The Right to Health: The Devil is in the Doing.
Authors: Abstract Addressing the world's injustices in all forms is the only way to breathe life into the "health for all" principle and aspiration expressed so eloquently in the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration. The first of these injustices is more evident than it was 41 years ago: the international economic order has concentrated vast wealth in ever-fewer pockets, while half the world's people go without essential health services . . . and most certainly without the economic, social, political and cultural conditions and empowerment needed to otherwise thrive. PMID: 32335562 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Science and Challenges for Cuban Public Health in the 21st Century.
Authors: Lage A Abstract Cuba's public health outcomes are rooted in political and social phenomena that have favored achievement of health indicators well above expectations for an economy of its size. A less studied causal component of Cuba's development in health is the creation, from early in the 1960s, of scientific research capacity throughout the health system, including use of science to launch a domestic industry for manufacturing high-tech products. This component should play an even greater role in meeting Cuba's 21st century health challenges, especially the demographic and epidemiologi-cal transitions,...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Of Glass Ceilings, Velvet Circles and Pink-Collar Ghettoes:Lilliam Álvarez MS PhDSecretary, Cuban Academy of Sciences.
Of Glass Ceilings, Velvet Circles and Pink-Collar Ghettoes:Lilliam Álvarez MS PhDSecretary, Cuban Academy of Sciences. MEDICC Rev. 2019 Oct;21(4):15-17 Authors: Reed G Abstract She was a country girl from the northeast-ern Cuban province of Holguín, her father a farmer, her mother a teacher. Fast forward a few decades: Dr Lilliam Álvarez mastered mathematics, physics and nuclear science, finally specializing in numeric solutions to differential equations. She spent 20 years at the Cybernetics and Physics Institute in Havana, half that time as deputy director. For another eight year...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Meningococcal Vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC:30 Years of Use and Future Potential.
Authors: Sierra-González VG Abstract Every year, meningococcal infection by Neisseria meningitidis causes over 500,000 cases and 85,000 deaths in the world, with 20% of survivors suffering sequelae. In Cuba its incidence in 1980 reached 5.9 cases per 100,000 population; about 80% of cases were serogroup B, prompting health authorities to declare meningococcal disease the country's main public health problem. Several provinces reported over 120 cases per 100,000 children aged
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuba's Maternity Homes, 1962-2017: History, Evolution, Challenges.
Authors: Rojas-Ochoa F Abstract Cuba's maternity homes were founded in 1962 as part of the gen-eral movement to extend health services to the whole population in the context of the post-1959 social transformations. The over-arching goal of the homes was to improve the health of pregnant women, mothers and newborns. Hence, in the beginning when there were few hospitals in Cuba's rural areas, their initial pur-pose was to increase institutional births by providing pregnant women a homelike environment closer to hospitals. There, they lived during the final weeks before delivery, where they received medical care, room...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Sickle Cell Anemia in Cuba: Prevention and Management, 1982-2018.
Authors: Marcheco-Teruel B Abstract Sickle cell anemia is the most common hereditary disease in Cuba. On average, 1 in 33 Cubans is a carrier of this severe hemolytic anemia that can cause early death. In early 1980, its incidence in Cuba was calculated at 1 in 1600 births. In 1982, the Cuban public health system established the Sickle Cell Anemia Prevention Program, which aims to prevent the disease through identification of carrier couples and antenatal diagnosis of fetuses with disease-associated genotypes. In 1982-2018, hemoglobin genotypes were tested in 4,847,239 pregnant women. Of these, 168,865 (3.5%) were ...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Hereditary Ataxias in Cuba: Results and Impact of a Comprehensive, Multidisciplinary Project.
Authors: Rodríguez-Labrada R, Medrano-Montero J, Velázquez-Pérez L Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 is a degenerative disease that causes physical disability and, ultimately, prostration and death. Globally, reported prevalence is around 3 cases per 100,000 population and Cuba has the world's highest rates of the disease, affecting both patients and their at-risk descendants. In Holguín Province, which has the country's highest concentration of cases, incidence is 4.4 per 100,000 population and prevalence is 40.2 per 100,000 population. In 2000, a specialized research center was es...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Nontraditional Etiology in El Salvador: Integrated Health Sector Action and South-South Cooperation.
Authors: Herrera-Valdés R, Almaguer-López MA, Orantes-Navarro CM, López-Marín L, Brizuela-Díaz EG, Bayarre-Vea H, Silva-Ayçaguer LC, Orellana de Figueroa P, Smith-González M, Chávez-Muñoz Y, Bacallao-Méndez R Abstract In El Salvador, chronic kidney disease had reached epidemic propor-tions towards the end of this century's first decade. In 2011-2012, the Ministry of Health reported it was the leading cause of hospital deaths in men, the fifth in women, and the third overall in adult hospital fa-talities. Farming was the most common occupation amo...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Strategy and Medical Cooperation to Combat Ebola, 2014-2016.
This article presents Cuba's strategy of medical aid and organization of the three medical teams formed; refers to the teams' contribution to epidemic control in treatment centers where they worked alongside other personnel; and describes measures taken in Cuba to prevent the virus from entering the country through returning volunteers or other means. In the centers where Cuban medical teams worked with other health professionals in West Africa, case fatality decreased from 80%-90% to 24%, contributing to control of the epidemic; no Ebola outbreaks occurred in Cuba. During the epidemic, two Cuban health professionals died ...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Challenge of Eliminating Childhood Tuberculosis in Cuba.
Authors: Abreu-Suárez G, González-Valdés JA, González-Ochoa E, Suárez-Álvarez L Abstract WHO's 2015 End Tuberculosis Strategy can succeed only through universal health coverage, social protection, poverty alleviation and effective multisector actions to tackle social determinants in general. The pediatric age group is particularly vulnerable to tuberculosis and historically neglected worldwide. However, this group is a priority within Cuba's National Tuberculosis Control Pro-gram that has functioned since 1970, and Cuba is considered a low-incidence country with rates
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

A Cuban Perspective on the Antivaccination Movement.
This article looks at the history and features of antivaxxer movements around the world and proposes ways the Cuban health system, through its National Immunization Program, can address dangers for the population associated with potentially negative infiuences of social-network antivaxxer campaigns. The paper underscores the role of mass and social media, health professional training and sustained competence, and the importance of a vaccine-related adverse events surveillance system. KEYWORDS Vaccination, immunization, antivaccination move-ment, antivaccine groups, primary health care, society, communi-cations media, socia...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Experience Using Growth and Development as a Positive Indicator of Child Health.
Authors: Esquivel-Lauzurique M, González-Fernández C, Rubén-Quesada M, Machado-Lubián MDC, Tamayo-Pérez V Abstract Growth and development is considered the best positive indicator of children's quality of life and well-being. Studies have been carried out in Cuba since the early 20th century and large scale, periodic an-thropometric surveys have been regularly conducted by its National Health System to chart modifications in growth patterns of children and adolescents. These surveys have produced national references for the anthropometric indicators most commonly applied in indivi...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Universal Health in Cuba: Healthy Public Policy in All Sectors.
Authors: Serrate PC Abstract Health is a universal human right, which should be safeguarded by government responsibility and included in all social policies. Only as such it is possible to ensure effective responses to the health needs of an entire population. The Cuban Constitution recognizes the right to health, and the country's single, free, uni-versal public health system and high-level political commitment promote intersectorality as a strategy to address health problems. Intersectorality is refiected in national regulations that encourage participation by all social sectors in health promotion/disease preven...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuba's Role in International Atomic Energy Agency Regional Cooperation in Cardiology.
Authors: Peix A, García B Abstract Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, and a health problem in low- and middle-income as well as high-income countries. They also constitute the main cause of death in Latin America, with ischemic heart disease as the principal cause in most countries of the region. In Cuba, heart disease is the first cause of death, followed by cancer and stroke. In its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the UN recognizes the importance of chronic non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Cuba has participated actively as lead partner in...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Six Decades of Cuban Global Health Cooperation.
Authors: Gorry C Abstract In 1978, the world was put on notice: health inequalities exacerbated by lack of access to essential services was a ticking time bomb threatening social and economic development everywhere. That year, over 100 countries signed on to the Declaration of Alma-Ata, which affirmed that "health . . . a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, is a fundamental human right." To guarantee this right, governments were urged to prioritize the provision of quality, continuous, comprehensive and affordable primary care for t...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 28, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

An Urgent Call to Make One Health Work for People and Our Planet.
Authors: Abstract January 2020 begins a new decade, a chance for the inter-national health community to take a hard look at where we are, where we stand, what we stand for and why we need to stand up. Staring us down are two concurrent global health emergencies: the coronavirus epidemic originating in Wu-han, China and climate change. As you read this, the trove of articles and assessments published on both is growing faster than most can absorb. PMID: 32327614 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Peer Reviewers.
Authors: Abstract All original scientifi c articles appearing in MEDICC Review are subject to double-blind international peer review. MEDICC Review is indebted to the following colleagues for their collaboration as peer reviewers in 2019. PMID: 32327615 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

"Retirement, what?"Herminia Palenzuela MD PhDCoordinator, National Pediatric Cardiology NetworkWilliam Soler Children's Heart Center, Havana.
"Retirement, what?"Herminia Palenzuela MD PhDCoordinator, National Pediatric Cardiology NetworkWilliam Soler Children's Heart Center, Havana. MEDICC Rev. 2020 Jan;22(1):9-10 Authors: Reed G Abstract "Our family wasn't rich, but we didn't want for anything," says Dr Palenzuela by way of introduction. In 1950s Cuba, her father drove a taxi and her mother was a homemaker, raising two daughters-one now an economist and the other a top pediatric cardiologist. In many ways, Dr Palenzuela's career rode the wave of social change that swept Cuba beginning in 1959. Like many others, time and ...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Role of Business Models in Funding the Biotech Industry: Global Trends and Challenges for Cuban Biotechnology.
This article analyzes the historic background of the biotech in-dustry's business models and corporate structures, as well as their impact on the industry's fi nancial framework. It examines recent changes implemented by the sector's main actors-in-cluding young startups, venture capital funds and big pharma companies-to mitigate fi nancial risk associated with develop-ment of new biotechnology products.Finally, it discusses the challenges and opportunities that these tendencies entail for Cuban biotechnology development and proposes adoption of business policies more tolerant of the fi nancial risk inherent in this sector...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Circulation of Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatisin Cuban Women.
CONCLUSIONS Frequency of human papillomavirus is high in the three Cuban provinces studied, with greater frequency of genotype 16 and other oncogenic high-risk types. For both agents, infection is more frequent in young women and adolescents. Positive Pap tests are fre-quently associated with HPV infection. Prevalence fi ndings from this study could be used as a baseline for future research or interventions. KEYWORDS Human papillomavirus, genotypes, Chlamydia tracho-matis, neoplasms, sexually transmitted diseases, cervix Uteri, infec-tion, real-time polymerase chain reaction, women, Cuba. PMID: 32327618 [PubMed - in pr...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Educational Program for Retiring Persons: A Community Experience in Cienfuegos Province, Cuba.
Authors: Ponce-Laguardia TM Abstract Cuba has one of the fastest aging populations in Latin America and the Caribbean (20.4% of the population aged ≥60 years by 2018) and life expectancy has climbed to nearly 79 years. This demographic shift has prompted a number of initiatives to address the needs of older adults and promote active, healthy longevity. At the community level in Cienfuegos Province, an educational program was implemented designed to foster a more active role in society for older adults and improve their quality of life upon retirement, as well as to reinforce a positive culture of aging. The prog...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Gender Roles in Cuba: Leaving the Kitchen Isn't Enough.
Authors: Terrero A Abstract The scene: a family doctor-and-nurse offi ce. After the usual well-baby visit for the eight-month-old, the physician poses a question to the young mother that sounds more like a statement: "I sup-pose you won't be going back to work, right? You'll be staying home to take care of your little girl." The mother, surprised, responds with a laugh: "Of course not. As soon as she's a year old and walking, she'll be going to day care and I'll be going back to work." The doctor, a look of concern crossing her brow, responds: "But once they start in day care, they catch al...
Source: MEDICC Review - April 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Panama Aging Research Initiative Longitudinal Study.
This report describes the general study design and highlights lessons learned and future directions. In particular, drawing on lessons learned from this clinical research, a community-based prospective cohort study is currently under way among older adults in Panama to validate a blood-based biomarker profile for detecting mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, as well as risk factors for cognitive decline. KEYWORDS: Dementia, biomarkers, Latin America, aging, cognition, chronic disease, Panama. PMID: 31401637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetic Markers: A Path toward Individualized HIV Therapy.
CONCLUSIONS The study identified genetic variations (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with 12 antiretroviral drugs. In most cases, no statistically significant causal association was found. Identifying polymorphic variations is a medium- and long-term objective that requires statistical support and adoption of strategies to optimize antiretroviral therapy. An approach combining plasma-level monitoring and pharmacogenetic analysis is recommended to optimize therapy for HIV patients. KEYWORDS Pharmacogenetics, HIV, anti-retroviral agents, antiretroviral therapy, genetic polymorphism, genetic techniques, pharmacoge...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Public Health History: The 19th Century Board of Health in the City of Holgu ín.
CONCLUSIONS Although established in 1820, Holguín's Board of Health carried out preventive actions most actively from 1850 to 1865, with support from the Urban Health Police. Its gradual disappearance from the health policy arena beginning in the 1870s reflects its failure as an institution, in large part due to weak government support. KEYWORDS Board of Health, prevention, epidemics, Cuba. PMID: 31401639 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Increasing Research Productivity across Africa.
Authors: Oyewole BK, Animasahun VJ, Chapman HJ Abstract Empowering scientific innovation, building knowledge management and strengthening research capacity across Africa are fundamental for improving high-level policy decision-making. Such contributions can distinguish the continent as a reputable source of scientific expertise, prepared to manage local and global challenges towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). PMID: 31401640 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Physiology without Borders: US and Cuban Scientists Meet in Space.
Authors: Dorta-Contreras AJ Abstract Over 400 delegates from 28 countries gathered recently in Havana for the 2nd Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences (May, 2019). It was quite an event, the level of science attesting to the quality of participants from the world over. The conference attracted more US scientists to Cuba than any other in the field of medicine over the last several years: 228. I find this number particularly noteworthy amidst the pressures they faced to keep them from coming. PMID: 31401641 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Long March for Science in Defense of Population Health.
Authors: Abstract Rare grand initiatives and discoveries aside, population health and its supporting science usually advance by the slow accretion and sharing of a myriad of capacities, findings and interventions across the global scientific community. In the best of cases, ordinary people benefit. But in the worst cases, science is shunted aside, ignored or twisted to fit interests that actively oppose the right to health. PMID: 31373577 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Gender & Race in Cuba: An Anthropological Perspective Lourdes Serrano Peralta PhD, Cuban Anthropology Institute.
Gender & Race in Cuba: An Anthropological Perspective Lourdes Serrano Peralta PhD, Cuban Anthropology Institute. MEDICC Rev. 2019 Apr-Jul;21(2-3):6-9 Authors: Gorry C Abstract How does a developing island nation, beleaguered by climatic challenges and 60 years of adverse geo-political pressures become a beacon of scientific innovation, medical services and applied research-all on a shoestring budget? What's more, how does such a country, rooted in a traditional patriarchal paradigm, overcome barriers to create a scientific and medical community where the majority of researchers and professionals ar...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Biochemical Markers and Hypertension in Children.
Authors: Garí-Llanes M, García-Nóbrega Y, Chávez-González E, González-Rodríguez E, García-Sáez J, Llanes-Camacho MDC Abstract INTRODUCTION Hypertension is one of the most studied risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; in children and adolescents, its global prevalence changes with age, from 1%-3% in children to 3.2% in adolescents. In adults, in addition to hypertension, several biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk have been identified. Confirming an association between these and hypertension in childhood and adolescence would allow fo...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Normal Values of T, B and NK Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Peripheral Blood of Healthy Cuban Adults.
Authors: Kokuina E, Breff-Fonseca MC, Villegas-Valverde CA, Mora-Díaz I Abstract INTRODUCTION Quantification of lymphocyte subpopulations is useful for evaluating immune response in states of health and disease, including immunodeficiencies, autoimmunity, infections and cancer. Studies have found that concentrations and proportions of different cell subpopulations vary with geographic location, age, sex and ethnicity. Knowing the normal values of these cells and their variation in healthy populations will contribute to improved clinical practice and scientific research. OBJECTIVE Estimate normal absolute con...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Corrected QT-Interval Dispersion: An Electrocardiographic Tool to Predict Recurrence of Myocardial Infarction.
Authors: Rodríguez-Jiménez AE, Cruz-Inerarity H, Negrín-Valdés T, Fardales-Rodríguez R, Chávez-González E Abstract INTRODUCTION Many clinical settings lack the necessary resources to complete angiographic studies, which are commonly used to predict complications and death following acute coronary syndrome. Corrected QT-interval dispersion can be useful for assessing risk of myocardial infarction recurrence. OBJECTIVE Evaluate the relationship between corrected QT-interval dispersion and recurrence of myocardial infarction in patients with ST-segment elevation. METHOD...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemic in El Salvador: A Cross-Sectional Study.
CONCLUSIONS Chronic kidney disease has reached epidemic proportions in El Salvador. The data confirm a health tragedy that, although especially striking older men, also takes a severe toll on young men and women. The results confirm findings of previous research in several Salvadoran agricultural communities. The relatively high level of population exposure to agrochemicals is important and alarming, especially in rural areas, meriting health-impact studies that include and go beyond possible impact on chronic kidney disease. KEYWORDS Kidney, renal insufficiency, chronic, risk factors, epidemics, El Salvador. PMID: 313...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Dengue Cases in Colombia: Mathematical Forecasts for 2018-2022.
CONCLUSIONS ARIMA model forecasts for 2018 through 2022 predicted the highest incidence of dengue cases in Colombia would occur in 2019. Comparison of ARIMA model forecasts and the ODE model allowed projections of possible variations in dengue cases reported, and the basic reproduction number predicted that dengue would persist throughout 2019. KEYWORDS Arboviruses, climate, dengue, models, theoretical, basic reproduction number, prognosis, Colombia. PMID: 31373583 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Assistive Devices for Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study of Policy Effectiveness, Santiago, Chile, 2014-2016.
Authors: Hirmas-Adauy M, Olea A, Matute I, Delgado I, Aguilera X, Poffald L, González C, Nájera M, Gómez MI, Gallardo L, Abusleme MT, Leppe J, Mery H, Recabarren E, Massad C, Bustamante H Abstract INTRODUCTION Population aging is a worldwide phenomenon. It is estimated that by 2050, one of five persons will be aged ≥60 years. In Chile, 15.8% of the population is now aged ≥60 years, and this figure will reach 30.7% by 2050. In 2006, a national program was implemented to provide assistive devices to older adults aged ≥65 years with limited mobility or difficulty performing activities of ...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

The Panama Aging Research Initiative Longitudinal Study.
This report describes the general study design and highlights lessons learned and future directions. In particular, drawing on lessons learned from this clinical research, a community-based prospective cohort study is currently under way among older adults in Panama to validate a blood-based biomarker profile for detecting mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, as well as risk factors for cognitive decline. KEYWORDS: Dementia, biomarkers, Latin America, aging, cognition, chronic disease, Panama. PMID: 31373585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetic Markers: A Path toward Individualized HIV Therapy.
CONCLUSIONS The study identified genetic variations (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with 12 antiretroviral drugs. In most cases, no statistically significant causal association was found. Identifying polymorphic variations is a medium- and long-term objective that requires statistical support and adoption of strategies to optimize antiretroviral therapy. An approach combining plasma-level monitoring and pharmacogenetic analysis is recommended to optimize therapy for HIV patients. KEYWORDS Pharmacogenetics, HIV, anti-retroviral agents, antiretroviral therapy, genetic polymorphism, genetic techniques, pharmacoge...
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Public Health History: The 19th Century Board of Health in the City of Holgu ín.
CONCLUSIONS Although established in 1820, Holguín's Board of Health carried out preventive actions most actively from 1850 to 1865, with support from the Urban Health Police. Its gradual disappearance from the health policy arena beginning in the 1870s reflects its failure as an institution, in large part due to weak government support. KEYWORDS Board of Health, prevention, epidemics, Cuba. PMID: 31373587 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Increasing Research Productivity across Africa.
Authors: Oyewole BK, Animasahun VJ, Chapman HJ Abstract Empowering scientific innovation, building knowledge management and strengthening research capacity across Africa are fundamental for improving high-level policy decision-making. Such contributions can distinguish the continent as a reputable source of scientific expertise, prepared to manage local and global challenges towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). PMID: 31373588 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Physiology without Borders: US and Cuban Scientists Meet in Space.
Authors: Dorta-Contreras AJ Abstract Over 400 delegates from 28 countries gathered recently in Havana for the 2nd Pan-American Congress of Physiological Sciences (May, 2019). It was quite an event, the level of science attesting to the quality of participants from the world over. The conference attracted more US scientists to Cuba than any other in the field of medicine over the last several years: 228. I find this number particularly noteworthy amidst the pressures they faced to keep them from coming. PMID: 31373589 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - August 4, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

2019: A Year of Challenges and Change.
Authors: Abstract How to assess global health at the close of 2018 and project achievable goals for the new year? WHO began on a somber and urgent note by identifying Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019. They are: air pollution and climate change; noncommunicable diseases; global influenza pandemic; fragile and vulnerable settings; antimicrobial resistance; Ebola and other high-threat pathogens; weak primary health care; vaccine hesitancy, dengue and HIV. Cuba is vulnerable to many of these threats, but perhaps more importantly, it's already taking them on, proposing more intersectoral actions to address social d...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Confronting Arboviruses: Mar ía Guadalupe Guzmán MD PhD DrSc Director, Reference Center for Research & Diagnosis Pedro Kour í Tropical Medicine Institute, Havana.
Confronting Arboviruses: María Guadalupe Guzmán MD PhD DrSc Director, Reference Center for Research & Diagnosis Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute, Havana. MEDICC Rev. 2019 Jan;21(1):6-9 Authors: Gorry C Abstract The 1980s were a watershed for Cuban research in medicine and health: significant financing and material resources buttressed a strategy to improve population health through enhanced biopharmaceutical innovation and clinical best practices applied to Cuba's universal public health system. Redirecting research priorities and providing substantial public funding to ...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuba and the Global Year of Universal Health: Cristian Morales PhD Former PAHO/WHO Representative in Cuba.
Authors: Reed G Abstract A 2014 PAHO resolution that Cristian Morales helped formulate serves as a framework for the Americas' governments to actively work towards health for all their people, incorporating this aim into national programs for sustainable development. This September, the UN General Assembly will sponsor a High-Level Meeting on Universal Health . . . a first in its history. In part two of MEDICC Review's interview with Dr Morales, he outlines strategies he believes vital for transforming health systems to reach universal health-defined as coverage and access for all-and for turning words into action....
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Youth Promote Healthier Diet through Art.
Authors: Gorry C Abstract Art, education, health and nutrition: encouraging healthy eating at an early age is central to the World Food Programme's (WFP) goals. To this end, using art as a learning and communications tool, the program sponsors WFP in Action, a drawing contest open to youngsters 5-18 years old. Cuba has participated in the contest nationally since the 1990s, and since 2002 has sent a selection of drawings annually to the international competition at WFP headquarters in Rome. PMID: 31242147 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Scientific Production on Diabetes, 2000-2017: Peer-reviewed Publications, Collaboration and Impact.
CONCLUSIONS Cuban scientists conduct research on diabetes, but their work is not highly visible in the peer-reviewed literature, particularly in top-ranked journals. The problem is not simply one of publishing more, but of knowing how and where to publish. It is urgent that Cuban universities training health professionals at all levels include instruction on scientific writing. PMID: 31242148 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Cuban Experience with Lung Ultrasound to Diagnose and Classify Pleural Effusion in Critically Ill Patients.
Authors: Cueto-Medina A, Alonso-Díaz PL, Martínez-Casanova R, Porto-González F, Quevedo-Benítez Y, Abdo-Cuza A Abstract Pleural effusion is a common condition in critically ill patients (both clinical and surgical). Its diagnosis and classification are important for followup of patients with cardiorespiratory difficulty. Lung ultrasound is used for this purpose, but no reports have been published on its use in Cuba with critically ill patients in intensive care units. We performed lung ultrasound on 144 such patients with cardiorespiratory illnesses, average age 54 years, predominantly m...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Comprehensive Care for Cuban Children in the First 1000 Days of Life.
Authors: Esquivel-Lauzurique M, Álvarez-Valdés G, Castro-Pacheco BL, Santana-Espinosa MC, Machado-Lubián MDC, Herrera-Alcázar V, Martínez-Delgado D Abstract The first 1000 days of life constitute a short and exceptionally important period when the foundation is established for children's growth, development and lifelong health. Cuba has a comprehensive care system for this population that aims to promote the best start in life so that children can reach their highest development potential. This is carried out through the national public health and education systems and also includ...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Team Science and Accelerated Vaccine Introduction in Cuba: A View from the Pneumococcal Project.
Authors: Linares-Pérez N Abstract The process of research and evaluation of new products and technologies requires a combination of transdisciplinary theoretical and methodological approaches for managing and achieving objectives. The research, development and evaluation strategy of the new Cuban pneumococcal vaccine combines the approaches of team science and accelerated vaccine introduction. These frameworks are proposed for discussions regarding biotech product evaluation, using their application to the Pneumococcus Project as an example. Emphasis is on the use of team science to eliminate obstacles to ob...
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

A US Patient in Havana: Health Care the Cuban Way.
Authors: Kirkland D Abstract As a nurse and doctoral candidate, I learned from my research in and about Cuba that the country has an international reputation for having an excellent health system, providing universal care for its citizens, with major indicators-such as life expectancy-rivaling those of industrialized countries, including the USA. Little did I know that I would be accessing this health care system myself. PMID: 31242152 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research

Out of the Box: Needs-Driven Passion Meets Population Health.
Authors: Abstract truly out of the box thinking, crafted in a country where resource limitations have clearly incentivized novel approaches. PMID: 31242153 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MEDICC Review)
Source: MEDICC Review - June 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: MEDICC Rev Source Type: research