Retraction Note: Infection of great apes and a zoo keeper with the same Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotype
The original article can be found online. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - July 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Outer inflammatory protein of Helicobacter pylori impacts IL-8 expression, adherence, cell apoptosis and cell cycle of gastric cells independent of its copy number
AbstractOuter inflammatory protein (OipA) is an important virulence factor ofHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori), but the correlation betweenoipA copy number and its virulence remains unknown. The study was designed to investigate whether the duplicateoipA gene loci showed more virulent than oneoipA gene in vitro.H. pylori strain CCS9803 (China Chongqing Strain 9803) that carries duplicateoipA loci was used to construct one or twooipA knockout mutant strain, which was further verified by qPCR and western blot. Gastric epithelial cells AGS and GES-1 were infected with wild-type (WT) oroipA mutants for 6 or 24  h. The expre...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 30, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Tetraspanins in mammalian reproduction: spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos
The original article can be found online. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

HPV caught in the tetraspanin web?
AbstractTetraspanins are master organizers of the cell membrane. Recent evidence suggests that tetraspanins themselves may become crowded by virus particles and that these crowds/aggregates co-internalize with the viral particles. Using microscopy, we studied human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16-dependent aggregates on the cell surface of tetraspanin overexpressing keratinocytes. We find that aggregates are (1) rich in at least two different tetraspanins, (2) three-dimensional architectures extending up to several micrometers into the cell, and (3) decorated intracellularly by filamentous actin. Moreover, in cells not overex...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The effect of KIR and HLA polymorphisms on dengue infection and disease severity in northeastern Thais
AbstractKiller cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are cell surface receptors on natural killer (NK) cells and subsets of T cells. The interaction between KIRs and their cognate ligands (Human leukocyte antigen class I molecules, HLA class I) modulates the immune response of NK cells, in particular through clearance of virus-infected cells. Here, we investigated the effect ofKIRs andHLA ligands on dengue infections and disease severity. TheKIRs andHLA ligands were identified in 235 healthy controls (HC) and 253 dengue patients (DEN) using polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primer (PCR –SSP); moreo...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanins in the regulation of mast cell function
AbstractMast cells (MCs) are long-living immune cells highly specialized in the storage and release of different biologically active compounds and are involved in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. MC degranulation and replacement of MC granules are accompanied by active membrane remodelling. Tetraspanins represent an evolutionary conserved family of transmembrane proteins. By interacting with lipids and other membrane and intracellular proteins, they are involved in organisation of membrane protein complexes and act as “molecular facilitators” connecting extracellular and cytoplasmic signaling ele...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanin CD81 regulates HSV-1 infection
AbstractDifferent members of the tetraspanin superfamily have been described to regulate different virus infectious cycles at several stages: viral entry, viral replication or virion exit or infectivity. In addition, tetraspanin CD81 regulates HIV reverse transcription through its association with the dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1. Here we aimed at analysing the role of CD81 in Herpes simplex virus 1 infectivity using a neuroblastoma cell model. For this purpose, we generated a CD81 KO cell line using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Despite being CD81 a plasma membrane protein, CD81 KO cells showed no defects in viral entry nor in the...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: A role for tetraspanin proteins in regulating fusion induced by Burkholderia thailandensis
In the original article, incorrect   figures were published with incorrect captions. The correct figures and captions are given below. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - June 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanin 7 and its closest paralog tetraspanin 6: membrane organizers with key functions in brain development, viral infection, innate immunity, diabetes and cancer
AbstractTetraspanin (TSPAN) protein family forms a family of transmembrane proteins that act as organizers/scaffold for other proteins. TSPANs are primarily present on plasma membranes although they are also found in other biological membranes. They are organized in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), which allow spatiotemporal tuning of protein functions through the control of their membrane localization. TSPAN6 and TSPAN7 are close paralogs expressed in different tissues, TSPAN7 being highly expressed in the brain. Their functions only started to be unveiled in the late 2000 ’s and are still poorly understood...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 28, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Structure and function of minor pilins of type IV pili
AbstractType IV pili are versatile and highly flexible fibers formed on the surface of many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Virulence and infection rate of several pathogenic bacteria, such asNeisseria meningitidis andPseudomonas aeruginosa, are strongly dependent on the presence of pili as they facilitate the adhesion of the bacteria to the host cell. Disruption of the interactions between the pili and the host cells by targeting proteins involved in this interaction could, therefore, be a treatment strategy. A type IV pilus is primarily composed of multiple copies of protein subunits called major pilins. Additi...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Interaction with the host: the role of fibronectin and extracellular matrix proteins in the adhesion of Gram-negative bacteria
AbstractThe capacity of pathogenic microorganisms to adhere to host cells and avoid clearance by the host immune system is the initial and most decisive step leading to infections. Bacteria have developed different strategies to attach to diverse host surface structures. One important strategy is the adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., collagen, fibronectin, laminin) that are highly abundant in connective tissue and basement membranes. Gram-negative bacteria express variable outer membrane proteins (adhesins) to attach to the host and to initiate the process of infection. Understanding the underlying mol...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms of dendritic cell migration in immunity and cancer
AbstractDendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that act to bridge innate and adaptive immunity. DCs are critical in mounting effective immune responses to tissue damage, pathogens and cancer. Immature DCs continuously sample tissues and engulf antigens via endocytic pathways such as phagocytosis or macropinocytosis, which result in DC activation. Activated DCs undergo a maturation process by downregulating endocytosis and upregulating surface proteins controlling migration to lymphoid tissues where DC-mediated antigen presentation initiates adaptive immune responses. To traffic to ...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tspan18 is a novel regulator of thrombo-inflammation
AbstractThe interplay between thrombosis and inflammation, termed thrombo-inflammation, causes acute organ damage in diseases such as ischaemic stroke and venous thrombosis. We have recently identified tetraspanin Tspan18 as a novel regulator of thrombo-inflammation. The tetraspanins are a family of 33 membrane proteins in humans that regulate the trafficking, clustering, and membrane diffusion of specific partner proteins. Tspan18 partners with the store-operated Ca2+ entry channel Orai1 on endothelial cells. Orai1 appears to be expressed in all cells and is critical in health and disease. Orai1 mutations cause human immu...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanin CD53: an overlooked regulator of immune cell function
AbstractTetraspanins are membrane organizing proteins that play a role in organizing the cell surface through the formation of subcellular domains consisting of tetraspanins and their partner proteins. These complexes are referred to as tetraspanin enriched microdomains (TEMs) or the tetraspanin web. The formation of TEMs allows for the regulation of a variety of cellular processes such as adhesion, migration, signaling, and cell fusion. Tetraspanin CD53 is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily expressed exclusively within the immune compartment. Amongst others, B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, macro...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanins in mammalian reproduction: spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos
AbstractIt is known that tetraspanin proteins are involved in many physiological somatic cell mechanisms. Additionally, research has indicated they also have a role in various infectious diseases and cancers. This review focuses on the molecular interactions underlying the tetraspanin web formation in gametes. Primarily, tetraspanins act in the reproductive tract as organizers of membrane complexes, which include the proteins involved in the contact and association of sperm and oocyte membranes. In addition, recent data shows that tetraspanins are likely to be involved in these processes in a complex way. In mammalian fert...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 18, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanin CD9 affects HPV16 infection by modulating ADAM17 activity and the ERK signalling pathway
AbstractHuman papillomaviruses (HPV) are causative agents of various tumours such as cervical cancer. HPV binding to the cell surface of keratinocytes leads to virus endocytosis at tetraspanin enriched microdomains. Complex interactions of the capsid proteins with host proteins as well as ADAM17-dependent ERK1/2 signal transduction enable the entry platform assembly of the oncogenic HPV type 16. Here, we studied the importance of tetraspanin CD9, also known as TSPAN29, in HPV16 infection of different epithelial cells. We found that both overexpression and loss of the tetraspanin decreased infection rates in cells with low ...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Multiresistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae : a new threat in second decade of the XXI century
The article “Multiresistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a new threat in second decade of the XXI century”, written by Beata Młynarczyk‑Bonikowska, Anna Majewska, Magdalena Malejczyk, Grażyna Młynarczyk, Sławomir Majewski was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currentl y SpringerLink) on December 04, 2019 without open access. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - May 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Single-nucleotide variants in human CD81 influence hepatitis C virus infection of hepatoma cells
This study provides additional evidence that genetic host variation contributes to inter-individual differences in HCV infection and outcome. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Autoimmunity to tetraspanin-7 in type 1 diabetes
AbstractType 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease whereby components of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells are targeted by the adaptive immune system leading to the destruction of these cells and insulin deficiency. There is much interest in the development of antigen-specific immune intervention as an approach to prevent disease development in individuals identified as being at risk of disease. It is now recognised that there are multiple targets of the autoimmune response in type 1 diabetes, the most recently identified being a member of the tetraspanin family, tetraspanin-7. The heterogeneity of autoimmune responses...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tetraspanins: integrating cell surface receptors to functional microdomains in homeostasis and disease
AbstractTetraspanins comprise a family of proteins embedded in the membrane through four transmembrane domains. One of the most distinctive features of tetraspanins is their ability to interact with other proteins in the membrane using their extracellular, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, allowing them to incorporate several proteins into clusters called tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. The spatial proximity of signaling proteins and their regulators enables a rapid functional cross-talk between these proteins, which is required for a rapid translation of extracellular signals into intracellular signaling cascades....
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A role for tetraspanin proteins in regulating fusion induced by Burkholderia thailandensis
AbstractBurkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease with high morbidity that is endemic in South East Asia and northern Australia. An unusual feature of the bacterium is its ability to induce multinucleated giant cell formation (MNGC), which appears to be related to bacterial pathogenicity. The mechanism of MNGC formation is not fully understood, but host cell factors as well as known bacterial virulence determinants are likely to contribute. Since members of the tetraspanin family of membrane proteins are involved in various types of cell:cell fusion, their role in MNGC formation induced byB...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Luliconazole, a highly effective imidazole, against Fusarium species complexes
In this study, 47 isolates ofFusarium were tested against several antifungals including luliconazole. All species were identified using morphology features, and PCR sequencing and antifungal susceptibility were performed according to CLSIM38 A3 guideline. Our results revealed that luliconazole has a very low minimum inhibitory concentration value (0.0078 –1 µg/ml) in comparison with other tested antifungals. Amphotericin B had a poor effect with a high MIC90 (64  µg/ml), followed by terbinafine (32 µg/ml), posaconazole (16 µg/ml), caspofungin (16 µg/ml), voricona...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 6, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A review on impedimetric immunosensors for pathogen and biomarker detection
AbstractSince the discovery of antibiotics in the first quarter of the twentieth century, their use has been the principal approach to treat bacterial infection. Modernized medicine such as cancer therapy, organ transplantation or advanced major surgeries require effective antibiotics to manage bacterial infections. However, the irresponsible use of antibiotics along with the lack of development has led to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance which is considered a serious global threat due to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria (Wang et al. in Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis, pp. 1645 –1...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Salmonella Typhi antigen YncE alongside HlyE for the detection of typhoid fever and its carriers
AbstractTyphoid fever is a disease caused bySalmonella Typhi that was implicated in millions of illnesses worldwide annually. Individuals that do not recover fully from typhoid fever can become asymptomatic carriers of the disease. Host antibodies against theS. Typhi antigens, HlyE (for acute typhoid) and YncE (for carriers) were previously reported to be useful biomarkers for the disease. Here, we expressed and purified recombinant HlyE and YncE antigens and tested the IgG, IgA and IgM responses in 422 sera samples retrieved from acute typhoid patients, other febrile, food handlers, and healthy individuals. The results sh...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - April 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of immunosuppressive and antifungal drugs on PBMC- and whole blood-based flow cytometric CD154 + Aspergillus fumigatus specific T-cell quantification
AbstractFlow cytometric quantification of CD154+ mould specific T-cells in antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or whole blood has been described as a supportive biomarker to diagnose invasive mould infections and to monitor therapeutic outcomes. As patients at risk frequently receive immunosuppressive and antifungal medication, this study compared the matrix-dependent impact of representative drugs on CD154+ T-cell detection rates. PBMCs and whole blood samples from healthy adults were pre-treated with therapeutic concentrations of liposomal amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, cyclosporine...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - March 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori babA , oipA , sabA , and homB genes in isolates from Chinese patients with different gastroduodenal diseases
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the four OMP genes (babA,oipA,sabA, andhomB) and gastroduodenal diseases. One hundred and seventy-sevenH. pylori strains were isolated from Chinese patients with different gastroduodenal diseases (49 chronic gastritis, 19 gastric ulcer, 33 gastric cancer, and 76 duodenal ulcer), 94 of which contained pathological information (41 superficial gastritis, 24 intestinal hyperplasia, and 29 gastric adenocarcinoma). The full-length amplification ofbabA,oipA,sabA,and homB genes was acquired and sequenced. Then, the genetic polymorphism was analyzed to compare with the referen...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - March 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The effects of Japanese encephalitis virus antibodies on Zika virus infection
This study suggests that individuals over 60 years of age are at high risk for JEV and ZIKV infectio n, and screening this age group for infection should strengthen. Furthermore, a deep exploration of the relationship between anti-JEV Abs and ZIKV infection is needed. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Leptospira interrogans Bat proteins impair host hemostasis by fibrinogen cleavage and platelet aggregation inhibition
We describe BatB as a new serine protease which is able to cleave thrombin chromogenic substrate, fibrin, fibrinogen, gelatin and casein; while BatA is active only towards fibrinogen. BatA and BatB interfere with the platelet aggregation induced by VWF/ristocetin and thrombin. Our results suggest an important role of theL. interrogans serovar Copenhageni Bat proteins in the hemostasis dysfunction observed during leptospirosis and contribute to the understanding of the leptospirosis pathophysiological mechanisms. (Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Structural proteomics, electron cryo-microscopy and structural modeling approaches in bacteria –human protein interactions
AbstractA central challenge in infection medicine is to determine the structure and function of host –pathogen protein–protein interactions to understand how these interactions facilitate bacterial adhesion, dissemination and survival. In this review, we focus on proteomics, electron cryo-microscopy and structural modeling to showcase instances where affinity-purification (AP) and cross-linking (XL) mass spectrometry (MS) has advanced our understanding of host–pathogen interactions. We highlight cases where XL-MS in combination with structural modeling has provided insight into the quaternary structure of...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A good career start can open doors: the plusses and minuses of an international graduate student program —a student’s perspective
AbstractThere are many Ph.D. programs from various funding agencies that provide excellent starts to a scientific career. Multinational Ph.D. positions attract students because they provide students with much-required exposure to the international scientific community at an early stage of the career. For this reason, multinational Ph.D. positions can be considered as a better career opportunity over Ph.D. positions confined to a single country. In addition, these multidisciplinary research programs connect different organizations to deal with the problems of global interest. One of these multi-disciplinary research program...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Human endogenous retroviruses env gene expression and long terminal repeat methylation in colorectal cancer patients
AbstractHuman endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are remnants of exogenous retroviral infections, representing 8% of the human genome. Their regulation is based on the DNA methylation of promoters, the long terminal repeats (LTRs). Transcripts from HERV have been associated with cancers, but reports concerning HERV expression in colorectal cancer remain sporadic. Sixty-three patients with advanced stages of colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. The expressions of HERVenv gene, and HERV-H, -K, -R and -P LTRs and Alu, LINE-1 methylation levels, were investigated in the tumor, normal adjacent tissues, and, where possible...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 10, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exploring the potential of polyethylene terephthalate in the design of antibacterial surfaces
AbstractPolyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of the most used polymeric materials in the health care sector mainly due to its advantages that include biocompatibility, high uniformity, mechanical strength and resistance against chemicals and/or abrasion. However, avoiding bacterial contamination on PET is still an unsolved challenge and two main strategies are being explored to overcome this drawback: the anti-adhesive and biocidal modification of PET surface. While bacterial adhesion depends on several surface properties namely surface charge and energy, hydrophilicity and surface roughness, a biocidal effect can be ob...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative multi-assay evaluation of Determine ™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo rapid diagnostic tests in acute and chronic HIV infection
AbstractIn resource-limited or point-of-care settings, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), that aim to simultaneously detect HIV antibodies and p24 capsid (p24CA) antigen with high sensitivity, can pose important alternatives to screen for early infections. We evaluated the performance of the antibody and antigen components of the old and novel version of the Determine ™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo RDTs in parallel to quantifications in a fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4G-EIA), p24CA antigen immunoassay (p24CA-EIA), immunoblots, and nucleic acid quantification. We included plasma samples of acute, treatment-na&iu...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 8, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

New solutions to capture and enrich bacteria from complex samples
AbstractCurrent solutions to diagnose bacterial infections though reliable are often time-consuming, laborious and need a specific laboratory setting. There is an unmet need for bedside accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases with a short turnaround time. Moreover, low-cost diagnostics will greatly benefit regions with poor resources. Immunoassays and molecular techniques have been used to develop highly sensitive diagnosis solutions but retaining many of the abovementioned limitations. The detection of bacteria in a biological sample can be enhanced by a previous step of capture and enrichment. This will ease the follow...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 5, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Toll like-receptor agonist Pam 3 Cys modulates the immunogenicity of liposomes containing the tuberculosis vaccine candidate H56
AbstractA major roadblock in the development of novel vaccines is the formulation and delivery of the antigen. Liposomes composed of a dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) backbone and the adjuvant trehalose-6-6-dibehenate (TDB, termed “cationic adjuvant formulation (CAF01)”, promote immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines, most notably against infection withMycobacterium tuberculosis. Specifically, the multicomponent antigen H56 delivered by CAF01 protects against tuberculosis in mice. Here we investigated whether the inclusion of immune-modulatory adjuvants into CAF01 modulates the immunogenicity of H...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - February 4, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mouse adaptation of the H9N2 avian influenza virus causes the downregulation of genes related to innate immune responses and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in mice
AbstractH9N2 avian influenza viruses sporadically infect humans worldwide. These viruses have also contributed internal genes to H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, and H10N8 viruses, which have been isolated from humans with infections and are a substantial public health threat. To investigate the potential pathogenic mechanism of the H9N2 virus, we performed serial lung-to-lung passage of an avirulent H9N2 avian influenza virus (A/Chicken/Shandong/416/2016 [SD/416]) in mice to increase the pathogenicity of this virus. We generated a mouse-adapted (MA) virus that exhibited increased viral titers in the lungs, caused severe lung damage in m...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - January 25, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

FISH and chips: a review of microfluidic platforms for FISH analysis
AbstractFluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allows visualization of specific nucleic acid sequences within an intact cell or a tissue section. It is based on molecular recognition between a fluorescently labeled probe that penetrates the cell membrane of a fixed but intact sample and hybridizes to a nucleic acid sequence of interest within the cell, rendering a measurable signal. FISH has been applied to, for example, gene mapping, diagnosis of chromosomal aberrations and identification of pathogens in complex samples as well as detailed studies of cellular structure and function. However, FISH protocols are complex,...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - January 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Advances in high-throughput methods for the identification of virus receptors
AbstractViruses have evolved many mechanisms to invade host cells and establish successful infections. The interaction between viral attachment proteins and host cell receptors is the first and decisive step in establishing such infections, initiating virus entry into the host cells. Therefore, the identification of host receptors is fundamental in understanding pathogenesis and tissue tropism. Furthermore, receptor identification can inform the development of antivirals, vaccines, and diagnostic technologies, which have a substantial impact on human health. Nevertheless, due to the complex nature of virus entry, the redun...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - December 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent advances in the understanding of trimeric autotransporter adhesins
AbstractAdhesion is the initial step in the infection process of gram-negative bacteria. It is usually followed by the formation of biofilms that serve as a hub for further spread of the infection. Type V secretion systems engage in this process by binding to components of the extracellular matrix, which is the first step in the infection process. At the same time they provide protection from the immune system by either binding components of the innate immune system or by establishing a physical layer against aggressors. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are of particular interest in this family of proteins as they ...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - December 21, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Innovative training networks: a new way of collaboration-propped PhD training
(Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - December 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Functional characterization and evaluation of protective efficacy of EA752 –862 monoclonal antibody against B. anthracis vegetative cell and spores
AbstractThe most promising means of controlling anthrax, a lethal zoonotic disease during the early infection stages, entail restricting the resilient infectious form, i.e., the spores from proliferating to replicating bacilli in the host. The extractible antigen (EA1), a major S-layer protein present on the vegetative cells and spores ofBacillus anthracis, is highly immunogenic and protects mice against lethal challenge upon immunization. In the present study, mice were immunized with r-EA1C, the C terminal crystallization domain of EA1, to generate a neutralizing monoclonal antibody EA752 –862, that was evaluated...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - December 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multiresistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae : a new threat in second decade of the XXI century
AbstractNeisseria gonorrhoeae is an etiologic agent of gonorrhoea, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases caused by bacteria. For many years, infections caused byN. gonorrhoeae were considered to be relatively easy to treat; however, resistance has emerged successively to all therapeutic agents used in treatment of the disease, e.g., penicillin, ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Currently, the global problem is the emergence and a threat of spread ofN. gonorrhoeae strains resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), such as injectable ceftriaxone and oral-used cefixime. Especially, dangerous are multi-re...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Immunogenicity of trimeric autotransporter adhesins and their potential as vaccine targets
AbstractThe current problem of increasing antibiotic resistance and the resurgence of numerous infections indicate the need for novel vaccination strategies more than ever. In vaccine development, the search for and the selection of adequate vaccine antigens is the first important step. In recent years, bacterial outer membrane proteins have become of major interest, as they are the main proteins interacting with the extracellular environment. Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are important virulence factors in many Gram-negative bacteria, are localised on the bacterial surface, and mediate the first adherence to ho...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Human adenovirus binding to host cell receptors: a structural view
AbstractHuman Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are a family of clinically and therapeutically relevant viruses. A precise understanding of their host cell attachment and entry mechanisms can be applied in inhibitor design and the construction of targeted gene delivery vectors. In this article, structural data on adenovirus attachment and entry are reviewed. HAdVs engage two types of receptors: first, an attachment receptor that is bound by the fibre knob protein protruding from the icosahedral capsid, and next, an integrin entry receptor bound by the pentameric penton base at the capsid vertices. Adenoviruses use remarkably diverse at...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Differences and overlaps between Phd studies in diagnostic microbiology in industrial and academic settings
AbstractIndustrial and academic needs for innovation and fundamental research are essential and not widely different. Depending on the industrial setting, research and development (R&D) activities may be more focused on the developmental aspects given the need to ultimately sell useful products. However, one of the biggest differences between academic and industrial R&D will usually be the funding model applied and the priority setting between innovative research and product development. Generalizing, companies usually opt for development using customer- and consumer-derived funds whereas university research is dri...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Brexit in the channel: Europe cut off: a young German scientist ’s perspective
(Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology)
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alternative pathway of complement activation has a beneficial role against Chandipura virus infection
AbstractThe complement system is a critical component of both innate and adaptive immune responses. It has both protective and pathogenic roles in viral infections. There are no studies regarding the role of complement system in Chandipura virus (CHPV) infection. The current study has investigated the role of complement pathways in the in vitro neutralization of CHPV in Vero E6 cells. Using normal human serum (NHS), heat-inactivated serum (HIS), human serum deficient of complement factor, respective reconstituted serum, assays like in vitro neutralization, real-time PCR, and flow cytometry-based tissue culture-based limite...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - November 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alternative complement pathway is activated in the brains of scrapie-infected rodents
AbstractActivation of complement system in central nervous system (CNS) of the patients suffering from prion diseases or animal models infected with prion agents experimentally is reported repeatedly, but which pathways are involved in the complement system during prion infection is not well documented. Here, we evaluated the level of complement factor B (CFB), which is the key factor that triggers alterative pathway (AP) of complement in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected mice with various methodologies. We found that the levels of mRNA and protein of CFB significantly increased in the brain tissues of scrapie-infected...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A new multi-epitope peptide vaccine induces immune responses and protection against Leishmania infantum in BALB/c mice
In this study, we evaluated cellular and humoral immune responses induced by our newly designed multi-epitope vaccine in BALB/c mice. Four antigenic proteins, including histone H1, sterol 24-c-methyltransferase (SMT),Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHy), andLeishmania-specific antigenic protein (LSAP) were chosen for the prediction of potential immunodominant epitopes. Moreover, to enhance vaccine immunogenicity, two toll-like receptors 4  (TLR4) agonists, resuscitation-promoting factors ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (RpfE and RpfB), were employed as the built-in adjuvants. Immunization with the designed mul...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - November 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Paracoccidioides species present distinct fungal adherence to epithelial lung cells and promote different IL-8 secretion levels
AbstractFungi that belong to the genusParacoccidioides are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human systemic mycosis, which occurs in Latin America. Epithelial cell is one of the first cells that interact with these fungi and responds by secreting inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. In the present study, we demonstrate that yeasts of different isolates ofParacoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb18 and Pb03) andParacoccidioides lutzii (Pb01) distinctly promoted interleukin (IL)-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549. Depending on the isolate, this cytokine release may rely on the epithelial cell inte...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - October 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research