConclusionsDiuretic and IABP usage are independent predictors of CI-AKI following exposure to a first contrast agent. The major predictors of CI-AKI after exposure to a second agent are time since the first contrast exposure, ACEI/ARB usage, and IABP usage. More importantly, a three-day interval between the two agents is associated with a higher incidence of CI-AKI following the second administration. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - March 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Hemostatic agents for prehospital hemorrhage control: a narrative review
AbstractHemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death in combat trauma and the secondary cause of death in civilian trauma. A significant number of deaths due to hemorrhage occur before and in the first hour after hospital arrival. A literature search was performed through PubMed, Scopus, and Institute of Scientific Information databases for English language articles using terms relating to hemostatic agents, prehospital, battlefield or combat dressings, and prehospital hemostatic resuscitation, followed by cross-reference searching. Abstracts were screened to determine relevance and whether appropriate further revi...
Source: Military Medical Research - March 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Does the preoperative platelet-tolymphocyte ratio and neutrophil-tolymphocyte ratio predict morbidity after gastrectomy for gastric cancer?
In the original publication of this article [1] there are two garbled codes in the second sentence, the fourth paragraph of the Background section. The correct sentence should be: Tumor growth leads to the increased production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors (mainly IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, IL-23, and TNF-), and this perpetual process ensures immortality. These promoting factors are also important for angiogenesis and hematopoiesis, which explains the increase in blood cell types in cancerous diseases. The original publication has been corrected. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - March 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status
AbstractAn acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus int...
Source: Military Medical Research - March 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Sleep disturbances and predictors of nondeployability among active-duty Army soldiers: an odds ratio analysis of medical healthcare data from fiscal year 2018
ConclusionNearly half of soldiers had a sleep disorder or sleep-related medical diagnosis in 2018, but their sleep problems are largely not profiled as limitations to medical readiness. Musculoskeletal issues and physical injury predict nondeployability, and nondeployability is more likely to occur in soldiers who have sleep e-Profiles in addition to these issues. Addressing sleep problems may prevent accidents and injuries that could render a soldier nondeployable. (Source: Military Medical Research)
Source: Military Medical Research - March 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Methodological quality (risk of bias) assessment tools for primary and secondary medical studies: what are they and which is better?
AbstractMethodological quality (risk of bias) assessment is an important step before study initiation usage. Therefore, accurately judging study type is the first priority, and the choosing proper tool is also important. In this review, we introduced methodological quality assessment tools for randomized controlled trial (including individual and cluster), animal study, non-randomized interventional studies (including follow-up study, controlled before-and-after study, before-after/ pre-post study, uncontrolled longitudinal study, interrupted time series study), cohort study, case-control study, cross-sectional study (incl...
Source: Military Medical Research - February 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research