Identification of biomarkers associated with extracellular vesicles based on an integrative pan-cancer bioinformatics analysis
This study identified biomarkers in EV with potential immunological insights and clinical values. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comprehensive analysis of location-specific hub genes related to the pathogenesis of colon cancer
In conclusion, this study identified a set of location-specific genes related to the pathogenesis of colon cancer. These four hub genes may act as novel candidate targets for the treatment of colon cancer. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Considerations in treating patients with advance lung cancer during the epidemic outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
In this study, through a literature review and data collec tion, we focus on the selection and consideration of antitumor treatment strategies for advanced lung cancer during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Face masks in radiation oncology clinics: based on evidence or source of mistakes?
AbstractWe here express our concern about a general decree to let patients wear face masks in radiation oncology clinics. We believe that potential risks associated with wearing masks, such as the risk of confounding patients, outweigh any benefits of such a policy for which evidence of protection from COVID-19 is generally weak. For asymptomatic patients, wearing masks in addition to hygiene standards will not provide additional protection of others and should be cautioned against. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

What to do in an oncology department to face the new COVID-19 era challenges?
AbstractItaly was the first European country to be hit by COVID-19 pandemic. As a consequence, Italian oncologists had to guarantee essential treatments although minimizing exposure to the virus, and accidental infection, of patients and healthcare professionals. As Department of Medical Oncology of the University Hospital of Udine, in this short report, we describe the measures that we have taken, and gradually updated, since February 26, 2020. All accesses to our Oncology facilities are currently regulated by entrance check-points where patients are screened for infections following dedicated algorithms. Up to date, afte...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phase II prospective trial “Give Me Five” short-term high precision radiotherapy for early prostate cancer with simultaneous boost to the dominant intraprostatic lesion: the impact of toxicity on quality of life (AIRC IG-13218)
AbstractAs part of the AIRC IG-13218 (NCT01913717), we analyzed data from patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with extreme hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) and simultaneous boost to  the intraprostatic lesion. The aim of the study is to identify clinically meaningful information through the analysis of validated questionnaires testing gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) RT-related toxicity and their impact on quality of life (QoL). At the end of RT treatment, clinical assessment and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements were performed every 3 months for at least 2&nb...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Suppression of PTTG1 inhibits cell angiogenesis, migration and invasion in glioma cells
AbstractPituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) has been identified as an oncogene and is overexpressed in many tumor types. However, the role of PTTG1 in glioblastoma (GBM) has not been well characterized, especially in relation to angiogenesis, migration, and invasion. In the present study, our results showed that the expression of PTTG1 was significantly higher in patients with GBM. Bioinformatic analysis showed that angiogenesis and the cell migration-related process were increased in patients with high PTTG1 expression levels; meanwhile, PTTG1 was positively correlated with marker genes of angiogenesis, migration ...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acute myeloid leukemia sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors: glycolysis showed to be a better therapeutic target
In conclusion, HEL and KG-1 show to be more glycolytic, whereas HL-60 was more OXPHOS dependent. Results suggest that AML cells reprogram their metabolism to overcome OXPHOS inhibition suggesting that glycolysis may be a better therapeutic target. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - July 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Immunohistochemical evaluation of microsatellite instability in resected colorectal liver metastases: a preliminary experience
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. All the authors first name and second name has been inadvertently interchanged. Now the authors name are corrected. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - July 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma: a rare but challenging entity
AbstractBreast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, also known as neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NEBC), includes a heterogeneous group of rare tumors, which account for 2 –5% of all invasive breast carcinomas. Because of their low incidence, most of the current limited knowledge of these tumors derives from anecdotal case reports or small retrospective series. The diagnosis of NEBC is based on the presence of morphological features similar to gastrointestinal and l ung NETs and neuroendocrine markers. NEBCs are usually hormone receptors positive and HER2 negative, but despite this luminal phenotype, most ...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prospective evaluation of an anti-cancer drugs management programme in a dedicated oral therapy center (DICTO programme)
We describe the roles played by CNs in the management of oral cancer therapies at Limoges Dupuytren Hospital between May 2015 and June 2018. All cancers, irrespective of stage or whether oral general chemotherapy or targeted therapy was prescribed, are included. We followed up 287 patients of median age 67  years (range 26–89 years). Of these, 76% had metastases and 44% were on first-line therapy. The vast majority (88%) of their first CN contacts occurred just after physician consultation and lasted an average of 60 min. As part of follow-up, the CNs made 2719 calls (average 10 min) to patients t...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CREB acts as a common transcription factor for major epigenetic repressors; DNMT3B, EZH2, CUL4B and E2F6
AbstractCREB signaling is known for several decades, but how it regulates both positive and negative regulators of cell proliferation is not well understood. On the other hand functions of major epigenetic repressors such as DNMT3B, EZH2 and CUL4B for their repressive epigenetic modifications on chromatin have also been well studied. However, there is very limited information available on how these repressors are regulated at their transcriptional level. Here, using computational tools and molecular techniques including site directed mutagenesis, promoter reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we identified ...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The perplexity of targeting genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractGenetic heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The coexistence of multiple genetic alterations in the same HCC nodule contributes to explain why gene-targeted therapy has largely failed. Targeting of early genetic alterations could theoretically be a more effective therapeutic strategy preventing HCC. However, the failure of most targeted therapies has raised much perplexity regarding the role of genetic alterations in driving cancer as the main paradigm. Here, we discuss the methodological and conceptual limitations of targeting genetic alterations and their products that may...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Wee1 kinase inhibitor AZD1775 potentiates CD8+  T cell-dependent antitumour activity via dendritic cell activation following a single high dose of irradiation
AbstractAs standard treatments for cancer, DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation therapy improve survival in patients with various cancers. Wee1, a kinase associated with the cell cycle, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest to allow repair of injured DNA in cancer cells, and a Wee1 inhibitor has been confirmed to lead to apoptosis in cancer cells. Recently, there has been renewed interest in exploring the immune environment which plays a significant role in tumour suppression. A Wee1 inhibitor combined with radiotherapy has been tested in lung, pancreatic, and prostate cancer and melanoma in vivo or in vitro. There...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Salicylidene acylhydrazides attenuate survival of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells through affecting mitotic regulator Speedy/RINGO and ERK/MAPK –PI3K/AKT signaling
AbstractSalicylidene acylhydrazide group synthetic compounds ME0053, ME005 and ME0192 are known for their iron chelating properties and due to these properties they are primarily used for blocking the bacterial type 3 secretory virulence system. On the other side, targeting the metabolic pathways of iron can provide new tools for cancer prognosis and treatment. Therefore, in this study, considering their iron chelating function, the effects of the compounds ME0053, ME0055 and ME0192 were investigated in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. Iron chelating compounds are generally known to be effective in tumor development and me...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor regarding “US-guided microwave ablation of hyperplastic parathyroid glands: safety and efficacy in patients with end-stage renal disease—a pilot study”
(Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - June 23, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical evaluation of microsatellite instability in resected colorectal liver metastases: a preliminary experience
AbstractIn this retrospective study, we evaluated the predictive role of different immunohistochemical expression (IHC) of the mismatch repair proteins (MMR) in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) submitted to liver resection. A total of 108 patients were retrieved, and 15 patients were excluded from the study because of the impossibility to obtain adequate formalin-fixed tissue blocks. The final analysis included 93 patients. Twenty-eight cases (30%) presented a no loss of expression or microsatellite stability (MSS) status, 59 cases (63%) showed a hybrid loss of expression, while 6 cases (7%) presented a com...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The issues with tissues: the wide range of cell fate separation enables the evolution of multicellularity and cancer
AbstractOur understanding of the rises of animal and cancer multicellularity face the same conceptual hurdles: what makes the clade originate and what makes it diversify. Between the events of origination and diversification lies complex tissue organization that gave rise to novel functionality for organisms and, unfortunately, for malignant transformation in cells. Tissue specialization with distinctly separated cell fates allowed novel functionality at organism level, such as for vertebrate animals, but also involved trade-offs at the cellular level that are potentially disruptive. These trade-offs are under-appreciated ...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

NUC-1031, use of ProTide technology to circumvent gemcitabine resistance: current status in clinical trials
ConclusionEarly studies demonstrate NUC-1031 is well tolerated with favourable pharmacokinetic profiles. NUC-1031 use in PDAC remains unclear, but encouraging results of disease control in BTC and OC has prompted phase II and III trial development. NuTide 121, is a phase III trial comparing cisplatin-NUC 1031 combination to the standard of care cisplatin-gemcitabine and recruitment is ongoing. Recruiting trials and mature data from existing studies will help inform on the impact of NUC-1031 on patient survival over standard gemcitabine. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - June 11, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary total eradication therapy (TET) in men with newly diagnosed oligometastatic prostate cancer
AbstractTo evaluate the outcomes of total eradication therapy (TET), designed to eradicate all sites of visible cancer and micrometastases, in men with newly diagnosed oligometastatic prostate cancer (OMPCa). Men with ≤ 5 sites of metastases were enrolled in a prospective registry study, underwent neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy, followed by radical prostatectomy, adjuvant radiation (RT) to prostate bed/pelvis, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to oligometastases, and adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT) . When possible, the prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted18F-DCFPyL PET/CT (18F-DCFPyL) scan was o...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Progranulin expression induced by follicle-stimulating hormone in ovarian cancer cell lines depends on the histological subtype
AbstractEpithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous disease that can be categorized into four major histological subtypes. Its etiology remains poorly understood due mainly to this heterogeneity. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) has been implicated as a risk factor in EOC and has been suggested that may influence the development of specific subtypes. In addition, FSH regulates different aspects of ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. FSH downstream target genes in EOC have not been fully identified. Progranulin (PGRN) overexpression is associated with cell proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and shortened overall s...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer patients in COVID-19 outbreak: something more than Suram fortress
(Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - May 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cancer treatment during COVID-19 pandemic
AbstractCurrently world is fighting with global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At this time of uncertainty, oncologists are struggling to provide appropriate care to cancer patients. They have to weigh risk and benefit of giving cancer treatment vs chances of getting them infected with COVID-19. As cancer patients are immunocompromised and there are high chances of exposure during hospital visits and if they get infected, outcome can be fatal. So through the column of this article, we would like to provide basic guideline in management of cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - May 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A closer look to the new frontier of artificial intelligence in the percutaneous treatment of primary lesions of the liver
AbstractThe purpose of thermal ablation is induction of tumor death by means of localized hyperthermia resulting in irreversible cellular damage. Ablative therapies are well-recognized treatment modalities for HCC lesions and are considered standard of care for HCC nodules    3 cm) or multicentric nodules as well as complex nodule location and poor lesion conspicuity. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a general term referred to computational algorithms that can analyze data and perform complex tasks otherwise prerogative of Human Intelligence. AI has a variety of appli cation in percutaneous ablation proce...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The texture analysis as a predictive method in the assessment of the cytological specimen of CT-guided FNAC of the lung cancer
AbstractThe lung cancer is the principle cause of the worldwide deaths and its prognosis is poor with a 5-year overall survival rate. Computed tomography (CT) gives many information about the prognosis, but the problem is the subject interpretation of the findings. Thanks to the computer-aided diagnosis/detection (CAD), it is possible to reduce the second opinion. “Radiomics” is an extension of CAD and overlaps the quantitative imaging data of the CT texture analysis (CTTA) with the clinical information, increasing the power and precision of the decision going through the personalized medicine. The aim of this ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Whole genome sequencing of colorectal neuroendocrine tumors and in-depth mutational analyses
AbstractColorectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms and studies on colorectal NETs are relatively few compared to other tumors. To better understand the pathogenesis of this tumor, we performed whole-genome sequencing and follow-up verification using Sanger sequencing of the colorectal NETs and paired para-tumor tissue. We analyzed the features of the gene mutation spectrum and mutation signature patterns, and analyzed the four pathways that were altered by gene mutation in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, including DNA damage and repair, chromatin remodeling, telomere maintenance and mTOR signaling activat...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ablation, consolidation and radiotherapy for the management of metastatic lesions of the spine: impact on the quality of life in a mid-term clinical and diagnostic follow-up in a pilot study
AbstractBone metastasis in the spine are lesions that are very challenging to manage because of pain, possible respiratory and neurological complications due to the closeness with the spinal cord. In fact, a fracture of a vertebra weakened by a pathological tissue can occur. In this paper, an experience of a single center in treating bone metastasis in the vertebral soma is reported (both fractured than with an increased risk of fracture) with a combined procedure of ablation, vertebroplasty and radiotherapy. This combined strategy aims to obtain an increased ability to treat the pathological tissue (ablation and radiother...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Thermal Ablation versus SBRT in liver tumours: pros and cons
AbstractNon-surgical locally ablative treatments for primary liver cancer and liver metastases represent an effective therapeutic choice when surgery cannot be performed or is not indicated. Thermal ablative employing electric currents or electromagnetic fields have historically played an important role in this setting. Radiotherapy, in the last decades, due to a series of important technological development, has become an attractive option for the treatment of liver tumours, especially with the introduction of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy. Published literature so far evidenced both for radiotherapy and thermal ablative ...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lymphopenia that may develop in patients treated with temozolomide and immune control check-point inhibitor may be a high risk for mortality during the COVID-19 outbreak
This article was written for a hypothetical approach in cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in order to be an idea of collecting data for treatment with anti-cancer drugs that cause lymphopenia. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 24, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in radiotherapy: state of the art and future directions
AbstractRecent advances in computing capability allowed the development of sophisticated predictive models to assess complex relationships within observational data, described as Artificial Intelligence. Medicine is one of the several fields of application and Radiation oncology could benefit from these approaches, particularly in patients ’ medical records, imaging, baseline pathology, planning or instrumental data. Artificial Intelligence systems could simplify many steps of the complex workflow of radiotherapy such as segmentation, planning or delivery. However, Artificial Intelligence could be considered as a &ld...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting of oncogenic signaling pathways by berberine for treatment of colorectal cancer
AbstractStudies indicate that inhibiting a single signaling pathway or one single product of a gene is insufficient for the prevention and treatment of cancer. This is due to the fact that dysregulation must occur in more than 500 genes in order to produce a cancerous phenotype. Despite this evidence, available drugs used for cancer treatment focus on a single target. Meanwhile, berberine as a nutraceutical is capable of targeting various processes involved in tumor development including proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In comparison with synthetic agents, berberine is cheaper, safer, and more availab...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Characterization of therapy-related acute leukemia in hereditary breast-ovarian carcinoma patients: role of BRCA1 mutation and topoisomerase II-directed therapy
This report highlights the development of t-AL inBRAC1-mutated hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients and warrants further studies on functional consequences of topoisomerase inhibition in this setting. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparative bioinformatical analysis of pancreatic head cancer and pancreatic body/tail cancer
This study  is to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and mutation signatures of pancreatic head cancer and pancreatic body/tail cancer. Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (PAAD) RNA-seq data, mutation data and clinical data were downloaded and collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), FireHose and CBio Portal. According to the anatomic location, the patients were divided into 146 cases of pancreatic head cancer and 28 cases of pancreatic body/tail cancer. Then survival analysis was performed by Kaplan–Meier and log-rank test. Furthermore, DEGs were screened by R package Deseq2. Gene Ontology (GO ), Kyoto ...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PD-L1 upregulation accompanied with epithelial –mesenchymal transition attenuates sensitivity to ATR inhibition in p53 mutant pancreatic cancer cells
In this study, the effect of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the sensitivity to VE-821 was investigated in p53 mutant p ancreatic cancer cells. These results show that BxPC-3 cells exhibited higher sensitivity to VE-821 than mesenchymal PANC-1 cells, which were more migratory and had higher expressions of PD-L1 and CD44. When VE-821 was applied to two cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was induced in P ANC-1 cells with concomitant upregulation of PD-L1 and CD44, while BxPC-3 cells did not manifest these changes. Attenuation of PD-L1 expression suppressed VE-821-induced EMT, inhibited...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 10, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Preliminary results in unresectable cholangiocarcinoma treated by CT percutaneous irreversible electroporation: feasibility, safety and efficacy
AbstractCholangiocarcinoma (CC) accounts for about 3% of the gastrointestinal and 10 –25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. It arises from the epithelium of the bile duct and it can be classified in intrahaepatic (ICC), perihilar (PCC) and distal (DCC) cholangiocarcinoma, depending on the anatomical location. About 50–60% of the cases are PCC. Early detection is very difficult for the lack of symptoms, and most of the patients are not resectable at the time of diagnosis. IRE is a non-thermal ablation technique that determines cellular apoptosis by electrical impulses without involving extracellular matrix like...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trillin prevents proliferation and induces apoptosis through inhibiting STAT3 nuclear  translocation in hepatoma carcinoma cells
This study demonstrated that trillin could dramatically inhibit hepatoma carcinoma cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and decrease migration and invasion through suppressing phosphorylated STAT3 translocated to nucleus. Trillin could down-regulate Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulate cleaved PRAP, leading to dramatically apoptosis; trillin could also down-regulate MMP1, MMP2, MucI and VEGF, which displayed an inhibition effect on hepatocellular tumor cells invasion and development. The results of this study indicated the potential utility of trillin as a STAT3 inhibitor for the treatment of cancers. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) suppresses the proliferation of breast cancer cells by upregulated cyp24a1
AbstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Although several studies demonstrated cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) involved in the development of breast cancer, the underlying mechanisms of CAS regulating cell processes in the breast cancer remain elusive. In the present study, we explored the possible mechanism of CAS in contributing to the cell proliferation in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Knockdown of CAS led to the reduction of cell viability and proliferation. Furthermore, cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 phase after knocking down CAS with the decrease of cyclinD1. In addition, RNA-s...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Follow-up of percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation of hepatic lesion: predictive value of CT at 24-h compared with CT at 1  month
AbstractTo retrospectively assess the predictive value of the CT performed at 24  h, compared with the CT performed at 1 month, in the evaluation of the technical success of microwave (MW) ablation of hepatic lesions. In a single center, 50 patients with HCC underwent percutaneous MW ablation between November 2016 and March 2019. Each patient underwent a contrast-enhanced CT e xam at 24 h and at 1 month after the procedure. For each patient, was assessed the presence or absence of residual disease, the appearance of a new lesion, complications, and the involvement of the hepatic capsule, both at 24-h an...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Circular RNAs and their participation in stemness of cancer
AbstractCircular RNAs (circRNA) are covalently closed single-stranded RNA molecules that act as important regulators of gene expression through different mechanisms. Meanwhile, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells, with properties similar to normal stem cells that arise during the development of cancer and support tumor growth, induce resistance to therapy, and are responsible for metastatic spread. Since the elimination of CSCs is an important goal of cancer treatment, the circRNAs that participate in regulating gene expression and signaling pathways linked to CSCs have aroused attention in recent y...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Myths and facts about artificial intelligence: why machine- and deep-learning will not replace interventional radiologists
AbstractArtificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing healthcare and transforming the clinical practice of physicians across the world. Radiology has a strong affinity for machine learning and is at the forefront of the paradigm shift, as machines compete with humans for cognitive abilities. AI is a computer science simulation of the human mind that utilizes algorithms based on collective human knowledge and the best available evidence to process various forms of inputs and deliver desired outcomes, such as clinical diagnoses and optimal treatment options. Despite the overwhelmingly positive uptake of the technology, war...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Percutaneous US-guided MWA of small liver HCC: predictors of outcome and risk factors for complications from a single center experience
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to identify predictors of outcome and complications in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA). Patients with non-previously treated small ( ≤ 3 cm) HCCs who underwent ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous MWA between July 2016 and January 2019 were included. For each patient, the following variables were registered: age, sex, albumin, platelet count, INR/PT, PTT ratio, total bilirubin, liver status, etiology of liver disease, Child– Pugh classification, tumor dimension, margin, and hepatic segment, tumor...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Delta-radiomics increases multicentre reproducibility: a phantom study
Abstract Texture analysis (TA) can provide quantitative features from medical imaging that can be correlated to clinical endpoints. The challenges relevant to robustness of radiomics features have been analyzed by many researchers, as it seems to be influenced by acquisition and reconstruction protocols. Delta-texture analysis (D-TA), conversely, consist in the analysis of TA feature variations at different acquisition times, usually before and after a therapy. Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different CT scanners and acquisition parameters in the robustness of TA and D-TA. We scanned a commercial pha...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 31, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

HR-HPV viral load quality detection provide more accurate prediction for residual lesions after treatment: a prospective cohort study in patients with high-grade squamous lesions or worse
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of HR-HPV viral loads to predict the residual/recurrence lesions among women with high-grade squamous lesions or worse ( ≥ HSIL) after surgery. Finally, 301 women who underwent primary screening of cervical cancer using polymerase-chain-reaction-(PCR)-reverse-dot-blot-(RDB) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping and cytology assays were enrolled. They received surgery and took HR-HPV viral loads with a BioPerfectus Multiplex Real-Time PCR assay. Colposcopy biopsies were performed in patients with HPV-16/18(+) and/or TCT ≥ ASCUS with HR-HPV(+). The ri...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of novel biomarkers, MUC5AC , MUC1 , KRT7 , GAPDH , CD44 for gastric cancer
AbstractGastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and it is also the third largest cause of cancer-related death in the world. As far as we know, no biomarker has been widely accepted for early diagnosis and prognosis prediction of gastric cancer. The purpose of this study is to find potential biomarkers to predict the prognosis of GC. The gene expression profiles of GSE2685 were downloaded from GEO database. Morpheus was used to calculate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary advanced gastric cancer tissues and noncancerous gastric tissues. The gene ontology (GO) and ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

RFA of primary and metastatic lung tumors: long-term results
AbstractThe aim of our study is a retrospective evaluation of effectiveness and safety of Computed Tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy of primary and metastatic lung lesions in patients that cannot be considered surgical candidates. From February 2007 to September 2017, we performed 264 CT-guided ablation sessions on 264 lesions in 174 patients (112  M and 62 F; mean age, 68 years; range 36–83 years) affected by primary and metastatic lung lesions. The 45% of patients was affected by primary lung cancer, with size range lesion of 10–50 mm, and the 55% by metastatic l...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: experience of a single tertiary referral cancer centre and prospects for the future
AbstractMRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is used for suspicious breast cancer (BC) lesions which are detectable only with MRI: because the high sensitivity but limited specificity of breast MRI it is a fundamental tool in breast imaging divisions. We analyse our experience of MRI-guided VABB and critically discuss the potentialities of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and artificial intelligence (AI) in this matter. We retrospectively analysed a population of consecutive women underwent VABB at our tertiary referral BC centre from 01/2011 to 01/2019. Reference standard was histological diagnosis or at least ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of pancreatic cancer type related factors by Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis
This study aims to identify the core modules associated with pancreatic cancer (PC) types and the ncRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) that regulate core module genes by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). WGCNA was used to analyze the union of genes related to PC in NCBI and OMIM databases and the differentially expressed genes screened by TCGA-PAAD database. Samples were clustered according to gene expression in gene modules and Fisher exact method was performed. GO and KEGG were used for enrichment analysis to visually display module genes and screen driver genes. Hypergeometric test method was used ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 21, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current concepts in ablative procedures for primary benign liver lesions: a step forward to minimize the invasiveness of treatment when deemed necessary
AbstractWith increased use of medical imaging, the incidental detection of benign solid liver tumors has become more frequent. Facing with benign disease, the indications for surgery are still object of discussion in light of the stable natural course of most lesions and obvious drawbacks of any surgical intervention; therefore, in most situations, a conservative approach is recommended, and surgery is mainly reserved for those cases with persistent or worsening symptoms, or who are at risk for complications as malignant transformation. The advent of ablative techniques has widened the range of treatment options available ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Laparoscopic thermoablation for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis: an effective procedure for tricky tumors
AbstractThe optimal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is surgical resection. However, only a small percentage of patients are amenable to this option. Percutaneous radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (TA) proved to be effective in the treatment of unresectable HCC. Recent advances in laparoscopic ultrasound have improved the accuracy in detecting small intrahepatic HCC nodules missed by pre-operative imaging techniques. Our objective was to evaluate an operative combination of laparoscopic ultrasound with laparoscopic thermoablation (LTA) in the treatment of HCC not amenable to liver resection. The aim ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 19, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Will traditional biopsy be substituted by radiomics and liquid biopsy for breast cancer diagnosis and characterisation?
AbstractThe diagnosis of breast cancer currently relies on radiological and clinical evaluation, confirmed by histopathological examination. However, such approach has some limitations as the suboptimal sensitivity, the long turnaround time for recall tests, the invasiveness of the procedure and the risk that some features of target lesions may remain undetected, making re-biopsy a necessity. Recent technological advances in the field of artificial intelligence hold promise in addressing such medical challenges not only in cancer diagnosis, but also in treatment assessment, and monitoring of disease progression. In the per...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 16, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research