Mild Heat Stress Affects on the Cell Wall Structure in Candida albicans Biofilm.
In this study, we show that mild heat stress causes a morphological change in hyphae during the process of biofilm formation. We found that mild heat stress extended the period of hyphal stage maintenance in C. albicans biofilm. Although the rate of hyphal change from yeast form to hyphal form reached the maximum within 3 hr, later, almost every cell quickly reverted to the yeast growth phase within 6 hr at 37°C but not at 39°C, or under mild heat stress. Electron microscopy using a smart specimen preparation technique revealed that mild heat stress significantly increased the thickness of the inner cell wall accom...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 4, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

An Epidemiological Study of Feline and Canine Dermatophytoses in Japan.
Authors: Yamada S, Anzawa K, Mochizuki T Abstract In a 2012-2014 epidemiological study of feline and canine dermatophytoses in Japan, we investigated the prevalence of fungi among 296 cats and 170 dogs treated at a veterinary clinic and 51 cats and dogs at an animal shelter at Fukui City in Japan. Microsporum canis was isolated from only one cat out of the 517 animals. Also, from 2012 to 2017, we analyzed isolates from 76 cats and 15 dogs with dermatophytoses at 14 veterinary clinics across 10 prefectures in Honshu and Shikoku. M. canis was the cause for 85 of the cases and Microsporum gypseum for the other six. M....
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 4, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Endangered Zoonotic Fungal Species from Chicken (Gallus gallus domestics).
Authors: Yamaguchi S Abstract Lophophyton gallinae (Microsporum gallinae) is a zoophilic fungus that causes ringworm in chickens and related species, and occasionally in humans. There are 45 human cases worldwide including a Japanese case from Okinawa in 2009. After the finding of the human L. gallinae case, 793 chickens in Japan, including 293 from the mainland and 500 from the Nansei Island areas, were investigated to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The survey was carried out from December 2008 to March 2013. Various dermatophytes and related fungal species were isolate...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 4, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Draft Genome Analysis of Trichosporonales Species That Contribute to the Taxonomy of the Genus Trichosporon and Related Taxa.
Authors: Takashima M, Sugita T Abstract Many nomenclatural changes, including proposals of new taxa, have been carried out in fungi to adapt to the "One fungus = One name" (1F=1N) principle. In yeasts, while some changes have been made in response to 1F=1N, most have resulted from two other factors: i) an improved understanding of biological diversity due to an increase in number of known species, and ii) progress in the methods for analyzing and evaluating biological diversity. The method for constructing a backbone tree, which is a basal tree used to infer phylogeny, has also progressed from single-gene...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 4, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 31155573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 4, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Onychomycosis of the Middle Finger of a Japanese Judo Athletedue to Trichophyton tonsurans.
We present a 17-year-old Japanese male high school student, who had applied steroid ointment for atopic dermatitis, with fingernail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton tonsurans. He was found positive for T. tonsurans infection based on hairbrush culture performed due to an epidemic of T. tonsurans infection in his judo club. The hairbrush culture method is very important in screening for this infection, and dermatologists should examine the entire body of athletes who are found positive using this method. For the diagnosis of T. tonsurans infection, other than the skin and hair, the nails should also be checked by dermoscop...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 5, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel Variant Form of Aspergillus fumigatus CalC and Generation of Anti-CalC Monoclonal Antibodies.
Authors: Takatsuka S, Inukai T, Kawakubo S, Umeyama T, Abe M, Ueno K, Hoshino Y, Kinjo Y, Miyazaki Y, Yamagoe S Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is a critical human fungal pathogen that infects the host via inhalation of airborne conidia. These conidia then germinate to form filamentous hyphae, which secrete various elements to survive in the host lung.Elements such as proteins secreted by A. fumigatus can act as virulence factors in host tissues. Among secreted proteins, we were interested in the thaumatin-like proteins of A. fumigatus. In our analysis of the function of thaumatin-like proteins, we found that, like ...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 5, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Multiple Skin Abscesses Caused by Rhizopus sp. Infection after Candida albicans Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient.
Authors: Makino K, Aoi J, Egashira S, Honda N, Kubo Y, Kawakami Y, Hayashi H, Mochizuki T Abstract A 66-year-old woman with diabetes who was treated with prednisolone (15 mg/day) for autoimmune hepatitis developed multiple erythematous nodules with retention of purulent fluid on her lower right limb. Candida albicans was cultured from the nodules. She was started on oral fluconazole, and the lesions subsided. However, multiple dark-red abscesses and indurations newly appeared on the left crus. Histopathological examination showed numerous branched hyphae, and tissue culture yielded a Rhizopus microsporus-related fu...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 5, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Antifungal Susceptibility of Japanese Isolates of Nannizia fulva (Formerly Microsporum fulvum).
Authors: Kano R, Oshimo K, Fukutomi T, Kamata H Abstract Human and animal dermatophytoses are most commonly treated with systemic antifungal drugs such as itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine (TRF). The antifungal susceptibility of Nannizia fulva, however, remains poorly documented. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of N. fulva to ITZ and TRF using the CLSI M38-A2 test. The mean MICs for the 12 tested strains were 0.6542 mg/L (range: 0.0625-1 mg/L) for ITZ and 0.15625 mg/L (range:
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 5, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Adherence and Cytotoxicity of Candida spp. to HaCaT and A549 cells.
In this study, we analyzed the adhesion and cytotoxicity of various Candida spp. that are part of the normal human microbiota. C. albicans adheres well to cell culture plates and to cultured cells. C. glabrata selectively adheres to epithelial cells rather than to cell culture plates. Candida parapsilosis insufficiently adheres to confluent monolayers of human lung epithelial A549 and keratinocyte HaCaT cells. We then analyzed the cytotoxicity of C. albicans and C. glabrata, which adhered well to epithelial cells. C. glabrata has been found to cause more damage to A549 cells than to HaCaT cells, suggesting that resident Ca...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 5, 2019 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Visceral Mycoses in Autopsied Cases in Japan from 1989 to 2013.
Authors: Suzuki Y, Togano T, Ohto H, Kume H Abstract BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Our group has continuously studied the epidemiology of visceral mycoses (VM) among autopsy cases in Japan from 1989 to 2013. RESULTS: First, from a total of 11,149 autopsied cases, 571 (5.1%) cases of VM were observed in 2013. It was significantly higher than those of 2005 (p
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Heterogeneity in Pathogenicity-related Properties and Stress Tolerance in Aspergillus fumigatus Clinical Isolates.
Authors: Hagiwara D, Takahashi H, Takagi H, Watanabe A, Kamei K Abstract Stress responses and pathogenicity have been extensively studied in Aspergillus fumigatus, the main causative pathogen of life-threatening aspergillosis. The heterogeneity in this pathogen's biology has recently attracted increasing attention. In the present work, we used 16 clinically isolated strains to investigate several properties relevant to the pathogenicity of A. fumigatus, namely, gliotoxin production, elastase activity, hypoxia growth, adaptation to iron-limiting conditions, and growth upon nitrosative, oxidative, and high osmotic st...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Current Status of Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates in East Asia.
Authors: Hagiwara D Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that is a major causative pathogen for aspergillosis. Only a few classes of antifungals are used for treating this life-threatening fungal infection. Azoles are the first-line drugs and are widely used for the management and prophylaxis of aspergillosis. An emerging issue is the increasing incidence of resistant isolates worldwide. In particular, environmentally derived tandem-repeat-type azole-resistant mutations, such as Cyp51A TR34/L98H, and Cyp51A TR46/Y121F/T289A, have emerged over the last decade. In particular, azole-resistant isolate...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Tinea Corporis Due to Trichophyton erinacei Probably Transmitted from a Hedgehog.
Authors: Kim J, Tsuchihashi H, Hiruma M, Kano R, Ikeda S Abstract A 26-year-old female homemaker presented with an approximately 2-month history of an erythematous lesion with agminated seropapules in the right popliteal fossa associated with scales and crusts. The lesion was initially treated as contact dermatitis, but there was no improvement. KOH examination revealed filamentous fungi. The fungal culture was positive, and the morphological characteristics were identical to those of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex. The fungus was identified as T. erinacei based on genetic analysis. This is the second case rep...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Term 20].
Authors: PMID: 30504620 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Erratum].
Authors: PMID: 30504637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 8, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Next-generation Sequencing Analysis of Bacterial Flora in Bovine Prototheca Mastitic Milk].
Authors: Kano R, Kobayashi Y, Nishikawa A, Murata R, Itou T, Ito T, Suzuki K, Kamata H Abstract Prototheca zopfii is an achlorophyllic algae that causes bovine mastitis, resulting in a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the udder environment in protothecal mastitis. We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis to identify 16S rRNA genes from bacterial flora present in milk samples from protothecal mastitic dairy cows.Seven clinical strains of P. zopfii genotype 2 were isolated fro...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Identification of Heparin-binding Proteins on the Cell Surface of Cryptococcus neoformans].
Authors: Ikeda R, Ichikawa T, Tsukiji YK, Kawamura K, Kikuchi A, Ishida YI, Ogasawara Y Abstract Interactions between virulence factors of pathogens and host responses play an important role in the establishment of infection by microbes. We focused on interactions between Cryptococcus neoformans proteins and heparin, which is abundant on host epithelial cells. Surface proteins were extracted and analyzed. Fractions from anion-exchange column chromatography interacted with heparin in surface plasmon resonance analyses. Heparin-binding proteins were purified and then separated by gel electrophoresis; and were identif...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Laser Therapies for Onychomycosis in Japan].
Authors: Kimura U, Suga Y Abstract Various treatment methods other than oral and topical antifungal medications have been employed to treat onychomycosis. Treatment methods include mechanical removal of the affected part of the nail plate by using a toenail cutter or grinder and chemical removal by using occlusive dressing therapy with salicylic acid plaster or urea cream. In recent years, laser therapies have received attention as modalities for treatment of onychomycosis. Favorable outcomes in patients with onychomycosis have been reported in Japan from treatment combining carbon dioxide laser and topical antifun...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Lactosylceramide-enriched Lipid Raft-mediated Infection Immunity].
Authors: Iwabuchi K Abstract More than 100 years have passed since Elie Metchnikoff discovered phagocytes. As molecular biological techniques have been developed and improved, we have gained deeper knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of immunological responses to invasion. The innate immune system is the inborn defense mechanism and the first line of defense against all kinds of pathogenic organisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc. Innate immunity was originally considered to comprise non-specific reactions. However, we now know that innate immune systems develop molecular mechanisms specific to patho...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Term 19].
Authors: PMID: 30175815 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 5, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Infection of Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) as a Model for the Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus gattii.
This study was aimed at determining the virulence potential of Cryptococcus gattii strains R265, R272, and EJB18, and Malassezia sympodialis using chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated egg. At a concentration of 107 cfu/ml, C. gattii R272 was more virulent than R265 in the egg model, while EJB18 had low virulence. The CAM model supported the growth of Malassezia sympodialis strain and induced the formation of hyphae. The formation of lesions by the organism and its re-isolation from CAM suggest that the model can be used for evaluating the virulence of C. gattii. Histopathology of CAM from both strains also reveale...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Role of FKS Gene in the Susceptibility of Pathogenic Fungi to Echinocandins.
Authors: Hori Y, Shibuya K Abstract Echinocandins are antifungal agents that specifically inhibit the biosynthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Echinocandins are recommended as first-line or alternative/salvage therapy for candidiasis and aspergillosis in antifungal guidelines of various countries. Resistance to echinocandins has been reported in recent years. The mechanism of echinocandin resistance involves amino acid substitutions in hot spot regions of the FKS gene product, the catalytic subunit of 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase. This resistance mechanism contributes ...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Investigation of Virulence Factors by "Omics" Approaches].
[Investigation of Virulence Factors by "Omics" Approaches]. Med Mycol J. 2018;59(2):J35-J40 Authors: Takahashi-Nakaguchi A, Hagiwara D, Takahashi H, Sakai K, Toyotome T, Watanabe A, Kamei K, Gonoi T Abstract  Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant fungal pathogen responsible for life-threatening systemic infections in humans. Recently developed high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA-Seq technologies have proven to be powerful tools for systematically investigating pathogenic organisms. In this review, we present new virulence factors obtained through our "omics" r...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Term 18].
Authors: PMID: 29848911 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Erratum].
Authors: PMID: 29848912 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - June 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Ultrastructural Patterns of Interactions between Murine Lung Macrophages and Yeast Cells of Cryptococcus neoformans Strains with Different Virulence].
This article presents the ultrastructural patterns of interactions between the murine lung macrophages and cells of low- (RKPGY-881, -1165, -1178) and high-virulence (RKPGY-1090, -1095, -1106) strains of Cryptococcus neoformans at the seventh post-experimental day. It was found that if macrophages ingest living yeast cells, the latter can: 1) become completely free from polysaccharide capsules, after that their contents undergo lysis, and cell wall debris are extruded from the macrophage (first scenario); 2) become partly free from their capsules, destroy the phagosomal plasma membrane and induce destructive processes insi...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[National Trends in the Distribution of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Japan from 2003 to 2014].
Authors: Kakeya H, Yamada K, Kaneko Y, Yanagihara K, Tateda K, Maesaki S, Takesue Y, Tomono K, Kadota JI, Kaku M, Miyazaki Y, Kamei K, Shibuya K, Niki Y, Yoshida M, Sei Y Abstract The Epidemiological Investigation Committee for Human Mycoses in Japan performed a retrospective epidemiological survey of candidemia and causative Candida species. Data from 2003 to 2014 were collected from 10 Japanese university hospitals. A total of 328,318 blood cultures were included. The prevalence of fungi in all cultures and in positive cultures were 0.58±0.09% and 4.46±0.66%, respectively. Among the results that wer...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Histopathological Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues in Conjunction with Molecular Methods].
Authors: Shinozaki M, Tochigi N, Sadamoto S, Yamagata Murayama S, Wakayama M, Nemoto T Abstract The main objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in situ hybridization (ISH) for the identification of causative fungi in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens. Since pathogenic fungi in tissue specimens can be difficult to identify morphologically, PCR and ISH have been usually employed as auxiliary procedures. However, little comparison has been made on the sensitivity and specificity of PCR and ISH using FFPE specimens...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Inquiry about the Dermatopyte Test Strip].
Authors: Watanabe S PMID: 29491340 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Erratum].
Authors: PMID: 29491341 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Reply to Comments on My Article].
Authors: Tsunemi Y PMID: 29491342 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Term 17].
Authors: PMID: 29491343 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - March 2, 2018 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Preparation and Biological Characterization of Limulus Factor G-activating Substance of Aspergillus spp.]
This study demonstrated that the ASWS corresponds to the limulus factor G-activating substance found in the blood of patients with aspergillosis. PMID: 29187714 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[A Silkworm Infection Model to Evaluate Antifungal Drugs for Cryptococcosis].
Authors: Matsumoto Y, Ishii M, Shimizu K, Kawamoto S, Sekimizu K Abstract The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkw...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Possible Involvement of Surface Antigen Protein 2 in the Morphological Transition and Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans].
Authors: Okamoto-Shibayama K, Kikuchi Y, Kokubu E, Ishihara K Abstract Surface antigen protein 2 (Csa2) is a member of the Candida albicans Common in Fungal Extracellular Membranes (CFEM) protein superfamily. We previously established its role in iron acquisition in C. albicans. However, the other roles of Csa2 remain unknown. Here, we compared growth, morphological transition, and biofilm formation among wild-type, Csa2-mutant, and complemented strains of C. albicans. Deletion of the Csa2 gene resulted in smaller and reduced colony growth, significant attenuation of the dimorphic transition under serum-inducing co...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[A Case of Liver Dysfunction Requiring Hospital Admission after Taking Oral Itraconazole for the Treatment of Kerion Celsi].
Authors: Ikeda E, Watanabe S, Sawada M, Ninomiya J, Dekio I, Ishizaki S, Fujibayashi M, Tanaka M, Harada T Abstract   67-year-old female patient developed drug-induced liver dysfunction after taking oral itraconazole (ITCZ) for the treatment of kerion celsi. Red papules appeared on the temporal area of the patient one month prior to her visit to our clinic. The patient presented with a nodule with yellow crust, erosion, infiltration, and hair loss on the area. Diagnosis of kerion celsi caused by Trichophyton rubrum was made from clinical, pathological, and mycological findings. Laboratory data showed normal li...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Affinity of Luliconazole for Human Nail Derived Keratin].
In conclusion, LLCZ is considered to possess high affinity to nail keratin. LLCZ, therefore, can be retained in the nail as a reservoir and continuously desorbed at the infection site to exhibit antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi. The pharmacokinetics of LLCZ in the nail is believed to differ from that of EFCZ. As adsorption and desorption rates of the two drugs in nail keratin tended to be different between healthy volunteers and patients, further detailed study is needed. PMID: 29187718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Small Animal Aspergillosis and Cryptococcosis in Japan].
Authors: Kano R Abstract  Canine and feline upper respiratory tract (URT) infection due to Aspergillus spp. is considered an emerging disease, with the number of reported cases continuing to rise in Japan. Aspergillus fumigatus has been the most frequently reported etiologic agent of sino-orbital aspergillosis in dogs and cats; the other Aspergillus species, Aspergillus felis, Aspergillus fischeri, Aspergillus udagawae, Aspergillus viridinutans, and A. fumigatus, have also been implicated in feline cases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal drugs are elevated for these cryptic species co...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Histopathological Diagnosis of Fungal Sinusitis and Variety of its Etiologic Fungus].
Authors: Kimura M Abstract  Fungal sinusitis is divided into two categories depending on mucosal invasion by fungus, i.e., invasive and noninvasive. Invasive fungal sinusitis is further divided into acute and chronic disease based on time course. Noninvasive fungal sinusitis includes chronic noninvasive sinusitis (fungal ball type) and allergic fungal sinusitis. Chronic noninvasive sinusitis is the most predominant fungal sinusitis in Japan, followed by allergic fungal sinusitis. Invasive fungal sinusitis is rare. Hyphal tissue invasion is seen in invasive fungal sinusitis. Acute invasive fungal sinusitis demo...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].
Authors: Tashiro M, Izumikawa K Abstract  The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, an...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[The Plasma (1 →3)-β-D-glucan Assay, a Japanese Contribution to the Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection].
[The Plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan Assay, a Japanese Contribution to the Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection]. Med Mycol J. 2017;58(4):J141-J147 Authors: Obayashi T Abstract  In 1985, a (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay based on the discovery of a (1→3)-β-D-glucan-sensitive coagulation factor in the horseshoe crab amebocytes was developed in Japan, as a test aid in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. After many clinical trials, it has now been incorporated in practice guidelines both in Japan and abroad for the diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infection, and is ...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

[Term 16].
Authors: PMID: 29187723 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - December 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

The Current Status of Feline Sporotrichosis in Malaysia.
Authors: Siew HH Abstract Feline sporotrichosis has been reported in Malaysia since the 1990's. Since then, studies have revealed that clinical clade D, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, of a single clonal strain is the most common cause of this disease in Malaysia. The prevalence of a single clonal strain from a clinical clade was never before reported in Asia in a specific geographical niche. This raises the possibility of a process of purifying selection and subsequent clonal proliferation. While agricultural practices may serve as the selective pressure, direct causality has yet to be established. Studies int...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

First Isolation of Arthroderma fulvum in Japan.
Authors: Fukutomi T, Kano R, Kamata H Abstract Morphology and molecular characteristics of Microsporum gypseum clinical isolates obtained from the fur of a normal rabbit (n=1) and the soil from 10 different rabbit hutches in six elementary schools (n=10) were examined. Isolates were also identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. All 11 isolates demonstrated homology with the Arthroderma fulvum ITS sequence. Furthermore, PCR analysis for the presence of mating type genes detected positivity for MAT1-1 (n=10) and MAT1-2 (n=1). However, no mating reaction was detected between A. ...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Zygomycosis: Analysis of National Data from Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan.
CONCLUSION: These results of the epidemiological analysis of autopsy cases with mycosis demonstrate that clinicians should promptly recognize and treat zygomycosis. PMID: 28855479 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Mycology Journal)
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucormycosis in Patients withHematological Malignancies [Translated Article].
Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucormycosis in Patients withHematological Malignancies[Translated Article]. Med Mycol J. 2017;58(3):E97-E105 Authors: Asano-Mori Y Abstract The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis. The ...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Inhibition of Growth of Candida albicans by a Lysozyme-chitosan Conjugate, LYZOX and its Combination with Decanoic Acid.
Authors: Kageshima H, Hayama K, Takahashi M, Abe M, Yamada T, Saito A, Hirano S, Murakami Y, Abe S Abstract A lysozyme-chitosan conjugate preparation (LYZOX), produced from egg white lysozyme and chitosan by Maillard reaction, is a commercial product developed as a cosmetic ingredient or food additive. Effects of LYZOX on in vitro growth of Candida albicans were examined. C. albicans cells were treated with LYZOX for 3 hrs, and then washed and cultured for an additional 16 hrs in modified RPMI1640 medium. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was clearly inhibited by more than 100 μg/ml of LYZOX in a concentration-depe...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Prof. Masao Ota.
Authors: Ono T Abstract Masao Ota was a Professor of Dermatology at Tokyo Imperial University. He is known to dermatologists around the world as the researcher who identified Nevus of Ota. He is also known for his research on Hansen's Disease. He was critical of the forced isolation policy and the sterilization law. He dreamt of developing chemotherapeutic measures and dedicated himself to cultivating Mycobacterium leprae. Among his accomplishments, those in the area of medical mycology are particularly remarkable. His discovery of Microsporum ferrugineum, his proposal for Trichophytia pompholyciformis, and his wor...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research

Current Status of Taxonomy of Pathogenic Yeasts.
Authors: Sugita T, Cho O, Takashima M Abstract Fungal taxonomy has been reconstructed on the basis of genome information, and new nomenclatural rules have been enacted from 2013. It has been proposed that Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii be reclassified into two species (C. neoformans and Cryptococcus deneoformans) and five species (C. gattii, Cryptococcus bacillisporus, Cryptococcus deuterogattii, Cryptococcus tetragattii, and Cryptococcus decagattii), respectively. The genus Trichosporon has been reclassified into five genera. Trichosporon asahii, which is the causative agent of trichosporonosis, h...
Source: Medical Mycology Journal - September 2, 2017 Category: Biology Tags: Med Mycol J Source Type: research