Bactericidal and virucidal activity of ethanol and povidone ‐iodine
The present study provides an overview of the bactericidal and virucidal activity of ethanol and povidone ‐iodine based on a systematic literature search. Both ethanol and povidone‐iodine have an inactivating effect on bacteria and viruses depending on the concentrations used. The data may help to improve the microbicidal application of ethanol and povidone‐iodine in practice. AbstractEthanol and povidone ‐iodine (PVP‐I) are important microbicides that inactivate bacteria and viruses. The present study provides a review of literature data on the concentration‐dependent bactericidal and virucidal activity of eth...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andreas Sauerbrei Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

PasT of Escherichia coli sustains antibiotic tolerance and aerobic respiration as a bacterial homolog of mitochondrial Coq10
Previous work on antibiotic ‐tolerant persisters of pathogenicEscherichia coli highlighted the role of PasT, described as a toxin of a toxin –antitoxin system, in their resilience. Here, we show that PasT is not a toxin but rather the bacterial homolog of mitochondrial Coq10 that guides the electron carrier ubiquinone in respiratory electron transport. Consistently,pasT mutants of pathogenicE.  coli andSalmonella Typhimurium show pleiotropic phenotypes of defective respiration including impaired persister formation that can largely be complemented by human Coq10. AbstractAntibiotic ‐tolerant persisters are o...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cinzia Fino, Martin Vestergaard, Hanne Ingmer, Fabien Pierrel, Kenn Gerdes, Alexander Harms Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Diversity and specificity of the bacterial community in Chinese horse milk cheese
We collected horse, cow, and goat milk cheese samples produced via the same manufacturing process and under the same environmental conditions, and investigated the bacterial population size and community composition by real ‐time quantitative PCR and high‐throughput sequencing. We found that the bacterial community of horse milk cheese had a significantly larger bacterial population size, greater species richness, and a more diverse composition than those of cow and goat milk cheeses. Horse milk cheese also had dif ferent starter lactic acid bacteria and secondary bacteria from cow and goat milk cheeses, this may be as...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lin Zhu, Chunlin Zeng, Sai Yang, Zhaozhi Hou, Yuan Wang, Xinyu Hu, Keishi Senoo, Wei Wei Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Vibrios from the Norwegian marine environment: Characterization of associated antibiotic resistance and virulence genes
This study investigated the occurrence ofVibrio spp. in water samples, fish and marine bivalves from the temperate Oceanic and Polar Oceanic areas around Norway. Five species,V. alginolyticus (n = 53),V. metschnikovii (n = 38),V. anguillarum (n = 21),V. antiquarius (n = 2) andV. fujianensis (n = 2) were isolated. We examined antimicrobial susceptibility, hemolytic activity and characterized antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence genes by whole genome sequencing. This study found low prevalence of multidrug resistance, and absence of virulence genes of high global concern. AbstractA total of 116Vibrio isolates compris...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fredrik H åkonsholm, Bjørn Tore Lunestad, Jose Roberto Aguirre Sánchez, Jaime Martinez‐Urtaza, Nachiket Prakash Marathe, Cecilie Smith Svanevik Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 9, Issue 6, June 2020. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Genomic insights into a plant growth ‐promoting Pseudomonas koreensis strain with cyclic lipopeptide‐mediated antifungal activity
We reported a newly isolatedPseudomonas koreensis strain S150, which antagonized plant pathogens, solubilized phosphates, produced siderophores and enzymes, and promoted plant growth. Genome mining showed that the strain S150 possesses 10 genomic islands coding for secondary metabolites, one of which is lokisin, an unusual cyclic lipopeptide. We generated a deletion mutant for the smallest non ‐ribosomal peptide synthetase gene lokA in strain S150. Antifungal activity was deficient in the lokA mutant and was restored by gene complementation. AbstractStrain S150 was isolated from the tobacco rhizosphere as a plant growth ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yilin Gu, Yi ‐Nan Ma, Jing Wang, Zhenyuan Xia, Hai‐Lei Wei Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Insights into the mechanism of cyanobacteria removal by the algicidal fungi Bjerkandera adusta and Trametes versicolor
In this study, a time ‐course transcriptomic analysis of algicidal fungusBjerkandera adusta T1 was applied to investigate gene expression and regulation. A total of 132, 300, 422, and 823 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 6, 12, 24, and 48  hr, respectively. Most DEGs exhibited high endopeptidase activity, cellulose catabolic process, and transmembrane transporter activity by using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Many decomposition genes encoding endopeptidases were induced a little lat er inB. adusta T1 when compared with previously investigated...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Guomin Han, Hui Ma, Shenrong Ren, Xueyan Gao, Xiaolong He, Suwen Zhu, Ruining Deng, Shihua Zhang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in poultry farms and in ‐contact humans in Adama and Modjo towns, Ethiopia
This study investigated the prevalence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of nontyphoidalSalmonella among poultry farms in Ethiopia. Seventeen farms in Adama and Modjo towns (28.8%), 24 samples from poultry farms (2.9%), and 1/36 of stool samples from humans in contact with poultry (2.8%) were positive forSalmonella. Twenty (80%) and 19 (76%) ofSalmonella isolates were resistant to streptomycin and tetracycline, respectively. Nineteen (76%) of the isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. AbstractConsumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products represents a common source of nontyp...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Betelhem Dagnew, Haile Alemayehu, Girmay Medhin, Tadesse Eguale Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Phylogenetic analysis of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus species isolated from sugarcane processing streams
This study aimed to determine the phylogenetic relationships between gum ‐producingLeuconostoc andLactobacillus strains isolated from various locations in a sugarcane processing factory at times when sugars with a low ‐ and high‐dextran content were produced. AbstractHigh levels of gums such as dextran, produced byLeuconostoc andLactobacillus spp., have a severe impact on factory throughput and sugar quality. This study aimed to determine the phylogenetic relationships between gum ‐producingLeuconostoc andLactobacillus bacteria which were isolated from various locations in a sugarcane processing factory at times wh...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sanet Nel, Stephen B. Davis, Akihito Endo, Leon M. T. Dicks Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Identification and functional characterization of NAD(P)+ ‐dependent meso‐diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from Numidum massiliense
We report the identification and functional characterization of a novel NAD(P)+‐dependentmeso‐DAPDH fromNumidum massiliense (NmDAPDH). The knownmeso‐DAPDHs use only NADP+ as a coenzyme, but NmDAPDH was able to use both NADP+ and NAD+ as coenzymes. Abstractmeso‐Diaminopimelate dehydrogenase (meso‐DAPDH) catalyzes the reversible NADP+‐dependent oxidative deamination ofmeso‐2,6‐diaminopimelate (meso‐DAP) to producel‐2‐amino‐6‐oxopimelate. Moreover,d‐amino acid dehydrogenase (d‐AADHs) derived from protein‐engineeredmeso‐DAPDH is useful for one‐step synthesis ofd‐amino acids with high optic...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 2, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hironaga Akita, Yusuke Nakamichi, Tomotake Morita, Akinori Matsushika Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Phylum ‐level diversity of the microbiome of the extremophilic basidiomycete fungus Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert: An island of biodiversity in a thermal soil desert
This work describes the microbiome of the thermophilic fungusPisolithus arhizus.Pisolithusarhizus creates an energy ‐rich island refugium habitat in a thermal soil desert that harbors microbial community that is distinct from parent soils and includes deeply diverging novel lineages. The results demonstrate thatP.  arhizus provides for interesting hypotheses regarding the evolution, origins, and functions of symbioses and novel microbes. AbstractWe used high ‐throughput DNA sequencing methods combined with bio‐geochemical profiles to characterize the internal environment and community structure of the microbiome...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - June 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ken Cullings, Matthew B. Stott, Nicole Marinkovich, Julia DeSimone, Shilpa Bhardwaj Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Isolation of two novel reassortant H3N6 avian influenza viruses from long ‐distance migratory birds in Jiangxi Province, China
Two avian influenza A/H3N6 viruses were isolated from a wild bird in Poyang Lake, Jiangxi, China, in 2014. These Jiangxi H3N6 viruses are novel reassortants with genes most likely derived from Eurasian ‐originated H3Ny (N3, N6, N8), H5N6 viruses, and H9N2 viruses. We highlight the importance of routine surveillance in wild birds for a better early warning system of emerging reassortants with pandemic potential and consequently to avert the threat to public health. AbstractTwo novel reassortant avian influenza A (H3N6) viruses were isolated from swan goose in Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Province, China, in 2014. Phylogenetic ana...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ruiyun Li, Tao Zhang, Jian Xu, Jianyu Chang, Bing Xu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

An oral health optimized diet reduces the load of potential cariogenic and periodontal bacterial species in the supragingival oral plaque: A randomized controlled pilot study
This study aimed to investigate the effects of an oral health optimized diet on the composition of the supragingival oral plaque in a randomized controlled trial. A diet low in carbohydrates, rich in omega ‐3 fatty acids, rich in vitamins C and D, and rich in fiber induces significantly lower counts of caries‐ and periodontitis‐associated pathogens and thus, a favorable shift in the bacterial. AbstractThis study aimed to investigate the effects of an oral health optimized diet on the composition of the supragingival oral plaque in a randomized controlled trial. Participants of the standard diet group (n = 5...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Christian Tennert, Ann ‐Christin Reinmuth, Katharina Bremer, Ali Al‐Ahmad, Lamprini Karygianni, Elmar Hellwig, Kirstin Vach, Petra Ratka‐Krüger, Annette Wittmer, Johan Peter Woelber Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Individual Nudix hydrolases affect diverse features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Nudix proteins catalyze the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate bonds in a variety of substrates and are ubiquitous in all domains of life. The genome of an important opportunistic human pathogen,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, encodes multiple Nudix proteins. Most of them are important for different cellular activities. AbstractNudix proteins catalyze the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate bonds in a variety of substrates and are ubiquitous in all domains of life. The genome of an important opportunistic human pathogen,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, encodes multiple Nudix proteins. To determine the role of nine Nudix hydrolases of theP.  aerugino...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Joanna Drabinska, Mateusz Ziecina, Marta Modzelan, Grazyna Jagura ‐Burdzy, Elzbieta Kraszewska Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The prevalence and implications of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding the RNA polymerase of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
We present evidence for the existence of several, hitherto unreported, nonsynonymous SNPs in genes encoding the RNAP and associated factors of MRSA ST22 clinical isolates and propose that the acquisition of amino acid substitutions in the RNAP could represent an adaptive strategy that contributes to the pathogenic success of MRSA. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aishwarya Krishna, Bing Liu, Sharon J. Peacock, Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj Tags: COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Penicillin ‐binding protein PBP2a provides variable levels of protection toward different β‐lactams in Staphylococcus aureus RN4220
PBP2a confers resistance to β‐lactam antibiotics inStaphylococcus aureus. We expressed the gene encoding PBP2a in a β‐lactam sensitive strain ofS.  aureus. We found that the resistance level conferred by PBP2a varies considerably between β‐lactams and between single cells in a population. AbstractMethicillin ‐resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to most β‐lactams due to the expression of an extra penicillin‐binding protein, PBP2a, with low β‐lactam affinity. It has long been known that heterologous expression of the PBP2a‐encodingmecA gene in methicillin ‐sensit...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Marte Ekeland Fergestad, Gro Anita Stams ås, Danae Morales Angeles, Zhian Salehian, Yngvild Wasteson, Morten Kjos Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Optimization of nitrogen source supply for enhanced biosynthesis and quality of poly(3 ‐hydroxybutyrate‐co‐3‐hydroxyvalerate) by extremely halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei
This study aimed at investigating the impact of using inorganic (NH4Cl) and organic (yeast extract) as nitrogen sources onHaloferax mediterranei biomass formation, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation, PHA composition on the monomeric level, PHA molecular mass, and PHA properties (thermal and mechanical). AbstractThe extreme halophilic archaeon,Haloferax mediterranei can accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from different renewable resources. To enhance the biosynthesis and quality of PHA,H.  mediterranei cultivation media was optimized at different C/N ratios using glucose as the main carbon source. Three sets of...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Othman Al ‐Mashaqbeh, Aya Mansour, Majd Alsaad Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 9, Issue 5, May 2020. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Impact of host intraspecies genetic variation, diet, and age on bacterial and fungal intestinal microbiota in tigers
A potential influence of subspecies, diet, and age on the gut microbiota in tigers was investigated in this study to provide a better understanding of the response of the tiger gut microbiota to external changes. The results revealed that the impact of these factors on gut bacterial and fungal communities are versatile. AbstractThe bacterial microbiota in the gut varies among species, as well as with habitat, diet, age, and other factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis allows a host to adjust metabolic and immune performances in response to environmental changes. Therefore, potential implications of the gut microbiota i...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 12, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Haiying Jiang, Wu Chen, Li Su, Mingwei Huang, Libo Lin, Qiao Su, Guanyu Li, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Linmiao Li, Xiujuan Zhang, Huiming Li, Jinping Chen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Nutrient availability in tropical caves influences the dynamics of microbial biomass
Microbial biomass shows different decomposition patterns among tropical caves, which could be interpreted by two theories: stoichiometric decomposition and microbial nitrogen mining. Our results indicate that nutrient flow and ecological dynamics, such as microbial parameters related to decomposition processes, cannot be generalized to all subterranean environments. AbstractFew studies have evaluated the trophic level in tropical caves, and none related the microbial biomass dynamics in the immobilization of carbon and nitrogen. Here, four tropical caves of Terra Ronca State Park, Brazil, were studied: Ang élica, S&...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Caio C ésar Pires de Paula, Maria Elina Bichuette, Mirna Helena Regali Seleghim Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The optimization system for preparation of TG1 competent cells and electrotransformation
Certain parameters for the preparation of TG1 competent cells include optimum culture time of monoclonal bacteria, amplification growth concentration, and culture volume. The optimized transformation efficiency of TG1 ( ≥8 × 1010 cfu/μg DNA) was observed under suitable electric voltage (2.5 kV), electric intensity (15 kV/cm), and electric time (3.5 ms) of electricity for plasmid transformation. Optimized DNA amount (0.01–100 ng) dissolved in water led to the high efficiency of plasmid transformation but had low effi ciency when dissolved in the T4 ligation buffer. Abstra...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dafei Chai, Gang Wang, Lin Fang, Huizhong Li, Shanshan Liu, Haiying Zhu, Junnian Zheng Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Long ‐term stability of microbiome diversity and composition in fecal samples stored in eNAT medium
AbstractFecal samples collected for microbiome analyses are typically frozen to avoid postcollection changes in microbial composition. eNAT is a guanidine thiocyanate ‐based medium that stabilizes microbial DNA and allows safe specimen handling and shipping by inactivating microorganisms. We collected fecal samples (n = 50) from children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We divided samples into three aliquots: (a) stored in RNAlater and immediately transferred to −80°C; (b) stored in eNAT medium and immediately transferred to −80°C; and (c) stored in eNAT medium at ambient ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rebecca R. Young, Kirsten Jenkins, Felix Araujo ‐Perez, Patrick C. Seed, Matthew S. Kelly Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

The in vitro antibacterial effect of permethrin and formaldehyde on Staphylococcus aureus
This study investigated the effect of permethrin and formaldehyde on the growth ofStaphylococcus aureus, in particular MRSA strains. While permethrin alone was not bactericidal, formaldehyde both in the presence and absence of permethrin was. This was at concentrations of formaldehyde and permethrin found in the anti ‐scabies permethrin cream and suggests a potential use of such creams for treating bacterial skin infections, particularly refractory impetigo. AbstractAntibiotic ‐resistant strains of bacteria such as methicillin‐resistantStaphylococcus aureus are a threat to human health, and effective treatment option...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Philip Nikolic, Poonam Mudgil, John Whitehall Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effects of exercise frequency on the gut microbiota in elderly individuals
In conclusion, we revealed that regular exercise benefits elderly individuals, especially overweight elderly individuals, by modulating the gut microbiota. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - May 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qiwei Zhu, Shangfei Jiang, Guankui Du Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Plasmodium berghei Gamete Egress Protein is required for fertility of both genders
PBANKA_1115200, which we named Gamete Egress Protein (GEP), is a gametocyte protein found only in malaria parasites. GEP partly localizes to osmophilic bodies. A mutant lacking this protein showed aberrant rupture of the parasitophorous vacuole and the red blood cell membranes. Axonemes of the male flagellar gametesgep( ‐) were not motile. AbstractMale and femalePlasmodium gametocytes ingested by theAnopheles mosquitoes during a blood meal egress from the red blood cells by rupturing the two surrounding membranes, the parasitophorous vacuole and the red blood cell membranes. Proteins of the so ‐called osmiophilic bodie...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria Andreadaki, Tomasino Pace, Felicia Grasso, Inga Siden ‐Kiamos, Stefania Mochi, Leonardo Picci, Lucia Bertuccini, Marta Ponzi, Chiara Currà Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Assessment of microbiota present on a Portuguese historical stone convent using high ‐throughput sequencing approaches
A multianalytical approach based on culture ‐dependent methods, high‐throughput sequencing, and scanning electron microscopy was implemented to characterize the microbiota on stone of the Convent of Christ (Tomar, Portugal). The biocolonizer agents detected induce aesthetic damages and structural alterations on these materials, promoting the appearance of stains, biofilms, and detachment of stone fragments. These findings are a starting point for the implementation of a long‐term monitorization plan to prevent the decay of this monument and promote its safeguard. AbstractThe study performed on the stone materials fro...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: T ânia Rosado, Luís Dias, Mónica Lança, Carla Nogueira, Rita Santos, Maria Rosário Martins, António Candeias, José Mirão, Ana Teresa Caldeira Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Sustainable production of FAEE biodiesel using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
Several metabolic engineering strategies were successfully applied in this study towards direct fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) overproduction in the nonconventional oleaginous yeastYarrowia lipolytica. Additionally, we examined the performance of a microbial consortium for its potential application in FAEE production. The results obtained in this work lay the foundation for future development of more efficient yeast cell factories for the sustainable production of FAEE biodiesel. AbstractFatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are fatty acid ‐derived molecules and serve as an important form of biodiesel. The oleaginous yeastYarr...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aiqun Yu, Yu Zhao, Jian Li, Shenglong Li, Yaru Pang, Yakun Zhao, Cuiying Zhang, Dongguang Xiao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Deep tillage combined with biofertilizer following soil fumigation improved chrysanthemum growth by regulating the soil microbiome
In this study, we conducted field experiments to investigate the practical effects of tilling the soil down to a depth of 40 cm (40dp) in combination with dazomet (D) soil fumigation and/or the application of a bio‐organic fertilizer (B) on chrysanthemum growth, with a focus o n the potential mechanisms underlying the responses of the soil microbiome. The growth indices of chrysanthemum were significantly (p 
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Huijie Chen, Shuang Zhao, Jiamiao Zhao, Kaikai Zhang, Jing Jiang, Zhiyong Guan, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen, Weimin Fang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Heterologous expression of the gene for chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratans is induced by an FNR ‐type transcription factor
Activation of the chlorite dismutase (cld) gene, located in the chlorate composite transposon of the chlorate reducerIdeonella dechloratans, was studied in a transcriptional reporter system in anfnr‐deficientEscherichia coli strain. The results demonstrate that anfnr‐type regulator ofI. dechloratans, not present in the chlorate composite transposon, induces this gene under anaerobic conditions. Implications for horizontal gene transfer of the capability of dissimilatory chlorate reduction are discussed. AbstractRegulation of the expression of the gene for chlorite dismutase (cld), located on the chlorate reduction comp...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maria Rova, Miriam Hellberg Lindqvist, Thijs Goetelen, Shady Blomqvist, Thomas Nilsson Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Microbial community overlap between the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of three plants from Yongxing Island, South China Sea
In this study, we characterized the shared microbiome of the phyllosphere and rhizosphere among three plants on Yongxing Island, South China Sea. We found that about 10%~27% of bacteria, including diazotrophs, and fungi overlapped between the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of these host plants. No significant difference in microbial community structure was found among the rhizosphere samples, and soil properties had a higher influence on soil community structure than on the host plant species. AbstractPhyllosphere and rhizosphere are unique and wide ‐ranging habitats that harbor various microbial communities, which influen...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lijun Bao, Wenyang Cai, Jianxi Cao, Xiaofen Zhang, Jinhong Liu, Hao Chen, Yuansong Wei, Xuliang Zhuang, Guoqiang Zhuang, Zhihui Bai Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Interaction of two strongly divergent archaellins stabilizes the structure of the Halorubrum archaellum
The significance of archaellin multiplicity remains unclear. We compared two Halorubrum lacusprofundi strains, one of them has two extraordinarily diverged archaellin genes, while another one has only one gene. In addition we engineered Haloferax volcanii strains synthesizing recombinant archaella of Hrr. lacusprofundi archaellins. The results suggest that functional supercoiled archaella can be composed from only one archaellin. However, interaction of two different archaellins provides additional stabilization to the archaellum structure and thus adaptation to a wider range of environments. AbstractHalophilic archaea fro...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mikhail G. Pyatibratov, Alexey S. Syutkin, Tessa E. F. Quax, Tatjana N. Melnik, R. Thane Papke, Johann Peter Gogarten, Igor I. Kireev, Alexey K. Surin, Sergei N. Beznosov, Anna V. Galeva, Oleg V. Fedorov Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Impacts of dibenzopyrenes on bacterial community isolated from Gulf of Mexico sediment
Known oil ‐degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated marine sediment impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were unable to degrade members of the six‐ring dibenzopyrene PAH family. Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene appeared more toxic of the five different PAH isomers, as fewer unique microbial species were able to survive in its presence. Resistance to biodegradation may lead to environmental accumulation of these highly toxic hydrocarbons. AbstractThe presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine environments as a result of contamination is an environmental concern, especially in regions where oil spills su...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Charles G. Lewis, Melanie J. Beazley Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Regulation of cid and lrg expression by CodY in Streptococcus mutans
This article demonstrates the involvement of CodY as a direct regulator ofcid andlrg operons, key players in the integration of complex environmental signals into regulatory networks that modulate virulence and cell homeostasis inStreptococcus mutans. It also improves our understanding of the functional links between stress response and cell death/lysis process. AbstractThe ability ofStreptococcus mutans to persist in a variety of adverse environments and to emerge as a numerically dominant member of stable oral biofilm communities are essential elements for its cariogenicity. TheS. mutans Cid/Lrg system has been studied a...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sang ‐Joon Ahn, Hey‐Min Kim, Shailja Desai, Kamal Deep, Kelly C. Rice Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Comparative transcriptome and phenotype analysis revealed the role and mechanism of ompR in the virulence of fish pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila
In this study, theompR ofA.  hydrophila B11 strain was first silenced by RNAi technology. The role ofompR in the pathogenicity ofA.  hydrophila B11 was investigated by analyzing both the bacterial comparative transcriptome and phenotype. The qRT ‐PCR results showed that the expression ofompR in theompR‐RNAi strain decreased by 97% compared with the wild‐type strain. The virulence test showed that after inhibition of theompR expression, the LD50 ofA.  hydrophila B11 decreased by an order of magnitude, suggesting thatompR is involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence. Comparative transcriptome ana...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mengmeng Zhang, Jianping Kang, Bin Wu, Yingxue Qin, Lixing Huang, Lingmin Zhao, Leilei Mao, Suyun Wang, Qingpi Yan Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 9, Issue 4, April 2020. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

A protocol for recombinant protein quantification by densitometry
This study presents a protocol of image analysis for electroph oresis gels that allows the quantification of unknown proteins using the molecular weight markers as protein standards.Escherichia coli WK6/pHEN6 encoding the bispecific nanobody CH10 ‐12 engineered by the Pasteur Institute of Tunisia was cultured in a bioreactor and induced with isopropyl β‐D‐1‐thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) at 28°C for 12 hr. Periplasmic proteins extracted by osmotic shock were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Images of the SDS‐PAGE gels were analyzed using ImageJ, and the lane profiles were ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Susana Mar ía Alonso Villela, Hazar Kraïem, Balkiss Bouhaouala‐Zahar, Carine Bideaux, César Arturo Aceves Lara, Luc Fillaudeau Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Urban and agricultural soils in Southern California are a reservoir of carbapenem ‐resistant bacteria
The study reported here is the first specific study about the distribution and characteristics of carbapenem ‐resistant bacteria (CRB) in urban and agricultural environmental soils in the United States. We have found that the soils from Los Angeles–Southern California area are an underappreciated reservoir of bacteria resistant to carbapenems and other antibiotics, including carbapenemase‐producing C RB. Our findings also show a much higher relative frequency of CRB on soils from locations adjacent to farms compared to soils from urban locations. AbstractCarbapenems are last ‐resort β‐lactam antibiotics ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nicolas V. Lopez, Cameron J. Farsar, Dana E. Harmon, Cristian Ruiz Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Porcine deltacoronavirus infection alters bacterial communities in the colon and feces of neonatal piglets
In this study, 5‐day‐old piglets were experimentally infected with PDCoV strain CH‐01, and all piglets developed typical clinical disease, characterized by acute and severe watery diarrhea. Histologic lesions were limited to the villous epithelium of the duodenum a nd ileum. Gut microbiota profiles in the colon and feces of piglets inoculated with PDCoV were investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that PDCoV infection reduced bacterial diversity and significantly altered the composition of the microbiota from the phylum to the genus level in the colon and feces of piglets.Firmicutes (phylum),Lactob...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hai ‐Yan Li, Bing‐Xiao Li, Qing‐Qing Liang, Xiao‐Hui Jin, Lei Tang, Qing‐Wen Ding, Zhi‐Xiang Wang, Zhan‐Yong Wei Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Detection of methicillin ‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus persistence in osteoblasts using imaging flow cytometry
MRSA has been reported as the main pathogen involved in osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infections. The host/pathogen interaction is dynamic and requires several changes to promote bacterial survival. Here, we focused on the internalization and persistence behavior ofStaphylococcus aureus invasive strains belonging to the major MRSA clones, within human MG ‐63 osteoblasts. We used imaging flow cytometry, a technique able to analyze living host cells. We demonstrated that the intracellular persistence process is different among clones and depends on the total number of infected cells instead of the number of intracellu...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - April 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dafne Bongiorno, Nicol ò Musso, Lorenzo Mattia Lazzaro, Gino Mongelli, Stefania Stefani, Floriana Campanile Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Variation in the microbiota across different developmental stages of Aedes albopictus is affected by ampicillin exposure
This study investigated the microbiota of larvae and pupae ofAedes albopictus exposed to different ampicillin concentrations and the bacterial composition of adult females. Results demonstrate that the microbial community showed obvious stage ‐specific characteristics, whereas differences were observed between adult females that were exposed to different ampicillin concentrations in immature stages. Antibiotics might cause dysbiosis rather than excluding bacteria from mosquitoes, and the accumulated disturbing effect of ampicillin has emerged in adults. AbstractThe microbiota plays an important role in the growth of mosq...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wan Qing, Xue Zhijing, Yu Guangfu, Meng Fengxia, Liu Qiyong, Zhang Zhong, Zhang Ruiling Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Insights into gene regulation of the halovirus His2 infecting Haloarcula hispanica
This study facilitates  the  characterization of many hypothetical viral genes and provides insights into the interaction between His2 and its host. AbstractGene expression inHaloarcula hispanica cells infected with the gammapleolipovirus His2 was studied using a custom DNA microarray. Total RNA from cells sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5  hr postinfection was reverse‐transcribed into labeled cDNA and hybridized to microarrays, revealing temporal and differential expression in both host and viral genes. His2 gene expression occurred in three main phases (early, middle, and late), and by 4.5 hr p.i. the ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sonny T. M. Lee, Jiun ‐Yan Ding, Pei‐Wen Chiang, Mike Dyall‐Smith, Sen‐Lin Tang Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Variations in gut bacterial communities between lesser white ‐fronted geese wintering at Caizi and Shengjin lakes in China
In this study, we investigated the gut bacterial communities of lesser white ‐fronted geese (Anser erythropus) wintering at Shengjin Lake and Caizi Lake, China, using high ‐throughput sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Altogether, 1,053,624 high‐quality sequences and 4,405 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were acquired from 30 fecal samples (15 per lake). The OTUs represented eight phyla and 17 classes from the Caizi Lake samples and seven phyla and 16 classes from th e Shengjin Lake samples. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla. The spatial distance and the Chao1, Simpson...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gang Liu, Zhizhong Gong, Qingyue Li Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Rhodobacter capsulatus AnfA is essential for production of Fe ‐nitrogenase proteins but dispensable for cofactor biosynthesis and electron supply
Rhodobacter capsulatus fixes nitrogen from air by a molybdenum ‐dependent and an iron‐only nitrogenase. Here, we present evidence that the transcriptional activator AnfA is required for AnfHDGK production, but dispensable for biosynthesis of the Fe‐only cofactor and electron delivery. AbstractThe photosynthetic α‐proteobacteriumRhodobacter capsulatus reduces and thereby fixes atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) by a molybdenum (Mo) ‐nitrogenase and an iron‐only (Fe)‐nitrogenase. Differential expression of the structural genes of Mo‐nitrogenase (nifHDK) and Fe ‐nitrogenase (anfHDGK) is strictly controlled an...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lisa Demtr öder, Yvonne Pfänder, Bernd Masepohl Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Multilocus sequence typing of Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract infection patients and from fecal samples of healthy subjects in a college community
We address an unresolved question regarding the source ofEscherichia coli that causes community ‐acquired urinary tract infection (CA‐UTI)—whetherE.  coli strains that cause UTI represent members of the intestinal commensalE.  coli or a distinct subgroup of pathogenicE.  coli. Our results based on multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis ofE.  coli isolates from healthy volunteers versus urine isolates from patients with UTI indicate that uropathogenicE.  coli has a source outside of the human intestine. AbstractCommunity ‐acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most com...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yusuke Matsui, Yuan Hu, Julia Rubin, Reginara Souza Assis, Joy Suh, Lee W. Riley Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Virioplankton distribution in the tropical western Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of a seamount
The abundance and distribution of virioplankton were investigated in the Caroline seamount of Western Pacific. Three to four distinct viral subclusters with similar side scatter but different green fluorescence intensity were identified. The interactions of shallow seamount and local current could sustain a significant enhancement of virus standing stock, causing a so ‐called “seamount effect” for virioplankton. AbstractThe shallow Caroline Seamount is located in the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Its summit is 57  m below the surface and penetrates the euphotic zone. Therefore, it is ideal for the stud...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yanchu Zhao, Yuan Zhao, Shan Zheng, Li Zhao, Xuegang Li, Wuchang Zhang, G érald Grégori, Tian Xiao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A membrane ‐bound [NiFe]‐hydrogenase large subunit precursor whose C‐terminal extension is not essential for cofactor incorporation but guarantees optimal maturation
The apo ‐forms of [NiFe]‐hydrogenase large subunits are usually synthesized with a C‐terminal peptide extension that is proteolytically cleaved off upon incorporation of the catalytic metal center. Although to a limited amount, an artificially precleaved large subunit, which was deleted for the C‐te rminal extension by genetic engineering, still received the active site components delivered by the dedicated maturation machinery. This suggests that the C‐terminal extension optimizes metal center incorporation, but is not essential for the formation of catalytically active [NiFe]‐hydrogenase. Abstract[NiFe] ‐hy...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sven Hartmann, Stefan Frielingsdorf, Giorgio Caserta, Oliver Lenz Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Geographical separation and physiology drive differentiation of microbial communities of two discrete populations of the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae
Distribution ofLeptonycteris yerbabuenae and sampling sites in Mexico. AbstractIn this paper, we explore how two discrete and geographically separated populations of the lesser long ‐nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) —one in central and the other in the Pacific region of Mexico—differ in their fecal microbiota composition. Considering the microbiota–host as a unity, in which extrinsic (as food availability and geography) or intrinsic factors (as physiology) play an important role in the microbiota composit ion, we would expect differentiation in the microbiota of two geographically separated populat...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Osiris Gaona, Daniel Cerqueda ‐García, Andrés Moya, Ximena Neri‐Barrios, Luisa I. Falcón Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Characteristics of Planococcus antioxidans sp. nov., an antioxidant ‐producing strain isolated from the desert soil in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau
In conclusion, the strain Y74T (=JCM 32826T = CICC24461T) represents a novel member of the genusPlanococcus, for which the namePlanococcus antioxidans sp. nov. is proposed. Strain Y74T was found to have potent antioxidant activity via its hydrogen peroxide tolerance and its 1,1 ‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical‐scavenging activity. The DPPH radical‐scavenging activity was determined to be 40.2 ± 0.7%. The genomic analysis indicated that six peroxidases genes, one superoxide dismutase gene, and one dprA (DNA‐protecting protein) are present in the geno me of Y74T. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Binglin Zhang, Ruiqi Yang, Gaosen Zhang, Yang Liu, Dongming Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 9, Issue 3, March 2020. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

DNA stable ‐isotope probing reveals potential key players for microbial decomposition and degradation of diatom‐derived marine particulate matter
By combining DNA stable ‐isotope probing and Illumina Miseq high‐throughput sequencing, we identified 14 bacterial taxonomic groups actively involved in the decomposition of particulate organic matter (POM) at different pressures. Both particle‐attached and free‐living microorganisms were able to decompose POM and assimilate the released dissolved organic matter, suggesting the decoupling between microbial lifestyles and ecological functions. Our results provide direct evidence linking the specific microbial lineages to decomposition and degradation of POM and identified the potential mediators of POM fluxes in the...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 17, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ying Liu, Jiasong Fang, Zhongjun Jia, Songze Chen, Li Zhang, Wei Gao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research