Use of genome sequencing to assess nucleotide structure variation of Staphylococcus aureus strains cultured in spaceflight on Shenzhou-X, under simulated microgravity and on the ground
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Jun Guo , Na Han , Yuanyuan Zhang , Haiyin Wang , Xuelin Zhang , Longxiang Su , Chao Liu , Jia Li , Chen Chen , Changting Liu The extreme environment of space could affect microbial behavior and may increase the risk of infectious disease during spaceflight. However, the molecular genetic changes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in response to the spaceflight environment have not been fully clarified. In the present study, we determined the draft genome sequences for an ancestral S. aureus strain (LCT-SAO)...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Deciphering the interface between a CD40 receptor and borrelial ligand OspA
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Patrik Mlynarcik , Lucia Pulzova , Elena Bencurova , Andrej Kovac , Miguel A. Dominguez , Stanislav Hresko , Mangesh R. Bhide Neuroborreliosis is serious sequelae of Lyme borreliosis. Neuroinvasion is largely relied on successful translocation of Borrelia across the blood–brain barrier. Adherence of Borrelia to brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMEC) seems to be critical for translocation. Here we unfold the interface between OspA and CD40 molecules, major ligand and receptor, that are involved in adhesion of Borreli...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antibacterial activity and genotypic–phenotypic characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Bacillus subtilis KKU213: Potential as a probiotic strain
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Nalisa Khochamit , Surasak Siripornadulsil , Peerapol Sukon , Wilailak Siripornadulsil The antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis strain KKU213, isolated from local soil, were investigated. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of a KKU213 culture containing crude bacteriocins exhibited inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity of the CFS precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diverse strategies conferring extreme cadmium (Cd) tolerance in the dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila: Evidence from RNA-seq data
This study represents the first investigation of the transcriptome of DSE under Cd stress, and our results provide valuable information for future molecular studies of HMs tolerance in fungi. (Source: Microbiological Research)
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

XerC-mediated DNA inversion at the inverted repeats of the UU172-phase-variable element of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Carl-Ulrich R. Zimmerman , Richard Herrmann , Renate Rosengarten Phase variation of the UU172 phase-variable element of Ureaplasma parvum is governed by a DNA inversion event that takes place at short inverted repeats. The putative tyrosine recombinase XerC of Ureaplasma has been suggested as a mediator in the proposed site-specific recombination event. Here, we provide evidence that XerC mediates DNA inversion at the inverted repeats located on a synthetic locus that was introduced into the model organism Escherichia coli. Synt...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Methods of isolation and purification of outer membrane vesicles from gram-negative bacteria
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Jana Klimentová , Jiří Stulík Outer membrane vesicles secreted by gram-negative bacteria play an important role in bacterial physiology as well as in virulence and host–pathogen interaction. Isolated vesicles of some bacteria have also been studied for their immunomodulatory potential in the vaccine development. However, the production of vesicles in sufficient amount, purity and reproducibility remains a critical challenge for subsequent analyses in most bacteria. In the present review methods of pro...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development of a high-efficiency gene knockout system for Pochonia chlamydosporia
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Baoming Shen , Jiling Xiao , Liangying Dai , Yonghong Huang , Zhenchuan Mao , Runmao Lin , Yurong Yao , Bingyan Xie The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia, which belongs to the family Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota: Pezizomycotina: Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales), is a promising biological control agent for root-knot and cyst nematodes. Its biocontrol effect has been confirmed by pot and field trials. The genome sequence of the fungus was completed recently; therefore, genome-wide functional analyses will identify its infec...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Phenotypic characterization of a novel double knockout PknI/DacB2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
In conclusion, our data suggest that both pknI and dacB2 play an important role in the maintenance of colony morphology, cell wall permeability and integrity of M. tuberculosis. (Source: Microbiological Research)
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Expression, purification and functional characterization of AmiA of acetamidase operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 11 Author(s): Balaji Sundararaman , Kannan Palaniyandi , Arunkumar Venkatesan , Sujatha Narayanan Regulation of gene expression is one of the mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms. In this context, we would like to understand the gene regulation of acetamidase enzyme of Mycobacterium smegmatis, which is the first reported inducible enzyme in mycobacteria. The acetamidase is highly inducible and the expression of this enzyme is increased 100-fold when the substrate acetamide is added. The acetamidase structural gene (amiE) is foun...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Analyses of genetic and pathogenic variability among Botrytis cinerea isolates
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 11 Author(s): Sarita Kumari , Pamil Tayal , Esha Sharma , Rupam Kapoor Seventy nine isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected from different host plants and different locations of India and Nepal. All the isolates were identified as B. cinerea based on morphological features and were confirmed using B. cinerea specific primers. Differentiation among the isolates was assessed using morphological, genetic and biochemical approaches. To analyze morphological variability, differences in conidial size, presence or absence of sclerotia and the...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Encoded protein from ycbR gene of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with adherence to HEp-2 cells
This study mainly focused on investigating the influence of ycbR gene and its encoded YCBR protein on the adhesion of EHEC O157:H7 to HEp-2 cells. In the first part, mutants of EHEC O157:H7 were constructed through TnphoA mutagenesis and assayed for adherent ability. Six mutant strains with lost adherence to HEp-2 cells were isolated and then sequenced using a primer that hybridized to phoA sequence downstream of the fusion joint. The sequencing results indicated that the gene of eae and ycbR, between the initiation codon and the −10 sequence of Z4182, yciI, ARAC-type regulator protein, and high-affinity gluconate tr...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Disruption and molecular characterization of calpains-related (MoCAPN1, MoCAPN3 and MoCAPN4) genes in Magnaporthe oryzae
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 11 Author(s): Irshad Ali Khan , Yao Wang , Hai-Jiao Li , Jian-Ping Lu , Xiao-Hong Liu , Fu-Cheng Lin Calpains are intracellular, cysteine proteases found in plants, animals and fungi functioning as signal transduction components in different cellular pathways including sporulation and alkaline adaptation in fungi. Calpains-related MoCAPN1 (MGG_14872), MoCAPN3 (MGG_15810) and MoCAPN4 (MGG_04818) genes from Magnaporthe oryzae genome which are 2604, 3513 and 771-bp in length and encoding identical proteins of 867, 1170 and 256 amino acids wer...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A high efficiency gene disruption strategy using a positive–negative split selection marker and electroporation for Fusarium oxysporum
In this study we have developed a F. oxysporum high-efficiency gene-disruption strategy based on split-marker homologous recombination cassettes with dual selection and electroporation transformation. The method was efficiently used to delete three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. The gene-disruption cassettes of three genes can be constructed simultaneously within a short time using this technique. The optimal condition for electroporation is 10μF capacitance, 300Ω resistance, 4kV/cm field strength, with 1μg of DNA (gene-disruption cassettes). Under these optimal conditions, we were able to obtain 95...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of a novel proto-type antimicrobial protein galectin-1 from striped murrel
In this study, we reported a molecular characterization of a novel proto-type galectin-1 from the striped murrel Channa striatus (named as CsGal-1). The full length CsGal-1 was identified from an established striped murrel cDNA library and further we confirmed the sequence by cloning. The complete cDNA sequence of CsGal-1 is 590 base pairs (bp) in length and its coding region encoded a poly peptide of 135 amino acids. The polypeptide contains a galactoside binding lectin domain at 4–135. The domain carries a sugar binding site at 45–74 along with its signatures (H45-X-Asn47-X-Arg49 and Trp69-X-X-Glu72-X-Arg74)....
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

StSTE12 is required for the pathogenicity of Setosphaeria turcica by regulating appressorium development and penetration
In this study, we cloned StSTE12 from Setosphaeria turcica and investigated its functions by RNA interference. Transformants ste12-3, ste12-2 and, ste12-1, in which the StSTE12 silencing efficiency increased in order, were confirmed by real time PCR. Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the transformants showed reduced growth rate, lighter colony color, and obviously decreased conidium production. More importantly, different to WT strain and ste12-3 with lower StSTE12silencing efficiency, ste12-1 and ste12-2 with higher StSTE12 silencing efficiency were nonpathogenic on intact leaves, but pathogenic on wounded leaves. ...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Distribution and molecular profiling of class 1 integrons in MDR Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and whole genome-based analysis of antibiotic resistance mechanisms in a representative strain
In this study, we characterized the gene cassette arrays of class 1 integrons in Acinetobacter baumannii, where the detailed structure of these integrons for 38 clinical strains was analyzed. The results showed that there are three types of gene cassette arrays that are carried by different class 1 integrons, among them the aac(6′)-IId-catB8-aadA1 array was the most prevalent. For detailed analysis of the integron structure, whole genome sequencing was carried out on strain AB16, and it was found that a single integron on its chromosome has a partial Tn21 transposon in its 5′ flanking region and two complete co...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fungal invasion of epithelial cells
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 11 Author(s): Weiming Yang , Lei Yan , Chunrong Wu , Xiangwang Zhao , Jianguo Tang Interaction between host cells and invasive Candida plays a large role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Fungal-induced endocytosis and active penetration are the two distinct, yet complementary invasion mechanisms of invasive candidiasis. Induced endocytosis is a microorganism-triggered, epithelial-driven, clathrin-mediated and actin-dependent process. During the fundamental pathological process of induced endocytosis, invasins (Als3 and Ssa1), which...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Deep sequencing analysis of the Kineococcus radiotolerans transcriptome in response to ionizing radiation
This study provides the foundation to investigate the regulatory mechanism of these genes. (Source: Microbiological Research)
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The dtd gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens encodes a putative d-tyrosyl-tRNATyr deacylase and is a selectable marker for Bacillus subtilis
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014 Source:Microbiological Research Author(s): Natalia V. Geraskina , Ivan A. Butov , Yurgis A.V. Yomantas , Nataliya V. Stoynova Genetically engineered microbes are of high practical importance due to their cost-effective production of valuable metabolites and enzymes, and the search for new selectable markers for genetic manipulation is of particular interest. Here, we revealed that the soil bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A50 is tolerant to the non-canonical amino acid d-tyrosine (d-Tyr), in contrast to the closely related Bacillus strain B. subtilis 168, which is a...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Endophytic Bacillus spp. produce antifungal lipopeptides and induce host defence gene expression in maize
In this study we isolated Bacillus spp. from seeds of several varieties of maize. Bacillus amyloliquifaciens or Bacillus subtilis were found to be present in all maize varieties examined in this study. To determine whether bacteria may produce antifungal compounds, generally lipopeptides in Bacillus spp., bacterial cultures were screened for production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides were extracted by acid precipitation from liquid cultures of Bacillus spp. Lipopeptide extracts from Bacillus spp. isolated from Indian popcorn and yellow dent corn showed inhibitory activity against Fusarium moniliforme at 500μg per disc. Us...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The N-terminal repeat and the ligand binding domain A of SdrI Protein is involved in hydrophobicity of S. saprophyticus
This study confirms that the SdrI protein of S. saprophyticus is a crucial factor for surface hydrophobicity and also gives a first significant functional description of the N-terminal repeats, which in conjunction with the B-repeats form an optimal hydrophobic conformation. (Source: Microbiological Research)
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis in Pseudomonas nitroreducens and the regulatory role of pyrimidines
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Thomas P. West Control of pyrimidine biosynthesis in the commercially important, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium Pseudomonas nitroreducens ATCC 33634 was investigated. When glucose-grown wild-type cells were supplemented with uracil or orotic acid, the pyrimidine biosynthetic activities were depressed. Pyrimidine limitation of glucose-grown cells of an orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mutant caused aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase activities to increase by about 4-fold while the other enzyme activities about do...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Characterization, N-terminal sequencing and classification of Tolworthcin 524: A bacteriocin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Rubén D. Pacheco-Cano , Norma M. de la Fuente-Salcido , Rubén Salcedo-Hernández , M. Fabiola León-Galván , Dennis K. Bideshi , Gustavo Hernández-Guzmán , J. Eleazar Barboza-Corona Bacteriocins synthesized by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining attention owing to their inhibitory effects against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we purified and characterized Tolworthcin 524, a bacteriocin synthesized by B. thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Rapid identification of Streptomyces isolates by MALDI-TOF MS
In this study, an efficient protocol of identification using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed and applied for the rapid identification of Streptomyces isolates from the El Kala lakes in northeastern Algeria. A collection of 48 Streptomyces isolates were used for this study. The optimized procedure allowed us to obtain specific and reproducible protein spectra for each Streptomyces isolate tested. The spectra generated were used to build a preliminary local database based on their initial 16S rRNA identification. The blind test used for the identificat...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Life cycle and spore resistance of spore-forming Bacillus atrophaeus
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Sandra R.B.R. Sella , Luciana P.S. Vandenberghe , Carlos Ricardo Soccol Bacillus endospores have a wide variety of important medical and industrial applications. This is an overview of the fundamental aspects of the life cycle, spore structure and factors that influence the spore resistance of spore-forming Bacillus. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as reference microorganism for this review because their spores are widely used to study spore resistance and morphology. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the cell cycle and s...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Application of monoclonal antibodies generated against Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL-S) toxin for specific identification of community acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Niveditha Sundar Poojary , Shylaja Ramlal , Radhika Madan Urs , Murali Harishchandra Sripathy , Harsh Vardhan Batra Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) produced by community acquired methicillin Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) involved in skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia comprised of two fractions, namely PVL S and PVL F. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies designated as MAb1, MAb9 and MAb10 were generated against recombinant PVL-S (35kDa) protein of S. aureus. All the three MAbs specifica...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cloning and characteristic analysis of a novel aspartic protease gene Asp55 from Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536
In this study, the coding sequence and promoter region of the novel aspartic protease gene Asp55 were cloned from strain Trichoderma asperellum ACCC30536. Many cis-elements involved in phytopathogenic and environmental stress responses were identified in the Asp55 promoter region and may be recognized by MYB or WRKY transcription factors. The expression pattern of Asp55 under eight culture conditions was investigated by RT-qPCR. The expression level of Asp55 was up-regulated by poplar stem powder, Alternaria alternata cell wall fragments and A. alternata fermentation liquid, while it was down-regulated by carbon and nitrog...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Improved ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures with Kluyveromyces lactis on high-sugar fermentation
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Chizuru Yamaoka , Osamu Kurita , Tomoko Kubo The influence of non-Saccharomyces yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis, on metabolite formation and the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed cultures was examined on synthetic minimal medium containing 20% glucose. In the late stage of fermentation after the complete death of K. lactis, S. cerevisiae in mixed cultures was more ethanol-tolerant than that in pure culture. The chronological life span of S. cerevisiae was shorter in pure culture than mixed cultures. The yeast...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diversity and distribution of planktonic anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the Dongjiang River, China
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Wei Sun , Chunyu Xia , Meiying Xu , Jun Guo , Aijie Wang , Guoping Sun Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process has recently been recognized as an important pathway for removing fixed nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. Anammox organisms are widely distributed in freshwater environments. However, little is known about their presence in the water column of riverine ecosystems. Here, the existence of a diverse anammox community was revealed in the water column of the Dongjiang River by analyzing 16S rRNA and hydrazine o...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ZnO nanoparticles inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence factor production
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 169, Issue 12 Author(s): Jin-Hyung Lee , Yong-Guy Kim , Moo Hwan Cho , Jintae Lee The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of virulence factors, and biofilms of this bacterium are much more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells. Thirty-six metal ions have been investigated to identify antivirulence and antibiofilm metal ions. Zinc ions and ZnO nanoparticles were found to markedly inhibit biofilm formation and the production of pyocyanin, Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), pyochelin, and hemolytic activity of P. a...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Survival of a novel endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari B3 in the indole-contaminated soil detected by real-time PCR and its effects on the indigenous microbial community
In this study, a specific real-time PCR was developed to detect the survival of P. liquidambari B3 in soil. Subsequently, degradation activity of strain B3 and its effects on indigenous microbial community were analyzed. Results showed the amount of P. liquidambari B3 genomic DNA increased to a maximum 5.67 log (pgg−1 dry soil) 10 days after inoculation of 5.04 log (pgg−1 dry soil), and then gradually decreased with time and after 40 days it was below the detection limit. By the end of the experiment (day 40), bioaugmented microsoms showed a 93.7% decrease in indole, while the values for biostimulated and contr...
Source: Microbiological Research - December 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier in Candida albicans infections
Publication date: 25 August 2013 Source:Microbiological Research, Volume 168, Issue 7 Author(s): Lei Yan , Chunhui Yang , Jianguo Tang Candida albicans is a common microorganism in the intestine. However, invasive C. albicans infection has emerged as a life-threatening disease in recent years. The mortality rate of invasive candidiasis is high in critically ill hosts. C. albicans can switch from the yeast to the hyphal morphology, and take advantage of the impaired intestinal mucosal barrier and insufficient immunity of the host to facilitate its colonization and penetration. Despite the availability of potent new antifu...
Source: Microbiological Research - November 3, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research