Combinatorial modulation of initial codons for improved zeaxanthin synthetic pathway efficiency in Escherichia coli
In this work, we found that by changing only the initiation codons, expression libraries of reporter proteins RFP, GFP, and lacZ, with a large dynamic range and evenly distributed expression levels, could be established inEscherichia coli. Subsequently, a novel combinatorial modulation of initial codon (CMIC) strategy was developed for metabolic pathway optimization. CMIC was applied to the zeaxanthin synthesis pathway inE.  coli, which achieved a nearly 10 ‐fold increase in zeaxanthin production. AbstractA balanced and optimized metabolic pathway is the basis for efficient production of a target metabolite. Traditi...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zaiqiang Wu, Dongdong Zhao, Siwei Li, Junsong Wang, Changhao Bi, Xueli Zhang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Efficient glycerol transformation by resting Gluconobacter cells
This work addresses the biological transformation of the industrial by ‐product crude glycerol to glyceric acid and dihydroxyacetone using strains of Gluconobacter. The novelty relies on the use of metabolically active nongrowing resting cells suspended solely in water during the transformation. Simplification of the reaction media and reduction of the total reaction volume, while maintaining high productivities, provide a facile, greener, and cost‐effective process alternative. AbstractIn the present work, glycerol biotransformation usingGluconobacter strains was studied with a process intensification perspective that...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Erienne Jackson, Magdalena Ripoll, Lorena Betancor Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of exogenous glucose on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance
In this study, we investigated the effect of glucose on the biofilm formation ability ofP.  aeruginosa and carried out a metabolomic analysis to identify whether glucose alters the metabolic activity ofP.  aeruginosa in biofilms. We found that glucose efficiently promotedP.  aeruginosa biofilm formation by upregulating the expression of the extracellular polysaccharide ‐related genepslA. Treatment with glucose caused an increase in 7 metabolites (including 3 ‐hydroxypropionic acid, glucose‐6‐phosphate, and 2,3‐dimethylsuccinic acid) and a decrease in 18 metabolites (including myo‐inositol, glutam...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pengfei She, Yanle Wang, Yiqing Liu, Fang Tan, Lihua Chen, Zhen Luo, Yong Wu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Multiple proteins arising from a single gene: The role of the Spa33 variants in Shigella T3SS regulation
We have shown that the Shigella spa33 gene, encoding a type 3 secretion system component, gives rise to 5 fragments of various sizes. Among them, three are necessary for type 3 secretion. For the first time, we have shown that Spa33 is implicated in the regulation of secretion and interacts with the gatekeeper protein, MxiC. AbstractShigella invasion and dissemination in intestinal epithelial cells relies on a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which mediates translocation of virulence proteins into host cells. T3SSs are composed of three major parts: an extracellular needle, a basal body, and a cytoplasmic complex. Three cat...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mahendar Kadari, Dalila Lakhloufi, Val érie Delforge, Virginie Imbault, David Communi, Pierre Smeesters, Anne Botteaux Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2019. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Longitudinal development of the gut microbiota in healthy and diarrheic piglets induced by age ‐related dietary changes
In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to analyze the dynamic establishment of fecal microbiota in six healthy piglets in response to age ‐related changes in the diet: sow‐reared, early supplementary creep‐feeding (sow‐reared + starter diet), and weaning (solid nursery diet). We compared the gut microbiota of these six healthy piglets with those of diarrheic piglets during each of the three dietary stages (n = 10 sow‐reared,n = 10 early supplementary creep‐feeding, andn = 5 weaning). We found that weaning (solid nursery feeding) was the primary factor leading to ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qiaoli Yang, Xiaoyu Huang, Pengfei Wang, Zunqiang Yan, Wenyang Sun, Shengguo Zhao, Shuangbao Gun Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of OmpT ‐like proteases in uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolates
Here, we investigated omptin protease ‐mediated antimicrobial resistance among uropathogenicEscherichia coli clinical isolates. We found that clinical isolates with the highest omptin protease activity encode multiple omptin proteases, showing different substrate specificities. Our data suggest that the presence of multiple omptin family proteases in a single clinical isolate may provide a fitness advantage by expanding the range of natural antimicrobial peptides cleaved during urogenital tract colonization. AbstractBacterial colonization of the urogenital tract is limited by innate defenses, including the production of ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Isabelle Desloges, James A. Taylor, Jean ‐Mathieu Leclerc, John R. Brannon, Andrea Portt, John D. Spencer, Ken Dewar, Gregory T. Marczynski, Amee Manges, Samantha Gruenheid, Hervé Le Moual, Jenny‐Lee Thomassin Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE Source Type: research

Culture of attached and suspended Rhodopseudomonas faecalis in the presence of decomposing fish feed
This study provides a method for the mass culture ofRhodopseudomonas by using the fermentation of aquatic compound fish feed. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiaodong Wang, Xingguo Liu, Shimin Lu, Chong Liu, Zhaojun Gu, Xianlei Zeng, Qi Ni Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of the composition and function of fecal ‐gut bacteria in captive juvenile Crocodylus siamensis between healthy and anorexic individuals
In this study, we demonstrate for the first time, the diversity of intestinal bacterial communities in captive juvenileCrocodylus siamensis suffering from anorexia and healthy crocodile controls using deep amplicon sequencing. Our findings provide a reference to enrich the field of gut microorganism studies in crocodilians and suggest that alterations in the composition and function of gut bacteria inC.  siamensis may be associated with anorexia in crocodilians AbstractThe Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is a freshwater, endangered crocodile with high economic value in the farming industry. Gut microflora pla...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mao Lin, Chenxi Zeng, Zhongqin Li, Ying Ma, Xueqing Jia Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The complete genome sequence of the thermophilic bacterium Laceyella sacchari FBKL4.010 reveals the basis for tetramethylpyrazine biosynthesis in Moutai ‐flavor Daqu
In this study, the whole genome was sequenced and analyzed. The complete genome consists of one 3,374,379‐bp circular chromosome with 3,145 coding sequences (CDSs), seven clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions of 12 CRISPR s. Moreover, we identified that the genome contains genes encoding key enzymes such as proteases, peptidases, and acetolactate synthase (ALS) of the tetramethylpyrazine metabolic pathway. Metabolic pathways relevant to tetramethylpyrazine synthesis were also reconstructed based on the Kyoto Encyclop edia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) PATHWAY database. Annotation and syn...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - September 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dounan Li, Wei Huang, Chunxiao Wang, Shuyi Qiu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Spatial patterns in soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in a grassland adjacent to a newly built lake
The new ‐built lake increased the soil water content, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon of near‐lake grassland. Soil microbial biomass, bacteria, and fungi content of adjacent grassland increased with the increase of the built‐time of lake. The new‐built lake changed the sensitivity and relat ionship between microorganisms and soil physiochemical properties of adjacent grassland. AbstractSoil water content (SWC) is an important determinant for nutrient cycling and microorganism activity in the grassland ecosystem. Lakes have a positive effect on the water supply of the neighboring ecosystem. However, informa...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jinsheng Li, Chan An, Jianying Shang, Tianchi Zhao, Qian Zhang, Xiaomeng Yang, Cheng Ren, Ding Huang, Kesi Liu, Xinqing Shao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Comparison of specific endophytic bacterial communities in different developmental stages of Passiflora incarnata using culture ‐dependent and culture‐independent analysis
This study aimed to compare and determine the structure and composition of cultivable and uncultivable bacterial endophytic communities in vegetative and reproductive stages (RS) ofPassiflora incarnata. To that end, the endophytic communities were assessed by plating and Illumina ‐based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Two hundred and four cultivable bacterial strains were successfully isolated. From the plant’s RS, the isolated strains were identified mainly as belonging to the generaSphingomonas,Curtobacterium, andMethylobacterium, whereasBacillus was the dominant genus isolated from the vegetative stage (VS). ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 27, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Marcela C. Goulart, Luis G. Cueva ‐Yesquén, Kelly J. Hidalgo Martinez, Derlene Attili‐Angelis, Fabiana Fantinatti‐Garboggini Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Large ‐scale distribution of bacterial communities in the Qaidam Basin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
Our study of the large ‐scale distribution of bacterial communities in the Qaidam Basin of Qinghai–Tibet plateau showed that the most dominant and cosmopolitan phyla in all the samples and both the local environment and spatial distance influence the microbial spatial pattern. AbstractMany studies have investigated patterns of soil microbial communities over large spatial scales. However, these studies mainly focused on a few sites. Here, we studied the near ‐surface (0–30 cm) soil microbial communities of 35 soil samples collected from most of the areas of the Qaidam Basin, which is the largest basin ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rui Xing, Qing ‐bo Gao, Fa‐qi Zhang, Jiu‐li Wang, Shi‐long Chen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Novel peptides screened by phage display peptide library can mimic epitopes of the FnBPA ‐A protein and induce protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus in mice
In this study, the purified rabbit anti ‐FnBPA‐A antibodies were used to screen a phage random 12‐mer peptide library for FnBPA‐A epitopes. After four rounds of panning, eight positive phage were detected by sandwich and competitive ELISA and then sequenced. Five peptides mimicking FnBPA‐A protein epitopes were obtained, and a p artially protective immunity againstStaphylococcus aureus infection can be stimulated by these peptides in mice. AbstractFibronectin ‐binding protein A (FnBPA) is a key adhesin ofStaphylococcus aureus, and the protein binding to fibrinogen and elastin is mediated by its N ‐terminal A ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jin ‐Nian Li, Hong Wang, Yu‐Xi Han, Yu‐Ting Zhao, Huan‐Huan Zhou, Jun Xu, Lin Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Three ‐reaction high‐resolution melting assay for rapid differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members
The HRM assay enables rapid identification and differentiation of the clinically most relevant species of MTBC namelyM.  tuberculosis,M.  africanum,M.  microti,M.  bovis,M.  caprae, andM.  bovis BCG from directly extracted samples and cultured material. The use of this powerful assay may save several months of cultivation time and supports improvement of efficient tuberculosis combating strategies worldwide. AbstractThe possibility of introducing a reliable assay for a quick identification and differentiation of the main species ofMycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) supports the improvem...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Patricia Landolt, Roger Stephan, Marc J. A. Stevens, Simone Scherrer Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

NifA is the master regulator of both nitrogenase systems in Rhodobacter capsulatus
InRhodobacter capsulatus, biological nitrogen fixation is catalyzed by the molybdenum nitrogenase and a Mo-free iron-only nitrogenase. Here, we show that NifA controls synthesis of both nitrogenases by controlling synthesis of the sigma factor RpoN. AbstractRhodobacter capsulatus fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by a molybdenum (Mo) ‐nitrogenase and a Mo‐free iron (Fe)‐nitrogenase, whose production is induced or repressed by Mo, respectively. At low nanomolar Mo concentrations, both isoenzymes are synthesized and contribute to nitrogen fixation. Here we examined the regulatory interplay of the central transcriptional ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lisa Demtr öder, Yvonne Pfänder, Sina Schäkermann, Julia Elisabeth Bandow, Bernd Masepohl Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Temporal and spatial variation in bacterial communities of “Jonagold” apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and “Conference” pear (Pyrus communis L.) floral nectar
Nectar bacterial community composition was dominated by only a few bacterial species and differed strongly among fruit species. The nectar of pear (b)  was dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, while apple nectar (a) was strongly enriched by Bacteroidetes. Bacterial richness and diversity were found to fluctuate during flowering. AbstractProduction of many agricultural crops and fruits strongly depends on pollinators. For instance, pome fruits such as apple and pear are highly dependent on pollination for fruit set, fruit quality, and yield. Nectar is often inhabited by microbes, most often...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jolien Smessaert, Maarten Van Geel, Christel Verreth, Sam Crauwels, Olivier Honnay, Wannes Keulemans, Bart Lievens Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Biosynthetic approach to combine the first steps of cardenolide formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
We describe the construction of a novel yeast strain capable to reconstitute an important part of the cardenolide pathway in Digitalis plants. The intermediates are synthesized from a simple steroid in correct stereospecific manner with the help of five heterologously expressed genes from different bacteria, plants, and mammals. AbstractA yeast expression plasmid was constructed containing a cardenolide biosynthetic module, referred to as CARD II, using the AssemblX toolkit, which enables the assembly of large DNA constructs. The genes cloned into the vector were (a) a Δ5‐3β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Christoph Rieck, Daniel Geiger, Jennifer Munkert, Katrin Messerschmidt, Jan Petersen, Juliane Strasser, Nadine Meitinger, Wolfgang Kreis Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Investigation of bacterial diversity and pathogen abundances in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) ponds during a cyprinid herpesvirus 2 outbreak
This study provides comprehensive insight into the mechanisms of interaction between potential pathogens and the freshwater environment of aquaculture ponds during CyHV ‐2 disease outbreaks. Furthermore, the results from this study can contribute to improvement of the aquatic environment and establishment of disease prevention and control measures. AbstractCyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV ‐2) infection is detrimental to gibel carp health and may result in severe economic loss in freshwater aquaculture. However, information regarding the interaction of this pathogen with the aquatic environment is scarce. In this study, qua...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tianming Gao, Bingjian Cui, Xiao Kong, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang, Zhi Qian Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Management of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy farms: Selection and evaluation of different DNA extraction methods from bovine and buffaloes milk and colostrum for the establishment of a safe colostrum farm bank
MAP can also excrete in milk and colostrum. The aim of this work is to evaluate and validate new methods to improve the MAP DNA detection from bovine and bufaline milk and colostrum. It is extremely important to ascertain the presence of MAP in bovine and buffaloes colostrum, so that to create a "safe colostrum farm bank" and stop a remarkable way of MAP spreading ways in farms. AbstractThe aim of this study was to develop and validate different innovative DNA extraction methods to detectMycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (MAP) DNA from bovine and bufaline colostrum. Paratuberculosis is a chronic inflamma...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fabrizio Gamberale, Gabriele Pietrella, Marcello Sala, Paola Scaramella, Silvia Puccica, Valeria Antognetti, Norma Arrigoni, Matteo Ricchi, Antonella Cersini Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluating antibacterial and anticancer activity of crude extracts of bacterial endophytes from Crinum macowanii Baker bulbs
This study aimed to isolate and characterize bacterial endophytes and their crude extracts fromC.  macowanii bulbs. Endophytes were isolated using validated surface sterilization techniques, followed by phenotypic and genotypic profiles of the isolates. Crude extracts were extracted from the endophytes using ethyl acetate, while methanol:dichloromethane (1:1) was used to obtain crude extracts from the bulbs. Antibacterial activity of crude extract from each endophyte was investigated against selected pathogenic strains using the broth microdilution method, and anticancer activity against U87MG glioblastoma and A549 lu...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tendani E. Sebola, Nkemdinma C. Uche ‐Okereafor, Kudzanai I. Tapfuma, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Ezekiel Green, Vuyo Mavumengwana Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Rapid point ‐of‐care diagnostics for the detection of Chlamydia pecorum in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) using loop‐mediated isothermal amplification without nucleic acid purification
In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of aChlamydia pecorum‐specific loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay on the Genie ® III as a rapid point‐of care diagnostic test that can be easily incorporated into wildlife hospitals or koala field surveys. Furthermore, we present a simplistic one‐step lysis method for template preparation using koala conjunctival, urogenital, and rectal swabs. We have demonstrated theC. pecorum LAMP assay is highly sensitive and specific compared with real ‐time PCR, with a level of detection of 44C. pecorum IFU/ml. AbstractInfectious disease, predomin...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lyndal S. Hulse, Sean McDonald, Stephen D. Johnston, Kenneth W. Beagley Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Decreased metabolism and increased tolerance to extreme environments in Staphylococcus warneri during long ‐term spaceflight
In this study, aStaphylococcus warneri strain that was isolated from the Shenzhou ‐10 spacecraft and had experienced a spaceflight (15 days) was carried into space again. After a 64‐day flight, combined phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses were performed to compare the influence of the two spaceflights on this bacterium. Compared with short‐term spac eflight, long‐term spaceflight increased the biofilm formation ability ofS.  warneri and the cell wall resistance to external environmental stress but reduced the sensitivity to chemical stimulation. Further analysis showed that these c...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 15, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Po Bai, Bin Zhang, Xian Zhao, Diangeng Li, Yi Yu, Xuelin Zhang, Bing Huang, Changting Liu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Candida auris: A systematic review and meta ‐analysis of current updates on an emerging multidrug‐resistant pathogen
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 8, Issue 8, August 2019. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: John Osei Sekyere Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 8, Issue 8, August 2019. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Genome and transcriptome analysis of Bacillus velezensis BS ‐37, an efficient surfactin producer from glycerol, in response to d‐/l‐leucine
The addition ofl‐Leu andd‐Leu to the culture medium had opposite effects on surfactin production by BS‐37. We sequenced the genome of BS‐37 and analyzed changes of the transcriptome in glycerol medium in response tod‐/l‐Leu. These results indicated thatl‐Leu has an important role as a precursor or substrate of peptide ring involved in surfactin production, whiled‐Leu acts as a competitive inhibitor AbstractSurfactin is one of the most widely studied biosurfactants due to its many potential applications in different fields. In the present study,Bacillus velezensis BS ‐37, initially identified as a strain o...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dayuan Zhou, Fangxiang Hu, Junzhang Lin, Weidong Wang, Shuang Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Differential responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities to mineral and organic fertilization
This study demonstrated that AMF communities responded differently to long‐term chemical and organic fertilization, indicating that organic fertilization might activate belowground AMF function to maintain soil nu trients and benefit the sustainable development of agriculture. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jia Liu, Jie Zhang, Daming Li, Changxu Xu, Xingjia Xiang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Non ‐biofilm‐forming commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates produce biofilm in the presence of trypsin
In this study, the capacity of trypsin to induce biofilm formation was evaluated in non ‐biofilm‐formingS.  epidermidis isolates. Trypsin is capable to induce biofilm production in non ‐biofilm‐forming commensalS.  epidermidis isolates with theicaA−/aap+ genotype AbstractEpidemiological studies comparing clinical and commensalStaphylococcus epidermidis isolates suggest that biofilm formation is a discriminant biomarker. A study showed that four non ‐biofilm‐forming clinicalS.  epidermidis isolates could form an induced biofilm by trypsin  treatment, suggesting thatS.  epidermidis ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sergio Mart ínez‐García, Silvestre Ortega‐Peña, María De Jesús De Haro‐Cruz, Ma. Guadalupe Aguilera‐Arreola, María Dolores Alcántar‐Curiel, Gabriel Betanzos‐Cabrera, Janet Jan‐Roblero, Sonia Mayra Pérez‐Tapia, Sandra Rodrí Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Production of single cell protein from manure as animal feed by using photosynthetic bacteria
This study reveals that chicken manure was the best substrate for SCP production by submerged fermentation using photosynthetic bacteria compared to swine, cow, and buffalo manure. Regression analysis showed that the productions were found to be significantly influenced by chicken manure content, inoculum size, and cultivation time. Response surface methodology based on central composite design generated the optimal condition (15% chicken manure, 30% inoculum size and cultivation time for 14  days) at which biomass, protein, and carotenoid productions were increased by 92.3%, 21.6%, and 18.2%, respectively. The percen...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sirada Patthawaro, Chewapat Saejung Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Phagocytosis by macrophages depends on histamine H2 receptor signaling and scavenger receptor 1
We demonstrate that histamine 2 receptor is required for phagocytosis of bacteria and microspheres by mouse macrophages. Expression of key autophagy pathway genes is increased, and Macrophage Scavenger Receptor 1 is decreased in abundance in histamine 2 receptor ‐deficient macrophages. AbstractThe histamine H2 receptor (H2R) is a G protein ‐coupled receptor that mediates cyclic AMP production, protein kinase A activation, and MAP kinase signaling. In order to explore the multifaceted effects of histamine signaling on immune cells, phagocytosis was evaluated using primary mouse‐derived macrophages. Phagocytosis is ini...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - August 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Robert Fultz, Melinda A. Engevik, Zhongcheng Shi, Anne Hall, Beatrice Herrmann, Bhanu P. Ganesh, Angela Major, Anthony Haag, Yuko Mori ‐Akiyama, James Versalovic Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Nitroreductases of bacterial origin in Giardia lamblia: Potential role in detoxification of xenobiotics
Our study is focused on a family of nitroreductases identified in the genome of the intestinal protozoanGiardia lamblia, a causative agent of persistent diarrhea in humans and mammals. The corresponding genes have most likely been acquired by lateral transfer from anaerobic bacteria or archaebacterial, and the functions of the gene products are still unclear. Now, we found that these enzymes have a potential role in detoxification of xenobiotics produced by microorganisms living in concurrence inside the intestinal habitat. AbstractThe anaerobic parasiteGiardia lamblia, causative agent of persistent diarrhea, contains a fa...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Joachim M üller, Norbert Müller Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Differential regulation of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus under different temperatures as revealed by strand ‐specific RNA‐Seq
In this study,A.  flavus differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and regulatory pathways were analyzed under three temperatures, by strand ‐specific RNA‐Seq. Results show that a total of 2,428 and 1,474 DEGs were identified in fungal mycelia cultured at 20°C and 37°C, respectively, as compared with the control (28°C). Approximately ~ 79% of DEGs in the 37°C samples were up‐regulated genes, while ~ 63% of DEGs in the 20°C samples were down‐regulated genes. Most of the DEG pathways enriched by lower temperatures differed from those enriched by higher temperatures, while only...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guomin Han, Kai Zhao, Xiaodan Yan, Fangzhi Xiang, Xuede Li, Fang Tao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A modified culture medium for improved isolation of marine vibrios
The modification of salt composition of thiosulfate ‐citrate‐bile salts‐sucrose agar (TCBS), a commonly used selective medium forVibrio isolation, greatly improves the plate counts of marine vibrios, which highlights how standard culture media could be in part inappropriate, leading to count underestimation. We identified some —till now unrecognized—vibrios unable to grow onto standard TCBS, and we show a possible mechanism for their isolation failure onto standard medium. Moreover, we propose aVibrio‐specificrpoD primers pair, useful to quickly identify environmental isolates asVibrio members by PCR. A...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Marcello Tagliavia, Monica Salamone, Carmelo Bennici, Paola Quatrini, Angela Cuttitta Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Expression of different ParE toxins results in conserved phenotypes with distinguishable classes of toxicity
Nine ParE toxins from six different bacteria were cloned and expressed inEscherichia coli for comparison of toxicity and induced filamented morphology. Three distinct classes are identified. The first contains three toxins with minimal toxicity but induced morphological changes, the next contains four toxins with potent toxicity and dramatic morphological changes, and the last class contains two toxins with limited toxicity at longer exposures and no morphologic changes. AbstractToxin –antitoxin (TA) systems are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. These systems are unique in that they can confer both fatal and pr...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 16, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jessica R. Ames, Meenakumari Muthuramalingam, Tamiko Murphy, Fares Z. Najar, Christina R. Bourne Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Antioxidant activity of exo ‐metabolites produced by Fusarium oxysporum: An endophytic fungus isolated from leaves of Otoba gracilipes
In this study, we isolated an endophytic fungus from the leaves ofOtoba gracilipes, a medicinal tree from a tropical rainforest in Colombia. Following isolation and cultivation, we evaluated its extracellular crude extract for antioxidant activity. Using traditional and molecular methods (ITS1, NL1 regions), the endophyte was identified asFusarium oxysporum. Fresh spores from the fungal isolate were inoculated in liquid media (potato dextrose broth [PDB] and potato dextrose –yeast extract broth [PDYB]) and centrifuged for recovering extracellular polysaccharides from the exhausted medium after 30 days of cultiva...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nelson H. Caicedo, Andres F. Davalos, Paula A. Puente, Ana Y. Rodr íguez, Paola A. Caicedo Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Characterization of temperature ‐dependent hemin uptake receptors HupA and HvtA in Vibrio vulnificus
This study expands our understanding of the contribution of thehvtA locus inVibrio vulnificus to virulence by uncovering an important correlation between gene expression and environmental temperature. This temperature ‐mediated regulation is coupled with responsiveness to iron depletion. AbstractThe Gram ‐negative pathogenVibrio vulnificus produces several iron ‐sequestration systems including a hemin uptake system in response to iron limitation as a means to acquire this essential element. Strains of this organism are capable of causing serious septicemia in humans and eels, where hemin is abundant and an advantageo...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shreya Datta, Ryan J. Kenton Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Probabilistic model for the estimation of the consumer exposure to methicillin ‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus due to cross‐contamination and recontamination
A probabilistic model was developed to estimate the likelihood and extent of cross ‐contamination and recontamination and the burden of methicillin‐resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from contaminated raw chicken meat via hands and kitchen utensils in a serving (consisting on a slice of bread and a piece of grilled chicken meat) during a household barbecue in Germany. It contributes to the quantification of consumer exposure to MRSA through food consumption once contaminated food has entered the household kitchen. AbstractThe presence of multidrug ‐resistant bacteria like methicillin‐resistantStaphylococcus aure...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Carolina Plaza ‐Rodríguez, Annemarie Kaesbohrer, Bernd‐Alois Tenhagen Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE Source Type: research

Purification, characterization, and functional groups of an extracellular aflatoxin M1 ‐detoxifizyme from Bacillus pumilus E‐1‐1‐1
An extracellular aflatoxin-detoxifizyme (DAFE) from Bacillus pumilus E-1-1-1 was purified. The molecular mass of the enzyme assessed by SDS-PAGE was found to be approximately about 58  kDa. Lysine, tryptophan, and histidine residues were necessary and major functional groups to maintain enzyme activity, disulfide bonds were observed. AbstractThe experiment was conducted to purify high activity extracellular enzymes, which were produced by a strain that we previously screened was able to degrade aflatoxin effectively, and speculate the functional groups of the enzyme associated with degradation. An extracellular aflato...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xue ‐Jiao Zhang, Jie Gao, Jun Han, Xiang‐Hong Wang, Ya‐Xin Sang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Retracted: In vivo mecillinam resistance in Escherichia coli after pivmecillinam treatment of a urinary tract infection
AbstractRetraction: Nielsen, KL, Hansen, KH, Knudsen, JD, Frimodt ‐Møller, N, Hertz, FB, Jansåker, F., In vivo mecillinam resistance in Escherichia coli after pivmecillinam treatment of a urinary tract infection, MicrobiologyOpen, 2019; e770 (https://doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.770). The above article, published online on 6 January 2019 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors and John Wiley& Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the authors ’ self‐reported errors in their data rendering the article’s conclusions incorrect. (So...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Ecophysiology and phylogeny of new terricolous and epiphytic chlorolichens in a fog oasis of the Atacama Desert
This study investigated two terricolous and two epiphytic lichens from the fog oasis “Las Lomitas” within the National Park Pan de Azúcar which represents a refugium for a few vascular desert plants and many lichens that can thrive on fog and dew alone. Ecophysiological measurements and climate records were combined with molecular data of the mycobiont, their green algal photob ionts and lichenicolous fungi to gain information about the ecology of lichens within the fog oasis. Phylogenetic and morphological investigations led to the identification and description of the new lichen speciesAcarospora conaf...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 5, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Patrick Jung, Dina Emrich, Laura Briegel ‐Williams, Michael Schermer, Lena Weber, Karen Baumann, Claudia Colesie, Philippe Clerc, Lukas W. Lehnert, Sebastian Achilles, Jörg Bendix, Burkhard Büdel Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Full ‐length 16S rRNA gene classification of Atlantic salmon bacteria and effects of using different 16S variable regions on community structure analysis
In this study, we performed taxonomic classification and determination of operational taxonomic units on Atlantic salmon microbiota by taking advantage of full ‐length 16S rRNA gene sequences. Skin mucus was dominated by the genera Flavobacterium and Psychrobacter. Intestinal samples were dominated by the genera Carnobacterium, Aeromonas, Mycoplasma and by sequences assigned to the order Clostridiales. Applying Sanger sequencing on the full‐length bact erial 16S rRNA gene from the pool of 46 isolates obtained in this study showed a clear assignment of the PacBio full‐length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences down to t...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Terje Klemetsen, Nils Peder Willassen, Christian Ren é Karlsen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Shared and unique microbes between Small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) and their honey bee hosts
Honey bee ‐associated bacteria were identified from the small hive beetles, which may facilitate the beetle thriving in the bee hive. At the mean time, the honey bee virus colonize and replicate in SHBs, dispersion of host virus by social parasites to floral resources and hives, providing additional threats to honey bees and other insects. AbstractThe small hive beetle (SHB) is an opportunistic parasite that feeds on bee larvae, honey, and pollen. While SHBs can also feed on fruit and other plant products, like its plant ‐feeding relatives, SHBs prefer to feed on hive resources and only reproduce inside bee colonies. A...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qiang Huang, Dawn Lopez, Jay D. Evans Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The influence of temperature and pH on bacterial community composition of microbial mats in hot springs from Costa Rica
In this work we describe the diversity of microbial mats in hot springs at different temperatures and geographical locations in Costa Rica, using high throughput sequencing methods in order to answer questions about the combined potential influence of pH and temperature on bacterial communities. AbstractWe used the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing approach to investigate the microbial diversity and community composition in several Costa Rican hot springs alongside the latitudinal axis of the country, with a range of temperatures (37 –63°C), pH (6–7.5) and other geochemical conditions. A principal component anal...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lorena Uribe ‐Lorío, Laura Brenes-Guillén, Walter Hernández‐Ascencio, Raúl Mora‐Amador, Gino González, Carlos J. Ramírez‐Umaña, Beatriz Díez, Carlos Pedrós‐Alió Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Genomic ecology of Marine Group II, the most common marine planktonic Archaea across the surface ocean
In this study, we explore the genomic ecology of the Marine Group II (MGII), the main marine planktonicEuryarchaeota, and test if it is composed of different ecologically relevant units. We re ‐analyzedTara Oceans metagenomes from the photic layer and the deep ocean by annotating sequences against a custom MGII database and by mapping gene co ‐occurrences. Our data provide a global view of the distribution ofEuryarchaeota, and more specifically of MGII subgroups, and reveal their association to a number of gene ‐coding sequences. In particular, we show that MGII proteorhodopsins were detected in both the surface and ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - July 2, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Olivier Pereira, Corentin Hochart, Jean Christophe Auguet, Didier Debroas, Pierre E. Galand Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Prevalence and proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes in the subtropical mangrove wetland ecosystem of South China Sea
We investigated the diversity and functions of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an urban estuary containing mangroves in the South China Sea by shotgun metagenomics method. Total abundance of ARGs, six ARGs mtrA, rpoB, rpoC, rpsL, ef ‐Tu, and parY, abundance of resistance types elfamycin, multidrug and peptide, and resistance mechanism target alteration were all significantly lower in mangrove sediment samples than that in nonmangrove sediment. Network and partial redundancy analysis showed that sediment properties and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were the most influential factors impacting ARG distributio. Our st...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huaxian Zhao, Bing Yan, Xueyan Mo, Pu Li, Baoqin Li, Quanwen Li, Nan Li, Shuming Mo, Qian Ou, Peihong Shen, Bo Wu, Chengjian Jiang Tags: SPECIAL ISSUE: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE Source Type: research

Introducing key microbes from high productive soil transforms native soil microbial community of low productive soil
This study aimed to understand the changes in rhizosphere microbial structure and diversity of native average yielding field site soil with the introduced microbial candidates from high yielding farms under greenhouse conditions. Outcome of the study indicated the potential to shift the microbial profile of average yielding sites by specifically introducing the potential key candidate from the high yielding sites to obtain sustainable biological soil health. To our knowledge, this is the first study describes the significance of the use of key individual microbes for community shift to transform low productive soils. Abstr...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Saveetha Kandasamy, Elaine Yi Ran Liu, Greg Patterson, Soledad Saldias, Shimaila Ali, George Lazarovits Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Protist diversity and community assembly in surface sediments of the South China Sea
Diversity of Cercozoa in surface sediments of the South China Sea. AbstractProtists are pivotal components of marine ecosystems in terms of their high diversity, but protist communities have been poorly explored in benthic environments. Here, we investigated protist diversity and community assembly in surface sediments in the South China Sea (SCS) at a basin scale. Pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA was performed for a total of six samples taken from the surface seafloor at water depths ranging from 79 to 2,939  m. We found that Cercozoa was the dominant group, accounting for an average of 39.9% and 25.3% of the reads and ope...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wenxue Wu, Bangqin Huang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Broad ‐leaved forest types affect soil fungal community structure and soil organic carbon contents
In this study, soil samples were collected from EBF and DBF in Shennongjia Mountain, China, and soil fungal community structure and functional gene diversity analyzed based on combined Illumina MiSeq sequencing with GeoChip technologies. The results show ed that soil fungal species richness (p = 0.079) and fungal functional gene diversity (p 
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yuyu Sheng, Jing Cong, Hui Lu, Linsen Yang, Qiang Liu, Diqiang Li, Yuguang Zhang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Streptomyces sp. MUM273b: A mangrove ‐derived potential source for antioxidant and UVB radiation protectants
This study reports the isolation ofStreptomyces sp. MUM273b from mangrove soil that may serve as a promising source of antioxidants AbstractMicrobial natural products serve as a good source for antioxidants. The mangrove ‐derivedStreptomyces bacteria have been evidenced to produce antioxidative compounds. This study reports the isolation ofStreptomyces sp. MUM273b from mangrove soil that may serve as a promising source of antioxidants and UV ‐protective agents. Identification and characterization methods determine that strain MUM273b belongs to the genusStreptomyces. The MUM273b extract exhibits antioxidant activities,...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Authors: Loh Teng ‐Hern Tan, Camille Keisha Mahendra, Yoon‐Yen Yow, Kok‐Gan Chan, Tahir Mehmood Khan, Learn‐Han Lee, Bey‐Hing Goh Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research