Remapping the organ donation ethical climate: a care ethics consideration
AbstractOrgan donation has gained much attention as the need for transplant exceeds the supply of organs. Various proposals have been put forward to address the organ shortage challenge, ranging from offering incentives to donors, addressing family refusals to donations and instituting presumed consent laws. Presumed consent as the favoured approach has not been universally effective in increasing actual transplants despite its appeal. Few considerations have been given to the broader ethical climate influencing the organ donation debate. This paper examines the ethical climate surrounding organ donation and identifies the...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - December 6, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Psychosis, vulnerability, and the moral significance of biomedical innovation in psychiatry. Why ethicists should join efforts
This article focuses on psychosis. I argue that the convergence of neuroscience and genomics in the context of psychosis is morally problematic, and that ethics scholarship should go beyond the identification of a number of ethical, legal, and social issues. My argument is composed of two strands. First, I argue that we should respond to technological convergence by developing an integrated, patient-centred approach focused on the assessment of individual vulnerabilities. Responding to technological convergence requires that we (i) integrate insights from several areas of ethics, (ii) translate bioethical principles into t...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - November 26, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

‘I am your son, mother’: severe dementia and duties to visit parents who can’t recognise you
This article challenges Mills ’ argument. Not only can children be duty-bound to visit parents who have lost the ability to recognise them, I argue that many children do in fact have such duties. As I show, these duties are grounded in any special interests that their parents have in their company; the fact that visiting their parents might allow them to comply with generic duties of sociability; and/or the fact that such visits allow them to express any gratitude that they owe their parents. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - November 14, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Humor and sympathy in medical practice
AbstractMedical professionals seem to interpret their uses of humor very differently from those outside the medical profession. Nurses and physicians argue that humor is necessary for them to do their jobs well. Many (potential) patients are horrified that they could one day be the butt of their physician ’s jokes. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the respectful use of humor in clinical prac-tice, so as to support its importance in medical practice, while simultaneously protecting against its potential abuse. I begin by examining two extremes of supporting or chastising the use of medical humor. I look at th...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - October 21, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Wrongful genetic connection: neither blood of my blood, nor flesh of my flesh
AbstractThe use of reproductive techniques and the eventual reproductive negligence from the provider of reproductive services gave rise to situations in which the intended parents are deprived of raising a child genetically connected to them. Courts have been dealing with cases of those for years, but have systemically denied claimants (the prospective parents) compensation, failing to recognise as damage the loss of genetic connection. In 2017, for the first time, the Singapore High Court provided compensation for that damage, labelled “loss of genetic affinity” (ACB v Thomson Medical Pte Ltd and Others [2017...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - October 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Disenchantment and clinical ethics
(Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - October 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Richard Dean: The Value of Humanity in Kant ’s Moral Theory
AbstractThis is critical review of Richard Dean ’ book, The Value of Humanity in Kant’s Moral Theory. Dean’s book was evaluated, and some of his interpretations of Kant were critiqued. However, it concludes that Dean’s book is illuminating especially, as regards the distinction he made between consent and informed consent and their roles in biomedical practice. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - September 30, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Is it ever morally permissible to select for deafness in one ’s child?
AbstractAs reproductive genetic technologies advance, families have more options to choose what sort of child they want to have. Using preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), for example, allows parents to evaluate several existing embryos before selecting which to implant via in vitro fertilization (IVF). One of the traits PGD can identify is genetic deafness, and hearing embryos are now preferentially selected around the globe using this method. Importantly, some Deaf families desire a deaf child, and PGD –IVF is also an option for them. Selection for genetic deafness, however, encounters widespread disapproval in...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - September 21, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Consumed by prestige: the mouth, consumerism and the dental profession
AbstractCommercialisation and consumerism have had lasting and profound effects upon the nature of oral health and how dental services are provided. The stigma of a spoiled dental appearance, along with the attraction of the smile as a symbol of status and prestige, places the mouth and teeth as an object and product to be bought and sold. How the dental profession interacts with this acquired status of the mouth has direct implications for the professional status of dentistry and the relationship between the profession and society. This essay examines the mouth ’s developing position as a symbol of status and presti...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - September 19, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The elephant in the room: a postphenomenological view on the electronic health record and its impact on the clinical encounter
AbstractUse of electronic health records (EHR) within clinical encounters is increasingly pervasive. The digital record allows for data storage and sharing to facilitate patient care, billing, research, patient communication and quality-of-care improvement —all at once. However, this multifunctionality is also one of the main reasons care providers struggle with the EHR. These problems have often been described but are rarely approached from a philosophical point of view. We argue that a postphenomenological case study of the EHR could lead to more in-depth insights. We will focus on two concepts—transpare...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - September 17, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Death without distress? The taboo of suffering in palliative care
AbstractPalliative care (PC) names as one of its central aims to prevent and relieve suffering. Following the concept of “total pain”, which was first introduced by Cicely Saunders, PC not only focuses on the physical dimension of pain but also addresses the patient’s psychological, social, and spiritual suffering. However, the goal to relieve suffering can paradoxically lead to a taboo of suffering and imply ad verse consequences. Two scenarios are presented: First, PC providers sometimes might fail their own ambitions. If all other means prove ineffective terminal sedation can still be applied as a last...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - September 6, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

To die well: the phenomenology of suffering and end of life ethics
AbstractThe paper presents an account of suffering as a multi-level phenomenon based on concepts such as mood, being-in-the-world and core life value. This phenomenological account will better allow us to evaluate the hardships associated with dying and thereby assist health care professionals in helping persons to die in the best possible manner. Suffering consists not only in physical pain but in being unable to do basic things that are considered to bestow meaning on one ’s life. The suffering can also be related to no longer being able to be the person one wants to be in the eyes of others, to losing one’s ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - August 28, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Suffering-based medicine: practicing scientific medicine with a humanistic approach
AbstractSuffering, defined as a state of undergoing pain, distress or hardship, is a multidimensional concept; it can entail physical, psychological and spiritual distress that prompts the sufferer to seek medical attention. As a construct originating from and unique to each patient, no patient ’s suffering is equal to another’s or completely reducible to any generalizable frame of understanding. As it happens in a common medical encounter, the suffering patient requires an anamnesis provided by attentive and comprehensive listening to both the said and unsaid parts of his or her disco urse interpreted through ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - August 20, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The problem with reproductive freedom. Procreation beyond procreators ’ interests
AbstractReproductive freedom plays a pivotal role in debates on the ethics of procreation. This moral principle protects people ’s interests in procreative matters and allows them discretion over whether to have children, the number of children they have and, to a certain extent, the type of children they have. Reproductive freedom’s theoretical and political emphasis on people’s autonomy and well-being is grounded in an individual-centred framework for discussing the ethics of procreation. It protects procreators’ interests and significantly reduces the permissible grounds for interference by third...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - August 14, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Paternal consent in prenatal research: ethical aspects
AbstractThe role of mothers in prenatal research has been discussed extensively. Significantly less work has been done on the father ’s role. In this article, focusing on ethical issues, we seek to redress this imbalance. Examining the father’s position in research conducted on pregnant women, we ask whether or not paternal consent ought to be required in addition to that of the pregnant woman. Having distinguished between di fferent concepts of father and mother, we proceed by giving an overview of the reasons for requiring consent of the woman who is carrying the child. We then examine which of these reasons ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - August 10, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A gap between the philosophy and the practice of palliative healthcare: sociological perspectives on the practice of nurses in specialised palliative homecare
AbstractPalliative care philosophy is based on a holistic approach to patients, but research shows that possibilities for living up to this philosophy seem limited by historical and administrative structures. From the nurse perspective, this article aims to explore nursing practice in specialised palliative homecare, and how it is influenced by organisational and cultural structures. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with nine nurses were conducted, inspired by Bourdieu. The findings showed that nurses consolidate the doxa of medicine, including medical-professional values that configure a control-oriented, positivis...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - August 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The right to refuse diagnostics and treatment planning by artificial intelligence
AbstractIn an analysis of artificially intelligent systems for medical diagnostics and treatment planning we argue that patients should be able to exercise a right to withdraw from AI diagnostics and treatment planning for reasons related to (1) the physician ’s role in the patients’ formation of and acting on personal preferences and values, (2) the bias and opacity problem of AI systems, and (3) rational concerns about the future societal effects of introducing AI systems in the health care sector. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - July 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Schr ödinger’s Fetus
AbstractThis paper defends and develops Elizabeth Harman ’s Actual Future Principle with a concept called Schrödinger’s Fetus. I argue that all early fetuses are Schrödinger’s Fetuses: those early fetuses that survive and become conscious beings have full moral status already as early fetuses, but those fetuses that die as early fetuses lack moral status. With Schrödinger’s Fetus, it becomes possible to accept two widely held but contradictory intuitions to be true, and to avoid certain reductiones ad absurdum that pro-life and pro-choice positions face. It also gives a simple solutio...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - July 19, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Mechanisms in clinical practice: use and justification
AbstractWhile the importance of mechanisms in determining causality in medicine is currently the subject of active debate, the role of mechanistic reasoning in clinical practice has received far less attention. In this paper we look at this question in the context of the treatment of a particular individual, and argue that evidence of mechanisms is indeed key to various aspects of clinical practice, including assessing population-level research reports, diagnostic as well as therapeutic decision making, and the assessment of treatment effects. We use the pulmonary condition bronchiectasis as a source of examples of the imp...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - July 17, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Letter to Editor
(Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - July 15, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology as method: modelling analysis through a meta-synthesis of articles on Being-towards-death
This article aims to clarify Heideggerian hermeneutic analysis by taking one discrete element of Heideggerian philosophy (Being-towards-death), and using it ’s clearly defined structure to conduct a meta-synthesis of Heideggerian phenomenological studies on the experience of living with a potentially life-limiting illness. The findings richly illustrate Heidegger’s philosophy that there is either an inauthentic positioning towards death, or an authe ntic positioning towards death with a proposition that (1) death is certain; (2) death is indefinite; (3) death is non-relational; and (4) death is not-to-be-outstr...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - July 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correction to: Scientific supremacy as an obstacle to establishing and sustaining interdisciplinary dialogue across knowledge paradigms in health and medicine
In the original publication, the article title has been published incorrectly. Now the same has been corrected in this correction. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - June 17, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Hippocratic Oath and the Declaration of Geneva: legitimisation attempts of professional conduct
AbstractThe Hippocratic Oath and the Declaration of Geneva of the World Medical Association are compared in terms of content and origin. Their relevance for current medical practice is investigated. The status which is ascribed to these documents will be shown and the status which they can reasonably claim to have will be explored. Arguments in favor of the Hippocratic Oath that rely on historical stability or historical origin are being examined. It is demonstrated that they get caught up in paradoxes. Should doctors swear the Hippocratic Oath or the Declaration of Geneva? The Hippocratic Oath is a remarkable historic doc...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - June 13, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“Patient’s lived experience”
AbstractThis editorial presents a special issue gathering four contributions about the patient ’s lived experience in the context of deep-brain stimulation. It aims at clarifying the meaning of such an experience and its scope for medical practice, the health system and its legal frame. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - June 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Autism, autonomy, and authenticity
AbstractAutonomy of people on the autism-spectrum has only been very rarely conceptually explored. Autism spectrum is commonly considered a hetereogenous disorder, and typically described as a behaviorally-defined neurodevelopmental disorder associated with the presence of social-communication deficits and restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism research mainly focuses on the behavior of autistic people and ways to teach them skills that are in line with social norms. Interventions such as therapies are being justified with the assumption that autists lack the capacity to be self-reflective and to be “author of t...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - June 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Falling on deaf ears: a qualitative study on clinical ethical committees in France
AbstractThe French medical context is characterized by institutionalization of the ethical reflection in health care facilities and an important disparity between spaces of ethical reflection. In theory, the healthcare professional may mobilise an arsenal of resources to help him in his ethical reflection. But what happens in practice? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 health-care professionals who did and did not have recourse to clinical ethical committees. We also implemented two focus groups with 18 professionals involved in various spaces of ethical reflection in order to let them debate about a better w...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 30, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Stories of despair: a Kierkegaardian read of suffering and selfhood in survivorship
This article examines long-term cancer survivors ’ suffering from the vantage point of selfhood and provides a philosophical interpretation of the reintegration of the self by illuminating their stories of despair through the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard’s seminal workThe Sickness Unto Death. The participating survivors described how the cancer experience had quaked old perceptions of self, instigating them to question the depth of their self-understanding before the cancer and who they really were. In relating to themselves, they realized the dynamic process of becoming who they are by continuin...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Can self-validating neuroenhancement be autonomous?
This article takes a step towards remedying the shortage. I start by explicating the main points of departure of its argument. In the subsequent sections of the article, I consider several possible reasons for deeming self-validatin g neuroenhancement incompatible with autonomy. On the basis of the consideration, I propose that self-validating neuroenhancement can be autonomous. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of the Societal Entrenchment-approach and the case of live uterus transplantation-IVF
This article examines what comes to be identified as important ethical problems and solutions in the media debate of UTx-IVF in Sweden, showing specifically how problems, target groups, goals, benefits, risks and stakes are delineated and positioned. It also demonstrates how  specific assumptions, norms and values are expressed and used to underpin specific positions within this debate, and how certain subjects, desires and risks become shrouded or simply omitted from it. This approach—which we label theEthics of the Societal Entrenchment-approach, inspired by Koch and Stemerding (1994) —allows us to ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 17, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The ethical obligation of the dead donor rule
AbstractThe dead donor rule (DDR) originally stated that organ donors must not be killed by and for organ donation. Scholars later added the requirement that vital organs should not be procured before death. Some now argue that the DDR is breached in donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) programs. DCDD programs do not breach the original version of the DDR because vital organs are procured only after circulation has ceased permanently as a consequence of withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy. We hold that the original rendition of the DDR banning killing by and for organ donation is the fundamental norm ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 13, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Automated vehicles, big data and public health
AbstractIn this paper we focus on how automated vehicles can reduce the number of deaths and injuries in accident situations in order to protect public health. This is actually a problem not only of public health and ethics, but also of big data —not only in terms of all the different data that could be used to inform such decisions, but also in the sense of deciding how wide the scope of data should be. We identify three key different types of data, including basic data, advanced data and preference data, provide an ethical analysis of t he use of these different types of data and of different ways of prioritizing b...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Health and capabilities: a conceptual clarification
AbstractThere are great health disparities in the world today, both between countries and within them. This problem might be seen as related to the access to various kinds of capabilities. It is not fully clear, however, what the exact relation is between health and capabilities. Neither Amartya Sen nor Martha Nussbaum has explicitly formulated a theory of health to go with their theories of capabilities. This paper attempts to present a clarification of the conceptual relation between health and capabilities. Health, it is argued, should be seen as a holistic multi-dimensional phenomenon, made up of basic abilities and su...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - May 6, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Scientific supremacy as an obstacle to establishing and sustaining interdisciplinary dialogue across knowledge paradigms in health medicine
In conclusion, we stand by the integrity of our research as reported in the original paper. Scientific supremacy and pre-scripted criticism impose considerable obstacles for the possibility of establishing interdiscipl inary dialogue across knowledge paradigms in health care and medicine. We therefore urge readers to reflect on how we can establish and sustain ethically careful and truthful dialogue—without doing violence to epistemological differences—to protect and advance the interdisciplinarity that consti tutes the journal’s scope. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 25, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Mobile health ethics and the expanding role of autonomy
This article, as part of an ongoing empirically informed ethical research project, provides an overview of ethical issues of mhealth applications with a specific focus on implications on autonomy as a key notion in the debate. A multi-stage model of references to the potential of mhealth use for strengthening some or other form of self-determination will be proposed as a descriptive tool. It illustrates an assumed continuum of enhanced autonomy via mhealth broadly conceived: from patient to user autonomy, to improved health literacy, and finally to the vision of supra-individual empowerment and democratised, participatory ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 22, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Epistemic burdens and the incentives of surrogate decision-makers
AbstractWe aim to establish the following claim:other factors held constant, the relative weights of the epistemic burdens of competing treatment options serve to determine the options that patient surrogates pursue. Simply put, surrogates confront an incentive,ceteris paribus, to pursue treatment options with respect to which their knowledge is most adequate to the requirements of the case. Regardless of what the patient would choose, options that require more knowledge than the surrogate possesses (or is likely to learn) will either be neglected altogether or deeply discounted in the surrogate ’s incentive structur...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 19, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Does clinical ethics need a Land Ethic?
AbstractA clinical ethics fit for the Anthropocene —our current geological era in which human activity is the primary determinant of environmental change—needs to incorporate environmental ethics to be fit for clinical practice. Conservationist Aldo Leopold’s essay ‘The Land Ethic’ is probably the most widely-cited source in environmental philosophy; but Leopold’s work, and environmental ethics generally, has made little impression on clinical ethics. The Land Ethic holds that “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 17, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Kenneth Gergen ’s concept of multi-being: an application to the nurse–patient relationship
AbstractThe nurse –patient relationship is of great significance for both nurses and patients. The purpose of this article is to gain an understanding of how the individual is constituted through a focus on the execution of the patient’s and nurse’s role in the joint relationship. The article represents a socia l-constructionist consideration using Kenneth Gergen’s concept of multi-being. Gergen’s notions of the self as a multi-being focuses on the individual’s relational character through former relationships and social interactions. Gergen’s concept is applied onto nurses and pat...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 15, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Theranostics: is it really a revolution? Evaluating a new term in medicine
AbstractTheranostics or theragnostics are new terms which start to appear occasionally in publications from 2001 onwards, with a marked increase in references from 2011. In the last few years more than 1100 articles using this term were published each year. In 2011 the journal Theranostics was founded. This paper addresses the question of whether this new term is appropriate. The etymology of the term is  analysed. A literature search for definitions of “theranostics” is carried out and the definitions examined as to whether they give grounds for justifying the use of a new term. The differences betwe...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 12, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Education and the soul of medicine
(Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - April 10, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Clinical sympathy: the important role of affectivity in clinical practice
AbstractBioethics has begun to see the revaluation of affects in medical practice, but not all of them, and not necessarily in the sense of affects as we know them. Empathy has been accepted as important for good medical practice, but only in a way that strips it of its affectivity and thus prevents other affects, like sympathy, from being accepted. As part of a larger project that aims at revaluing the importance of affectivity in medical practice, the purpose of this paper is to develop a clinical sympathy that can serve as a trainable skill for medical professionals. While everyday sympathy may be problematic as a profe...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - March 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Confucianism and organ donation: moral duties from xiao (filial piety) to ren (humaneness)
AbstractThere exists a serious shortage of organs for transplantation in China, more so than in most Western countries. Confucianism has been commonly used as the cultural and ethical reason to explain the reluctance of Chinese and other East-Asian people to donate organs for medical purposes. It is asserted that the Confucian emphasis onxiao (filial piety) requires individuals to ensure body intactness at death. However, based on the original texts of classical Confucianism and other primary materials, we refute this popular view. We base our position on the related Confucian norms of filial piety andren (humaneness, huma...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - March 22, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

In search of good care: the methodology of phenomenological, theory-oriented ‘N=N case studies’ in empirically grounded ethics of care
AbstractThis paper proposes a new perspective on the methodology of qualitative inquiry in (care) ethics, especially the interaction between empirical work and theory development, and introduces standards to evaluate the quality of this inquiry and its findings. The kind of qualitative inquiry the authors are proposing brings to light what participants in practices of care and welfare do and refrain from doing, and what they undergo, in order to offer ‘stepping stones’, political-ethical insights that originate in the practice studied and enable practitioners to deal with newly emerging moral issues. As the aut...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - March 22, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Just choice: a Danielsian analysis of the aims and scope of prenatal screening for fetal abnormalities
AbstractDevelopments in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) and cell-free fetal DNA analysis raise the possibility that antenatal services may soon be able to support couples in non-invasively testing for, and diagnosing, an unprecedented range of genetic disorders and traits coded within their unborn child ’s genome. Inevitably, this has prompted debate within the bioethics literature about what screening options should be offered to couples for the purpose of reproductive choice. In relation to this problem, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) tentatively rec...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - February 15, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Getting what you desire: the normative significance of genetic relatedness in parent –child relationships
AbstractPeople who are involuntarily childless need to use assisted reproductive technologies if they want to have a genetically related child. Yet, from an ethical point of view it is unclear to what extent assistance to satisfy this specific desire should be warranted. We first show that the subjectively felt harm due to the inability to satisfy this reproductive desire does not in itself entail the normative conclusion that it has to be met. In response, we evaluate the alternative view according to which the satisfaction of this desire is regarded as a way to meet one ’s presumed intermediate need for parenthood....
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - February 13, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A pragmatist approach to clinical ethics support: overcoming the perils of ethical pluralism
AbstractIn today ’s pluralistic society, clinical ethics consultation cannot count on a pre-given set of rules and principles to be applied to a specific situation, because such an approach would deny the existence of different and divergent backgrounds by imposing a dogmatic and transcultural morality. Clinical e thics support (CES) needs to overcome this lack of foundations and conjugate the respect for the difference at stake with the necessity to find shared and workable solutions for ethical issues encountered in clinical practice. We argue that a pragmatist approach to CES, based on the philosophical th eories ...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - January 25, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Valuing biomarker diagnostics for dementia care: enhancing the reflection of patients, their care-givers and members of the wider public
AbstractWhat is the value of an early (presymptomatic) diagnosis of dementia in the absence of effective treatment? There has been a lively scholarly debate over this question, but until now (future) patients have not played a large role in it. Our study supplements biomedical research into innovative diagnostics with an exlporation of its meanings and values according to (future) patients. Based on seven focusgroups with (future) patients and their care-givers, we conclude that stakeholders evaluate early diagnostics with respect to whether and how they expect it to empower their capacity to (self-) care. They value it, f...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - January 24, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Enhancement, hybris, and solidarity: a critical analysis of Sandel ’s The Case Against Perfection
This article presents a critical analysis of the views of Michael Sandel on human enhancement in his bookThe Case Against Perfection (2007). Sandel argues that the use of biotechnologies for human enhancement is driven by a will to mastery orhybris, leading to an ‘explosion of responsibility’ and a disappearance of solidarity. I argue that Sandel is using a traditional concept of solidarity which leaves little room for individual differences and which is difficult to reconcile with the modern trend towards individual autonomy and cultural heterogeneity. With reference to the sociology of Giddens, I argue that t...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - January 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“If an acute event occurs, what should we do?” Diverse ethical approaches to decision-making in the ICU
This article aims to respond to some of these concerns by illustrating how different methods in clinical ethics would be used when consid ering a real case. The goal is not to establish the best model (if there is one) on a theoretical level, but to learn from actual practice in order to see if there are common elements in the different methods, and to validate their pertinence to clinical ethics consultation. (Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - January 22, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

On illness, disease, and priority: a framework for more fruitful debates
AbstractThe distinction between ‘disease’ and ‘illness’ has played an important role in the debate betweennaturalism andnormativism. Both employ these notions, yet disagree on whether to assign priority to ‘disease’ or ‘illness’. I argue that this discussion suffers from implicit differences in the underlying interpretations: While for naturalists the distinction between ‘disease’ and ‘illness’ is one between a descriptive and a prescriptive notion, for normativists it is one between c ause and effect. This discrepancy is connected to different interpr...
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - January 16, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Giving up on abstract ethical theory
(Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy)
Source: Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy - January 16, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research