Upregulation of complement C1q reflects mucosal regeneration in a mouse model of colitis
AbstractConfirming mucosal healing is important in inflammatory bowel disease treatment. Complement C1q-mediated Wnt signaling activation has recently been suggested to mediate tissue repair and mucosal regeneration. We investigated the involvement of complement C1q and Wnt signaling in intestinal mucosal regeneration using a murine colitis model. The colitis model was established by providing C57BL/6J mice with 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 1  week (inflammation phase) followed by regular water for 2 weeks (recovery phase). After 3 weeks, we investigated the relationship between C1q in serum and colon...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - October 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional electron microscopy for endothelial glycocalyx observation using Alcian blue with silver enhancement
AbstractGlycocalyx (GCX) is a thin layer of negatively charged glycoproteins that covers the vascular endothelial surface and regulates various biological processes. Because of the delicate and fragile properties of this structure, it is difficult to detect GCX morphologically. We established a simple method for a three-dimensional visualization of endothelial GCX using low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections. Mouse kidney tissue was fixed with 10% buffered formalin containing 1% Alcian blue (ALB) via perfusion and immersion. FFPE sections were observed by light m...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - October 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Aberrant expression of DUSP4 is a specific phenomenon in betel quid-related oral cancer
AbstractOral cancer due to betel quid chewing habit is very common in South Asian countries. We attempted to detect the presence of a novel gene in epithelial cells stimulated with arecoline, a main component of betel quid. Human gingival epithelial progenitors were cultured and treated with a 3-day alternating regimen with/without 50  μg/ml arecoline for 1 month. DNA microarray and methylation arrays were analyzed to identify the candidate genes. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in the tissue samples. Genome-wide analyses, quantitative reverse transcription PCR and quantitative methylation-specific ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - September 19, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Keratinocytes from Gorlin Syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells are resistant against UV radiation
AbstractGorlin syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder involvingPatched 1 (PTCH1) mutations. The PTCH1 is a receptor as well as an inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) to sequester downstream Hh pathway molecules called Smoothened (SMO).PTCH1 mutations causes a variety of GS conditions including falx calcification, odontogenic keratocytes and basal cell carcinomas (BCC). BecausePTCH1 is a major driver gene of sporadic BCC, GS patients are characteristically prone to BCC. In order to elucidate the pathological mechanism of BCC-prone GS patients, we investigated keratinocytes derived from GS patient specific iPS cells ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - August 19, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Variants in taste genes on caries risk and caries activity status
AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the role of taste-related gene polymorphisms (CA6,TAS1R1,TAS1R3, TLR2, andTLR4) on dental caries and caries activity in adults. Individuals aged 25 –44 years included in the study were assigned to two groups according to the decayed-missing-filled teeth index (DMFT) as the high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14,n = 100) and the low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5,n = 100). TaqMan allelic discrimination assays were used for genotyping the gene variants after isolating the DNA from the buccal smears. According to the American de...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - August 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Epithelial –myoepithelial carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: report of a rare case with immunohistochemical and genetic analyses
We examined one additional case of EMCa ex-PA, immunohistochemically and genetically. The patient was an 83-year-old female , who suffered from swelling of the right parotid region. Histologically, the tumor contained a hyalinized nodule, which displayed elastosis. The main tumor exhibited a bi-layered structure, involving inner ductal cells and clear outer myoepithelial cells. Immunostaining indicated that the inner cel ls were positive for epithelial membrane antigen, whereas the outer cells were positive for p40. On the genetic level, the carcinoma harbored noHRAS gene mutations, whereas fluorescence in situ hybridizati...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - August 3, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

PD-L1 expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma
ConclusionsThese data indicate that PD-L1 upregulation in tongue SCCs is associated with a more advanced stage and shorter disease-free survival. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors might hence constitute potential adjuvant therapy for tongue SCCs with PD-L1 upregulation. (Source: Medical Molecular Morphology)
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - July 21, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Role of tubulin acetylation in cellular functions and diseases
AbstractAcetylation is a well-studied post-translational modification (PTM) of tubulin. Acetylated tubulin is present in the centrioles, primary cilia, and flagella, which contain long-lived stable microtubules. Tubulin acetylation plays an important role in cellular activities including cell polarity, cell migration, vesicle transport, and cell development. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions have revealed conformational changes in acetylated tubulin, revealing a reduction in intermonomer interactions among tubulins and an increase in microtubule elasticity. The kinetics of conformational changes in acetylated tubuli...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - July 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Type 4B hereditary hemochromatosis due to heterozygous p.D157A mutation in SLC40A1 complicated with hypopituitarism
We present here a case of type 4 hereditary hemochromatosis due to heterozygous mutation inSLC40A1 gene (p.D157A).SLC40A1 encodes ferroportin, a macromolecule only known as iron exporter from mammalian cells. He first presented symptoms correlated with hypopituitarism. Furthermore, marked hyperferritinemia and high transferrin saturation were revealed in combination with the findings of iron overload in the liver, spleen and pituitary gland by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Liver biopsy revealed iron deposition in both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells.SLC40A1 mutations are considered to cause wide heterog...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - June 29, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Trehalose alleviates oxidative stress-mediated liver injury and Mallor-Denk body formation via activating autophagy in mice
We examined the effect of trehalose on autophagy, ER stress and oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and MDB formation in hepatocytes using mice model with 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) treatment for 3  months. We administered trehalose by intraperitoneal injection of water containing 10% trehalose (0.02 mg/g body weight) every other day for 3 months. Our results demonstrated that trehalose induced autophagy and reduced ER stress, oxidative stress, MDB formation and apoptosis in hepatocytes of DDC-fed mice by Western blotting and immunostaining analyses. Electron microscopy revealed that ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - June 24, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Morphological and functional abnormalities of hippocampus in APC 1638T/1638T mice
AbstractIn the present study, we examined morphology and function of hippocampus in theAPC1638T/1638T mouse. Expression levels of theAPC mRNA and protein were both identical in the hippocampus of theAPC+/+ andAPC1638T/1638T mice. The dentate gyrus of theAPC1638T/1638T hippocampus was thicker, and has more densely-populated granule cells in theAPC1638T/1638T mouse hippocampus. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed co-localization of APC with alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl- isoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPA-R) and with PSD-95 at post-synapse in theAPC+/+ hippocampus, while APC1638T was co-localized with neither AMPA-R nor ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - June 21, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Usefulness of immunohistochemistry to distinguish between secretory carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma in the salivary gland
AbstractSecretory carcinoma (SC) of the salivary gland is a relatively newly described disease, separate from acinic cell carcinoma (ACC), which frequently displays ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. However, the differences between SC and ACC remain unclear. Here, histological reevaluation of 12 formerly diagnosed ACC cases was performed, which yielded a new diagnosis of SC in four cases due to a lack of obvious acinar-like cells. Immunohistochemically, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (p-STAT5) was expressed in SC but not in ACC, whereas discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) was expressed in ACC but not in SC...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 31, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Differences in autoimmune hepatitis based on inflammation localization
AbstractHistopathology is essential for the diagnosis and evaluation of disease activity of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We aimed to elucidate the characteristics of AIH from the localization of inflammation. We re-evaluated a nationwide survey that was performed in Japan in 2018 of AIH patients diagnosed between 2014 and 2017. A total of 303 patients were enrolled, and the clinical and treatment characteristics were compared between the patients with predominantly portal inflammation (230 patients) or lobular inflammation (73 patients). AIH patients with lobular inflammation had a higher probability of being diagnosed with...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 14, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Less correlation between mismatch repair proteins deficiency and decreased expression of HLA class I molecules in endometrial carcinoma: a different propensity from colorectal cancer
In this study, EC patients being treated in our hospital were recruited from 2005 to 2009 and observed until December 2017. Lesion specimens were evaluated via immunohistochemistry for MSH6 and PMS2 (mismatch repair proteins) and HLA class I molecules. Expression of these molecules was statistically related to clinical and pathological factors and prognosis. dMMR was detected in 33 patients and did not correlate with the expression level of HLA class I molecules (P = 0.60). On the other hand, unexpectedly, multivariate analysis revealed that intact expression of HLA class I molecules was associated with p53 o...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 13, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Correction to: Cavin-1 is linked to lipid droplet formation in human hepatic stellate cells
In the original publication, the part figures (e, f) of Fig.  2 were wrongly cited as “g, h” in the text and in Fig. 2 caption. (Source: Medical Molecular Morphology)
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 12, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Endometrial microRNAs and their aberrant expression patterns
AbstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They play fundamental roles in several biological processes, including cell differentiation and proliferation, embryo development, organ development, and organ metabolism.  Besides regulating the physiological processes, miRNAs regulate various pathological conditions such as tumors, metastases, metabolic diseases, and osteoporosis. Although several studies have been performed on miRNAs, only few studies have described the miRNA expression and functions in human repr oductive tract tissues. During menstruation, the human endo...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - April 28, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Chronic stress-induced elevation of IL-1 β in the saliva and submandibular glands of mice
We examined the effect of chronic stress on three major inflammatory cytokines Interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the saliva and salivary glands of chronically stressed mice. Six-week-old C57BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a control and a stress group. The mice in stress group were exposed to 4 h of stress daily for 10 days and subsequently saliva, as we ll as the submandibular glands, were collected from both groups. The expression levels of cytokines in the saliva were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The submandibular glands were subjected to h...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - April 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Hesperetin alleviated glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through regulating the ERK signaling pathway
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hesperetin alleviated glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteogenic differentiation through ERK signal pathway in BMSCs. It may be a potential therapeutic agent for protecting against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. (Source: Medical Molecular Morphology)
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - April 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Expression of HIF-2a in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma independently predicts overall survival
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to evaluate the expression and the prognostic role of main factors, involved in the hypoxia pathway, in patients with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Immunohistochemical expression of Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) HIF-1a, HIF-2a, prolyl hydroxylases PHD1, PHD2, PHD3, and factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) was assessed on a tissue microarray, containing tumour and corresponding normal kidney tissue from 66 patients underwent surgery for ccRCC. Expression levels were evaluated in relation to T stage, Fuhrman grade, cancer-specific, and overall survival (OS). Cytoplasmatic expression o...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - March 25, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Biochemical and morphological characterization of SEPT1 in mouse brain
In this study, we produced a specific antibody against mouse SEPT1 and carried out biochemical and morphological characterization of SEPT1. When the expressio n profile of SEPT1 during mouse brain development was analyzed by western blotting, we found that SEPT1 expression began to increase after birth and the increase continued until postnatal day 22. Subcellular fractionation of mouse brain and subsequent western blot analysis revealed the distribution of SEPT1 in synaptic fractions. Immunofluorescent analyses showed the localization of SEPT1 at synapses in primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. We also found the di...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - March 6, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

ATM kinase regulates tumor immunoreactions in lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer through modulation of NKG2D ligand and TNF cytokines on tumor cells
AbstractTo explore impact of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase on immunoreactions in lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC), particularly its role in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), 194 cases of LPBC were identified with pertinent clinical information retrieved. The expressions of ATM, activated ATM (P-ATM), Fas ligand (FASL), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL), major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A (MICA), CD8, and Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) were assessed by immunohistochemically. We found that ATM expressed on tumor cells was correlated with upregula...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - February 16, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Sequential pattern of sublayer formation in the paleocortex and neocortex
AbstractThe piriform cortex (paleocortex) is the olfactory cortex or the primary cortex for the sense of smell. It receives the olfactory input from the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb and is involved in the processing of information pertaining to odors. The piriform cortex and the adjoining neocortex have different cytoarchitectures; while the former has a three-layered structure, the latter has a six-layered structure. The regulatory mechanisms underlying the building of the six-layered neocortex are well established; in contrast, less is known about of the regulatory mechanisms responsible for structure fo...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - January 29, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ultrastructural changes in the choriocapillaris of N -methyl- N -nitrosourea-induced retinal degeneration in C57BL/6 mice
AbstractN-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) is known to cause apoptosis of photoreceptor cells and changes in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). However, the changes in choriocapillaris, which nourishes photoreceptor cells by diffusing tissue fluid through RPE, have not been reported in detail. Therefore, we studied the ultrastructural transformation in and around the choriocapillaris to characterize the interdependence between choriocapillaris and surrounding tissue components in a mouse model. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (60  mg/kg of body weight). Perfusion-fixed ey...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - January 29, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

The expression of MYC is strongly dependent on the circular PVT1 expression in pure Gleason pattern 4 of prostatic cancer
AbstractPVT1 is a long-noncoding RNA and is highly expressed in various cancers including prostate cancers with stabilizing MYC protein. To characterize the objective biological features of the different morphological components such as Gleason patterns (GP) in prostate cancer, biopsy specimens containing only single pure GP (GP3, GP4, GP5) are used to analyze the relationship betweenPVT1 expression and MYC protein expression. The expressions ofPVT1 andMYC were analyzed by quantitative PCR and the labeling index (LI) of MYC protein by immunohistochemical staining.PVT1,MYC, and MYC protein were highly expressed in GP 4, and...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - January 12, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Histological evaluation of the acetabular labrum after bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty: a case report
We report herein the microstructure of the acetabular labrum obtained from a patient with stem loosening but without bipolar cup migration who had undergone hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture 18  years ago. We used light and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the influence of bipolar cup on acetabular labrum in vivo. Deparaffinized blocks were treated with 2 N NaOH to digest the cell matrix, allowing the collagen fibers, constituting the acetabular labrum, to be observed under sc anning electron microscopy. Although chondrocyte atrophy was seen, the basic structure was not different from the norm...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - January 12, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor showing solid proliferation with limited desmoplasia and confusing immunohistochemical findings: an autopsy report
AbstractWe herein report a variant case of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) showing limited desmoplasia and confusing immunohistochemical findings. A 26-year-old male was referred for multiple abdominal masses. Laparoscopic biopsy showed only the solid proliferation of small round cells, and he was initially diagnosed with small cell carcinoma. At autopsy, the tumor spread diffusely throughout the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Although the tumor was composed of a predominantly solid pattern of small round cells, multiple samples revealed a fibrous stroma in limited areas only. While immunohistochemistry showed ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - January 5, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic analysis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with or without c-Met expression
AbstractExtranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the stomach is mainly associated withHelicobacter pylori infection, andH. pylori eradication therapy is often effective. However, 20 –30% of the cases of MALT lymphoma are resistant to the eradication therapy, and translocation of theAPI2-MALT1 gene is often found in these cases. Most cases without translocation ofAPI2-MALT1 are localized to the stomach, whereas some cases with this translocation are a more advanced stage of MALT lymphoma that spreads to other organs. The c-Met receptor is a prognostic factor involved in...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - January 1, 2020 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ɑ (PPARɑ)–cytochrome P450 epoxygenases-soluble epoxide hydrolase axis in ER + PR + HER2− breast cancer
AbstractFibrates belong to a group of ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α), which play a role in the regulation of CYP epoxygenases and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), key enzymes in the metabolism of biologically highly active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We demonstrated that low doses of fibrates stimulate proliferation of the MCF7 cell line, while high doses s uppress it. The increase in cell proliferation was accompanied by an increase in CYP epoxygenases and decrease in sEH levels. The overall level of PPARα remained same after low-dose fibrate stimulation; however, th...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - December 9, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Scanning electoronmicroscopical analysis of the loose bodies of synovial chondoromatosis in temporomandibular joint
AbstractThe aim of this study is to reveal the morphological property about the loose bodies (LBs) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) by scanning electron microscope (SEM). We obtained specimens from two female cases of released loose body by surgical operation. These specimens were fixed by soaking in a mixture of 5% glutaraldehyde or 4% formaldehyde for one week. They were cut into half pieces. These specimens were observed at an accelerating voltage of 3  kV under a SEM (JSM-5500, JEOL, Tokyo). In the electron microscopic findings, it seems to be separated into two different parts as inside part and outside part. On ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - December 8, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Interleukin-24 is a novel diagnostic biomarker for the severity of acute kidney injury
In this study, we monitored interleukin (IL)-24 expressed in kidneys with severe AKI that progresses to atrophic kidney in a mouse model of ischemia –reperfusion injury (IRI). Therefore, we evaluated IL-24 as a potential biomarker not only for early diagnosis of AKI, but also for predicting progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum IL-24 was detected earlier than the elevation of serum creatinine levels and urinary IL-24 was detected as early as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) in severe AKI (60 min of IRI). In addition, serum and urine IL-24 levels tended to increase in relation to isc...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - December 3, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Histone H3.3 mutation in giant cell tumor of bone: an update in pathology
AbstractGiant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive bone tumor that frequently shows local recurrence and occasionally shows malignant transformation to high-grade sarcoma. Histologically, conventional GCTB is composed mainly of three types of cells: mononuclear neoplastic cells with an osteoblastic precursor phenotype, mononuclear histiocytic cells, and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. These cells interact with each other via the RANKL-RANK axis and other mechanisms for tumor formation. The vast majority of GCTBs were recently revealed to harborH3F3A p.G34W mutation, and a minor subset haveH3F3A p.G...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - November 19, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Membranous overexpression of S100A10 is associated with a high-grade cellular status of breast carcinoma
AbstractS100A10 promotes tumor invasion in various cancers. Although genetic studies on S100A10 in breast carcinoma (BC) have been used for molecular biological classification, immunohistochemical studies are lacking. We aimed to identify the correlation between S100A10 expression in BC and various pathological parameters, including morphological features to determine histological grade (HG). Immunostained serial paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 176 cases of resected BC or normal mammary ducts (controls) were assessed for the membrane expression of S100A10. Of the 176 cases, 125 conventional infiltrating ductal carci...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - November 14, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma with coexisting aberrations of C-MYC and BCL-2: a case report and literature review
AbstractPrimary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is an aggressive lymphoma characteristic with distinct clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic features. The rearrangements of C-MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6 which are common in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are typically absent in PLMBCL. Here we proved a novel case of PMLBCL with concurrent rearrangements of C-MYC and BCL2. Histology showed typical pathomorphological features of PLMBCL. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed rearrangements of C-MYC and copy number variation (CNV) of BCL2 gene. It is not well known on the clinical significanc...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - November 13, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Mechanism of atopic cataract caused by eosinophil granule major basic protein
AbstractAtopic cataracts develop under the ages of 40  years, after which visual acuity rapidly declines. However, the mechanism underlying the development of atopic cataracts is not yet clear. We focused on the eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP), which was detected in the aqueous humor of atopic cataracts previously, and which was cytotoxic . Specifically, we investigated its origin in this fluid and its effects on lens epithelial cells (LECs). MBP immunostaining was positive in atopic cataract-derived LECs, but negative in age-related cataract-derived LECs.MBP mRNA was not detected in either type of catara...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - October 7, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

An analysis of monocytes and dendritic cells differentiated from human peripheral blood monocyte-derived induced pluripotent stem cells
AbstractDendritic cell-based immunotherapy, which uses a patient's own immune cells, can be used for cancer treatment and allergy control, such as autoimmune disease and rejection associated with transplantation. However, these treatments create a burden on patients due to repeated blood collection. We used cell biological analysis of monocytes with few mutations obtained from minimal blood collection for genome recombination. Next, we established human peripheral blood monocyte-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using a commercial vector and standard culture method. We found that when established iPSCs were in...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - October 3, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ultrastructural characterization of cells in the tibial stump of ruptured human anterior cruciate ligament, their changes and significance with duration of injury
AbstractFibroblasts and myofibroblasts have been known to be present in both ruptured and intact human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and although their relevant histology and immunochemistry have been studied in the past, ultrastructural features of these cells are largely lacking. Therefore, we aim to characterise the ultrastructural details of these cells with the help of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to study the changes and their significance with duration of injury. Samples from 60 ruptured human ACL undergoing surgery were obtained and categorised according to duration of injury and observed under TE...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - September 26, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protects noise-induced apoptosis in cochlear cells by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in rats
AbstractEndoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been reported to be involved in the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein has been reported to have different regulatory effects on apoptosis according to cell types. However, whether GILZ regulates apoptosis in cochlear cells is unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which GILZ protected ER stress-mediated cochlear apoptosis induced by noise exposure. In our trials, forty-eight male Spraque –Dawley rats were randomized into the noise, OE-GILZ-rLV + noise (ON), shRNA-GILZ-...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - September 3, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Expression of fatty-acid-binding protein 5 in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: the possibility of different energy metabolisms in anatomical location
AbstractThe biliary tract cancer (BTC) covers a range of carcinomas, including intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC), perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (perihilar CC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), and gallbladder cancer (GBC), defined according to the anatomical location. These adenocarcinomas mostly comprise biliary epithelial cell-derived malignant cells. In addition to anatomical differences, there are morphological and biological differences in BTC starting from embryonic development of the tissues extending to physiological differences. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - August 19, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Stage-dependent differential gene expression profiles of cranial neural crest-like cells derived from mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells
AbstractCranial neural crest cells are multipotent cells that migrate into the pharyngeal arches of the vertebrate embryo and differentiate into various craniofacial organ derivatives. Therefore, migrating cranial neural crest cells are considered one of the most attractive candidate cell sources in regenerative medicine. We generated cranial neural crest like cell (cNCCs) using mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells cultured in neural crest-inducing medium for 14  days. Subsequently, we conducted RNA sequencing experiments to analyze gene expression profiles of cNCCs at different time points after induction. cNCCs expr...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - July 10, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Idiopathic copper toxicosis: is abnormal copper metabolism a primary cause of this disease?
AbstractIdiopathic copper toxicosis (ICT) is characterized by marked copper deposition, Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation and severe hepatic injury. Although the characteristics are apparently different from Wilson disease, large amounts of copper accumulate in the liver of the patients. We extensively treated a patient with ICT to reduce the body copper, however, the patient needed liver transplantation. Previous liver biopsy revealed high copper content. But extirpated liver contained an extremely small amount of copper, although MDBs and severe inflammation remained. These phenomena suggest abnormal copper metabolism is...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - June 2, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional architecture of the acetabular labrum in the human hip joint
AbstractThe acetabular labrum is frequently damaged with advancing age. As collagen fibers are the main sources of strength, knowledge of their ultrastructure is important to determine the cause of age-induced changes. We aimed to investigate the ultrastructure of collagen fibers constituting the acetabular labrum using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Acetabular labrum samples obtained during total hip arthroplasty were studied. The samples were specially prepared to observe the steric construction of collagen fibrils constituting the acetabular labrum under light microscopy followed by SEM. The acetabular labrum was m...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 28, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Multiplex PCR analysis of apocrine lesions shows frequent PI3K –AKT pathway mutations in both benign and malignant apocrine breast tumors
AbstractPathological diagnosis of intraductal apocrine lesions can be challenging, because even benign apocrine lesions often show atypical cytology, and immunohistochemistry is of little assistance. A new diagnostic method for apocrine lesions is desirable. The mutations present in apocrine lesions have not been well studied. We performed a MassARRAY multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study of benign and malignant apocrine lesions, which included 152 mutations of 18 genes. We found that four of 11 benign lesions showedAKT1 orPIK3CA mutations, one of four noninvasive apocrine carcinomas showed aFBX4 mutation, two of...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 27, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Molecular association of FtsZ with the intrabacterial nanotransportation system for urease in Helicobacter pylori
In this study, we demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy that urease along the route ofibNoTS localizes closely with the FtsZ filament in the bacterium. Supporting this, we found by enzyme immunoassay and co-immunoprecipitation analysis that urease interacted with FtsZ. These findings indicate that urease along the route ofibNoTS is closely associated with the FtsZ filament. Since these phenomena were not observed inibNoTS for CagA, the route ofibNoTS for CagA is different from that ofibNoTS for urease. We propose that the route ofibNoTS for urease is associated with the FtsZ filament inH. pylori. (Source: Medical Molecular Morphology)
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 26, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Ultrastructure and three-dimensional architecture of the anterior cruciate ligament in the knee joints of young and old monkeys
We examined the ultrastructure of the anterior cruciate ligament and assessed age-related changes by comparing the ligaments of young and old monkeys. Ultrathin sections of the anterior cruciate ligament were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The three-dimensional architecture of collagen fibers in the ligament was examined by scanning electron microscopy after tissue specimens were treated with 2  N NaOH to digest the extracellular matrix. At the surface layer of the cruciate ligament in young monkeys, fusiform-shaped fibroblasts actively produced collagen fibrils. The ligament consisted of parallel bundl...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - May 17, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Assessment of ApoC1, LuzP6, C12orf75 and OCC-1 in cystic glioblastoma using MALDI –TOF mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR
AbstractMass spectrometric analysis of glioblastoma cyst fluids has disclosed a protein peak withm/z 6424 –6433. Among the proteins, potentially generating this peak are ApoC1 and LuzP6. To further elucidate protein expression of glioblastoma cells, we analyzed MALDI–TOF results of cyst fluid, performed immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis. MALDI–TOF protein extraction from 24 glioblastoma cyst fluids was performed with a weak cation exchange. 50 glioblastoma samples were stained with two custom-made antibodies against LuzP6 and commercial antibodies against ApoC1, C12orf75 and OCC-1 and analyzed. For m...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - April 19, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A novel splicing mutation of PTCH1 in a Chinese family with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
AbstractNevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple jaw keratocysts and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and accompanied by diverse phenotypes. The establishment of diagnosis lies on the identification of a heterozygous germline pathogenic variant in the patched homolog 1 gene (PTCH1).PTCH1 has alternative splicing and selective initial coding exon, leading to three types of encoding proteins (PTCHL, PTCHM and PTCHS). The expression of each protein in NBCCS remains ambiguous, especially the importance of the first two exons in translation. Here, ...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - April 16, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Assessment of CD133-positive extracellular membrane vesicles in pancreatic cancer ascites and beyond
(Source: Medical Molecular Morphology)
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - April 4, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Heparin prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human decidualized endometrial stromal cells
AbstractClinical trials have shown that administering heparin during the luteal phase has beneficial effects on implantation and live birth rates. Heparin exerts direct effects on decidual human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs), which are independent of its anticoagulant effect. However, the accurate effects of heparin on the decidualization process remain unidentified. Here, we demonstrate that HESCs become dramatically resistant to oxidative stress upon decidualization, and we hypothesize a possible direct action of heparin on the decidualization of HESCs, which would lead to improved implantation. To test this hypothes...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - March 15, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Cavin-1 is linked to lipid droplet formation in human hepatic stellate cells
(Source: Medical Molecular Morphology)
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - March 14, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Glycosylation of ascites-derived exosomal CD133: a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer
This study analyzed the expression of the CSC marker CD133 in the ascites-derived exosomes obtained from patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. In addition, inverse correlation of CD133 expression with prognosis was examined. Of the 133 consecutive patients, 19 patients were enrolled in the study. Exosomes derived from the malignant ascites demonstrated higher density and wider variation in size than those from non-malignant ascites. Western blot revealed enhanced expression of CD133 in exosomes obtained from patients with pancreatic cancer compared to those obtained from patients with gastric cancer or liver cirrho...
Source: Medical Molecular Morphology - February 25, 2019 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research