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Hypofractionated postmastectomy radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy in patients with immediate breast reconstruction: dosimetric results and acute/intermediate toxicity evaluation
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the dosimetry and toxicity of hypofractionation in postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in breast cancer (BC) patients. Stage II –III BC patients with implant-based immediate breast reconstruction received PMRT to the chest wall (CW) and to the infra/supraclavicular nodal region (NR) using a 15-fraction schedule (2.67 Gy/fraction) and helical IMRT (Tomotherapy® System, Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA). A score was assigned to each treatment plan in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage of CW and NR and the s...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chemotherapy and immunotherapy for recurrent and metastatic head and neck cancer: a systematic review
AbstractHead and neck cancer (HNC) is a fatal malignancy with an overall long-term survival of about 50% for all stages. The diagnosis is not rarely delayed, and the majority of patients present with loco-regionally advanced disease. The rate of second primary tumors after a diagnosis of HNC is about 3 –7% per year, the highest rate among solid tumors. Currently, a single-modality or a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (CHT), is the standard treatment for stage III–IV HNC. For the recurrent/metastatic setting, in the last 40 years great efforts have been made in order to d evelop a more...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of nilotinib therapy in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase
AbstractABL1-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have led to dramatic changes in treatment strategies for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). However, clinical studies have highlighted increasing numbers of adverse events (AE) with TKIs. Although TKI modification plays a key role in AE management, this process is poorly understood, particularly in terms of the TKI nilotinib. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 70 patients with newly diagnosed (ND)-CML-CP who were treated with nilotinib to investigate the drug potency of nilotinib and treatment management. During a median obser...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunosuppressive monocytes (CD14 + /HLA-DR low/ − ) increase in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia after induction chemotherapy
AbstractIn tumor microenvironment, immunosuppression is a common event and results from the inhibition of activated immune cells and generation of cells with immunosuppressive capacity, as some subtypes of monocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of immunosuppressive CD14+/HLA-DRlow/ − monocytes in pediatric patients with the diagnosis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia  (B-ALL) and, moreover, verify whether the chemotherapeutic treatment has any effect on these cells. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples were collected from 15 untreated pediatric patients. The pr...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Can anticancer chemotherapy promote the progression of brain metastases?
AbstractBrain metastases natural history from one primary tumor type might be accelerated or favored by using certain systemic chemotherapy. A great deal was described in mice and suggested in human with antiangiogenic drugs, but little is known about the metastatic progression generated by the perverse effect of anticancer drugs. A total of 413 patients who underwent treatment for brain metastasis (2013 –2016) were included. The identification of all previous anticancer drugs received by patients from primary tumor diagnosis to brain metastases diagnosis was collated. The median value for the time of first appearanc...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A phase I study of afatinib for patients aged 75 or older with advanced non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR mutations
AbstractThis phase I trial was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose of afatinib for phase II trial in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The study used a standard 3  + 3 dose escalation design. Patients aged 75 years or older with advanced NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations were enrolled. The doses of afatinib, which were given once daily, were planned as follows: level 1, 20 mg/day; level 2, 30 mg/day; level 3, 40 mg/day. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was def ined as ...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The impact of anaemia, transfusion dependency, comorbidities and polypharmacy in elderly patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes
AbstractMyelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous clonal disorders ranging from indolent conditions with a near-normal life expectancy to forms approaching acute myeloid leukaemia. Comorbid conditions have rarely been systematically studied among patients with MDS. Older age per se has a negative impact on survival of MDS patients, in particular of those with lower risk. However, age indirectly affects also the survival of higher-risk patients by limiting their eligibility to intensive treatments. In addition, ageing is associated with an increasingly high risk of developing comorbidity, and a high prevalence of co...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Modified biweekly cisplatin, docetaxel plus cetuximab (TPEx) as first-line treatment for patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer
In conclusion, modified b iweekly TPEx is of comparable efficacy with conventional TPEx and represents a well-tolerated regimen in R/M SCCHN patients. Further evaluation of this protocol in prospective clinical trials is warranted. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - February 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema predicts recurrence following surgery in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to clarify the clinicopathologic characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). We investigated the association between CPFE, the cancer survival, and the pathological features of clinical stage I NSCLC patients. Between 2005 and 2014, 218 consecutive patients with clinical stage I NSCLC underwent complete resection with systematic lymph node dissection. A univariate analysis by log-rank tests was performed to determine the risk factors for recurrence, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to id...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Expression of gremlin1 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance
AbstractAs an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), 2, 4 and 7, gremlin1 plays a role in regulating organogenesis, tissue differentiation and angiogenesis. However, there is little information regarding gremlin1 in gastrointestinal cancer. We attempted to clarify how gremlin1 expression affects the clinical features and biological properties of gastric cancer. A total of 232 gastric cancer patients who received R0 gastrectomy at Kagoshima University Hospital were enrolled. Gremlin1 expression in gastric cancer was detected by immunohistochemical and western blotting methods. Correlations between clinicopatholog...
Source: Medical Oncology - February 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A comprehensive analysis of BRCA2 gene: focus on mechanistic aspects of its functions, spectrum of deleterious mutations, and therapeutic strategies targeting BRCA2-deficient tumors
AbstractBRCA2is the main susceptibility gene known to be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. It plays an important role in maintaining the genome stability by homologous recombination through DNA double-strand breaks repairing, by interacting with various other proteins including RAD51, DSS1, RPA, MRE11, PALB2, and p53.BRCA2-deficient cells show the abnormalities of chromosome number. BRCA2 is also found to be involved in centrosome duplication specifically in the metaphase to anaphase transition. Inactivation or depletion of BRCA2 leads to centrosome amplification that results in unequal separation of chromosom...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long-term survival with modern therapeutic agents against metastatic melanoma —vemurafenib and ipilimumab in a daily life setting
In this study, we analyzed survival data from patients that received the first-in-class substances vemurafenib and ipilimumab, respectively, during the time period from registration of the drugs until availability of combination treatments. We aimed to evaluate the possibility of long-term survival in a daily life setting and to characterize patients that benefit from these drugs in order to gain insight into predictive attributes. Eighty patients were evaluated who were treated with either vemurafenib (n = 40) or ipilimumab (n = 40), and overall survival was analyzed. Subgroup analysis was performed fo...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and histologic subtypes with lung adenocarcinoma
This study included 182 patients with adenocarcinoma who underwent complete resection. The rate of EGFR mutation-positive patients was significantly higher among female patients, never smokers, patients with small tumors (
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Factors involved in early lenvatinib dose reduction: a retrospective analysis
AbstractLenvatinib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been proven to be an effective treatment option for patients with iodine-131-refractory thyroid cancer. Many adverse effects of lenvatinib have been reported; thus, dose reduction is common. However, a few studies have analyzed the causes of lenvatinib dose reduction in daily clinical practice. Here, we investigate the factors involved in early lenvatinib dose reduction to analyze lenvatinib dose modification. We analyzed 20 thyroid cancer patients who began receiving lenvatinib at the Kumamoto University Hospital Cancer Center from July 2015 to November 2016. Pati...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Detailed pathologic analysis on the co-occurrence of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor subtypes in matched orchiectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissections
The objective of the study was to report the first detailed clinicopathologic analysis of NSGCT orchiectomy and RPLND samples to determine the likelihood and agreement of the co-occurrence of GCT components. A total of 118 consecutive patients with NSGCT treated between 1988 and 2012 who underwent both orchiectomy and RPLND at a single academic tertiary care center were analyzed. Statistical analysis of co-occurrence likelihood and agreement of GCT components was performed, both within and between orchiectomy and RPLND specimens. Embryonal carcinoma was the most frequent component present in orchiectomy specimens, and ther...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cell biology of glioblastoma multiforme: from basic science to diagnosis and treatment
AbstractFirst described in the 1800s, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a class IV neoplasm with astrocytic differentiation, as per the revised 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most common malignant tumor of the CNS. GBM has an extremely wide set of alterations, both genetic and epigenetic, which yield a great number of mutation subgroups, some of which have an established role in independent patient survival and treatment response. All of those components not only represent a closed cycle but are also relevant to the tumor biological behavior and resistance to...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphism of calcium-sensing receptor in women with breast cancer
AbstractBreast cancer is a disease of unknown etiology, whose major risk factors are genetic alterations. Polymorphism of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been a focus of some recent studies, due to a probable association with breast cancer risk and tumor aggressiveness. A relationship between polymorphic rs17251221 variant of the CaSR gene, and allele G (considered a gain-of-function mutation) and breast cancer risk has been stressed, despite the paucity of studies found in the literature. The present study involved 137 women (69 women with breast cancer —case; and 68 controls without breast cancer) who had 3...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Expression of Hippo signaling pathway and Aurora kinase genes in chronic myeloid leukemia
AbstractChronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm resulting from clonal expansion of hematopoietic stem cells positive for the Philadelphia chromosome. The CML pathogenesis is associated with expression of theBCR–ABL1 oncogene, which encodes the Bcr –Abl protein with tyrosine kinase activity, promoting the leukemic cell exacerbated myeloproliferation and resistance to apoptosis. CML patients are usually treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), but some of them acquire resistance or are refractory to TKI. Thus, it is still relevant to el ucidate the CML pathogenesis and seek new thera...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Uncommon frame-shift exon 19 EGFR mutations are sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung carcinoma
This study was designed to describe the TKI sensitivity of a small cohort of lung adenocarcinomas bearing uncommon exon 19 mutations and to evaluate in silico the correlation between frame-shift exon 19 mutations and EGFR sequence/structure modification. Among 1168 NSCLCs screened forEGFR mutational status in our Institutions between 2011 and 2016, seven uncommon exon 19EGFR mutations were further evaluated: five complex mutations, characterized by a deletion followed by a single-nucleotide insertion, a macrodeletion of 25  bp, and a 19 bp duplication. Interestingly, three patients harboring frame-shift mutations...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Is the fatigue an adverse event of the second generation of hormonal therapy? Data from a literature-based meta-analysis
In conclusion, given the limitations of a literature-based study, rather than a meta-analysis based on individual patients’ data, our study confirmed the increase in the RR fo r any-grade and grade 3–4 fatigue during the second generation of hormonal therapies, with particular attention being paid to grade 3–4 in the pre-chemotherapy setting of the disease. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Efficacy of doxorubicin after progression on carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of palliative doxorubicin after progression to CT therapy in advanced or recurrent EC. A retrospective review of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute database between 2009 and 2013 was performed, and all patients with recurrent and advanced EC treated with palliative doxorubicin after progression on CT were included. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rates as well as toxicity were evaluated. A total of 33 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 65.7  years. Objective responses were documented ...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a predictive biomarker of response to anti-PD1 therapy in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer or metastatic melanoma
AbstractImmunotherapy plays an important role in cancer treatment. Biomarkers that can predict response, including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), are in the spotlight of many studies. This cohort study was designed to evaluate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs as predictive factors for response to anti PD-1 treatment in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic melanoma. We evaluated the expression of CD4+ and CD8+ TILs in tissue samples of 56 patients with metastatic NSCLC or melanoma treated with anti-PD1 immunotherapy. The study included 30 patients with melanoma and 26 with NSCLC. A...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Expression of VHL tumor suppressor mRNA and miR-92a in papillary thyroid carcinoma and their correlation with clinical and pathological parameters
AbstractA growing body of evidence suggests a role of the von Hippel –Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Our previous study ofVHL in PTCs showed that lowerVHL expression was associated with aggressive tumor features, but we found no evidence forVHL downregulation through common genetic or epigenetic modifications. Several studies pointed to a role of microRNA-92a (miR-92a) in the regulation ofVHL expression in different cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression levels ofVHL mRNA and miR-92a in 42 pairs of PTCs and matched non-tumor thyroid tissu...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms associated with adverse reactions of molecular-targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma
AbstractThe prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has drastically improved due to the development of molecular-targeted drugs and their use in clinical practice. However, these drugs cause some diverse adverse reactions in patients and sometimes affect clinical outcomes of cancer therapy. Therefore, predictive markers are necessary to avoid severe adverse reactions, to establish novel and effective prevention methods, and to improve treatment outcomes. Some genetic factors involved in these adverse reactions have been reported; however, perspectives on each adverse response have not been integrated yet...
Source: Medical Oncology - January 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

First-line treatment with bendamustine and rituximab, in patients with intermediate-/high-risk splenic marginal zone lymphomas
AbstractSplenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZLs) are rare indolent B cell neoplasms that affect the spleen, bone marrow, and blood. Although they have an indolent course in the majority of patients, who have a median survival of 8 –10 years, ∼ 30% may experience a worse outcome. The prognostic criteria of progression are lymph node and extra-nodal involvement, high lymphocyte counts, anaemia, and thrombocytopenia. The treatment of SMZLs include a “wait and watch strategy”, splenectomy, and alkylating agents ± rit uximab. We here describe data relating to 70 patients with inte...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chemotherapy and echocardiographic indices in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the ONCO-ECHO study
AbstractThe cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy (CTx) for non-Hodgkin ’s lymphomas is not well recognized. In order to facilitate individual risk counseling for patients, we analyzed the effect of CTx on echocardiographic indices in regard to clinical data in patients treated for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). A prospective multicenter ONCO-ECHO trial included 67 p atients with NHL (45 patients with DLBCL (diffuse large B cell lymphoma) and 22 with non-DLBCL). Patients received standard CTx, primarily R-CHOP, CHOP, R-COP and COP regimens. Clinical data and echocardiographic indices were obtained at baseline, 3-, 6- a...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer
AbstractBreast cancer can be classified based on the expression or lack of expression of protein receptors including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (Her2). The basal molecular subtype is mostly made up of breast cancers that do not express ER/PR or Her2, triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (Bertucci et al. in Int J Cancer 123(1):236,2008). TNBC tends to be more aggressive as there are no approved targeted treatments and the only treatment option currently is cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recent data show that some chemotherapies, specifically anthracyclines, not only ha...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effectiveness of olanzapine in patients who fail therapy with aprepitant while receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy
We present data on the effectiveness of olanzapineafter failure of aprepitant in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). A single-center prospective study was conducted, where patients ≥ 18 years who failed aprepitant, palonosetron, dexamethasone (APD) received olanzapine, palonosetron and dexamethasone (OPD) in the subsequent cycle of HEC.Failure of APD was defined as occurrence of ≥ grade 2 acute and/or delayed nausea ± vomiting. Response rates were compared with what was achieved in their previous cycle with the use of APD in the acute (0–24 h), delayed (...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Molecular imaging of advanced thyroid cancer: iodinated radiotracers and beyond
AbstractThe original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The middle name of the author Steven B. Rowe is incorrect. The corrected name is Steven P. Rowe. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - December 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Ten-year results of accelerated hypofractionated adjuvant whole-breast radiation with concomitant boost to the lumpectomy cavity after conserving surgery for early breast cancer
AbstractAn error inadvertently occurred in the discussion of the original publication when citing the local relapse rates of the EORTC 22881-10882 trial ( ‘boost vs no boost trial’). (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - December 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Large-scale DNA organization is a prognostic marker of breast cancer survival
AbstractBreast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. We investigated whether changes in large-scale DNA organization (LDO) of tumor epithelial nuclei are an indicator of the aggressiveness of the tumor. We tested our algorithm on a set of 172 duplicates TMA cores samples coming from 95 breast cancer patients. Thirty-five patients died of breast cancer, and 60 were still alive 10  years after surgery. Duplicates cores were used to create training and test set. The TMA slides were stained with Feulgen–thionin and imaged using ourin-house high-resolution Imaging system. Automat...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Treatment of melanoma with selected inhibitors of signaling kinases effectively reduces proliferation and induces expression of cell cycle inhibitors
AbstractCancer treatment often tends to involve direct targeting enzymes essential for the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. The aim of this study was the recognition of the possible role of selected protein kinases: PI3K, ERK1/2, and mTOR in cell proliferation and cell cycle in malignant melanoma. We investigated the role of protein kinase inhibitors: U0126 (ERK1/2), LY294002 (PI3K), rapamycin (mTOR), everolimus (mTOR), GDC-0879 (B-RAF), and CHIR-99021 (GSK3beta) in cell proliferation and expression of crucial regulatory cell cycle proteins in human melanoma cells: WM793 (VGP) and Lu1205 (metastatic). They were us...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

More predictive markers were identified for trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity
(Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - December 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The novel role of IL-37 in prostate cancer: evidence as a promising radiosensitizer
This study is designed to investigate the direct effect of IL-37 on growth of DU145 and PC-3, two widely studied PCa cell lines, and to investigate whether IL-37 could be used as a radiosensitizer for PCa. Clonogenic survival and quick cell proliferation assays along with immunohistochemistry, TUNEL staining, and caspace-3 activity assay kits as well as RT-PCR were used in this study. Our results showed that IL-37 has little direct effect on growth of PCa. However, IL-37/RT enhanced RT-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in both cell lines. We further found that IL-37/RT upregulated the mRNA expression o...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 5, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging enzymatic targets controlling angiogenesis in cancer: preclinical evidence and potential clinical applications
AbstractAngiogenesis has always been considered as a fundamental therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. To date, anti-angiogenic treatments that have been approved are principally based on either administration of monoclonal antibodies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor axis or multikinase inhibitors. However, a growing body of evidence is pointing out the role of different classes of enzymes involved in tumor-driven angiogenesis, whose inhibition in preclinical models has already shown encouraging results. This review provides an overview on...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prediction of venous thromboembolism in newly diagnosed patients treated for lymphoid malignancies: validation of the Khorana Risk Score
AbstractThe utility of the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment model known as the Khorana Risk Score (KRS) in patients with lymphoid malignancies receiving outpatient chemotherapy is not defined. We evaluated the association of the KRS with VTE in patients treated for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Retrospective analyses were performed in 428 patients, 241 of whom were newly diagnosed with DLBCL and 187 of whom had HL. During the initial therapy, 64 (15%) patients developed VTE and 56 died during follow-up. More VTE events occurred in patients with DLBCL than in patients with HL. A...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Intravesical Thalidomide boosts bacillus Calmette-Gu érin (BCG) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatment
AbstractThe aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of intravesical Thalidomide (immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic) added to BCG using an immune competent autochthonous orthotopic NMIBC animal model. Female Fischer 344 rats, 7  weeks of age, received every 2 weeks for four times, a dose of 1.5 mg/kg ofN-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) intravesically. The rats were randomized into four groups (n = 10 per group) to receive intravesical treatment once a week for 6 weeks as follows: control (0.2 ml vehicle), BCG (2 × 106 CFU of Connaught strain in 0.2 &n...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IMP3 expression in NSCLC brain metastases demonstrates its role as a prognostic factor in non-neuroendocrine phenotypes
AbstractBrain metastases from NSCLC are associated with a poor prognosis, and local radiotherapy is the most effective therapeutic strategy. The oncofetal protein IMP3 has been studied extensively, and evidence suggests that its expression is related to shorter overall survival and a more aggressive phenotype in solid malignancies. Here, the prognostic role of IMP3 was investigated in a cohort of patients with NSCLC brain metastases in correlation with survival and tumor histotype. A series of 42 NSCLC brain metastases samples was analyzed by tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining for IMP3. IMP3 expression was ...
Source: Medical Oncology - December 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients
In conclusion, VMAT proved to be a feas ible, safe and effective strategy to deliver RNI in breast cancer patients after either BCS or mastectomy with promising dosimetric results and a mild toxicity profile. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ovarian serous carcinomas acquire cisplatin resistance and increased invasion through downregulation of the high-temperature-required protein A2 (HtrA2), following repeated treatment with cisplatin
AbstractHigh-temperature-required protein A2 (HtrA2) is one of the serine proteases related to apoptosis. HtrA2 protein expression has been associated with cisplatin resistance and poor prognosis in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma (SAC). The aim of this study was to understand the influence of HtrA2 on repeated treatment with cisplatin. The change in HtrA2 expression in 31 ovarian cancers was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis, before and after cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and the association between HtrA2 expression after chemotherapy and prognosis was analyzed. The association between the change in HtrA2 and pro...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of prior androgen receptor-axis-targeted agents on the clinical activity of subsequent docetaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: comparative assessment between abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide
This study included a total of 114 mCRPC patients consisting of 54 and 60 who progressed following treatment with AA and Enz, respectively, prior to the introduction of docetaxel, and compared oncological outcomes with docetaxel between these two groups. There were no significant differences in the major clinicopathological characteristics before treatment with docetaxel between the AA and Enz groups. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates to docetaxel in the AA and Enz groups were 40.7 and 43.3%, respectively, with no significant differences in the rates between these two groups. Following the introduction of ...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Factors for time to trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients
This study aimed to investigate the factors for the time to occur trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. From January 2014 to December 2015, a retrospective study was performed with breast cancer patients who were treated with trastuzumab. Associations between presence of and time to cardiotoxicity and various factors were analyzed. Based on multivariate models, it was found that baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)  
Source: Medical Oncology - November 21, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MR imaging perfusion and diffusion analysis to assess preoperative Short Course Radiotherapy response in locally advanced rectal cancer: Standardized Index of Shape by DCE-MRI and intravoxel incoherent motion-derived parameters by DW-MRI
AbstractOur aim is to assess preoperative Short Course Radiotherapy (SCR) tumor response in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) through Standardized Index of Shape (SIS) by DCE-MRI, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion-derived parameters by DW-MRI. 35 patients with LARC underwent MR scan before and after SCR followed by delayed surgery, retrospectively, were enrolled. SIS, ADC, tissue diffusion (Dt), pseudodiffusion (Dp), and perfusion fraction (f) were extracted by MRI for each patient before and after SCR. Tumor regression grade (TRG) was estimated. Receiver operating characteristic cur...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 18, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association of DNA repair genes polymorphisms and mutations with increased risk of head and neck cancer: a review
AbstractDNA repair mechanisms allow maintain genomic stability and proper functioning within the cells. Any aberrations may cause an increased risk of many diseases such as cancer. The most crucial risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are behavioral factors, predominantly chronic exposure to tobacco, alcohol addiction, and infection with human papillomavirus or Epstein –Barr virus. These agents can induce DNA damage; therefore, cells must activate appropriate mechanisms in order to function correctly. Cancer cells are marked with genomic instability, which is associated with a greater tendency for t...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin in cancer and immunity
AbstractRNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) plays a fundamental role in various physiological and pathological processes including differentiation, reprogramming, metabolism, proliferation, pluripotency, tumorigenesis and immunity. Due to its ability to bind and target ARE-containing mRNAs for rapid degradation, TTP down-regulates the expression of a mass of critical genes, thereby functioning as cancer suppressor gene. The loss of TTP has been reported in several human cancers and is relevant to poor prognosis. Recent research shows that TTP also has an emerging significant role in immunity. The aim of this paper is...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Severity and predictive factors of adverse events in pemetrexed-containing chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer
AbstractPemetrexed is a key anticancer agent for treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed is generally well tolerated, but individual-patient differences exist in severity of adverse events. Our study aimed to characterize the adverse events of pemetrexed that result in discontinuation of chemotherapy and to identify risk factors associated with those adverse events. We retrospectively studied the incidence of adverse events in 257 patients with NSCLC who received pemetrexed (P) with or without bevacizumab (B) and/or carboplatin (C): P, PB, CP, or CPB. Patients whose chemotherapy was discontinue...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 9, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Progranulin and its biological effects in cancer
AbstractCancer cells have defects in regulatory mechanisms that usually control cell proliferation and homeostasis. Different cancer cells share crucial alterations in cell physiology, which lead  to malignant growth. Tumorigenesis or tumor growth requires a series of events that include constant cell proliferation, promotion of metastasis and invasion, stimulation of angiogenesis, evasion of tumor suppressor factors, and avoidance of cell death pathways. All these events in tumor progressi on may be regulated by growth factors produced by normal or malignant cells. The growth factor progranulin has significant biolog...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Real-world treatment patterns and effectiveness among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with ziv-aflibercept in community oncology practices in the USA
This study describes real-world treatment patterns and effectiveness among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving ziv-aflibercept in non-academic, community oncology practices in the USA. De-identified electronic medical records from Vector Oncology and Altos Solutions databases were analysed. We identified 218 patients diagnosed with mCRC who had received prior oxaliplatin therapy and initiated ziv-aflibercept as part of second-line or later-line therapy. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using Kaplan –Meier analysis. Mean age was 62.8 years at ziv-afl...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 4, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Communicative reprogramming non-curative hepatocellular carcinoma with low-dose metronomic chemotherapy, COX-2 inhibitor and PPAR-gamma agonist: a phase II trial
AbstractSystemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still challenging. A biomodulatory therapy approach targeting the communicative infrastructure of HCC, including metronomic low-dose chemotherapy with capecitabine, pioglitazone and rofecoxib, has been evaluated in patients with non-curative HCC. Altogether 38 patients were evaluable in this one-arm, multicenter phase II trial. The primary endpoint, median progression-free survival was 2.7  months (95% CI: 1.6–3.79) for all evaluable patients and 8.4 months (95% CI: 0–18.13) for patients ≥ 6 weeks on protocol. Me...
Source: Medical Oncology - November 2, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Primary metastatic osteosarcoma: results of a prospective study in children given chemotherapy and interleukin-2
This study concerns a cohort of unselected patients aged
Source: Medical Oncology - November 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research