Series Page
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Volker Gurtler (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 1 - Introduction into nanotechnology and microbiology
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Andrew S Ball, Sayali Patil, Sarvesh SoniAbstractThe current chapter summaries the world of Microbiology and boom of Nanotechnology and how both the exciting fields come together to help men kind with various new applications in water, food, medical biology and immunology. Furthermore synthesis of nano materials utilising the potential of microorganisms also opens a newer avenue for ‘green’ synthesis. (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 2 - Nano-realm for point-of-care (POC) bacterial diagnostics
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Bandhan Chatterjee, Neeti Kalyani, Soonjyoti Das, Anjali Anand, Tarun Kumar SharmaAbstractThe omnipresence of bacterial pathogens poses a grave danger for human survival on earth, the spectre justified in periodical WHO reports, where bacterial borne diseases maintain their share of infamy, claiming the leading cause of mortality around the globe. Given the current status of therapeutic advances, many of these life endangering diseases can be cured if diagnosed accurately and on time. So, the onus of saving lives now leans more towards having timely...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 3 - Applications of nanotechnology in food microbiology
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Lily Jaiswal, Shiv Shankar, Jong-Whan RhimAbstractCurrently, the food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries globally. One of the most serious concerns in the food packaging industry is reducing environmental burdens by reducing food packaging waste or replacing non-biodegradable plastic packaging materials with eco-friendly biopolymer-based packaging materials to ensure food safety and extend the shelf life of packaged food. The advent of nanotechnology has recently been applied to overcome these challenges of food and en...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 4 - The use of nanomaterials for the mitigation of pathogenic biofilm formation
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Aaron Elbourne, Vi Khanh Truong, Samuel Cheeseman, Piumie Rajapaksha, Sheeana Gangadoo, James Chapman, Russell J. CrawfordAbstractAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health (Boucher et al., 2009, Bush et al., 2011, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013, Neu, 1992, Spellberg et al., 2008). Unfortunately, the current rise in AMR has made biofilm-related infections a primary health-care concern, since these biofilms can no longer be effectively treated using conventional antibiotic metho...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 5 - Biocompatible in-situ gelling polymer hydrogels for treating ocular infection
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Manu Sharma, Ankita Deohra, Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Veera SadhuAbstractThe eye is a sensitive organ susceptible to bacterial as well as fungal acute and chronic infections. Commonly used conventional ocular dosage forms are solutions, drops, ointments, gels and suspensions. However, the small size of the ocular cavity, nasolacrimal drainage, precorneal elimination, conjunctival absorption and poor retention time compromises the ocular bioavailability of drugs and their therapeutic efficacy. The development of novel ophthalmic delivery systems suggest...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 6 - Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Hemraj ChhipaAbstractExcess use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has shown negative impacts on soil health and environment. Chemical residues destroy the soil ecosystem by affecting the non-targeted organisms and decrease soil fertility simultaneously. To prevent such adversity in soil and environment, researchers have applied nanotechnology in agriculture. Nanotechnology is the rising technology of the current decade, which has shown promising results in controlling excess agri-inputs and maintaining environmental balance. The characteristics...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 7 - Use of nanotechnology in antimicrobial therapy
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Nitin Gupta, Divya Bharti Rai, Ashok Kumar Jangid, Hitesh KulhariAbstractNanotechnology has emerged as a tool for developing advanced therapies to control and combat infections. Antibiotic resistance and side effects are the latest challenges for development and application of available antimicrobials. Biocompatible nanomaterials confer potential strategies for preventing drug-resistance in microbes, basically by improving the therapeutic effect of current antimicrobial drugs. Nanotechnology-based carriers referred to as nanovehicles (NVs), have uni...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 8 - Lipid nanomaterials for the delivery of antimicrobial peptides
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Thomas G. Meikle, Jamie B. Strachan, Charlotte E. ConnAbstractIn light of growing concerns regarding wide-spread antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides may present a much needed alternative to currently available therapeutics, with less potential for the development of resistance in target organisms. They demonstrate broad spectrum activity, often against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as viruses and protozoa. These peptides are a subset of the larger pharmaceutical class of protein and peptide-based biopharmaceuticals...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 9 - Synthetic gutomics: Deciphering the microbial code for futuristic diagnosis and personalized medicine
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Pankaj Satapathy, Kounaina Khan, Aishwarya Tripurasundari Devi, Anirudh Gururaj Patil, Avinash Mirle Govindaraju, Shubha Gopal, Mysore Nagalingaswamy Nagendra Prasad, Veena Sunil More, Raghava Reddy Kakarla, Anjanapura V. Raghu, Shivaprasad Hudeda, Sunil Shivaji More, Farhan ZameerAbstractMicrobes exist in every type of environment and the human gut is no exception. These microbes play a very crucial role in health and metabolism. Synthetic Gutomics is an effort to describe the engineering of the gut microbiota for ameliorating human disorders. This...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 10 - Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles/biopolymer hybrids: Synthesis methods, properties and biomedical applications
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Pattubala Adinaraya Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata Reddy, Nagaraj P. Shetti, Bhatula Babu, Koutavarapu Ravindranadh, Muthukonda Venkatakrishnan Shankar, Madhava C. Reddy, Sarvesh Soni, Shivalingegowda NaveenAbstractSuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most extensively used functional nanomaterials as antibacterial agents, and for other biomedical applications due to their unique physical, chemical, magnetic and biocompatibility properties. However, due to their small size, particles tend to aggregate by dipo...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 11 - Recent advances in nanoparticles-based strategies for cancer therapeutics and antibacterial applications
Publication date: 2019Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 46Author(s): Surendra Gulla, Dakshayani Lomada, Vadali V.S.S. Srikanth, Muthukonda Venkatakrishnan Shankar, Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Sarvesh Soni, Madhava C. ReddyAbstractNanoparticles' based cancer therapeutics are greatly dependent on the development of science and engineering of nanoparticles. In this article, important strategies based on nanoparticles used for cancer treatment are discussed. The inspiration to write this article is not only to review the existing strategies based on nanoparticles but also to highlight the pertinent and possible solutions ther...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Use of nanotechnology in antimicrobial therapy
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Nitin Gupta, Divya Bharti Rai, Ashok Kumar Jangid, Hitesh KulhariAbstractNanotechnology has emerged as a tool for developing advanced therapies to control and combat infections. Antibiotic resistance and side effects are the latest challenges for development and application of available antimicrobials. Biocompatible nanomaterials confer potential strategies for preventing drug-resistance in microbes, basically by improving the therapeutic effect of current antimicrobial drugs. Nanotechnology-based carriers referred to as nanovehicles (N...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent advances in nanoparticles-based strategies for cancer therapeutics and antibacterial applications
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Surendra Gulla, Dakshayani Lomada, Vadali V.S.S. Srikanth, M.V. Shankar, Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Sarvesh K. Soni, Madhava C. ReddyAbstractNanoparticles' based cancer therapeutics are greatly dependent on the development of science and engineering of nanoparticles. In this article, important strategies based on nanoparticles used for cancer treatment are discussed. The inspiration to write this article is not only to review the existing strategies based on nanoparticles but also to highlight the pertinent and possible solutions thereof, e...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Introduction into nanotechnology and microbiology
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Andrew S. Ball, Sayali Patil, Sarvesh K. SoniAbstractThe current chapter summaries the world of Microbiology and boom of Nanotechnology and how both the exciting fields come together to help men kind with various new applications in water, food, medical biology and immunology. Furthermore synthesis of nano materials utilising the potential of microorganisms also opens a newer avenue for ‘green’ synthesis. (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nano-realm for point-of-care (POC) bacterial diagnostics
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bandhan Chatterjee, Neeti Kalyani, Soonjyoti Das, Anjali Anand, Tarun Kumar SharmaAbstractThe omnipresence of bacterial pathogens poses a grave danger for human survival on earth, the spectre justified in periodical WHO reports, where bacterial borne diseases maintain their share of infamy, claiming the leading cause of mortality around the globe. Given the current status of therapeutic advances, many of these life endangering diseases can be cured if diagnosed accurately and on time. So, the onus of saving lives now leans more towards ...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles/biopolymer hybrids: Synthesis methods, properties and biomedical applications
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Kakarla Raghava Reddy, P. Adinaraya Reddy, Ch. Venkata Reddy, Nagaraj P. Shetti, B. Babu, K. Ravindranadh, M.V. Shankar, Madhava C. Reddy, Sarvesh K. Soni, S. NaveenAbstractSuperparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most extensively used functional nanomaterials as antibacterial agents, and for other biomedical applications due to their unique physical, chemical, magnetic and biocompatibility properties. However, due to their small size, particles tend to aggregate by dipole-dipole interactions between magnetic particle...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The use of nanomaterials for the mitigation of pathogenic biofilm formation
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Aaron Elbourne, Vi Khanh Truong, Samuel Cheeseman, Piumie Rajapaksha, Sheeana Gangadoo, James Chapman, Russell J. CrawfordAbstractAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health (Boucher et al., 2009, Bush et al., 2011, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013, Neu, 1992, Spellberg et al., 2008). Unfortunately, the current rise in AMR has made biofilm-related infections a primary health-care concern, since these biofilms can no longer be effectively treated using conventional ant...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Synthetic gutomics: Deciphering the microbial code for futuristic diagnosis and personalized medicine
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Pankaj Satapathy, Kounaina Khan, Aishwarya Tripurasundari Devi, Anirudh Gururaj Patil, Avinash Mirle Govindaraju, Shubha Gopal, Mysore Nagalingaswamy Nagendra Prasad, Veena Sunil More, Raghava Reddy Kakarla, Anjanapura V. Raghu, Shivaprasad Hudeda, Sunil Shivaji More, Farhan ZameerAbstractMicrobes exist in every type of environment and the human gut is no exception. These microbes play a very crucial role in health and metabolism. Synthetic Gutomics is an effort to describe the engineering of the gut microbiota for ameliorating human di...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - May 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Applications of nanotechnology in food microbiology
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Lily Jaiswal, Shiv Shankar, Jong-Whan RhimAbstractCurrently, the food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries globally. One of the most serious concerns in the food packaging industry is reducing environmental burdens by reducing food packaging waste or replacing non-biodegradable plastic packaging materials with eco-friendly biopolymer-based packaging materials to ensure food safety and extend the shelf life of packaged food. The advent of nanotechnology has recently been applied to overcome these challenges...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - April 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lipid nanomaterials for the delivery of antimicrobial peptides
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Thomas G. Meikle, Jamie B. Strachan, Charlotte E. ConnAbstractIn light of growing concerns regarding wide-spread antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptides may present a much needed alternative to currently available therapeutics, with less potential for the development of resistance in target organisms. They demonstrate broad spectrum activity, often against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as viruses and protozoa. These peptides are a subset of the larger pharmaceutical class of protein and peptide-based bio...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - April 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hemraj ChhipaAbstractExcess use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has shown negative impacts on soil health and environment. Chemical residues destroy the soil ecosystem by affecting the non-targeted organisms and decrease soil fertility simultaneously. To prevent such adversity in soil and environment, researchers have applied nanotechnology in agriculture. Nanotechnology is the rising technology of the current decade, which has shown promising results in controlling excess agri-inputs and maintaining environmental balance. The c...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - March 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biocompatible in-situ gelling polymer hydrogels for treating ocular infection
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Manu Sharma, Ankita Deohra, Kakarla Raghava Reddy, Veera SadhuAbstractThe eye is a sensitive organ susceptible to bacterial as well as fungal acute and chronic infections. Commonly used conventional ocular dosage forms are solutions, drops, ointments, gels and suspensions. However, the small size of the ocular cavity, nasolacrimal drainage, precorneal elimination, conjunctival absorption and poor retention time compromises the ocular bioavailability of drugs and their therapeutic efficacy. The development of novel ophthalmic delive...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - February 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Series Page
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Contributors
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cover Picture
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Preface
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Volker Gurtler, Jack T. Trevors (Source: Methods in Microbiology)
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 1 - Microbiology of the Built Environment in Spacecraft Used for Human Flight
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Jiseon Yang, Starla G. Thornhill, Jennifer Barrila, Cheryl A. Nickerson, Charlie Mark Ott, Robert J.C. McLeanAbstractSpacecraft, associated with human spaceflight, is one of the more unusual microbial environments. In contrast to other terrestrial environments, microorganisms within spacecraft are completely isolated from the rest of the biosphere and experience greatly reduced gravity (microgravity) and increased exposure to solar radiation. Microorganisms are introduced to this environment primarily through the microbiomes associated with spacecre...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 2 - The Study of Microbial Survival in Extraterrestrial Environments Using Low Earth Orbit and Ground-Based Experiments
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Karen Olsson-Francis, Nisha K. Ramkissoon, Alex B. Price, David J. Slade, Micheal C. Macey, Victoria K. PearsonAbstractMicroorganisms can be used as model systems for studying the biological responses to extraterrestrial conditions. Understanding how cells degrade under such conditions is important for identifying potential biosignatures for future life detection missions. The facilities used to study such responses are extremely challenging and expensive. Therefore, these studies depend on a combination of ground-based simulation and real space exp...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 3 - Persistence of Fungi in Atypical, Closed Environments: Cultivation to Omics
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Adriana Blachowicz, Kasthuri Venkateswaran, Clay C.C. WangAbstractFilamentous fungi are dual organisms that can be both useful for mankind and threatening to human habitats and health. These omnipresent extremotolerant microorganisms are associated with a range of hostile environments and the human body. Immense adaptability to a variety of conditions enables fungi residing on people to thrive anywhere they go, including man-made closed habitats. One such habitat is the International Space Station (ISS), which is a research platform under strict mic...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 4 - Molecular Methods for Studying Microorganisms From Atypical Environments
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit DasAbstractAdvanced molecular biology tools have unravelled the omnipresence of microbes in environments either in the form of cultivable or uncultivable fractions. However, research on microbial diversity in low biomass environments is still in its nascent stage. Microbial diversity of atypical environments has gained interest due to their adaptive features in extreme habitats, evolutionary and phylogenetic uniqueness, rich functional perspective and the presence of novel enzymes with biotechnological applications. Though...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 5 - Measuring Microbial Metabolism in Atypical Environments
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Wendy Stone, Gideon WolfaardtAbstractMicrobial metabolism in extreme environments has two defining characteristics: it is slow, and it tends towards the lower measurement thresholds of all current techniques and methodological trends. This provides the crucible of challenge to drive novel techniques, forcing researchers to employ new ideas, as well as reinvent old ideas that have fallen out of favour or become overshadowed by current buzzwords in the field. Some of the techniques that have been creatively harnessed to successfully shed light on the ...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 6 - Territories of Rock-Inhabiting Fungi: Survival on and Alteration of Solid Air-Exposed Surfaces
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Nicole Knabe, Anna A. GorbushinaAbstractSubaerial biofilms that are omnipresent at the interface between all solid substrates and the atmosphere are composed of a unique and widespread group of ascomycetes called rock-inhabiting fungi or microcolonial fungi (MCF), typically in communities with other microorganisms. While subaerial biofilms in toto have important roles in mineral weathering and biodeterioration of materials, methodological approaches to subaerial biofilm communities are diverse and frequently focussed on MCF. Here, we review the hist...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 7 - Taxonomy of Oral Bacteria
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Samantha J. Byrne, Catherine A. Butler, Eric C. Reynolds, Stuart G. DashperAbstractThe oral cavity is a collection of diverse microenvironments, each inhabited by a community of microorganisms, the majority of which are bacteria and their phages. Given the appropriate conditions, some of these bacteria can cause destruction of the teeth or their supporting hard and soft tissues. For over 300 years microbiologists have been characterising these microbial communities, in both oral health and disease. In this chapter, we take the reader on a journey th...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 8 - Aqueous Methods for Extraction/Recovery of Macromolecules From Microorganisms of Atypical Environments: A Focus on Three Phase Partitioning
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Mohammed GagaouaAbstractDownstream processing is a major cost in the production of macromolecules, including proteins and enzymes. Thus, development of efficient and economical downstream processing strategies has become an important area in microbiology, biochemistry and biotechnology. The trend is to develop protocols, which have fewer steps, do not require any preprocessing and have unit processes, which integrate well. This chapter deals with these aspects and explores one of the interesting aqueous separation methods, Three Phase Partitioning (...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 9 - Microbial Community Composition and Predicted Functional Attributes of Antarctic Lithobionts Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Tools
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Hyunmin Koo, Joseph A. Hakim, Casey D. Morrow, Dale T. Andersen, Asim K. BejAbstractThis chapter focuses on the rationale and implementation of a suite of software in the data management, processing, and statistical analysis used towards establishing reliable microbial community compositions, predictive functions, and other useful downstream bioinformatics analyses, using NGS data generated by the Illumina Miseq targeted metagenomics approach. This chapter also emphasizes the importance of using multiple taxonomic databases and software to obtain a ...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 10 - Methods for Collection and Characterization of Samples From Icy Environments
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Manuel Bedrossian, Jody W. Deming, Jay NadeauAbstractEnvironments where the prevailing temperature is below 0°C include both solid (frozen) substrates, such as glacier ice and permafrost, and liquid environments such as cold springs and cryopegs. Some of these environments have low solute concentrations, whereas others have very high levels of salts and other solutes, with corresponding freezing point depression. Some have high microbial density, while others represent the limits of cell survival. All of these present specific challenges for ide...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 11 - Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Extremely Halophilic Microbes
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Harold Engelhardt, Daniel BollschweilerAbstractHalophilic and extremely halophilic microorganisms in particular have been a challenge for conventional electron microscopy (EM) as well as for state-of-the-art cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). Conventional preparation techniques such as negative staining of isolated macromolecular complexes and plastic embedding of whole cells for ultrathin sectioning suffer from the problem of eliminating most of the salt without destroying the biological samples. Cryo-EM on the other hand, which is int...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 12 - Methods to Study Magnetotactic Bacteria and Magnetosomes
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Lei Yan, Weijia XingAbstractMagnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are microorganisms capable of directed migration along geomagnetic field lines due to the presence of magnetosomes (MS) in the cells. Because of the special structures of MS consisting of lipid membranes and crystalline magnetic minerals, MTB have implications for environmental magnetism, development of magnetic materials, and iron biomineralization. Additionally, MS have potential uses for applications in modern biomedicine. Therefore, they have attracted attention from researchers in differe...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chapter 13 - Molecular Methods to Study Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus From Atypical Environments
Publication date: 2018Source: Methods in Microbiology, Volume 45Author(s): Indrani Karunasagar, Biswajit Maiti, Ballamoole Krishna KumarAbstractVibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are autochthonous flora of the aquatic environment. In their natural habitat, they are present in water and in association with aquatic fauna and flora. The human gut is not a natural habitat and therefore when these vibrios are isolated from the stool samples or from human tissue such as wound, blood, etc., they are in an atypical environment. Recent data have shown that the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus-associated...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Study of Microbial Survival in Extraterrestrial Environments Using Low Earth Orbit and Ground-Based Experiments
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Karen Olsson-Francis, Nisha K. Ramkissoon, Alex B. Price, David J. Slade, Micheal C. Macey, Victoria K. PearsonAbstractMicroorganisms can be used as model systems for studying the biological responses to extraterrestrial conditions. Understanding how cells degrade under such conditions is important for identifying potential biosignatures for future life detection missions. The facilities used to study such responses are extremely challenging and expensive. Therefore, these studies depend on a combination of ground-based simulation a...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Methods to Study Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus From Atypical Environments
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Indrani Karunasagar, Biswajit Maiti, Ballamoole Krishna KumarAbstractVibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are autochthonous flora of the aquatic environment. In their natural habitat, they are present in water and in association with aquatic fauna and flora. The human gut is not a natural habitat and therefore when these vibrios are isolated from the stool samples or from human tissue such as wound, blood, etc., they are in an atypical environment. Recent data have shown that the incidence of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vuln...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Methods for Studying Microorganisms From Atypical Environments
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hirak Ranjan Dash, Surajit DasAbstractAdvanced molecular biology tools have unravelled the omnipresence of microbes in environments either in the form of cultivable or uncultivable fractions. However, research on microbial diversity in low biomass environments is still in its nascent stage. Microbial diversity of atypical environments has gained interest due to their adaptive features in extreme habitats, evolutionary and phylogenetic uniqueness, rich functional perspective and the presence of novel enzymes with biotechnological app...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 17, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial Community Composition and Predicted Functional Attributes of Antarctic Lithobionts Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Tools
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Hyunmin Koo, Joseph A. Hakim, Casey D. Morrow, Dale T. Andersen, Asim K. BejAbstractThis chapter focuses on the rationale and implementation of a suite of software in the data management, processing, and statistical analysis used towards establishing reliable microbial community compositions, predictive functions, and other useful downstream bioinformatics analyses, using NGS data generated by the Illumina Miseq targeted metagenomics approach. This chapter also emphasizes the importance of using multiple taxonomic databases and softw...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 9, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Persistence of Fungi in Atypical, Closed Environments: Cultivation to Omics
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Adriana Blachowicz, Kasthuri Venkateswaran, Clay C.C. WangAbstractFilamentous fungi are dual organisms that can be both useful for mankind and threatening to human habitats and health. These omnipresent extremotolerant microorganisms are associated with a range of hostile environments and the human body. Immense adaptability to a variety of conditions enables fungi residing on people to thrive anywhere they go, including man-made closed habitats. One such habitat is the International Space Station (ISS), which is a research platfo...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Measuring Microbial Metabolism in Atypical Environments
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Wendy Stone, Gideon WolfaardtAbstractMicrobial metabolism in extreme environments has two defining characteristics: it is slow, and it tends towards the lower measurement thresholds of all current techniques and methodological trends. This provides the crucible of challenge to drive novel techniques, forcing researchers to employ new ideas, as well as reinvent old ideas that have fallen out of favour or become overshadowed by current buzzwords in the field. Some of the techniques that have been creatively harnessed to successfully...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - October 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Aqueous Methods for Extraction/Recovery of Macromolecules From Microorganisms of Atypical Environments: A Focus on Three Phase Partitioning
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mohammed GagaouaAbstractDownstream processing is a major cost in the production of macromolecules, including proteins and enzymes. Thus, development of efficient and economical downstream processing strategies has become an important area in microbiology, biochemistry and biotechnology. The trend is to develop protocols, which have fewer steps, do not require any preprocessing and have unit processes, which integrate well. This chapter deals with these aspects and explores one of the interesting aqueous separation methods, Three P...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - September 19, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbiology of the Built Environment in Spacecraft Used for Human Flight
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jiseon Yang, Starla G. Thornhill, Jennifer Barrila, Cheryl A. Nickerson, C. Mark Ott, Robert J.C. McLeanAbstractSpacecraft, associated with human spaceflight, is one of the more unusual microbial environments. In contrast to other terrestrial environments, microorganisms within spacecraft are completely isolated from the rest of the biosphere and experience greatly reduced gravity (microgravity) and increased exposure to solar radiation. Microorganisms are introduced to this environment primarily through the microbiomes associated wi...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research