Association of baseline patient characteristics with adjuvant chemotherapy toxicities in stage III colorectal cancer patients
AbstractToxicities can affect cancer patients ’ quality of life resulting in poor adherence to adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). While previous studies have explored the prevalence of toxicities following AC, few have examined the associations of baseline characteristics, such as age, sex, and performance status, with toxicity outcomes. In this stu dy, we reviewed a cohort of 371 colorectal cancer patients treated with adjuvant monotherapy (capecitabine ) or combination therapy (FOLFOX or CAPOX) within 12 weeks of curative resection, and determined the associations between baseline characteristics and toxicity outcome...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Reduced HBV cccDNA and HBsAg in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma tissues
This study aimed to investigate relationships between serum HBsAg, intrahepatic HBsAg, and intrahepatic cccDNA in HBV-associated HCC. Intrahepatic HBsAg was determined by immunohistochemistry in matched non-cancerous and HCC tissues from 88 patients; 56 patients (63.64%) were serum HBsAg positive. In serum HBsAg-positive group, intrahepatic HBsAg was positive staining in 73.2% of non-cancerous tissues, but only in 10.7% of HCC tissues. Significant correlation between serum HBsAg and intrahepatic HBsAg was observed in non-cancerous tissues (p 
Source: Medical Oncology - August 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sorafenib in patients with progressed and refractory bone tumors
AbstractPatients with metastatic, progressive, or recurrent bone tumors have a dismal outcome. Sorafenib has been proposed as an effective salvage regimen for some malignancies. Thus, we sought to evaluate this approach for young patients with relapsed or refractory bone tumors. Twelve patients with refractory bone tumors (two with Ewing sarcoma, two with chondrosarcoma, and eight with osteosarcoma) received salvage treatment with sorafenib. All patients had standard tumor imaging and laboratory evaluation. All toxicities were documented. At the time of the beginning of sorafenib treatment median age among 12 patients was ...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pre-therapy CT scan showing peritoneal thickening from metastatic renal pelvis carcinoma patients
In conclusion. peritoneal thickening with clinical suspicion of peritoneal involvement can get indirect evidence from route of spread (liver or abdominal wall), GI complications (obstruction or bleeding) or response to chemotherapy (obvious decrease peritoneal thickening) from metastatic renal pelvis carcinoma patients. Pretherapy CT scan with peritoneal thickening should be alert that tumor has spread to the peritoneum. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Broccoli extract improves chemotherapeutic drug efficacy against head –neck squamous cell carcinomas
In conclusion, combi ning SF with low doses of CIS or 5-FU increased cytotoxicity against SCCHN cells, while having minimal effects on normal cells. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Improved survival with higher doses of octreotide long-acting release in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
AbstractGastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that is associated with an indolent course. Octreotide has a positive effect on disease stabilization in well-differentiated midgut NETs, but a meaningful survival analysis was not possible due to insufficient events. Higher doses of octreotide long-acting release (LAR) are often used in clinical practice for control of carcinoid symptoms and our objective was to determine if dose of octreotide correlates with survival. We reviewed all patients with advanced GEP NETs who initiated treatment with octreotide LAR betwee...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras-PI 3 kinase-Akt signaling network in glioblastoma multiforme
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of the brain tumors and shows different genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. Gene amplification, genetic instability, disruption of apoptotic pathways, deregulated oncogene expression, invasive phenotypical changes, abnormal angiogenesis, and epigenetic changes have all been described in GBMs. These abnormalities indicate that a number of different signaling pathways are deregulated in GBM. Increasing number of studies provide a better understanding of the tumor biology, genetic, and epigenetic background of the GBM. Also, current research provides us useful...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung oligometastases impacts on systemic treatment-free survival: a cohort study
AbstractTo analyze the impact of SBRT on systemic treatment-free survival in patients affected by lung oligometastases. Inclusion criteria of the study were (a) KPS  >  70, (b) 1–5 lung oligometastases underwent SBRT with a BED ≥ 100 Gy, (c) absence of extra-thoracic disease, (d) controlled primary tumor, (e) metachronous oligorecurrences for whom SBRT was adopted as primary treatment option, (f) oligoprogressive lung metastases who progressed following a disease remission after a first-line therapy, (g) oligopersistent disease after systemic therapy, and (h) at least 6 mon...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Classical Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms: focus on mutations and JAK2 inhibitors
AbstractClassical Philadelphia- negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) encompass three main myeloid malignancies: polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF). Phenotype-driver mutations in Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (MPL) genes are mutually exclusive and occur with a variable frequency. Driver mutations influence disease phenotype and prognosis. PV patients withJAK2 exon 14 mutation do not differ in number of thrombotic events, risk of leukemic and fibrotic transformation, and overall survival to those withJAK2 exon 12 ...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Invasion mechanism in human melanoma cells
(Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - August 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Splenic marginal zone lymphomas in acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: clinical and molecular characterization
AbstractAngioedema due to acquired deficiency of the inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1-INH) is a rare disease known as acquired angioedema (AAE). About 70% of patients with AEE display autoantibodies to C1-INH, the remaining patients have no antibodies to C1-INH. The clinical features of C1-INH deficiency include recurrent, self-limiting local swellings involving the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, and the upper respiratory tract. Swelling is due to accumulation of bradykinin released from high molecular weight kininogen. Patients with angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (AEE) often have a...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of number versus location of metastases on survival in stage IV M1b non-small cell lung cancer
AbstractBackgroundTo assess the impact of location versus number of extra-pulmonary metastatic sites (EPMS) on survival in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Methods and materialsRetrospective analysis was conducted on patients diagnosed during 1999 –2013 with stage IV, M1b (AJCC 7th edition) NSCLC using the large, institutional Glans-Look Database, which contains patient demographic, clinical, pathological, treatment, and outcome information. We assessed the impact of location and number of EPMS and identified correlates of overall survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression.ResultsWe id...
Source: Medical Oncology - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A population-based analysis of urban –rural disparities in advanced pancreatic cancer management and outcomes
AbstractGiven the significant morbidity burden associated with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC), its management is complex and frequently requires multidisciplinary care. Because of potential geographical barriers to healthcare access, we aimed to determine the effect of rurality on management and outcomes of APC patients. Patients diagnosed with APC from 2008 to 2015 and received Gemcitabine (Gem), Gemcitabine plus nab-Paclitaxel (Gem/Nab), or FOLFIRINOX at any 1 of 6 British Columbia cancer centers across the province were reviewed. Using postal codes, the Google Maps Distance Matrix determined the distance from each pat...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nab-paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine for the treatment of metastatic pancreas cancer: the South Wales experience
AbstractThe prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains very poor, with a 5-year survival rate of around 3%. There has been little impact from various chemotherapy regimens on improving outcome for several decades. Gemcitabine has been the mainstay chemotherapy for around two decades with little improvement in overall survival (OS) for patients with advanced disease. However, more recently, there has been a paradigm shift in treatment options for these patients. Reported in 2011, combination therapy with FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin, irinotecan, leucovorin, and fluorouracil) showed a long awaited but modest improvement in survival, ...
Source: Medical Oncology - July 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Eligibility of real-world patients with chemo-refractory, K-RAS wild-type, metastatic colorectal cancer for palliative intent regorafenib monotherapy
AbstractThe CORRECT trial demonstrated survival benefits with regorafenib monotherapy in patients with treatment-refractory, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the trial ’s stringent eligibility criteria for regorafenib may limit its external validity. We aimed to examine treatment attrition rates and eligibility for regorafenib in routine practice. We identified patients at the British Columbia Cancer Agency diagnosed with mCRC who demonstrated disease progressio n or intolerable toxicity on 2 or more lines of systemic therapy. During the study timeframe, panitumumab and cetuximab were only used in the ch...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Racial and geographic disparities in adherence and discontinuation to adjuvant endocrine therapy in Texas Medicaid-insured patients with breast cancer
AbstractThe purpose of the study is to examine disparities in AET adherence and discontinuation among Texas Medicaid-insured early-stage breast cancer patients. Texas Cancer Registry Medicaid-linked database was used from 2000 to 2007 for breast cancer patients aged 20 –64. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to test the association of race/ethnicity and geographic factors with AET adherence and discontinuation. Of the 1240 women with breast cancer, 60.8% of non-Hispanic white vs 46.6% of Black patients were adherent to AET in the first year. After a djusting for confounding, Black patients had lower odds...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Simultaneous PET/MRI in assessing the response to chemo/radiotherapy in head and neck carcinoma: initial experience
AbstractThe purpose of the study was to assess by simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) the response to chemotherapy (CHT) and/or radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Five patients with HNSCC underwent simultaneous PET/MRI examination before and after CHT and/or RT. Standard uptake volume (SUV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), Ktrans, Kep, Ve, and iAUC pre- and post-treatment values were extracted and compared. The response to treatment was assessed according to RECIST criteria and classified as complete response (CR), partial respo...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognosis of elderly gastric cancer patients after surgery: a nomogram to predict survival
This study aimed to identify clinicopathological factors associated with the outcome of elderly patients with gastric cancer (GC), and to construct a nomogram for individual risk prediction. Tumor characteristics of 143 patients aged ≥ 80 years underwent surgery for GC were collected and analyzed by uni- and multivariate analyses. A prognostic nomogram was constructed using the factors which resulted to be significantly associated with overall survival. Discrimination of nomogram was tested by Kaplan–Meier (KM) curves and boxplots. With a median follow up of 18.37 months, overall 1-year survival rate w...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes of African American patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on Nivolumab in a single community-based cancer center
AbstractAfrican Americans (AA) have the highest incidence and mortality rates with lung cancer. They are diagnosed at an earlier age with more advanced disease. Programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitor, Nivolumab, was approved as a second-line agent after failure of platinum-based therapy for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The original studies leading to the approval of Nivolumab had insufficient AA patients, thus there is still inadequate knowledge on treatment outcomes among AA patients. Our primary study endpoints were to determine the median overall survival, 1-year overall survival rate, m...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Generalizability of clinical trials of advanced melanoma in the real-world, population-based setting
AbstractResults from novel therapeutics trials are not always generalizable to real-world patients. We aimed to determine the pattern in which trial findings are applied in a population-based setting of melanoma patients and consequent treatment outcomes. Patients with unresectable disease during 2011 –2014 and referred to cancer centers in a large Canadian province were retrospectively reviewed. Based on eligibility criteria as described in registration trials of vemurafenib (Vem) and ipilimumab (Ipi), we classified patients into trial-eligible and ineligible and those treated and untreated wi th these agents. We id...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Discontinuation of hormone therapy for elderly breast cancer patients after hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy
AbstractThe purpose of the study was to examine adherence to hormone therapy (HT) in elderly breast cancer patients ( ≥ 65 years old) treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. We analyzed data on 550 ER-positive breast cancer patients given hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy from June 2009 to September 2016. Baseline comorbidities considered in the hypertension-augmented Charlson Comorbidity Index (h CCI) were retrospectively retrieved. Total hCCI scores were classified as no comorbidity (hCCI = 0), low burden of comorbidity (hCCI = 1), and high burden of comorbidity (hC...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Switch maintenance therapy with docetaxel and bevacizumab after induction therapy with cisplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab in advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study
This study enrolled 49 NSCLC patients, among which 38 (77.6%) completed the four cycles of induction therapy and received maintenance therapy. The median progression-free survival from enrollment was 7.8 months (95% confidence interval: 4.7–11.0 months). The most common toxicities of grade 3 or higher were neutropenia (68.4%), leukopenia (50.0%), febrile neutropenia (31.8%), and hypertension. Switch maintenance therapy with docetaxel and bevacizumab following induc tion therapy with cisplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab demonstrated modest efficacy and frequent hematologic toxicity in non-squamous NSCLC patients. (S...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ERCC1 assessment in upfront treatment with and without cisplatin-based chemotherapy in stage IIIB/IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer
AbstractPrior studies have demonstrated an association between excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression level and outcomes in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of ERCC1 on survival for patients with stage IIIB/IV non-squamous NSCLC (NS-NSCLC) enrolled in the INNOVATIONS trial, thus receiving as treatment either erlotinib/bevacizumab (EB) or cisplatin/gemcitabine/bevacizumab (PGB). We retrospectively analyzed tumor tissue of 72 patients using immunohistochemistry to assess the expression o...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

α-Viniferin activates autophagic apoptosis and cell death by reducing glucocorticoid receptor expression in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells
AbstractProstate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed urological malignancies. However, there are limited therapies for PCa patients who develop biochemical recurrence after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of α-Viniferin (KCV), an oligostilbene of trimeric resveratrol, against human PCa cells and found that it markedly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and had a strong cytotoxicity in non-androgen-dependent PCa cells. In addition, KC V inhibited AR downs...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor budding and human chorionic gonadotropin- β expression correlate with unfavorable patient outcome in colorectal carcinoma
AbstractTumor budding is thought to represent a manifestation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and it has been correlated with poor patient outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our group recently demonstrated that human chorionic gonadotropin- β (hCGβ) modulates EMT in CRC. In the current study, based on the likely relationships between tumor budding and hCGβ expression, we examined their clinicopathologic significance in CRC. Twenty-eight of 80 (35.0%) CRC showed tumor budding. Tumor budding significantly correlated with lymph node me tastasis (P 
Source: Medical Oncology - June 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MGMT promoter methylation is not correlated with integrin expression in malignant gliomas: clarifying recent clinical trial results
AbstractIntegrin alpha-v-beta-3 ( αvβ3) is important for invasive tumor growth and angiogenesis in glioblastomas (GBM). However, recent clinical trials on inhibition of this integrin led to ambiguous results whether patients with methylated or unmethylated6O-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter might profit from this kind of therapy. Therefore, we addressed the still unanswered question about a possible correlation between integrin αvβ3 expression and MGMT promoter methylation in GBM. For this purpose, tumor samples from newly diagnosed and untreated GBM patients with methylated (n =...
Source: Medical Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical and Histopathologic Correlates and Management Strategies for Inflammatory Myofibroblastic tumor of the lung. A case series and review of the literature
We describe 7 adult cases of IMT of the lung that were diagnosed at MD Anderson Cancer Center. These cases highlight the tumor ’s variability in terms of clinical presentation, histopathology, and biologic behavior, and underscore the challenges in the management of these rare lung neoplasms. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - June 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phase II study of panitumumab combined with capecitabine and oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer patients: clinical results including extended tumor genotyping
AbstractThis clinical trial assessed the efficacy and toxicity of panitumumab combined with oxaliplatin and capecitabine as first-line treatment inKRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients with exon 2KRAS wild-type mCRC received panitumumab 9  mg/Kg, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2, and capecitabine 2000  mg/m2 repeated every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR, minimum 42 responses). We retrospectively assessed mutations in genes implicated in CRC with massively parallel sequencing; ERBB2 and EGFR amplification with fluorescence in situ hybridization, and ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A phase II trial of gemcitabine, S-1 and LV combination (GSL) neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer
AbstractThere has been a pressing need to develop optimal regimen for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for pancreatic cancer (PC). The safety and efficacy of gemcitabine, S-1, and LV combination (GSL) therapy as NAC for borderline resectable (BR) and locally advanced (LA) PC was evaluated in this phase II study. Patients with pathologically proven BR or LA PC were enrolled and gemcitabine 1000  mg/m2 by 30-min infusion on day 1, S-1 40  mg/m2 orally twice daily, and LV 25  mg orally twice daily on days 1–7 every 2 weeks were provided, and evaluation by CT every 2 courses was performed. The primary end po...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Incidence and outcome of second malignancies in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia during treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors
In conclusion, the incidence of SMs in CML patients during TKI treatment was the same as that in the general Japanese population. There was no evidence of an increase in the incidence of SMs during second-generation TKI treatment. Furthermore, the occurrence of SMs during TKI treatment did not affect the survival or mortality in our cohort. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - May 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Is there a role for immunotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma?
AbstractMalignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a very aggressive malignancy, mainly caused by asbestos exposure. Patients with MPM have a poor prognosis that remained substantially unchanged in the last few years and limited effective therapeutic options with no recognized second or further-line therapy. In this context, also in view of the positive results observed in other tumor types, immunotherapy could play a relevant role. This review focuses on the most promising immunotherapies being investigated in MPM. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - May 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hyaluronic acid and hyaluronidase as possible novel urine biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer
AbstractThe goal of the study is to examine the possible use of HA (hyaluronic acid) and HAase (hyaluronidase) as novel urine biomarkers for the early diagnosis for prostate cancer (Pca). After a prostatic massage, the urine of 118 high-risk patients for Pca was collected, and the patients were submitted to ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsy. HA and HAase were detected and analyzed with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and a statistical analysis of the urine levels of the two biomarkers according to the histology results was performed. HAase and HA were independently associated with Pca, and both HAase and HA showed si...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

“Give me five” ultra-hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: non-invasive ablative approach
AbstractUltra-hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) is given over a shorter time with larger doses with respect to conventional fractionation in patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). The use of hypofractionation is supported both from the radiobiological point of view (the low α/β-ratio in PCa and dose escalation) and from the rising number of clinical evidences. The aim of this study is to review our data regarding oncological outcomes, namely biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS) and clinical progression-free survival (c-PFS), acute and long-term toxicities in patients treated with a ultra-hypofr...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Asymptomatic recurrence detection and cost-effectiveness in urothelial carcinoma
AbstractFor the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer or upper tract urothelial carcinoma, the set guidelines recommend regular surveillance after radical cystectomy or radical nephroureterectomy. However, the prognostic benefit of regular oncological surveillance remains controversial in the absence of prospective studies although several retrospective studies with relatively large sample sizes have demonstrated the association between asymptomatic recurrence  and better oncological outcomes. Seven out of eight studies reported that patients diagnosed with symptomatic recurrence showed significantly poorer pro...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Association of antibody to E2 protein of human papillomavirus and p16 INK4A with progression of HPV-infected cervical lesions
This study investigated antibodies to HPV16 E2, HPV16 L1, and p16INK4A in sera from women with no squamous intraepithelial lesion (No-SIL) of the cervix, low-grade SIL, high-grade SIL, and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-E2, -L1, and -p16INK4A antibodies in sera were determined by western blot. Among 116 samples, 69 (60%) were HPV DNA-positive. Percentages seropositive for anti-E2, -L1, and -p16INK4A antibodies were 39.6, 22.4, and 23.3%, respectively. Anti-E2 antibody was significantly correlated with HPV DNA-positive cases. Eighty-seven women (75%) were rega...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current status of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in gastrointestinal surgery
AbstractEnhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is an evidence-based paradigm shift in perioperative care, proven to lower both recovery time and postoperative complication rates. The role of ERAS in several surgical disciplines was reviewed. In colorectal surgery, ERAS protocol is currently well established as the best care. In gastric surgery, 2014 saw an establishment of ERAS protocol for gastrectomies with resulting meta-analysis showing ERAS effectiveness. ERAS has also been shown to be beneficial in liver surgery with many centers starting implementation. The advantages of ERAS in pancreatic surgery have been strongly...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Assessment of the methods used to detect HER2-positive advanced extramammary Paget ’s disease
AbstractThe human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is recognized as an oncogene as well as a therapeutic target in various cancers. Certain patients with advanced extramammary Paget ’s disease (EMPD) have also been reported to express HER2, which is therefore considered a therapeutic target for EMPD. However, an accurate methodology to determine HER2-positive EMPD has not been established. To assess the optimal methods for detection of HER2-positive EMPD, 73 EMPD samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the HER2 testing algorithm for breast c...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biomarkers defining probability of receiving second-line targeted therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma
AbstractIn order to facilitate long-term treatment decisions, we aimed to define biomarkers defining the probability of receiving second-line (SL) targeted therapy (TT) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) based on their characteristics present at first-line TT initiation. We analysed 152 consecutive mRCC patients treated and used multivariable binominal logistic regression to identify factors contributing to the probability of receiving SL TT. Final model was assessed with bias-corrected indices (Nagelkerke ’sR2 and area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) and two bootstrap proced...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of polymorphisms in NR1I2, CYP3A4 , and ABC transporters on the steady-state plasma trough concentrations of bosutinib in Japanese patient with chronic myeloid leukemia
AbstractWe investigated the effects of polymorphisms inNR1I2 (7635A>G, 8055C>T),CYP3A4 (20230G>A),ABCB1 (1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, 3435C>T), andABCG2 (421C>A) on the mean plasma trough concentrations (C0) of bosutinib at the steady-state in 30 Japanese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. BosutinibC0 values were monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography. The median coefficient of variation (CV) value of the bosutinibC0 for one patient (intrapatient) during bosutinib therapy was 25.9% (range: 7.66 –44.24%). During bosutinib therapy, 17 of 30 patients received 300 mg/day ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Challenges and prospects of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in solid tumors
AbstractChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a novel and innovative immunotherapy. CAR-T cells are genetically engineered T cells, carrying MHC independent specific antigen receptor and co-stimulatory molecule which can activate an immune response to a cancer specific antigen. This therapy showed great results in hematological malignancies but were unable to prove their worth in solid tumors. Likely reasons for their failure are lack of antigens, poor trafficking, and hostile tumor microenvironment. Excessive amount of research is going on to improve the efficacy of CAR T cell therapy in solid tumors. In this ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ambient air emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and female breast cancer incidence in US
AbstractTo examine ambient air pollutants, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a factor in the geographic variation of breast cancer incidence seen in the US, we conducted an ecological study involving counties throughout the US to examine breast cancer incidence in relation to PAH emissions in ambient air. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute were collected and analyzed using SEER*Stat 8.3.2. PAH emissions data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency. Linear regression...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A review of HPRT and its emerging role in cancer
AbstractHypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is a common salvage housekeeping gene with a historically important role in cancer as a mutational biomarker. As an established and well-known human reporter gene for the evaluation of mutational frequency corresponding to cancer development, HPRT is most commonly used to evaluate cancer risk within individuals and determine potential carcinogens. In addition to its use as a reporter gene, HPRT also has important functionality in the body in relation to purine regulation as demonstrated by Lesch –Nyhan patients whose lack of functional HPRT leads to signif...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Reclassification of risk in an emergency referral center: the need for a specific tool for the classification of onco-hematological patients. A cross-sectional study
In this study, patients with cancer seen at an emergency setting were reclassified using the ESI without the “cancer” parameter to verify whether there would be any change in the classification. Cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of all cancer patients who sought immediate care at a private center in Brazil during a 6-month period was included in the study. After receiving care according to t he institution’s standards, they were reclassified using the ESI scale without the “cancer” parameter. Times to receiving care and to reaching a diagnosis were recorded. In the study period,...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in pancreatic cancer: from research to practice
AbstractChimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is genetically engineered tumor antigen-specific anticancer immunotherapy, which after showing great success in hematological malignancies is currently being tried in advanced solid tumors like pancreatic cancer. Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and dense fibrous stroma are some of the limitation in the success of this novel therapy. However, genetic modifications and combination therapy is the topic of the research to improve its efficacy. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge, limitations, and future prospects for CAR T cell therapy in ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Check point inhibitors a new era in renal cell carcinoma treatment
AbstractIn the United States, the estimated number of new cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is approximately 65,000 case with about 15,000 deaths in the year of 2018 (Siegel et al. in CA Cancer J Clin 68(1):7,2018). RCC as an immunogenic malignancy is supported by many theories and facts which include tumor richness of lymphocytes infiltrate, the occurrence of spontaneous tumor regression, and the proved effect of traditional immunotherapy (Finke et al. in J Immunother 11(1):1 –11,1992), all these factors support the potential therapeutic effect of the novel immunotherapeutic agents in RCC. Historically, complete t...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hemoglobin level and XRCC1 polymorphisms to select patients with locally advanced rectal cancer candidate for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine and a platinum salt
AbstractA platinum salt (oxaliplatin or cisplatin) is widely used to enhance chemoradation (CRT) response. The potential of cisplatin in neoadjuvant CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has not been fully investigated. Consecutive patients with histologically confirmed LARC were treated with standard pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin plus capecitabine (CisCape CRT). Surgery and eight cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX4 were offered to all patients after CRT. Common biochemical variables and key germline genetic polymorphisms were analyzed as predictors of pathological complete response (pCR). Fifty-one patients ...
Source: Medical Oncology - May 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Predictive factors for the development of irinotecan-related cholinergic syndrome using ordered logistic regression analysis
In conclusion, female sex and irinotecan dose were identified as significant predictors of the developme nt of cholinergic syndrome. (Source: Medical Oncology)
Source: Medical Oncology - April 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Frequency of pathogenic germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer patients
In this study, we evaluated the incidence of pathogenic germline mutations in 30 breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer patients. Our aim was to understand the involvement of the inherited mutations in these genes in a breast cancer cohort. Two hundred ninety-six female breast cancer patients including 4.5% of familial breast cancer cases were included in the study. 200  ng of genomic DNA was used to evaluate the pathogenic mutations, detected using Global Screening Array (GSA) microchip (Illumina Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The pathogenic frameshift and nonsense mutations we...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic impact of bleomycin pulmonary toxicity on the outcomes of patients with germ cell tumors
AbstractBleomycin pulmonary toxicity (BPT) has been well described in patients with germ cell tumors treated with bleomycin etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy (BEP). To assess the prognostic impact of BPT, we retrospectively identified 52 patients who underwent bleomycin etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy from 2008 to 2017 in our institution, and evaluated the risk factors of BPT and its effect on prognosis. Patients who had received chemotherapy at another institution were excluded. BPT was defined as bleomycin discontinuation in response to pulmonary function test decline, pulmonary symptoms, or interstitial pneumoni...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Reduced intensity conditioning increases risk of severe cGVHD: identification of risk factors for cGVHD in a multicenter setting
AbstractChronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Aim is to identify risk factors for the development of cGVHD in a multicenter setting. Patients transplanted between 2000 and 2006 were analyzed (n = 820). Donors were HLA-identical siblings (57%), matched unrelated donors (30%), and HLA-A, B or DR antigen mismatched (13%). Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was given to 65% of patients. Overall incidence of cGVHD was 46% for patients surviving more than 100 days after HSCT (n =&thins...
Source: Medical Oncology - April 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research