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“Give me five” ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: non-invasive ablative approach
AbstractUltra-hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) is given over a shorter time with larger doses with respect to conventional fractionation in patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). The use of hypofractionation is supported both from the radiobiological point of view (the low α/β-ratio in PCa and dose escalation) and from the rising number of clinical evidences. The aim of this study is to review our data regarding oncological outcomes, namely biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS) and clinical progression-free survival (c-PFS), acute and long-term toxicities in patients treated with a ultra-hypofr...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Asymptomatic recurrence detection and cost-effectiveness in urothelial carcinoma
AbstractFor the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer or upper tract urothelial carcinoma, the set guidelines recommend regular surveillance after radical cystectomy or radical nephroureterectomy. However, the prognostic benefit of regular oncological surveillance remains controversial in the absence of prospective studies although several retrospective studies with relatively large sample sizes have demonstrated the association between asymptomatic recurrence  and better oncological outcomes. Seven out of eight studies reported that patients diagnosed with symptomatic recurrence showed significantly poorer pro...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association of antibody to E2 protein of human papillomavirus and p16 INK4A with progression of HPV-infected cervical lesions
This study investigated antibodies to HPV16 E2, HPV16 L1, and p16INK4A in sera from women with no squamous intraepithelial lesion (No-SIL) of the cervix, low-grade SIL, high-grade SIL, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-E2, -L1, and -p16INK4A antibodies in sera were determined by western blot. Among 116 samples, 69 (60%) were HPV DNA-positive. Percentages seropositive for anti-E2, -L1, and -p16INK4A antibodies were 39.6, 22.4, and 23.3%, respectively. Anti-E2 antibody was significantly correlated with HPV DNA-positive cases. Eighty-seven women (75%) were rega...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current status of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in gastrointestinal surgery
AbstractEnhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is an evidence-based paradigm shift in perioperative care, proven to lower both recovery time and postoperative complication rates. The role of ERAS in several surgical disciplines was reviewed. In colorectal surgery, ERAS protocol is currently well established as the best care. In gastric surgery, 2014 saw an establishment of ERAS protocol for gastrectomies with resulting meta-analysis showing ERAS effectiveness. ERAS has also been shown to be beneficial in liver surgery with many centers starting implementation. The advantages of ERAS in pancreatic surgery have been strongly...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Assessment of the methods used to detect HER2-positive advanced extramammary Paget ’s disease
AbstractThe human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is recognized as an oncogene as well as a therapeutic target in various cancers. Certain patients with advanced extramammary Paget ’s disease (EMPD) have also been reported to express HER2, which is therefore considered a therapeutic target for EMPD. However, an accurate methodology to determine HER2-positive EMPD has not been established. To assess the optimal methods for detection of HER2-positive EMPD, 73 EMPD samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the HER2 testing algorithm for breast c...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biomarkers defining probability of receiving second-line targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma
AbstractIn order to facilitate long-term treatment decisions, we aimed to define biomarkers defining the probability of receiving second-line (SL) targeted therapy (TT) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) based on their characteristics present at first-line TT initiation. We analysed 152 consecutive mRCC patients treated and used multivariable binominal logistic regression to identify factors contributing to the probability of receiving SL TT. Final model was assessed with bias-corrected indices (Nagelkerke ’sR2 and area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) and two bootstrap proced...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of polymorphisms in NR1I2, CYP3A4 , and ABC transporters on the steady-state plasma trough concentrations of bosutinib in Japanese patient with chronic myeloid leukemia
AbstractWe investigated the effects of polymorphisms inNR1I2 (7635A>G, 8055C>T),CYP3A4 (20230G>A),ABCB1 (1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, 3435C>T), andABCG2 (421C>A) on the mean plasma trough concentrations (C0) of bosutinib at the steady-state in 30 Japanese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. BosutinibC0 values were monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography. The median coefficient of variation (CV) value of the bosutinibC0 for one patient (intrapatient) during bosutinib therapy was 25.9% (range: 7.66 –44.24%). During bosutinib therapy, 17 of 30 patients received 300 mg/day ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Challenges and prospects of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in solid tumors
AbstractChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a novel and innovative immunotherapy. CAR-T cells are genetically engineered T cells, carrying MHC independent specific antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecule which can activate an immune response to a cancer specific antigen. This therapy showed great results in hematological malignancies but were unable to prove their worth in solid tumors. Likely reasons for their failure are lack of antigens, poor trafficking, and hostile tumor microenvironment. Excessive amount of research is going on to improve the efficacy of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors. In this ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ambient air emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and female breast cancer incidence in US
AbstractTo examine ambient air pollutants, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a factor in the geographic variation of breast cancer incidence seen in the US, we conducted an ecological study involving counties throughout the US to examine breast cancer incidence in relation to PAH emissions in ambient air. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute were collected and analyzed using SEER*Stat 8.3.2. PAH emissions data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency. Linear regression...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A review of HPRT and its emerging role in cancer
AbstractHypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is a common salvage housekeeping gene with a historically important role in cancer as a mutational biomarker. As an established and well-known human reporter gene for the evaluation of mutational frequency corresponding to cancer development, HPRT is most commonly used to evaluate cancer risk within individuals and determine potential carcinogens. In addition to its use as a reporter gene, HPRT also has important functionality in the body in relation to purine regulation as demonstrated by Lesch –Nyhan patients whose lack of functional HPRT leads to signif...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Reclassification of risk in an emergency referral center: the need for a specific tool for the classification of onco-hematological patients. A cross-sectional study
In this study, patients with cancer seen at an emergency setting were reclassified using the ESI without the “cancer” parameter to verify whether there would be any change in the classification. Cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of all cancer patients who sought immediate care at a private center in Brazil during a 6-month period was included in the study. After receiving care according to t he institution’s standards, they were reclassified using the ESI scale without the “cancer” parameter. Times to receiving care and to reaching a diagnosis were recorded. In the study period,...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in pancreatic cancer: from research to practice
AbstractChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is genetically engineered tumor antigen-specific anticancer immunotherapy, which after showing great success in hematological malignancies is currently being tried in advanced solid tumors like pancreatic cancer. Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and dense fibrous stroma are some of the limitation in the success of this novel therapy. However, genetic modifications and combination therapy is the topic of the research to improve its efficacy. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge, limitations, and future prospects for CAR T cell therapy in ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Check point inhibitors a new era in renal cell carcinoma treatment
AbstractIn the United States, the estimated number of new cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is approximately 65,000 case with about 15,000 deaths in the year of 2018 (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin 68(1):7,2018). RCC as an immunogenic malignancy is supported by many theories and facts which include tumor richness of lymphocytes infiltrate, the occurrence of spontaneous tumor regression, and the proved effect of traditional immunotherapy (Finke et al. in J Immunother 11(1):1 –11,1992), all these factors support the potential therapeutic effect of the novel immunotherapeutic agents in RCC. Historically, complete t...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hemoglobin level and XRCC1 polymorphisms to select patients with locally advanced rectal cancer candidate for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine and a platinum salt
AbstractA platinum salt (oxaliplatin or cisplatin) is widely used to enhance chemoradation (CRT) response. The potential of cisplatin in neoadjuvant CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has not been fully investigated. Consecutive patients with histologically confirmed LARC were treated with standard pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin plus capecitabine (CisCape CRT). Surgery and eight cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX4 were offered to all patients after CRT. Common biochemical variables and key germline genetic polymorphisms were analyzed as predictors of pathological complete response (pCR). Fifty-one patients ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Predictive factors for the development of irinotecan-related cholinergic syndrome using ordered logistic regression analysis
In conclusion, female sex and irinotecan dose were identified as significant predictors of the developme nt of cholinergic syndrome. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Frequency of pathogenic germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer patients
In this study, we evaluated the incidence of pathogenic germline mutations in 30 breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to understand the involvement of the inherited mutations in these genes in a breast cancer cohort. Two hundred ninety-six female breast cancer patients including 4.5% of familial breast cancer cases were included in the study. 200  ng of genomic DNA was used to evaluate the pathogenic mutations, detected using Global Screening Array (GSA) microchip (Illumina Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The pathogenic frameshift and nonsense mutations we...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of bleomycin pulmonary toxicity on the outcomes of patients with germ cell tumors
AbstractBleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) has been well described in patients with germ cell tumors treated with bleomycin etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy (BEP). To assess the prognostic impact of BPT, we retrospectively identified 52 patients who underwent bleomycin etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy from 2008 to 2017 in our institution, and evaluated the risk factors of BPT and its effect on prognosis. Patients who had received chemotherapy at another institution were excluded. BPT was defined as bleomycin discontinuation in response to pulmonary function test decline, pulmonary symptoms, or interstitial pneumoni...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Reduced intensity conditioning increases risk of severe cGVHD: identification of risk factors for cGVHD in a multicenter setting
AbstractChronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Aim is to identify risk factors for the development of cGVHD in a multicenter setting. Patients transplanted between 2000 and 2006 were analyzed (n = 820). Donors were HLA-identical siblings (57%), matched unrelated donors (30%), and HLA-A, B or DR antigen mismatched (13%). Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was given to 65% of patients. Overall incidence of cGVHD was 46% for patients surviving more than 100 days after HSCT (n =&thins...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluation of relative dose intensity during the early phase of first-line sunitinib treatment using a 2-week-on/1-week-off regimen for metastatic renal cell carcinoma
AbstractSunitinib treatment with a 2-week-on/1-week-off schedule (Schedule 2/1) is a common alternative regimen with high relative dose intensity (RDI) and superior tolerability for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The prognostic impact of RDI is reported only in 4-week-on/2-week-off or mixed regimens. Herein, we evaluated the prognostic impact of RDI during early-phase sunitinib treatment using Schedule 2/1. Seventy-four patients who received first-line sunitinib treatment using Schedule 2/1 were evaluated. Endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We assessed RDI withi...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Positioning of port films for radiation: variability is present
ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that despite the rigorous use of immobilization devices, there still exists day-to-day variation in sacral slope angle between treatment days and compared to initial baseline imaging off which the treatment plan is developed. There is an on-going study at our institution with an attempt to reduce this variation by offering exercises prior to radiation. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of anemia in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes treated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents newer and older agents
AbstractThe myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders. The International Prognostic Score System (IPSS) groups MDS in lower-risk (IPSS low and intermediate-1) and higher-risk disease (IPSS intermediate-2 and high). AML transformation is the main concern in higher-risk MDS, while anemia and transfusion dependency represent the major issues for low-risk MDS patients. Improving erythropoiesis, and eliminating fatigue and symptoms, is the main therapeutic goal for low-risk MDS patients. Around 50% of MDS patients present with anemia with an Hb level
Source: Medical Oncology - April 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for castration-sensitive prostate cancer bone oligometastases
AbstractTo evaluate outcome in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on bone oligometastases from castration-sensitive prostate cancer after primary treatment. We retrospectively collected data of patients with less than five lesions at time of SBRT and hormone-na ïve disease at the first extra-regional localization, treated between 03/2012 and 11/2016. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was measured every 3 months after SBRT. Imaging was performed in case of progression. Survival analysis was performed with Kaplan–Meier (log-rank test) approach. Fifty-five patients were treated on 77 bon...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Precision medicine against ALK -positive non-small cell lung cancer: beyond crizotinib
AbstractAnaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements represent the molecular driver of a subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Despite the initial response, virtually allALK-positive patients develop an acquired resistance to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, usually within 12  months. Several next-generation ALK inhibitors have been developed in order to overcome crizotinib limitation, providing an unprecedented survival for this subset of patients. The aim of this review to summarize the current knowledge on ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of adv ancedALK-positive NSCLC, focusing on t...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Characteristics and survival outcomes associated with the lack of radiation in the treatment of glioblastoma
AbstractRadiation increases survival in glioblastoma (GBM); however, 30% do not receive this treatment. We sought to identify characteristics associated with not receiving radiation and the impact on outcomes. We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER) 18 registries 2000 –2013 research database on 30,479 GBM cases that were aged 20 years and older. In total, 21,179 received radiation as first course of therapy, while 8218 did not with 5178 (63%) being 65 years and older. Early decisions on surgery often predicted radiation therapy with 61% having only a biopsy o r no surgery ...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices: clinical and dosimetric aspects
AbstractAs a result of aging, the number of patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) requiring radiotherapy (RT) continues to rise. The aim of this work was to evaluate RT-related malfunctions of CIED in a cohort of patients who underwent RT in our clinic from June 2010 to December 2016. We retrospectively analyzed 93 RT treatments in 63 patients with CIEDs. Patients were treated with 3D conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT and stereotactic RT. We collected clinical characteristics of cancer, models of CIEDs, total RT dose to tumor and radiation energy. Radiation dose delivered to CIED and its dysfunction...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prospects of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in ovarian cancer
AbstractDespite advances in various chemotherapy regimens, current therapeutic options are limited for ovarian cancer patients. Immunotherapy provides a promising and novel treatment option for ovarian cancer. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has shown promising results in hematological tumors and current research is going on in various solid tumors like ovarian cancer. CAR T cells are genetically engineered T cells with major histocompatibility complex-independent, tumor-specific, immune-mediated cytolytic actions against cancer cells. Initial studies of CAR T cell therapy have shown promising resu...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

High expression of FBP17 in invasive breast cancer cells promotes invadopodia formation
AbstractMetastatic spread of the cancer is usually the consequence of the activation of signaling pathways that generate cell motility and tissue invasion. Metastasis involves the reorganization of cytoskeleton and cell shape for the swift movement of the cells through extracellular matrix. Previously, we have described the invasive and metastatic role played by one of the members (Toca-1) of CIP4 subfamily of F-BAR proteins. In the present study, we address the role of another member (FBP17) of same family in the invasion breast cancer cells. Here, we report that the formin-binding protein 17 (FBP17) is highly expressed a...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The impact of chemotherapy and its timing on survival in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma treated with complete debulking
AbstractThe current standard of treatment for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is cytoreductive surgery when the disease distribution is favorable. The role of chemotherapy, as an adjunct to surgery, remains unclear. The national database of mesothelioma was used to identify MPM patients who were treated with curative intent. Patients were divided into treatment groups: (1) chemotherapy only, (2) surgery only, (3) neoadjuvant chemotherapy  + surgery, and (4) surgery + adjuvant chemotherapy. A negative control group of patients who did not receive any treatment was added (group 0). Totally...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of smoking history on the outcomes of women with early-stage breast cancer: a secondary analysis of a randomized study
AbstractTo assess the impact of smoking history on the outcomes of early-stage breast cancer patients treated with sequential anthracyclines –taxanes in a randomized study. This is a secondary analysis of patient-level data of 1242 breast cancer patients referred for adjuvant chemotherapy in the BCIRG005 clinical trial. Overall survival was assessed according to smoking history through Kaplan–Meier analysis. Univariate and multivaria te Cox regression analyses of factors affecting overall and relapse-free survival were subsequently conducted. Factors that were evaluated included: age, performance status, number...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Bioinformatic analysis reveals the key pathways and genes in early-onset breast cancer
AbstractEarly-onset breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the female. To identify the differentially expressed genes and the key signaling pathways in early-onset breast cancer, we have carried out the bioinformatic analysis of an RNA array dataset in the GEO database, GSE109169, which was acquired from early-onset breast cancer patient. A total of 118 differentially expressed genes in early-onset breast cancer were significantly changed compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Most of these genes are classified into three categories: signaling molecule, enzyme modulator, and hydrolase. Gene ontology terms re...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging for resected lung cancer: correlation of maximum standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient value with prognostic factors
AbstractDiffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for detecting malignant tumors and the assessment of lymph nodes, as FDG-PET/CT is. But it is not clear how DWI influences the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The focus of this study is to evaluate the correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET/CT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI with known prognostic factors in resected lung cancer. A total of 227 patients with resected lung cancers were enrolled in this study. FEG-PET/CT and DWI were performed in each patient before surgery. There were 168 patient...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oxaliplatin rechallenge in metastatic colorectal cancer patients after prior oxaliplatin treatment
This study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of oxaliplatin rechallenge in mCRC patients who had been previously exposed to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients were included if they had mCRC and evaluable disease, had remained disease-free or progression-free for at least 6  months after the last dose of prior oxaliplatin-based therapy, and were retreated with oxaliplatin therapy. Between January 2009 and May 2014, 110 patients were retreated with oxaliplatin-based regimens; of these, 42 (38.2%) had received prior oxaliplatin as adjuvant chemotherapy and 68 (61.8%) as palliative chemotherapy. The overall ...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of matrix metalloproteinases in tumour invasion: immunohistochemistry of peritoneum from peritoneal carcinomatosis
AbstractColorectal cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer. Spread of tumour to the peritoneal cavity may lead to seeding of cancer cells that adhere to and invade the peritoneal membrane causing peritoneal carcinomatosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an essential role in cancer cell invasion and dissemination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology and presence of matrix metalloproteinases in peritoneal carcinomatosis. Biopsy samples of the parietal peritoneum were taken from patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis. The samples were fixed in formalin, dehydra...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

De-escalation of breast radiotherapy after conserving surgery in low-risk early breast cancer patients
AbstractThe reduction in the burden related to treatment is becoming more and more important in modern oncology. Radiation therapy is a mainstay option in the postoperative setting for early breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery. Nowadays, different options are available to de-escalate radiotherapy in this scenario such as the use of hypofractionated whole-breast radiation, the selective delivery of the boost dose to the lumpectomy cavity, the introduction of accelerated partial breast irradiation and the omission of treatment in appropriately selected patients with low-risk features. We herein provide a r...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluation of risk factors and assessment models for predicting venous thromboembolism in lung cancer patients
In conclusion, in our study of all the VTE–RAMs analyzed, the COMPASS-CAT model was the most accurate predictor of VTE development in patients with lung cancer. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Rechallenge treatment with a platinum-based regimen in patients with sensitive relapsed small-cell lung cancer
AbstractAmong patients with relapsed small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), those who relapse  >  90 days after first-line chemotherapy are classified sensitive relapse. Rechallenge with a first-line platinum-based regimen has been used in sensitive relapsed SCLC patients, but its importance is not known. We evaluated the outcome of rechallenge with platinum-based chemotherapy for sensitive relapse patients. We reviewed consecutive patients with sensitive relapsed SCLC who received second-line chemotherapy between January 1999 and December 2016. We evaluated the treatment outcomes of platinum-based rechalleng...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of 1p and 19q status of glioblastoma by whole exome sequencing, array-comparative genomic hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization
AbstractAccording to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system, detecting 1p/19q co-deletion became essential in clinical neuropathology for gliomas with oligodendroglioma-like morphology. Here, we assessed genomic profiles of glioblastoma in 80 cases including 1p/19q status using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and/or whole exome sequencing (WES). Paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were subjected to FISH analysis, and the corresponding frozen tissues from the same tumors were evaluated for aCGH and/or WES for 1p/19q co-d...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genital marginal failures after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in squamous cell anal cancer: no higher risk with IMRT when compared to 3DCRT
AbstractIntensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is considered the preferred option in squamous cell canal cancer (SCAC), delivering high doses to tumor volumes while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues. IMRT has steep dose gradients, but the technique is more demanding as deep understanding of target structures is required. To evaluate genital marginal failure in a cohort of patients with non-metastatic SCAC treated either with IMRT or 3DCRT and concurrent chemotherapy, 117 patients with SCAC were evaluated: 64 and 53 patients were treated with IMRT and 3DCRT techniques, respectively. All patients underwent clini...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gemcitabine –cisplatin (GC) as adjuvant chemotherapy in resected stage II and stage III gallbladder cancers (GBC): a potential way forward
AbstractData on adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine –cisplatin (GC) in resected gallbladder cancers (GBC) are scarce. Patients who underwent upfront curative resection for GBC from 2010 to 2016 were analyzed. Patients with stage II–III GBC treated with adjuvant GC were analyzed. A total of 242 patients were evaluated, of whom 125 patients receive d GC regimen as adjuvant chemotherapy. The median age was 50 years (range 31–74), majority were female (77.6%), and 37 patients (29.6%) had raised CA 19.9 levels at baseline. One hundred and thirteen patients (90.4%) underwent radical cholecystectomy with...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acid sphingomyelinase activity as an indicator of the cell stress in HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
AbstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, has been increasingly associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment of HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma has a better response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy and presents a better prognosis for the patient. Defining the underlying mechanism of the difference might help in developing future treatment options and could be an important factor in personal therapy planning. Endogenously secreted acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) levels in the cellular stress caused by irradiation and cisplatin were investigated. MTT assay w...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Optimizing the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a Latin America perspective
This article reviews the treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and provides consensus recommendations to assist Latin American prostate cancer specialists with clinical decision making. A multidisciplinary expert panel from Latin America reviewed the available data and their individual experience to develop clinical consensus opinions for the use of life-prolonging agents in mCRPC, with consideration given to factors influencing patient selection and treatment monitoring. There is a lack of level 1 evidence for the best treatment sequence or combinations in mCRPC. In th...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Predictive factors in patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis focusing on RDI using ordered logistic regression analysis
AbstractAlthough pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is expected to maintain the relative dose intensity (RDI) of chemotherapy and improve safety, information is limited. However, the optimal selection of patients eligible for pegfilgrastim prophylaxis is an important issue from a medical economics viewpoint. Therefore, this retrospective study identified factors that could predict these eligible patients to maintain the RDI. The participants included 166 cancer patients undergoing pegfilgrastim prophylaxis combined with chemotherapy in our outpatient chemotherapy center between March 2015 and April 2017. Variables were extracted fr...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Protective effects of purple carrot extract ( Daucus carota ) against rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that purple carrot extract was able to protect oral lesions induced by 4NQO in Wistar rats as a result of antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory potential and antiproliferative and antimutagenic actions. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - March 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Blood Epstein –Barr virus DNA does not predict outcome in advanced HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma
AbstractIn HIV-seronegative patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Epstein –Barr virus (EBV) viraemia at diagnosis predicts a worse progression-free survival (PFS), independent of the International Prognostic Score. However, its role in HIV-associated HL is uncharacterised. We collected clinico-pathologic and treatment data from a prospective series of 44 HIV-associated HLs from 2000 to 2016. We evaluated circulating EBV DNA as a prognostic factor on uni- and multivariable analyses in relationship to the International Prognostic Index criteria. In 44 patients with HIV-associated HL, EBV was detected by in situ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of income in brain tumor patients: a descriptive register-based study
In conclusion, the results should be interpreted with caution, but there does not seem to be a correlation in this material between increased income and development of brain cancer. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - March 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Contribution of UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms related to axitinib pharmacokinetics to safety and efficacy in patients with renal cell carcinoma
AbstractAxitinib is a potent second-line molecular-targeted agent for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Axitinib pharmacokinetics and its relation with genetic polymorphisms were evaluated to predict the adverse events (AEs) and efficacy of axitinib. We analyzed 46 patients with mRCC who were treated with axitinib. The plasma axitinib level was measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12  h after administration (C0, C2, C4, C8, and C12; ng/mL) on day 7 of the treatment. Genetic polymorphisms related to axitinib pharmacokinetics, includingSLCO1B1,SLCO1B3,SLCO2B1,ABCB1,ABCG2,CYP2C19,CYP3A5, andUGT1A1, were analyzed. Axitinib C...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Stability of matrix metalloproteinase-9 as biological marker in colorectal cancer
AbstractMatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be of importance in the growth and spread of colorectal cancer (CRC). MMP-9 level has been suggested as a biological predictor of prognosis in CRC as well as in other types of cancer such as breast and cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability over time of MMP-9 in cryopreserved plasma, colorectal tumor tissue extract and macroscopically tumor-free colon mucosa tissue extract samples. Plasma and tissue samples were taken from patients at primary CRC surgery and analyzed for MMP-9. Aliquots of samples from the same patients were store...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

SOX11 expression as a MRD molecular marker for MCL in comparison with t(11;14) and IGH rearrangement
AbstractThe main cause of death in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients is relapse due to undetermined minimal residual disease (MRD) and therefore monitoring MRD is crucial for making the best treatment decisions. The gold standard method for MRD analysis is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The most commonly used molecular markers for measuring MRD in MCL are: t(11;14)(q13;p32) translocation orCCND1 expression and IGH rearrangement. Such markers can, however, be found in other B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Recent studies demonstrate thatSOX11 expression is highly specific for MCL and could be used as a marker fo...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Predictive markers for efficacy of everolimus plus exemestane in patients with luminal HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer
AbstractMetastatic breast cancer (MBC) is essentially incurable despite recent improvements in systemic therapies. We often encounter difficulties in choosing the most appropriate treatments, with optimal timing, for individual patients. Everolimus, one of the mTOR inhibitors, is usually used with endocrine therapy for MBC. Identification of predictive markers for everolimus-based treatment remains a major issue, but to date, no predictive markers have been established. We retrospectively investigated predictive markers for treatments with everolimus plus exemestane in patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast can...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Intravenous versus oral etoposide: efficacy and correlation to clinical outcome in patients with high-grade metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (WHO G3)
AbstractHigh-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin  + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in ...
Source: Medical Oncology - March 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research