A study of innate immune kinetics reveals a role for a chloride transporter in a virulent Francisella tularensis type B strain
A better understanding of how Francisella tularensis type B strains behave in macrophages is required to further elucidate the attenuating mechanisms of the Live Vaccine Strain, which is not FDA approved. Here we evaluate innate immune kinetics in human and murine macrophages following infection with a virulent type B strain compared with its attenuated counterpart, LVS, and a clcA mutant. Our results suggest that the disruption of the chloride transporter ClcA is one contributor to LVS attenuation and may be a target for a live attenuated vaccine against tularemia. AbstractTularemia is a zoonotic disease of global proport...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 30, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lisa M. Matz, Joseph F. Petrosino Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Microbial community and metabolic function analysis of cigar tobacco leaves during fermentation
In this study, artificial fermentation was used for the fermentation of CTLs since it was more controllable and efficient than natural aging. The bacterial and fungal community structure and composition in unfermented and fermented CTLs were determined to understand the effects of microbes on the characteristics of CTLs during artificial fermentation. The relationship between the chemical contents and alterations in the microbial composition was evaluated, and the functions of bacteria and fungi in fermented CTLs were predicted to determine the possible metabolic pathways. After artificial fermentation, the bacterial and f...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fang Liu, Zhiyong Wu, Xiaoping Zhang, Gaolei Xi, Zhe Zhao, Miao Lai, Mingqin Zhao Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 24, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Rapid analytical methods for the microalgal and cyanobacterial biorefinery: Application on strains of industrial importance
Rapid, user ‐friendly methodologies were devised for the determination of phycobiliprotein, pigment, and macromolecule contents in microalgae, and for qualitative and quantitative carotenoid profiling using liquid chromatography coupled with spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry. Methods were applied to com mercially important microalgal strains, demonstrating their application and suitability as tools for quality control, strain selection, and growth optimization purposes within microalgal research and integrated biorefinery settings. AbstractTo realize the potential of microalgae in the biorefinery context, exploitat...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - March 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Joseph S. Palmer, Linda A. Lawton, Rocky Kindt, Christine Edwards Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Characterization of the microbiota and chemical properties of pork loins during dry aging
This study identified the microbiota of pork loins during DA using culturing and culture‐independent meta‐16S rRNA gene sequencing and elucidated its characteristics. The amounts of free amino acids and profiles of aroma‐active compounds were also monitored by high‐performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The meta‐16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed thatPseudomonas spp. generally dominated the microbiota throughout DA; however, the culturing analysis showed marked changes in the species composition during DA.Acinetobacter spp. were the second most dominant bacteria before DA in the cu...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akihito Endo, Ryosuke Koizumi, Yozo Nakazawa, Yuh Shiwa, Shintaro Maeno, Yoshihiko Kido, Tomohiro Irisawa, Yoshiki Muramatsu, Kotaro Tada, Masao Yamazaki, Takao Myoda Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Enrichment of novel Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Krumholzibacteria in an oxygen ‐limited methane‐ and iron‐fed bioreactor inoculated with Bothnian Sea sediments
In this study, we inoculated a bioreactor with methane ‐ and iron‐rich sediments from the Bothnian Sea to investigate microbial methane and iron cycling under low oxygen concentrations. Using metagenomics, we investigated shifts in microbial community composition after approximately 2.5 years of bioreactor operation. Marker genes for methane and ir on cycling, as well as respiratory and fermentative metabolism, were identified and used to infer putative microbial metabolism. Metagenome‐assembled genomes representing novelVerrucomicrobia,Bacteroidetes, andKrumholzibacteria were recovered and revealed a potential ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Paula Dalcin Martins, Anniek Jong, Wytze K. Lenstra, Niels A. G. M. Helmond, Caroline P. Slomp, Mike S. M. Jetten, Cornelia U. Welte, Olivia Rasigraf Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Metabolic potential of the moderate halophile Yangia sp. ND199 for co ‐production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and exopolysaccharides
In this study, the potential of the bacterium for co ‐production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and PHA was investigated. Genome sequence analysis of the closely relatedYangia sp. CCB ‐M3 isolated from mangroves in Malaysia revealed genes encoding enzymes participating in different EPS biosynthetic pathways. The effects of various cultivation parameters on the production of EPS and PHA were studied. The highest level of EPS (288 mg/L) was achieved using sucrose and yeast extrac t with 5% NaCl and 120 mM phosphate salts but with modest PHA accumulation (32% of cell dry weight, 1.3 g/L). Growth on fructose yielded the highe...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Luis Romero Soto, Habib Thabet, Reuben Maghembe, Denise Gameiro, Doan Van ‐Thuoc, Tarek Dishisha, Rajni Hatti‐Kaul Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Novel multiplex TaqMan assay for differentiation of the four major pathogenic Brachyspira species in swine
AbstractA novel TaqMan 5 ‐plex real‐time PCR using a combination of locked nucleic acid‐modified (LNA)‐ and minor groove binding (MGB)‐conjugated DNA probes was developed for identification and differentiation between the four main pathogenicBrachyspira species in swine.B. hyodysenteriae,B. pilosicoli, andB. suanatina are identified using three hydrolysis probes targetingcpn60, whileB. hampsonii is recognized by anothernox specific probe. The assay also includes an exogenous internal control simultaneously verifying the PCR competency of the DNA samples. Validation of the novel assay was perfo...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simone Scherrer, Roger Stephan Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Application of a semi ‐automatic, intensive follow‐up for improving efficacy and adherence of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A randomized controlled trial
Semi ‐automatic intensive follow‐up contributed to a higher eradication rate and adherence toHelicobacter pylori treatment. TheH. pylori eradication rates of the intensive follow ‐up and control groups were 94.7% (90/95, 95% CI: 90%–99%) and 92.9% (78/84, 95% CI: 87%–98%), respectively, by PP analysis (p = 0.601), and 91.8% (90/98, 95% CI: 86%–97%) and 81.6% (80/98, 95% CI: 74%–89%) by ITT analysis (p = 0.035). AbstractA complete understanding and good adherence are crucial for successfulHelicobacterpylori eradication. Proper frequency of reminders might be helpful to both ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yao Chen, Hongxun Yuan, Hui Ye, Zongming Shi, Xin Deng, Xuezhi Zhang, Xikang Hou Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Deeper below the surface —transcriptional changes in selected genes of Clostridium beijerinckii in response to butanol shock
Detailed analyses of transcriptome data obtained after butanol shock and their comparison with data from standard acetone –butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation revealed new findings and confirmed the expected population response. Although butanol shock resulted in upregulation of heat shock protein genes, their regulation is probably different than was assumed based on transcriptome data from standard ABE fermentatio n. While glucose uptake, glycolysis, and acidogenesis genes were downregulated after butanol shock, solventogenesis genes were upregulated. AbstractThe main bottleneck in the return of industrial but...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Petra Patakova, Jan Kolek, Katerina Jureckova, Barbora Branska, Karel Sedlar, Maryna Vasylkivska, Ivo Provaznik Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Microbiota succession during aerobic stability of maize silage inoculated with Lentilactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 and Lentilactobacillus hilgardii CNCM ‐I‐4785
Aerobic deterioration of silage following feeding out is responsible for important quality losses on farms. Inoculation with a combination ofLentilactobacillus buchneri andLentilactobacillus hilgardii modified the consequence of exposure to air and maintained higher microbial diversity, avoiding spoiling microorganisms detrimental effect on the silage. AbstractAerobic deterioration of silage following feeding out is responsible for the deterioration of its quality. Inoculation of silage with lactic acid bacteria is one strategy to limit these effects. A trial was performed using whole ‐plant corn ensiled in bag silo, and...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pascal Drouin, Julien Tremblay, Justin Renaud, Emmanuelle Apper Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of fast ‐growing green snow bacteria from coastal East Antarctica
In this study, 45 fast ‐growing bacteria were isolated from green snow in East Antarctica. Bacterial isolates, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, showed a wide range of growth temperature from 4°C to 25°C and a high‐level of enzymatic activity. Phenotyping using Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a p ossible accumulation of intracellular polymers and lipids in some of the isolates. AbstractSnow microorganisms play a significant role in climate change and affecting the snow melting rate in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. While research on algae inhabiting green and red snow has been performed e...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Margarita Smirnova, Uladzislau Miamin, Achim Kohler, Leonid Valentovich, Artur Akhremchuk, Anastasiya Sidarenka, Andrey Dolgikh, Volha Shapaval Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Efficacy of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299 and 299v against nosocomial oropharyngeal pathogens in vitro and as an oral prophylactic treatment in a randomized, controlled clinical trial
This combined laboratory and clinical study showed thatLactiplantibacillus plantarum 299 and 299v significantly inhibited in vitro growth of nosocomial pathogens often found in the oropharynx of hospitalized patients. In the randomized controlled trial, hospitalized patients were randomized to receive either oral twice ‐daily treatment with lactobacilli or placebo, and oropharyngeal swabs were performed regularly throughout hospitalization. No differences could be shown between the Lactobacilli and placebo groups regarding changes in oropharyngeal microbiota or the occurrence of nosocomial infections. AbstractBackgroundD...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anna Tranberg, Bengt Klarin, Julia Johansson, Lisa I. P åhlman Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Temporal transcriptomes of a marine cyanopodovirus and its Synechococcus host during infection
Marine picocyanobacteria belonging to generaSynechococcus andProchlorococcus are genetically diverse and distributed into distinct biogeographical patterns, and both are infected by genetically closely related cyanopodoviruses. Here, we isolated and characterized a cyanopodovirus infectingSynechococcus, carried out RNA ‐seq analysis, and compared the results to the expression patterns of a cyanopodovirus and itsProchlorococcus host, which were previously reported. Our study demonstrated that cyanopodoviruses infecting marineSynechococcus andProchlorococcus undergo similar genome ‐wide expression dynamics and that gene ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sijun Huang, Yingting Sun, Si Zhang, Lijuan Long Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Novel multiplex TaqMan assay for differentiation of the four major pathogenic Brachyspira species in swine
AbstractA novel TaqMan 5 ‐plex real‐time PCR using a combination of locked nucleic acid‐modified (LNA)‐ and minor groove binding (MGB)‐conjugated DNA probes was developed for identification and differentiation between the four main pathogenicBrachyspira species in swine.B. hyodysenteriae,B. pilosicoli, andB. suanatina are identified using three hydrolysis probes targetingcpn60, whileB. hampsonii is recognized by anothernox specific probe. The assay also includes an exogenous internal control simultaneously verifying the PCR competency of the DNA samples. Validation of the novel assay was perfo...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simone Scherrer, Roger Stephan Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Characteristics of DNA polymerase I from an extreme thermophile, Thermus scotoductus strain K1
The DNA polymerase from the extreme thermophileThermus scotoductus strain K1 (TsK1) was expressed inEscherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The enzyme demonstrated an optimal temperature and pH value of 72 –74°C and 9.0, respectively, and could efficiently amplify 2.5 kb DNA products.TsK1 DNA polymerase did not require additional K+ ions but it did need Mg2+ at 3 –5 mM for optimal activity. The base insertion fidelity for this enzyme was significantly better than that ofTaq DNA polymerase. AbstractSeveral native and engineered heat ‐stable DNA polymerases from a variety of sources are use...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ani Saghatelyan, Hovik Panosyan, Armen Trchounian, Nils ‐Kåre Birkeland Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Drug repurposing: Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of penfluridol against Enterococcus faecalis
In conclusion, these findings indicated that after structural opt imization, PF has the potential as a new antibacterial agent againstE. faecalis. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xianghai Zeng, Pengfei She, Linying Zhou, Shijia Li, Zubair Hussain, Lihua Chen, Yong Wu Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Circulation of an atypical hepatitis C virus (HCV) strain at a dialysis unit in northeast India
A high infection rate of HCV (26%) was detected in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care hospital. All the strains of HCV were of the same genotype and subtype 3  f. This is the first time an outbreak of HCV 3f subtype is reported. AbstractPatients undergoing hemodialysis are at an increased risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The implementation of standard infection control measures can substantially decrease the risk of infections and other nosocomial infections. To study the HCV infection rates and genotypes in maintenance hemodialysis subjects in a dialysis unit. A total of 196 maintenance hemodialysis subje...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Deepjyoti Kalita, Sangeeta Deka, Kailash Chamuah Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Identification of a conserved N ‐terminal domain in the first module of ACV synthetases
A conserved domain was identified in the first module of thel‐δ‐(α‐aminoadipoyl)‐l‐cysteinyl‐d‐valine synthetase, the first enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway of penicillin. The domain is structurally related to condensation domains, but it is approximately half the size and it lacks the typical active site motif. Nevertheless, its presence is important for catalysis. AbstractThel‐δ‐(α‐aminoadipoyl)‐l‐cysteinyl‐d‐valine synthetase (ACVS) is a trimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) that provides the peptide precursor for the synthesis of β‐lactams. The en...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Riccardo Iacovelli, L ászló Mózsik, Roel A.L. Bovenberg, Arnold J.M. Driessen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hidden heterogeneity and co ‐occurrence networks of soil prokaryotic communities revealed at the scale of individual soil aggregates
DNA extracted from ≥250‐mg of soil neglects spatial information stored in individual soil aggregates and thus limits our understanding of the structure and functionality of soil microbial communities. Here, we demonstrate that DNA obtained from individual mg‐sized soil aggregates provides new insights into how m icrobial communities are assembled and increases the likelihood of finding truly interacting microbial taxa by network analysis. AbstractSequencing PCR ‐amplified gene fragments from metagenomic DNA is a widely applied method for studying the diversity and dynamics of soil microbial communities. Typically,...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: M árton Szoboszlay, Christoph C. Tebbe Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Pantoea ananatis carotenoid production confers toxoflavin tolerance and is regulated by Hfq ‐controlled quorum sensing
Carotenoid production confers tolerance to toxoflavin and UV radiation inPantoea ananatis. We proposed a model of carotenoid production for the previously reported regulatory network HfqArcZ→ RpoS Ͱ ClpXP and that identified here, in which Hfq‐controlled quorum signaling derepresses EanR to activate RpoS expression, thereby initiating carotenoid production. AbstractCarotenoids are widely used in functional foods, cosmetics, and health supplements, and their importance and scope of use are continuously expanding. Here, we characterized carotenoid biosynthetic genes of the plant ‐pathogenic bacteriumPantoea ananati...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Okhee Choi, Byeongsam Kang, Yongsang Lee, Yeyeong Lee, Jinwoo Kim Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Epipelagic microbiome of the Small Aral Sea: Metagenomic structure and ecological diversity
This study aimed to describe and analyze the microbial community from one location of the Small Aral Sea (SAS) using metagenomic approaches. In total 78% of the reads could be assigned to domains of bacteria (2,239,543 reads) and archaea (46,904 reads), while the other 22% of the sequences belonged to eukaryotes and viruses. We presume that the observed broad range of phylogenetic and ecological features displayed by the genetic signatures may demonstrate intensive mixing of water masses originating from different ecological niches of the Aral ‐Syr Darya River basin. AbstractMicrobial diversity studies regarding the aqua...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Madina Alexyuk, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Pavel Alexyuk, Yergali Moldakhanov, Vladimir Berezin, Ilya Digel Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

No man's land: Species ‐specific formation of exclusion zones bordering Actinomyces graevenitzii microcolonies in nanoliter cultures
“Exclusion zone” formation aroundActinomyces graevenitzii microcolonies in microfluidic nanoliter volume co ‐culture chambers. This species‐specific phenomenon appears to relate toA.  graevenitzii colony stress and can alter inflammatory responses. AbstractTo survive within complex environmental niches, including the human host, bacteria have evolved intricate interspecies communities driven by competition for limited nutrients, cooperation via complementary metabolic proficiencies, and establishment of homeostatic relationships with the host immune system. The study of such complex, interdependent rel...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fatemeh Jalali, Felix Ellett, Pooja Balani, Margaret J. Duncan, Floyd E. Dewhirst, Gary G. Borisy, Daniel Irimia Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Seasonal variation of viral infections between the eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the western honey bee (Apis mellifera)
This study provides important insights into the complex relationships between viruses and their hosts in different seasons and regions, which will be important for developing effective disease management strategies to improve bee health. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gongwen Chen, Yuqi Wu, Jie Deng, Zhengsheng Wen, Shuai Wang, Yanping Chen, Fuliang Hu, Huoqing Zheng Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic free ‐living amoeba and bacteria in 20 public indoor swimming pool facilities
Free ‐living amoebas (FLA) and pathogenic bacteria represent a risk in swimming pools. This work aimed to study the physicochemical characteristics and the occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and bacteria in water samples from 20 public indoor swimming facilities in northern Portugal. Our findings highlight the need to establish recommendations to safeguard the health of the swimming pool users. AbstractRecently, indoor swimming pool activities have increased to promote health ‐enhancing physical activities, which require establishing suitable protocols for disinfection and water quality control. Normally, the ass...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mar ía Reyes‐Batlle, Marta F. Gabriel, Rubén Rodríguez‐Expósito, Fátima Felgueiras, Ines Sifaoui, Zenaida Mourão, Eduardo Oliveira Fernandes, José E. Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo‐Morales Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Seasonal variation of viral infections between the eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the western honey bee (Apis mellifera)
This study provides important insights into the complex relationships between viruses and their hosts in different seasons and regions, which will be important for developing effective disease management strategies to improve bee health. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gongwen Chen, Yuqi Wu, Jie Deng, Zhengsheng Wen, Shuai Wang, Yanping Chen, Fuliang Hu, Huoqing Zheng Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Spatially explicit depiction of a floral epiphytic bacterial community reveals role for environmental filtering within petals
Spatially explicit analysis of flower petal microbial communities reveals evidence of environmental filtering. AbstractThe microbiome of flowers (anthosphere) is an understudied compartment of the plant microbiome. Within the flower, petals represent a heterogeneous environment for microbes in terms of resources and environmental stress. Yet, little is known of drivers of structure and function of the epiphytic microbial community at the within ‐petal scale. We characterized the petal microbiome in two co‐flowering plants that differ in the pattern of ultraviolet (UV) absorption along their petals. Bacterial communitie...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rebecca A. Hayes, Maria Rebolleda ‐Gómez, Kristen Butela, Leah F. Cabo, Nevin Cullen, Nancy Kaufmann, Steffani O'Neill, Tia‐Lynn Ashman Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A culture ‐independent approach to understanding the role of soil fungal communities in Bromus tectorum stand failure
Metabarcoding via targeted ITS sequencing was used to characterize fungal communities in cheatgrass soils affected by stand failure in multiple areas. Analysis of the data confirmed key differences in the overall community composition between native communities and those affected by stand failure. Several identified fungal pathogens warrant further investigation to determine whether they are causal agents of stand failure. AbstractCheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass (Poaceae) that has colonized large portions of the Intermountain West. Cheatgrass stand failures have been observed throughout the inva...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nathan J. Ricks, Taryn Williamson, Susan E. Meyer, John M. Chaston, Craig E. Coleman Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Functional and structural characterization of Hyp730, a highly conserved and dormancy ‐specific hypothetical membrane protein
Dormancy requires a bacterium to be tolerant to external stresses, including antibiotics, hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, or immune surveillance from the host organism. Dormant bacteria aim to survive by minimizing their biological events, such as by adopting a state of non ‐replicative persistence, yet the molecular mechanism and protein which regulates dormancy are largely unknown. Here, we identified inMicrococcus luteus a dormancy ‐specific protein, Hyp730 is a membrane protein, widely conserved across Actinobacteria includingMycobacterium tuberculosis, but whose biological function has remained elusive. We determin...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stewart Fannin, Jonathan Rangel, Abiodun P. Bodurin, Tannon Yu, Brandon Mistretta, Sujina Mali, Preethi Gunaratne, Steven J. Bark, Jerry O. Ebalunode, Arshad Khan, William R. Widger, Mehmet Sen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic free ‐living amoeba and bacteria in 20 public indoor swimming pool facilities
Free ‐living amoebas (FLA) and pathogenic bacteria represent a risk in swimming pools. This work aimed to study the physicochemical characteristics and the occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and bacteria in water samples from 20 public indoor swimming facilities in northern Portugal. Our findings highlight the need to establish recommendations to safeguard the health of the swimming pool users. AbstractRecently, indoor swimming pool activities have increased to promote health ‐enhancing physical activities, which require establishing suitable protocols for disinfection and water quality control. Normally, the ass...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mar ía Reyes‐Batlle, Marta F. Gabriel, Rubén Rodríguez‐Expósito, Fátima Felgueiras, Ines Sifaoui, Zenaida Mourão, Eduardo Oliveira Fernandes, José E. Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo‐Morales Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Spatially explicit depiction of a floral epiphytic bacterial community reveals role for environmental filtering within petals
Spatially explicit analysis of flower petal microbial communities reveals evidence of environmental filtering. AbstractThe microbiome of flowers (anthosphere) is an understudied compartment of the plant microbiome. Within the flower, petals represent a heterogeneous environment for microbes in terms of resources and environmental stress. Yet, little is known of drivers of structure and function of the epiphytic microbial community at the within ‐petal scale. We characterized the petal microbiome in two co‐flowering plants that differ in the pattern of ultraviolet (UV) absorption along their petals. Bacterial communitie...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rebecca A. Hayes, Maria Rebolleda ‐Gómez, Kristen Butela, Leah F. Cabo, Nevin Cullen, Nancy Kaufmann, Steffani O'Neill, Tia‐Lynn Ashman Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A culture ‐independent approach to understanding the role of soil fungal communities in Bromus tectorum stand failure
Metabarcoding via targeted ITS sequencing was used to characterize fungal communities in cheatgrass soils affected by stand failure in multiple areas. Analysis of the data confirmed key differences in the overall community composition between native communities and those affected by stand failure. Several identified fungal pathogens warrant further investigation to determine whether they are causal agents of stand failure. AbstractCheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass (Poaceae) that has colonized large portions of the Intermountain West. Cheatgrass stand failures have been observed throughout the inva...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nathan J. Ricks, Taryn Williamson, Susan E. Meyer, John M. Chaston, Craig E. Coleman Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Functional and structural characterization of Hyp730, a highly conserved and dormancy ‐specific hypothetical membrane protein
Dormancy requires a bacterium to be tolerant to external stresses, including antibiotics, hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, or immune surveillance from the host organism. Dormant bacteria aim to survive by minimizing their biological events, such as by adopting a state of non ‐replicative persistence, yet the molecular mechanism and protein which regulates dormancy are largely unknown. Here, we identified inMicrococcus luteus a dormancy ‐specific protein, Hyp730 is a membrane protein, widely conserved across Actinobacteria includingMycobacterium tuberculosis, but whose biological function has remained elusive. We determin...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Stewart Fannin, Jonathan Rangel, Abiodun P. Bodurin, Tannon Yu, Brandon Mistretta, Sujina Mali, Preethi Gunaratne, Steven J. Bark, Jerry O. Ebalunode, Arshad Khan, William R. Widger, Mehmet Sen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

A Pichia biosensor for high ‐throughput analyses of compounds that can influence mosquito behavior
We have constructed a prototypical whole ‐cell biosensor in Pichia pastoris that can be used to study the molecular interactions of the mosquito olfactory receptor co‐receptor (Orco). The sensor can also be expanded through co‐expression of olfactory receptors to study olfactory cascades and identify molecules that can modulate these receptors. AbstractMosquitoes utilize their sense of smell to locate prey and feed on their blood. Repellents interfere with the biochemical cascades that detect odors. Consequently, repellants are highly effective and resource ‐efficient alternatives for controlling the spread of mosq...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - February 1, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Julia Nogueira Varela, Vikramaditya G. Yadav Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of storage, temperature, and extraction kit on the phylogenetic composition detected in the human milk microbiota
This study highlights that when extraction from fresh milk samples is not an option, freezing at −80°C is the next best option to preserve the integrity of the milk microbiome. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that choice of extraction kit had a profound impact on the microbiota populations detected in milk. AbstractHuman milk is considered the optimum feeding regime for newborns and is a source of bacteria for the developing infant gastrointestinal tract. However, as with all low biomass samples, standardization across variabilities such as sample collection, storage, and extraction methods is needed to elim...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katriona E. Lyons, Fiona Fouhy, Carol ‐Anne O’ Shea, C. Anthony Ryan, Eugene M. Dempsey, R. Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
(Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Community diversity metrics, interactions, and metabolic functions of bacteria associated with municipal solid waste landfills at different maturation stages
This study determined bacterial community composition, interaction conetworks, metabolic functions, and controlling physicochemical properties in two landfills aged 14 and 36  years. High throughput sequencing revealed a similar distribution of bacterial diversity, evenness, and richness in the 14‐ and 36‐year‐old landfills in the 0–90 cm depth. At deeper layers (120–150 cm), the 14‐year‐old landfill had significantly greater bacterial diversity and rich ness indicating that it is a more active microcosm than the 36‐year‐old landfill, where phylumEpsilonbacteraeota was overwhelmingl...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lerato Sekhohola ‐Dlamini, Ramganesh Selvarajan, Henry Joseph Odour Ogola, Memory Tekere Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Issue Information
MicrobiologyOpen, Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2021. (Source: MicrobiologyOpen)
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Tags: ISSUE INFORMATION Source Type: research

Identification of a conserved N ‐terminal domain in the first module of ACV synthetases
A conserved domain was identified in the first module of thel‐δ‐(α‐aminoadipoyl)‐l‐cysteinyl‐d‐valine synthetase, the first enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway of penicillin. The domain is structurally related to condensation domains, but it is approximately half the size and it lacks the typical active site motif. Nevertheless, its presence is important for catalysis. AbstractThel‐δ‐(α‐aminoadipoyl)‐l‐cysteinyl‐d‐valine synthetase (ACVS) is a trimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) that provides the peptide precursor for the synthesis of β‐lactams. The en...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Riccardo Iacovelli, L ászló Mózsik, Roel A.L. Bovenberg, Arnold J.M. Driessen Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Characterization of the microbiota and chemical properties of pork loins during dry aging
This study identified the microbiota of pork loins during DA using culturing and culture‐independent meta‐16S rRNA gene sequencing and elucidated its characteristics. The amounts of free amino acids and profiles of aroma‐active compounds were also monitored by high‐performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, respectively. The meta‐16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed thatPseudomonas spp. generally dominated the microbiota throughout DA; however, the culturing analysis showed marked changes in the species composition during DA.Acinetobacter spp. were the second most dominant bacteria before DA in the cu...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akihito Endo, Ryosuke Koizumi, Yozo Nakazawa, Yuh Shiwa, Shintaro Maeno, Yoshihiko Kido, Tomohiro Irisawa, Yoshiki Muramatsu, Kotaro Tada, Masao Yamazaki, Takao Myoda Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Characteristics of DNA polymerase I from an extreme thermophile, Thermus scotoductus strain K1
The DNA polymerase from the extreme thermophileThermus scotoductus strain K1 (TsK1) was expressed inEscherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The enzyme demonstrated an optimal temperature and pH value of 72 –74°C and 9.0, respectively, and could efficiently amplify 2.5 kb DNA products.TsK1 DNA polymerase did not require additional K+ ions but it did need Mg2+ at 3 –5 mM for optimal activity. The base insertion fidelity for this enzyme was significantly better than that ofTaq DNA polymerase. AbstractSeveral native and engineered heat ‐stable DNA polymerases from a variety of sources are use...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - January 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ani Saghatelyan, Hovik Panosyan, Armen Trchounian, Nils ‐Kåre Birkeland Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Temporal transcriptomes of a marine cyanopodovirus and its Synechococcus host during infection
Marine picocyanobacteria belonging to generaSynechococcus andProchlorococcus are genetically diverse and distributed into distinct biogeographical patterns, and both are infected by genetically closely related cyanopodoviruses. Here, we isolated and characterized a cyanopodovirus infectingSynechococcus, carried out RNA ‐seq analysis, and compared the results to the expression patterns of a cyanopodovirus and itsProchlorococcus host, which were previously reported. Our study demonstrated that cyanopodoviruses infecting marineSynechococcus andProchlorococcus undergo similar genome ‐wide expression dynamics and that gene ...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - December 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sijun Huang, Yingting Sun, Si Zhang, Lijuan Long Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of storage, temperature, and extraction kit on the phylogenetic composition detected in the human milk microbiota
This study highlights that when extraction from fresh milk samples is not an option, freezing at −80°C is the next best option to preserve the integrity of the milk microbiome. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that choice of extraction kit had a profound impact on the microbiota populations detected in milk. AbstractHuman milk is considered the optimum feeding regime for newborns and is a source of bacteria for the developing infant gastrointestinal tract. However, as with all low biomass samples, standardization across variabilities such as sample collection, storage, and extraction methods is needed to elim...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - December 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katriona E. Lyons, Fiona Fouhy, Carol-Anne O ’ Shea, C. Anthony Ryan, Eugene M. Dempsey, R. Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of fast ‐growing green snow bacteria from coastal East Antarctica
In this study, 45 fast ‐growing bacteria were isolated from green snow in East Antarctica. Bacterial isolates, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, showed a wide range of growth temperature from 4°C to 25°C and a high‐level of enzymatic activity. Phenotyping using Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a p ossible accumulation of intracellular polymers and lipids in some of the isolates. AbstractSnow microorganisms play a significant role in climate change and affecting the snow melting rate in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. While research on algae inhabiting green and red snow has been performed e...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - December 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Margarita Smirnova, Uladzislau Miamin, Achim Kohler, Leonid Valentovich, Artur Akhremchuk, Anastasiya Sidarenka, Andrey Dolgikh, Volha Shapaval Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Hidden heterogeneity and co ‐occurrence networks of soil prokaryotic communities revealed at the scale of individual soil aggregates
DNA extracted from ≥250‐mg of soil neglects spatial information stored in individual soil aggregates and thus limits our understanding of the structure and functionality of soil microbial communities. Here, we demonstrate that DNA obtained from individual mg‐sized soil aggregates provides new insights into how m icrobial communities are assembled and increases the likelihood of finding truly interacting microbial taxa by network analysis. AbstractSequencing PCR ‐amplified gene fragments from metagenomic DNA is a widely applied method for studying the diversity and dynamics of soil microbial communities. Typically,...
Source: MicrobiologyOpen - December 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: M árton Szoboszlay, Christoph C. Tebbe Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research