Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer with squamous cell, small cell, and sarcomatoid elements —a clinicopathologic and genomic sequencing-based discussion
AbstractHistologic variants are uncommon but well reported amongst cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma, including those in the setting of hormonal and/or chemoradiation therapy and castration resistance. However, the spectrum of morphologic phenotypes and molecular alterations present in such histologic variants are still incompletely understood. Herein, we describe a case of metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma with hormonal and chemoradiation therapy-associated differentiation, displaying a combination of squamous cell, small cell, and sarcomatoid elements. The morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular observations ar...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Population-based assessment of the national comprehensive cancer network recommendations for baseline imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractThis analysis aims to evaluate the performance characteristics of alternative baseline imaging thresholds in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. HCC patients within the SEER database (2010 –2015) who had complete information on clinical T and N stages as well as complete information on metastatic sites were eligible for the current study. Various performance characteristics associated with baseline imaging were investigated, including specificity, sensitivity, positive likelihood ra tio (LR), negative LR, number needed to in...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Real-world outcomes in patients with unresected stage III non-small cell lung cancer
This study examined real-world clinical outcomes such as progression-free survival (PFS), time to metastasis (TTM), overall survival (OS), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with unresected stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated in the community setting. A retrospective review of medical records extracted from 10 US community oncology practices was conducted. Eligible patients were adults diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 1/1/2011 to 3/1/2016 without evidence of surgical resection within 6 months after stage III NSCLC diagnosis (index date). PFS, OS, and TTM were assessed from the index ...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The prognostic value of circulating myeloblasts in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with azacitidine
(Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Deficiency of mismatch repair genes is less frequently observed in signet ring cell compared with non-signet ring cell gastric cancer
AbstractSignet ring cell (SRC) gastric cancer at advanced stage has poor prognosis. While a recent study reported nearly one-third of SRC cases contain tumors with deficient mismatch repair (MMR) genes, other studies in SRC have been inconclusive. To re-analyze the results, we performed immunohistochemical staining of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 proteins in 38 SRC gastric tumors compared with 109 non-SRC (NSRC) tumors  from 94 patients. In contrast to the previous study, all SRC gastric tumors normally expressed MMR proteins, whereas 22 of 109 of NSRC (20%) showed deficient MMR proteins. To reinforce our results, we ref...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: IL-39 acts as a friend to pancreatic cancer
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in the text of the entire article. The word “IL-39” should read as “meteorin-like protein”. This has been corrected with this correction. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - January 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Risk factors, clinical outcomes, and natural history of uveal melanoma: a single-institution analysis
We describe the characteristics of UM patients at a tertiary referral center in the Mid-Southern United States, and explore associations and predictors of outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with UM seen at West Cancer Center, from 07/2006 to 08/2017. Clinical characteristics and their relationship to outcomes (time-to-death and metastasis) were explored using Cox regression analysis. We identified 208 patients, 51% males, 97% Caucasians, 80% were symptomatic, with a median follow-up of 2.34 years, IQR (1.01 –3.03), of which 19.2% died during follow-up. Metastases were diagnosed in 19% (4 older...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The correlation between the incidence of adverse events and progression-free survival in patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC)
AbstractClinical practice shows significant differences in treatment outcomes across patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). It is not known whether cabozantinib-induced adverse events are predictive factors of survival as in case of drugs such as sunitinib or axitinib. The study participants were 30 adult patients with mRCC treated with cabozantinib as a second- or further line setting. All adverse events were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Progression-free survival (PFS) values were calculated by taking the b...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The timing of docetaxel initiation in metastatic castrate-sensitive prostate cancer and the rate of chemotherapy-induced toxicity
AbstractDocetaxel pharmacokinetics are affected by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is attributed to changes in liver metabolism induced by castration. In this retrospective analysis, we assessed whether initiating docetaxel treatment in close proximity to the start of ADT therapy for metastatic castrate-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) is associated with more treatment-related toxicity. We identified all patients with mCSPC treated at The Ottawa Hospital that received docetaxel chemotherapy between June 2014 and September 2017. For each patient, we calculated the time to chemotherapy (TTC) interval between the s...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Characteristics and impact of programmed death-ligand 1 expression, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and p16 status in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
AbstractBackgroundNo predictive biomarker of immune checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been well established. The impact of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and p16 status in HNSCC is unclear and may vary according to ethnicity.MethodsHNSCC patients treated between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed. Archival tissues were retrieved for PD-L1, CD8+ TILs, and p16 analyses. PD-L1 expression was evaluated by using the validated SP142 assay on the VENTANA platform. CD8+ TILs were defined by using semiquantitative scoring.ResultsA total of ...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A feedback regulation of CREB activation through the CUL4A and ERK signaling
AbstractCUL4A; an E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in the degradation of negative regulators of cell cycle such as p21, p27, p53, etc., through polyubiquitination-mediated protein degradation. The functional role(s) of CUL4A proteins on their targets are well characterized; however, the transcriptional regulation of CUL4A, particularly at its promoter level is not yet studied. Therefore, in this study, using computational tools, we found cAMP responsive elements (CRE) at the locations of − 926 and − 764 with respect to transcription state site + 1 of CUL4A promoter. Hence, we investig...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Splenic irradiation before allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis
AbstractSplenectomy before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for patients with myelofibrosis (MF) remains a matter of debate, and conflicting results have been reported to date. The procedure seems to fasten post-transplant hematological recovery, but it does not have an impact on survival. The role of pre-transplant splenic irradiation (SI) is much more difficult to evaluate. Forty-four patients (25 males and 19 females) with MF at median age of 49  years at diagnosis (range 14–67) underwent ASCT. The post-transplant outcome was compared between irradiated and non-irradiated patients. Eleven patients ...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle mass as a predictor of the response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer
AbstractUndernutrition and sarcopenia are associated with a higher incidence of chemotherapy-related toxicity and a poor prognosis in several kinds of cancer, but the impact of sarcopenia on the outcomes of chemotherapy for esophageal cancer remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate whether sarcopenia affects the efficacy and toxicities of chemotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer patients. Data were collected from 31 esophageal cancer patients who underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. Body composition was assessed at the start of chemotherapy by bioelectrical im...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Surgical wound fluids from patients treated with intraoperative radiotherapy induce radiobiological response in breast cancer cells
AbstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women. The standard of breast cancer treatment is based on breast-conserving surgery with administration of adjuvant whole breast radiotherapy. Research shows that in-breast relapse is most likely to occur in the tumour bed, i.e. around the scar. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), in which radiation is delivered to the tumour bed, reduces the risk of local recurrence not only through direct cell killing, but also through modification of local microenvironment. Additionally IORT modifies the composition and biological activity of surgical wound fluid. Since many ...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

HIV-associated cancers: the role of a unique multidisciplinary board to optimize patient ’s care behalf the CANCERVIH Group
AbstractSince 1996, the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) has improved, while their risk of cancer is 2 –3 times higher than in the general population. HIV-associated cancers remain a critical issue in this population and represent a particular care challenge due to the high risk of drug interactions and additive toxicity. The new standards of care with immunotherapy will also become a major issue f or PLWHIV because of the potential impact on immunology and virology. Thus, the National Cancer Institute created the CANCERVIH national network in 2014 in France, enabling the establishment of a multidis...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IL-39 acts as a friend to pancreatic cancer
This study was designed to investigate the direct role of IL-39 in the growth of pancreatic cancer. Clonogenic survival assay, cell proliferation, and caspase-3 activity kits were used to evaluate the direct effects of IL-39 on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis of the widely studied pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2. We further investigated the possible molecular mechanisms by using RT-PCR and IHC. The percentage of colonies of pancreatic cancer cells increased significantly in the presence of IL-39. This was paralleled with the increase in the OD value of cancer cells in the presence of IL-39. Interestingly, ...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Isocitrate dehydrogenase gene mutations and 2-hydroxyglutarate accumulation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
In conclusion,IDH1 orIDH2 mutations play a limited role in the development of ESCC. 2HG is potentially synthesized to high levels in the absence ofIDH1 andIDH2 mutations, and this may correlate with progression of ESCCs. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Fluorescence in situ hybridization in 1  mL of selective urine for the detection of upper tract urothelial carcinoma: a feasibility study
In conclusion, UTUC detection is feasible with FISH in 1 mL of passively collected selective urine. Thus from a technical point of view, FISH could be used as an outpatient tria ge test to decide if follow-up ureteroscopy is necessary after kidney-sparing surgery of UTUC. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of FISH for the suggested pathway deserves further attention. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of image guidance on toxicity and tumour outcome in moderately hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer
AbstractTo report toxicity and efficacy outcome of moderately hypofractionated image-guided external-beam radiotherapy in a large series of patients treated for prostate cancer (PCa). Between 10/2006 and 12/2015, 572 T1-T3N0M0 PCa patients received 70.2  Gy in 26 fractions at 2.7 Gy/fraction: 344 patients (60%) with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and 228 (40%) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria and Houston definition (nadir + 2) were used for toxicity and biochemical fai...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Postoperative weight loss followed by radical cystectomy predicts poor prognosis in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer
AbstractWe aimed to investigate the impact of postoperative weight loss following radical cystectomy (RC) on patients ’ prognoses. RC and urinary diversion were performed in 512 consecutive patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer at our hospitals between May 1996 and July 2018. Demographic clinical information, pre- and postoperative serum albumin, hemoglobin, and weight were evaluated retrospectively at 1  month. We also evaluated the association of weight loss with complications and overall survival (OS) as estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Risk factors fo...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The roles of PTEN, cMET, and p16 in resistance to cetuximab in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
AbstractThere is no established biomarker for cetuximab efficacy in recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of PTEN, cMET, and p16 expression in recurrent HNSCC. In this retrospective study, 112 patients with recurrent HNSCC received chemotherapy (CT) alone (n = 37) or chemotherapy with cetuximab (n = 75). PTEN, cMET, and p16 protein expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The median overall survival (mOS) for the patients treated with cetuximab + CT versus CT alone was 11....
Source: Medical Oncology - November 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of axitinib and sunitinib as first-line therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a real-world multicenter analysis
AbstractWe aimed to compare oncological outcomes and safety of axitinib and sunitinib in patients with treatment-na ïve metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We retrospectively evaluated 169 patients with mRCC who were treated with axitinib or sunitinib as the first-line therapy in five hospitals between October 2008 and August 2018. Oncological outcomes and safety were compared between axitinib (n = 68) and sunitinib (n = 101) groups. Inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW)-adjusted Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate effects of first-line therapies on progression-...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The c-MYC/NAMPT/SIRT1 feedback loop is activated in early classical and serrated route colorectal cancer and represents a therapeutic target
AbstractWe have recently identified a positive feedback loop in which c-MYC increases silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) protein level and activity through transcriptional activation of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and NAD+ increase. Here, we determined the relevance of the c-MYC –NAMPT–SIRT1 feedback loop, including the SIRT1 inhibitor deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1), for the development of conventional and serrated colorectal adenomas. Immunohistochemical analyses of 104 conventional adenomas with low- and high-grade dysplasia and of 157 serrated lesions revealed tha t elevated express...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy with the anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 immune checkpoint blocker avelumab: acute toxicities in triple-negative breast cancer
We reported a preliminary experience on the first patient treated at the National Cancer Institute of Milan with the association of avelumab and concomitantly RT for TNBC. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - November 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Unraveling KDM4 histone demethylase expression and its association with adverse cytogenetic findings in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
AbstractThe acquisition of complex karyotypes is related to the progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and patients with this condition have a poor prognosis. Despite recent advances in the classification of prognosis in CLL patients, understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to genomic instability and progression of this disease remains inadequate. Interestingly, dysregulated expression ofKDM4 members is involved in the progression of several cancer types and plays a role in the DNA damage response; however, the gene expression profile and the importance ofKDM4 members in CLL are still unknown. Here, ...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Plasma levels of interleukin-33 and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing systemic chemotherapy
AbstractInterleukin-33 (IL-33) and its “decoy” receptor soluble ST2 (sST2) are involved in the development of chronic inflammation and cancer. We explored IL-33 and sST2 as a potential prognostic marker in patients with metastatic and locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). IL-33 and sST2 plasma levels were assesse d in 20 patients with advanced PDAC before start of systemic chemotherapy and were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards model analysis revealed a significant association between sST2 plasma levels and survival (HR 2.1...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Multidisciplinary team in head and neck cancer: a management model
AbstractNowadays, the multidisciplinary team (MDT) is an essential component for oncologic disease management. Its benefit is also extensively recognized in head and neck cancer (HNC) community, due to tumor rarity and complex treatment. A well-defined MDT management serves as a stable point to define the better strategy and offers a chance to optimize HNC clinical outcomes and patient ’s quality of life. We explored both mandatory and additional requirements for establishing a high-quality MDT. Then we proposed an example of HNC MDT organization. The aim is to contribute to the best way to systematize HNC care. (Sou...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the impact of treatment with hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) on biochemical markers of heart function and novel electrocardiographic markers of repolarization in patients with hematological malignancies
In conclusion, in the early term evaluation after HSCT in patients with no previously diagnosed heart disease, the mild changes in markers of heart overload and repolarization were noted. The observations suggest that in all patients undergoing HSCT, even the ones without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, the evaluation, and monitoring of heart function should be considered. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - October 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of extracellular acidity on resistance to chemotherapy treatment: a systematic review
AbstractMetabolic alterations in the tumor microenvironment have a complex effect on cancer progression. Extracellular acidity is a consequence of metabolic switch in cancer and results in cell phenotypes with higher resistance to chemotherapeutics. However, mechanisms underlying the relationship between the extracellular acidity and chemoresistance are not clearly understood. This systematic review was carried out by searching the databases PubMed and EMBASE using the keywords “cancer” and “acidosis” or “acidic” and “chemoresistance” or “drug resistance.” In vitr...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Influence of Tumor Microenvironment on ATG4D Gene Expression in Colorectal Cancer Patients
In this study, we aimed at investigating the relative expression level of mRNA via Real-Time PCR of 16 chosen genes belonging to Atg8 mammalian orthologs and their conjugation system, comprisingGABARAP, GABARAPL1, GABARAPL2, MAP1LC3A, MAP1LC3B, MAP1LC3C, ATG3, ATG7, ATG10, ATG4A, ATG4B, ATG4C, ATG4D, and three genes encoding proteins building the multimeric ATG16L1 complex, namelyATG5, ATG12, andATG16L1, in 73 colorectal tumors and paired adjacent normal colon mucosa. Our study demonstrated the relative downregulation of all examined genes in CRC tissues in comparison to adjacent noncancerous mucosa, with the highest rate ...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Second-generation inflammation-related scores are more effective than systemic inflammation ratios in predicting prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy
AbstractInflammation is known to play an important role in the biology of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDAC), and systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is reported to be closely related to outcome in mPDAC. The aim of the present paper is to assess the prognostic performance of SIR-related variables in patients with mPDAC receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Data of patients with mPDAC, who were registered in the database of the division of Medical Oncology of the G. Borea Hospital in Sanremo, were retrospectively collected. Three SIR-related variables were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses have been p...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Duration of adjuvant immunotherapy —biologic, clinical and economic considerations
This study aims to understand the biologic and clinical rationale for the duration of treatment in designing adjuvant trials and to assess the economic impact of different treatment durations in adjuvant therapy. We searchedhttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov for adjuvant immunotherapy clinical trials. Based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified 47 trials targeting PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4. We examined the duration of these trials and performed a US based budget impact analysis of three representative trials based on various data sources. Most current adjuvant immunotherapy trials provide treatment for 1  ye...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Autotaxin is a novel molecular identifier of type I endometrial cancer
AbstractEndometrial cancer is the most common cancer of the female genital tract in Western Countries, with an incidence of 150.000 new cases/year. Despite high incidence, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of this tumor. Phospholipids including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are involved in proliferation and dissemination of cancer. LPA is a potent bioactive phospholipid synthesized by autotaxin (ATX) through its lysophospholipase D activity. Recent evidence suggests that the ATX/LPA signaling axis plays a role in endometrial cancer. We carried out a prospective study involving two groups of patients classified...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contemporary treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma
AbstractRenal cell carcinoma is the 14th most common cancer worldwide. It is a heterogeneous group of histopathological entities, of which the most common is clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Approximately 20 –30% of patients present initially with metastatic disease and an additional 20% will progress after radical surgical treatment. Metastatic disease that is non-feasible for surgical treatment remains incurable. Numerous studies have demonstrated that—with the introduction of new drugs—the trea tment outcomes of metastatic disease have improved. The development of new therapies as well as the optimizat...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Factors affecting crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer patients
AbstractCrizotinib is an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite that crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity may cause a dose reduction or interruption that can affect the patient ’s treatment, there is no study to investigate factors for crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors affecting crizotinib-induced hepatotoxicity. From February 2012 to April 2018, a retrospective study was performed on NSCLC patients treated with crizotin ib. Various factors were reviewed including sex, ...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor regarding “Ultrasound features of breast cancer for predicting axillary lymph node metastasis”
(Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Testicular teratomas: a growing problem?
AbstractTesticular teratomas represent a specific entity within the group of germ-cell tumours. They may comprise elements of all three germ layers. In contrast to prepubertal benign teratomas observed in infants and adolescents, postpubertal teratomas originate from the malignant germ-cell precursor. Given the good prognosis and curability of most patients with germ-cell tumour, medical oncologists and urological surgeons must be well acquainted with the principles of teratomas management. Surgery plays the decisive part in teratomas treatment, as these tumours are resistant to radio- and, to some extent, chemotherapy. In...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association of ERG/PTEN status with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer
AbstractWe have previously demonstrated a significant correlative relationship betweenPTEN deletion andERG rearrangement, both in the development of clinically localized prostate cancers and metastases. Herein, we evaluate the cooperative role of ERG and PTEN in oncological outcomes after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. We evaluatedERG andPTEN status using three previously described cohorts. The first cohort included 235 clinically localized prostate cancer cases represented on tissue microarrays (TMA), evaluated using previously validated FISH assays forERG andPTEN. The second cohort includ...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the treatment of esophageal cancer patients
In conclusion, VMAT proved to be a feasible, safe, and effective strategy to deliver definitive or pre-operative radiation in locally advanced esopha geal cancer patients. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The use of radiofrequency ablation in pancreatic cancer in the midst of the dawn of immuno-oncology
AbstractDespite significant improvement in treatment, the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains poor as the biology of the tumour affects survival even when a radical resection has been performed. Pancreatic cancer remains resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic options. Recently, immunotherapy has achieved significant results in certain types of cancer. However, for pancreatic cancer, results were not initially encouraging as pancreatic cancer microenvironment is highly immunosuppressive. Radiofrequency ablation is currently used as treatment option especially for liver cancer with significant re...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in the treatment of esophageal cancer patients
In conclusion, VMAT proved to be a feasible, safe, and effective strategy to deliver definitive or pre-operative radiation in locally advanced esopha geal cancer patients. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The use of radiofrequency ablation in pancreatic cancer in the midst of the dawn of immuno-oncology
AbstractDespite significant improvement in treatment, the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains poor as the biology of the tumour affects survival even when a radical resection has been performed. Pancreatic cancer remains resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic options. Recently, immunotherapy has achieved significant results in certain types of cancer. However, for pancreatic cancer, results were not initially encouraging as pancreatic cancer microenvironment is highly immunosuppressive. Radiofrequency ablation is currently used as treatment option especially for liver cancer with significant re...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Droplet digital PCR using HER2/EIF2C1 ratio for detection of HER2 amplification in breast cancer tissues
AbstractBreast cancers with amplification and overexpression of human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are associated with poor prognosis, and targeted for anti-HER2 therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are currently the recommended methods to asses HER2 overexpression/amplification. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), a highly accurate method to quantify DNA copy number, is potentially a robust alternative for HER2 diagnostics. In the FISH assay and most of previous ddPCR reports, chromosome 17 centromere (CEP17) has been used as the reference control to determine HER2/CEP17...
Source: Medical Oncology - October 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for oligometastatic patients: developing of a response predictive model
AbstractObjectivesTreatment of oligometastatic patients is a current challenge in radiation oncology. Aim of this study is to define a dose –response relationship for hypofractionated radiotherapy of oligometastases.MethodsRetrospective analysis of metastases treated by hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy was performed. Delivered dose was calculated both as biological effective dose (BED10), and as ratio between BED10 and the logarithm of metastasis volume (BED10 logVolume Ratio, BVR). Two dose –response models were defined by logistic regression. The fitted outcome was the Metastases Complete Response (...
Source: Medical Oncology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Imaging of distant metastases of prostate cancer
AbstractThe detection of distant metastases at the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) establishes the treatment approach and has a prognostic value, nevertheless it is not well established. Since proposed staging approaches often contradict each other, we aimed to compare the current imaging techniques for staging of advanced PCa, including future applications of the most innovative methods. Conventional imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been employed for metastatic staging (both N and M staging) of men with high-ris...
Source: Medical Oncology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

DNA methylation marker to estimate the breast cancer cell fraction in DNA samples
AbstractEstimation of the cancer cell fraction in breast cancer tissue is important for exclusion of samples unsuitable for multigene prognostic assays and a variety of molecular analyses for research. Here, we aimed to establish a breast cancer cell fraction marker based on DNA methylation. First, we screened genes unmethylated in non-cancerous mammary tissues and methylated in breast cancer tissues using microarray data from the TCGA database, and isolated 12 genes. Among them, four genes were selected as candidate marker genes without a high incidence of copy number alterations and with broad coverage across patients. B...
Source: Medical Oncology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Imaging of distant metastases of prostate cancer
AbstractThe detection of distant metastases at the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) establishes the treatment approach and has a prognostic value, nevertheless it is not well established. Since proposed staging approaches often contradict each other, we aimed to compare the current imaging techniques for staging of advanced PCa, including future applications of the most innovative methods. Conventional imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been employed for metastatic staging (both N and M staging) of men with high-ris...
Source: Medical Oncology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

DNA methylation marker to estimate the breast cancer cell fraction in DNA samples
AbstractEstimation of the cancer cell fraction in breast cancer tissue is important for exclusion of samples unsuitable for multigene prognostic assays and a variety of molecular analyses for research. Here, we aimed to establish a breast cancer cell fraction marker based on DNA methylation. First, we screened genes unmethylated in non-cancerous mammary tissues and methylated in breast cancer tissues using microarray data from the TCGA database, and isolated 12 genes. Among them, four genes were selected as candidate marker genes without a high incidence of copy number alterations and with broad coverage across patients. B...
Source: Medical Oncology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for oligometastatic patients: developing of a response predictive model
AbstractObjectivesTreatment of oligometastatic patients is a current challenge in radiation oncology. Aim of this study is to define a dose –response relationship for hypofractionated radiotherapy of oligometastases.MethodsRetrospective analysis of metastases treated by hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy was performed. Delivered dose was calculated both as biological effective dose (BED10), and as ratio between BED10 and the logarithm of metastasis volume (BED10 logVolume Ratio, BVR). Two dose –response models were defined by logistic regression. The fitted outcome was the Metastases Complete Response (...
Source: Medical Oncology - September 14, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research