The Panama Aging Research Initiative Longitudinal Study.
This report describes the general study design and highlights lessons learned and future directions. In particular, drawing on lessons learned from this clinical research, a community-based prospective cohort study is currently under way among older adults in Panama to validate a blood-based biomarker profile for detecting mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, as well as risk factors for cognitive decline. KEYWORDS: Dementia, biomarkers, Latin America, aging, cognition, chronic disease, Panama. PMID: 31401637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetic Markers: A Path toward Individualized HIV Therapy.
CONCLUSIONS The study identified genetic variations (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with 12 antiretroviral drugs. In most cases, no statistically significant causal association was found. Identifying polymorphic variations is a medium- and long-term objective that requires statistical support and adoption of strategies to optimize antiretroviral therapy. An approach combining plasma-level monitoring and pharmacogenetic analysis is recommended to optimize therapy for HIV patients. KEYWORDS Pharmacogenetics, HIV, anti-retroviral agents, antiretroviral therapy, genetic polymorphism, genetic techniques, pharmacoge...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Public Health History: The 19th Century Board of Health in the City of Holgu ín.
CONCLUSIONS Although established in 1820, Holguín's Board of Health carried out preventive actions most actively from 1850 to 1865, with support from the Urban Health Police. Its gradual disappearance from the health policy arena beginning in the 1870s reflects its failure as an institution, in large part due to weak government support. KEYWORDS Board of Health, prevention, epidemics, Cuba. PMID: 31401639 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Increasing Research Productivity across Africa.
Authors: Oyewole BK, Animasahun VJ, Chapman HJ Abstract Empowering scientific innovation, building knowledge management and strengthening research capacity across Africa are fundamental for improving high-level policy decision-making. Such contributions can distinguish the continent as a reputable source of scientific expertise, prepared to manage local and global challenges towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). PMID: 31401640 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Physiology without Borders: US and Cuban Scientists Meet in Space.
Authors: Dorta-Contreras AJ Abstract Over 400 delegates from 28 countries gathered recently in Havana for the 2nd Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences (May, 2019). It was quite an event, the level of science attesting to the quality of participants from the world over. The conference attracted more US scientists to Cuba than any other in the field of medicine over the last several years: 228. I find this number particularly noteworthy amidst the pressures they faced to keep them from coming. PMID: 31401641 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Long March for Science in Defense of Population Health.
Authors: Abstract Rare grand initiatives and discoveries aside, population health and its supporting science usually advance by the slow accretion and sharing of a myriad of capacities, findings and interventions across the global scientific community. In the best of cases, ordinary people benefit. But in the worst cases, science is shunted aside, ignored or twisted to fit interests that actively oppose the right to health. PMID: 31373577 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Gender & Race in Cuba: An Anthropological Perspective Lourdes Serrano Peralta PhD, Cuban Anthropology Institute.
Gender & Race in Cuba: An Anthropological Perspective Lourdes Serrano Peralta PhD, Cuban Anthropology Institute. MEDICC Rev. 2019 Apr-Jul;21(2-3):6-9 Authors: Gorry C Abstract How does a developing island nation, beleaguered by climatic challenges and 60 years of adverse geo-political pressures become a beacon of scientific innovation, medical services and applied research-all on a shoestring budget? What's more, how does such a country, rooted in a traditional patriarchal paradigm, overcome barriers to create a scientific and medical community where the majority of researchers and professionals ar...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Biochemical Markers and Hypertension in Children.
Authors: Garí-Llanes M, García-Nóbrega Y, Chávez-González E, González-Rodríguez E, García-Sáez J, Llanes-Camacho MDC Abstract INTRODUCTION Hypertension is one of the most studied risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; in children and adolescents, its global prevalence changes with age, from 1%-3% in children to 3.2% in adolescents. In adults, in addition to hypertension, several biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk have been identified. Confirming an association between these and hypertension in childhood and adolescence would allow fo...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Normal Values of T, B and NK Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Cuban Adults.
Authors: Kokuina E, Breff-Fonseca MC, Villegas-Valverde CA, Mora-Díaz I Abstract INTRODUCTION Quantification of lymphocyte subpopulations is useful for evaluating immune response in states of health and disease, including immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, infections and cancer. Studies have found that concentrations and proportions of different cell subpopulations vary with geographic location, age, sex and ethnicity. Knowing the normal values of these cells and their variation in healthy populations will contribute to improved clinical practice and scientific research. OBJECTIVE Estimate normal absolute con...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Corrected QT-Interval Dispersion: An Electrocardiographic Tool to Predict Recurrence of Myocardial Infarction.
Authors: Rodríguez-Jiménez AE, Cruz-Inerarity H, Negrín-Valdés T, Fardales-Rodríguez R, Chávez-González E Abstract INTRODUCTION Many clinical settings lack the necessary resources to complete angiographic studies, which are commonly used to predict complications and death following acute coronary syndrome. Corrected QT-interval dispersion can be useful for assessing risk of myocardial infarction recurrence. OBJECTIVE Evaluate the relationship between corrected QT-interval dispersion and recurrence of myocardial infarction in patients with ST-segment elevation. METHOD...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemic in El Salvador: A Cross-Sectional Study.
CONCLUSIONS Chronic kidney disease has reached epidemic proportions in El Salvador. The data confirm a health tragedy that, although especially striking older men, also takes a severe toll on young men and women. The results confirm findings of previous research in several Salvadoran agricultural communities. The relatively high level of population exposure to agrochemicals is important and alarming, especially in rural areas, meriting health-impact studies that include and go beyond possible impact on chronic kidney disease. KEYWORDS Kidney, renal insufficiency, chronic, risk factors, epidemics, El Salvador. PMID: 313...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Dengue Cases in Colombia: Mathematical Forecasts for 2018-2022.
CONCLUSIONS ARIMA model forecasts for 2018 through 2022 predicted the highest incidence of dengue cases in Colombia would occur in 2019. Comparison of ARIMA model forecasts and the ODE model allowed projections of possible variations in dengue cases reported, and the basic reproduction number predicted that dengue would persist throughout 2019. KEYWORDS Arboviruses, climate, dengue, models, theoretical, basic reproduction number, prognosis, Colombia. PMID: 31373583 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Assistive Devices for Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study of Policy Effectiveness, Santiago, Chile, 2014-2016.
Authors: Hirmas-Adauy M, Olea A, Matute I, Delgado I, Aguilera X, Poffald L, González C, Nájera M, Gómez MI, Gallardo L, Abusleme MT, Leppe J, Mery H, Recabarren E, Massad C, Bustamante H Abstract INTRODUCTION Population aging is a worldwide phenomenon. It is estimated that by 2050, one of five persons will be aged ≥60 years. In Chile, 15.8% of the population is now aged ≥60 years, and this figure will reach 30.7% by 2050. In 2006, a national program was implemented to provide assistive devices to older adults aged ≥65 years with limited mobility or difficulty performing activities of ...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Panama Aging Research Initiative Longitudinal Study.
This report describes the general study design and highlights lessons learned and future directions. In particular, drawing on lessons learned from this clinical research, a community-based prospective cohort study is currently under way among older adults in Panama to validate a blood-based biomarker profile for detecting mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, as well as risk factors for cognitive decline. KEYWORDS: Dementia, biomarkers, Latin America, aging, cognition, chronic disease, Panama. PMID: 31373585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetic Markers: A Path toward Individualized HIV Therapy.
CONCLUSIONS The study identified genetic variations (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with 12 antiretroviral drugs. In most cases, no statistically significant causal association was found. Identifying polymorphic variations is a medium- and long-term objective that requires statistical support and adoption of strategies to optimize antiretroviral therapy. An approach combining plasma-level monitoring and pharmacogenetic analysis is recommended to optimize therapy for HIV patients. KEYWORDS Pharmacogenetics, HIV, anti-retroviral agents, antiretroviral therapy, genetic polymorphism, genetic techniques, pharmacoge...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Public Health History: The 19th Century Board of Health in the City of Holgu ín.
CONCLUSIONS Although established in 1820, Holguín's Board of Health carried out preventive actions most actively from 1850 to 1865, with support from the Urban Health Police. Its gradual disappearance from the health policy arena beginning in the 1870s reflects its failure as an institution, in large part due to weak government support. KEYWORDS Board of Health, prevention, epidemics, Cuba. PMID: 31373587 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Increasing Research Productivity across Africa.
Authors: Oyewole BK, Animasahun VJ, Chapman HJ Abstract Empowering scientific innovation, building knowledge management and strengthening research capacity across Africa are fundamental for improving high-level policy decision-making. Such contributions can distinguish the continent as a reputable source of scientific expertise, prepared to manage local and global challenges towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). PMID: 31373588 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Physiology without Borders: US and Cuban Scientists Meet in Space.
Authors: Dorta-Contreras AJ Abstract Over 400 delegates from 28 countries gathered recently in Havana for the 2nd Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences (May, 2019). It was quite an event, the level of science attesting to the quality of participants from the world over. The conference attracted more US scientists to Cuba than any other in the field of medicine over the last several years: 228. I find this number particularly noteworthy amidst the pressures they faced to keep them from coming. PMID: 31373589 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

2019: A Year of Challenges and Change.
Authors: Abstract How to assess global health at the close of 2018 and project achievable goals for the new year? WHO began on a somber and urgent note by identifying Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019. They are: air pollution and climate change; noncommunicable diseases; global influenza pandemic; fragile and vulnerable settings; antimicrobial resistance; Ebola and other high-threat pathogens; weak primary health care; vaccine hesitancy, dengue and HIV. Cuba is vulnerable to many of these threats, but perhaps more importantly, it's already taking them on, proposing more intersectoral actions to address social d...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Confronting Arboviruses: Mar ía Guadalupe Guzmán MD PhD DrSc Director, Reference Center for Research & Diagnosis Pedro Kour í Tropical Medicine Institute, Havana.
Confronting Arboviruses: María Guadalupe Guzmán MD PhD DrSc Director, Reference Center for Research & Diagnosis Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute, Havana. MEDICC Rev. 2019 Jan;21(1):6-9 Authors: Gorry C Abstract The 1980s were a watershed for Cuban research in medicine and health: significant financing and material resources buttressed a strategy to improve population health through enhanced biopharmaceutical innovation and clinical best practices applied to Cuba's universal public health system. Redirecting research priorities and providing substantial public funding to ...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuba and the Global Year of Universal Health: Cristian Morales PhD Former PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba.
Authors: Reed G Abstract A 2014 PAHO resolution that Cristian Morales helped formulate serves as a framework for the Americas' governments to actively work towards health for all their people, incorporating this aim into national programs for sustainable development. This September, the UN General Assembly will sponsor a High-Level Meeting on Universal Health . . . a first in its history. In part two of MEDICC Review's interview with Dr Morales, he outlines strategies he believes vital for transforming health systems to reach universal health-defined as coverage and access for all-and for turning words into action....
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Youth Promote Healthier Diet through Art.
Authors: Gorry C Abstract Art, education, health and nutrition: encouraging healthy eating at an early age is central to the World Food Programme's (WFP) goals. To this end, using art as a learning and communications tool, the program sponsors WFP in Action, a drawing contest open to youngsters 5-18 years old. Cuba has participated in the contest nationally since the 1990s, and since 2002 has sent a selection of drawings annually to the international competition at WFP headquarters in Rome. PMID: 31242147 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Scientific Production on Diabetes, 2000-2017: Peer-reviewed Publications, Collaboration and Impact.
CONCLUSIONS Cuban scientists conduct research on diabetes, but their work is not highly visible in the peer-reviewed literature, particularly in top-ranked journals. The problem is not simply one of publishing more, but of knowing how and where to publish. It is urgent that Cuban universities training health professionals at all levels include instruction on scientific writing. PMID: 31242148 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Experience with Lung Ultrasound to Diagnose and Classify Pleural Effusion in Critically Ill Patients.
Authors: Cueto-Medina A, Alonso-Díaz PL, Martínez-Casanova R, Porto-González F, Quevedo-Benítez Y, Abdo-Cuza A Abstract Pleural effusion is a common condition in critically ill patients (both clinical and surgical). Its diagnosis and classification are important for followup of patients with cardiorespiratory difficulty. Lung ultrasound is used for this purpose, but no reports have been published on its use in Cuba with critically ill patients in intensive care units. We performed lung ultrasound on 144 such patients with cardiorespiratory illnesses, average age 54 years, predominantly m...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Comprehensive Care for Cuban Children in the First 1000 Days of Life.
Authors: Esquivel-Lauzurique M, Álvarez-Valdés G, Castro-Pacheco BL, Santana-Espinosa MC, Machado-Lubián MDC, Herrera-Alcázar V, Martínez-Delgado D Abstract The first 1000 days of life constitute a short and exceptionally important period when the foundation is established for children's growth, development and lifelong health. Cuba has a comprehensive care system for this population that aims to promote the best start in life so that children can reach their highest development potential. This is carried out through the national public health and education systems and also includ...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Team Science and Accelerated Vaccine Introduction in Cuba: A View from the Pneumococcal Project.
Authors: Linares-Pérez N Abstract The process of research and evaluation of new products and technologies requires a combination of transdisciplinary theoretical and methodological approaches for managing and achieving objectives. The research, development and evaluation strategy of the new Cuban pneumococcal vaccine combines the approaches of team science and accelerated vaccine introduction. These frameworks are proposed for discussions regarding biotech product evaluation, using their application to the Pneumococcus Project as an example. Emphasis is on the use of team science to eliminate obstacles to ob...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

A US Patient in Havana: Health Care the Cuban Way.
Authors: Kirkland D Abstract As a nurse and doctoral candidate, I learned from my research in and about Cuba that the country has an international reputation for having an excellent health system, providing universal care for its citizens, with major indicators-such as life expectancy-rivaling those of industrialized countries, including the USA. Little did I know that I would be accessing this health care system myself. PMID: 31242152 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Out of the Box: Needs-Driven Passion Meets Population Health.
Authors: Abstract truly out of the box thinking, crafted in a country where resource limitations have clearly incentivized novel approaches. PMID: 31242153 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Rapid Response for Diphtheria Control in the Dominican Republic.
Authors: Abstract Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a toxin-producing bacterium that causes respiratory or cutaneous manifestations and, without treatment, can lead to mortality. Key to diphtheria control is prevention by vaccination, which can be a challenge for health leaders in low-resource settings. PMID: 31242154 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Empowering Cuban Women: Marta N úñez MS PhD, Sociologist & Consulting Professor, University of Havana.
Empowering Cuban Women: Marta Núñez MS PhD, Sociologist & Consulting Professor, University of Havana. MEDICC Rev. 2018 Jul;20(3):6-9 Authors: Gorry C Abstract After nearly 60 years of universal education and health, coupled with national policies supporting women's rights and advancement, the results are in: according to recent data, more than half of Cuban scientists and almost 60% of all professionals in Cuba are women. Moreover, women's representation in government is rising, including at the highest levels such as parliament, where they constitute 53.2% of members. Digging deeper,...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Heberprot-P's Effect on Gene Expression in Healing Diabetic Foot Ulcers.
CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that Heberprot-P's healing action on diabetic foot ulcers is mediated through changes in genetic expression that reduce hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress, and at the same time increase cell proliferation, collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. The kinetics of expression of two genes related to extracellular matrix formation needs further exploration. KEYWORDS Epidermal growth factor, EGF, diabetic foot ulcer, wound healing, quantitative real-time PCR, gene expression, Cuba. PMID: 31242156 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

HIV-1 Antiretroviral Resistance in Cuba, 2009-2014.
CONCLUSIONS Detected levels of transmitted drug resistance highlight the need for a national surveillance study in treatment-naïve patients. Resistance prevalence is high in previously treated patients but appears to be decreasing over time. The frequency of resistance mutations in recombinant forms of HIV in Cuba needs further study. KEYWORDS Antiretroviral therapy, highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV, anti-HIV agents, drug resistance, multiple drug resistance, Cuba. PMID: 31242157 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Serogroup B and C Meningococcal Vaccine Developed in Cuba.
Authors: Ochoa-Azze RF, García-Imía L, Vérez-Bencomo V Abstract INTRODUCTION Serogroup B meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccines have been effective against vaccine-type strains, but their effectiveness against heterologous strains has been controversial. The Cuban VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine is of this type, but also includes meningococcus C capsular polysaccharide. OBJECTIVES Assess the effectiveness of VA-MENGOC-BC in reducing meningococcal disease caused by homologous or heterologous serogroup B strains and its serological effectiveness against meningococcus C. METHODS A review of studies of...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Application of Two Methods for Analyzing Multiple Causes of Death.
CONCLUSIONS The multiple causes of death approach affords more nuanced understanding of patterns of disease, comorbidity and death in the Cuban population. The indicators used fulfill different roles: the simple method brings to light the full range of ways in which a given cause contributes to mortality, and the cause-of-death association indicator enables exploration of links between different causes of death, not possible with the simple method. KEYWORDS Mortality, multifactorial causality, causes of death, diabetes mellitus, Cuba. PMID: 31242159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Estimating Need, Demand and Supply in Primary Health Care Services: A Local Application in Argentina.
CONCLUSIONS Results suggest the need for some reconfiguration of primary health care in the study area. The proposed mechanism for estimating relationship among supply, demand and need is a useful tool to support decision-making. KEYWORDS Health services needs and demand, access to health care; health care accessibility, health care quality, access, and evaluation, health care inequalities, primary health care, Argentina. PMID: 31242160 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Researchers' Perceived Challenges in Studying Chronic Kidney Disease of Nontraditional Etiology in Mesoamerica.
CONCLUSIONS Producing high quality and clinically relevant studies to address chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in the resource-scarce Mesoamerican research climate has been fraught with challenges. These findings contextualize the progress that has been made in understanding chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology to date and highlight the need for public health and biomedical organizations to support researchers' ongoing efforts to engage all stakeholders in addressing the epidemic, disseminate their research findings and identify feasible strategies for addressing the community-wide suffering c...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Family Planning as a Human Right: Knowledge for Better Decision-making by Cuban Adolescents.
Authors: Más S Abstract Translated from the Spanish (original title, Saber para decidir mejor) and reprinted from Revista Mujeres, July 12, 2018. Original available at: http://www.mujeres.co.cu/art.php?NzMwNg. PMID: 31242162 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Power, Politics and Population Health: The Strength of Collaboration.
Authors: Abstract Medicine is a social science, and politics nothing else but medicine on a large scale. His point is well taken. Articles in this issue of MEDICC Review explore the often turbulent relationship between science and those with the power to use it. Eventually, it is they who can wield science for their benefit alone or to improve population and planetary health. They can pay attention to science, they can ignore science, or, in the worst cases, they can bend it to serve their own narrow interests. PMID: 31242163 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Strengthening National Health Priorities for Diabetes Prevention and Management.
Authors: Villegas-Valverde CC, Kokuina E, Breff-Fonseca MC Abstract In his report in the October 2017 issue of MEDICC Review, Vega-Jiménez stressed that the design and integration of a prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycemia) registry would serve as an essential prevention strategy to improve population health outcomes in Cuba. PMID: 31242164 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Power of Persistence: Mar ía Amparo Pascual MD MS Founding Director, National Clinical Trials Coordinating Center, Havana.
The Power of Persistence: María Amparo Pascual MD MS Founding Director, National Clinical Trials Coordinating Center, Havana. MEDICC Rev. 2018 Oct;20(4):6-9 Authors: Gorry C Abstract Throughout the 1980s, Cuban researchers at the country's biotech campus known as the Scientific Pole were making innovative discoveries and began developing unique therapies and vaccines unavailable elsewhere in the world. The pace and level of innovation meant prioritizing the establishment of a dedicated, internationally-certified institute for clinical trials. These and other accomplishments in science and relate...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Translating the Shared Value of Solidarity Cristian Morales PhD PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba.
Authors: Reed G Abstract Cristian Morales, an economist by training, has dedicated his career to improving health and health equity in the Americas through his work with PAHO/WHO. This has taken him from floods and earthquakes in Haiti to PAHO's Washington DC offices, where he was instrumental in achieving consensus on a resolution aiming for universal health-coverage plus access-approved by all governments in the Americas. Since 2015, he has served as PAHO/WHO Permanent Representative in Cuba and has recently been appointed to the analogous post in Mexico. PMID: 31242166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

What Happened to the US Diplomats in Havana? Mitchell Vald és MD PhD Director, Cuban Neuroscience Center.
What Happened to the US Diplomats in Havana? Mitchell Valdés MD PhD Director, Cuban Neuroscience Center. MEDICC Rev. 2018 Oct;20(4):14-19 Authors: Reed G Abstract He was born in Chicago, Illinois, USA, but his family is Cuban. After 1959, they returned to the island, where Dr Mitchell Valdés received his medical degree at the University of Havana in 1972. He went on to study clinical neurophysiology, earning his PhD with a dissertation on the auditory system's sensory physiology. PMID: 31242167 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Estimating Normal Values of Rare T-Lymphocyte Populations in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Cuban Adults.
CONCLUSIONS Age does not affect counts and percentages of rare T lymphocyte subpopulations in the blood of healthy Cuban adults. Sex differences found for some phenotypes suggest the need for different reference values for women and men. PMID: 31242168 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Antenatal Diagnosis of De Novo Balanced Structural Chromosome Aberrations in Latin America.
CONCLUSIONS Three new de novo breakpoints were identified, presumably related to genetic admixture characteristics in Latin America. Since some diseases associated with de novo balanced structural aberrations detected antenatally have a late onset, followup for at least two years is recommended for carriers of these aberrations. The information in this study is useful in genetic counseling for pregnant women in Latin America. PMID: 31242169 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Rising Cancer Drug Prices: What Can Low- and Middle-income Countries Do?
Authors: Blanco-García E, Ledón N, Lage-Dávila A Abstract Public health systems face the contradiction of skyrocketing cancer incidence and cancer drug prices, thus limiting patient access to more effective treatments. The situation is particularly dire in low- and middle-income countries. We urgently need consensus on the main determinants of this problem, as well as specific, effective and feasible solutions. Analysis of available data reveals that the problem has reached its current magnitude only recently and is not related to the growing complexity of drug production technology, but rather...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

A Tax-based, Noncontributory, Health-Financing System Can Accelerate Progress toward Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria.
Authors: Aregbeshola BS Abstract A major challenge to achieve health coverage in Nigeria is expansion of health access to the poor, vulnerable and informal sectors, which constitute over 70% of the population of more than 186 million. Evidence from other countries suggests that it is difficult for contributory insurance schemes to achieve universal health coverage in such conditions, especially with such a large informal sector. In fact, Nigeria's national social health insurance program has provided coverage to less than 5% of the population since its implementation in 2005, private voluntary health insurance has ...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

UK Medical Students' Experience of Culture & Communication in Cuban Health Care.
UK Medical Students' Experience of Culture & Communication in Cuban Health Care. MEDICC Rev. 2018 Oct;20(4):47 Authors: Levi J, Erbacher I Abstract Final-year medical students at UK universities are able to do elective placements elsewhere, to learn about other health care systems. We chose Cuba because of its excellent health outcomes despite relatively few resources. We were struck, for instance, when Cuba made global headlines in 2015 as the first country to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis. And, since the UK's underfunded National Health Service is experiencing high de...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Enigma of US Diplomats' Health Symptoms in Havana: Call For a Global Scientific Meeting.
Authors: Velázquez-Pérez L Abstract In today's globalized world, scientific endeavor and its conclusions rest more than ever on dialogue and the ability to critically assess a full and transparent array of evidence, to maximize opportunities for accuracy and truth to prevail. PMID: 31242173 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

US-Cuba Health and Science Cooperation: They Persisted.
Authors: The Editors of MEDICC Review Abstract The first truly universal society was the society of researchers. May the coming generation establish a political and economic society which will insure us against catastrophes. -Albert Einstein in Havana, December 19, 1930 Few may be aware of Einstein's 30 hours in Cuba, just as the world was plummeting into the Great Depression. He was received by the most illustrious academics of his day, leaving the entry above in the Golden Book of the Geographic Society of Cuba. He spoke before what was then the Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences of Havana-precur...
Source: MEDICC Review - May 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Weathering US-Cuba Political Storms: Jos é Rubiera PhD Cuba's Chief Weather Forecaster.
Weathering US-Cuba Political Storms: José Rubiera PhD Cuba's Chief Weather Forecaster. MEDICC Rev. 2018 Apr;20(2):7-10 Authors: Reed G Abstract Full disclosure: chief weather forecaster is not his official title, but rather one affectionally conferred on Dr Rubiera by the Cuban people, who look to him not only in times of peril, but also to learn about the science of meteorology. Anyone who has taken a taxi in Cuba during hurricane season (June 1 to November 30), and bothered to ask the driver, will receive a clear explanation about how hurricanes are formed, what the Saffir-Simpson scale is all...
Source: MEDICC Review - May 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research