Role of L-selectin on leukocytes in the binding of sialic acids on sperm surface during the phagocytosis of sperm in female reproductive tract
In either natural fertilization or artificial insemination, hundreds of millions of sperm are ejaculated or inseminated and then deposited in the female reproductive tract, but only a few sperm reach the ampulla or the site of fertilization. This dramatic reduction in numbers clearly highlights the obstacles that sperm must overcome in order to reach the destination for egg fertilizing. Phagocytosis of sperm by leukocytes are repeatedly observed and generallyconsidered to be one of the most important barriers, but the mechanism of the phagocytosis of sperm remains unclear. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 10, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lin Yu, Yayun Zheng, Ying Feng, Fang Ma Source Type: research

Why does a steep caudal-rostral gradient exist in glycine content in the brain?
Glycine is an important amino acid in the central nervous system. Interestingly, the content of glycine is about 9 times higher in the spinal cord grey matter than in the telencephalon. And this kind of caudal to rostral gradient is never seen in any other neurotransmitters. However, the cause of this phenomenon remains unknown. In the present report, I, thus, postulate the following theory. Glycine has dual roles as a neurotransmitter, one is the agonist for inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs), and the other is a co-agonist for excitatory NMDA receptors (NMDARs). (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kohji Sato Source Type: research

Noninvasive determination of the pulmonary artery input impedance
A reliable noninvasive method for the estimation of pulmonary function in healthy and diseased subjects should be of great importance in the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Here we propose such a method, which is based on the parameter identification of the five-element Windkessel model of pulmonary circulation. The method requires the following input variables: the heart rate, the stroke volume, the Doppler echocardiographic measurements of the tricuspid regurgitation and the pulmonary valve velocity profiles, and estimations of the right atrium and the pulmonary vein pressure. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fabijan Luli ć, Zdravko Virag, Marko Jakopović, Ivan Korade Source Type: research

‘Give-up-itis’ revisited: Neuropathology of extremis
The term ‘give-up-itis’ describes people who respond to traumatic stress by developing extreme apathy, give up hope, relinquish the will to live and die, despite no obvious organic cause. This paper discusses the nature of give-up-itis, with progressive demotivation and executive dysfunction that have cl inical analogues suggesting frontal-subcortical circuit dysfunction particularly within the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate circuits. It is hypothesised that progressive give-up-itis is consequent upon dopamine disequilibrium in these circuits, and a general theory for the cause and p rogression ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: John Leach Source Type: research

The Pertussis Hypothesis: Bordetella pertussis Colonization in the Etiology of Asthma and Diseases of Allergic Sensitization
Decades of peer reviewed evidence demonstrate that: 1)Bordetellapertussisand pertussis toxin are potent adjuvants, inducing asthma and allergic sensitization in animal models of human disease, 2)Bordetella pertussisoften colonizes the human nasopharynx, and is well documented in highly pertussis-vaccinated populations and 3) in children, a history of whooping cough increases the risk of asthma and allergic sensitization disease. We build on these observations with six case studies and offer a pertussis-based explanation for the rapid rise in allergic disease in former East Germany following the fall of the Berlin Wall; the...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Keith Rubin, Steven Glazer Source Type: research

Intermittent living; the use of ancient challenges as a vaccine against the deleterious effects of modern life A hypothesis
Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. They ensue from the sum of modern anthropogenic risk factors, including high calorie nutrition, malnutrition, sedentary lifestyle, social stress, environmental toxins, politics and economic factors. Many of these factors are beyond the span of control of individuals, suggesting that CNCD are inevitable. However, various studies, ours included, show that the use of intermittent challenges with hormetic effects improve subjective and objective wellbeing of individuals with CNCD, while having favourable effects on immunological...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 8, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Leo Pruimboom, Frits A.J. Muskiet Source Type: research

Visceral theory of sleep and origins of mental disorders
Visceral theory of sleep states that the same brain neurons, which process exter- nal information in wakefulness, during sleep switch to the processing of internal information coming from various visceral systems. Here we hypothesize that a failure in the commutation of exteroceptive and interoceptive information flows in the brain can manifest itself as a mental illness. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 7, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mariam M. Morchiladze, Tamila K. Silagadze, Zurab K. Silagadze Source Type: research

Postulating the Major Environmental Condition Resulting in the Expression of Essential Hypertension and Its Associated Cardiovascular Diseases: Dietary Imprudence in Daily Selection of Foods in Respect of Their Potassium and Sodium Content Resulting in Oxidative Stress-Induced Dysfunction of the Vascular Endothelium, Vascular Smooth Muscle, and Perivascular Tissues
We hypothesize that the major environmental determinant of the expression of essential hypertension in America and other Westernized countries is dietary imprudence in respect of the consumption of daily combinations of foods containing suboptimal amounts of potassium and blood pressure-lowering phytochemicals, and supraphysiological amounts of sodium. We offer as premise that Americans on average consume suboptimal amounts of potassium and blood pressure-lowering phytochemicals, and physiologically excessive amounts of sodium, and that such dietary imprudence leads to essential hypertension through oxidative stress-induce...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anthony Sebastian, Loren Cordain, Lynda Frassetto, Tanushree Banerjee, R. Curtis Morris Source Type: research

Copper as the most likely pathogenic divergence factor between lung fibrosis and emphysema
Although fibrosis and emphysema are in many ways on opposite ends of the pulmonary parenchymal disease spectrum, they seem to share common pathomechanistic steps. This is illustrated by the coexistence of both entities in lungs of individuals with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Macroproteins elastin and collagen are major constituents of the pulmonary extracellular matrix. The prevailing paradigm states that emphysema is caused by an imbalance between destructive proteolytic and protective antiproteolytic enzymes leading to accelerated degradation of elastin fibers in the lungs. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rob Janssen, Bart de Brouwer, Jan H. von der Th üsen, Emiel F.M. Wouters Source Type: research

Could reflex cough induced through nebulized capsaicin achieve airway clearance in patients with acute retention of lung secretions?
Nasotracheal suctioning (NTS) is a procedure commonly performed by respiratory physiotherapists and nurses to remove excess respiratory secretions from the tracheobronchial tree in a self-ventilating, non-intubated and non-tracheotomized patient. NTS is an important treatment modality for patients with acute secretion retention who are at high risk of progressive respiratory deterioration and arrest. However, NTS is a blind invasive procedure with risk of serious adverse events, and the patient experience of NTS is often extremely negative. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - August 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S.T. Kulnik Source Type: research

Conceptual challenges for the emergence of the biological system: cell theory and self-replication
We re-evaluate research relating to the current theories of the emergence of biological systems. The challenge being that research programmes concerning the emergence of these systems are viewed as the same as those relating to the origin of cells. Cells are strikingly important biological entities, hard wired into the entire field of biology. The development of biological systems took place much earlier than the origin of cells and even before the existence of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA); a period which could be construed as being preLUCA and which would have taken place during in a ribonucleoprotein world. ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 30, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Francisco Prosdocimi, Sohan Jheeta, S ávio Torres de Farias Source Type: research

Carcinogenesis is consequence of failure of tissue development
Cancer has become a public health problem. The exploration of pathogenesis and therapy of cancer is mainly under the guidance of gene mutation theory. But the therapeutic effect of cancer is not satisfactory, and many predictions of gene mutation theory do not conform actual phenomena of cancer. The research results of mechanism of genetic molecular mutation trap us in an intricate molecular maze hopelessly. The dilemma compels us to doubt about the correctness of gene mutation theory and re-understand the nature of tumor. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 27, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shaoqing Lai Source Type: research

A plausible causal relationship between the increased use of fentanyl as an obstetric analgesic and the current opioid epidemic in the US
We present the hypothesis that this effect is also true of the opioid, fentanyl: there is a causal relationship between the increased popularity of fentanyl as a labor anesthetic in the United States since the 1980 ’s and the current epidemic of fentanyl abuse. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 27, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kajsa Brimdyr, Karin Cadwell Source Type: research

A new hypothesis for the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) has defied a clear unified pathological explanation to date. Not surprisingly, treatments for the condition are limited in number, efficacy and their ability to enact a cure. Whilst many observations have been made of physiological abnormalities, how these explain the condition and who does and doesn ’t develop CRPS remains unclear. We propose a new overarching hypothesis to explain the condition that invokes four dynamically changing and interacting components of tissue trauma, pathological pain processing, autonomic dysfunction (both peripheral and central) and immune dysfuncti...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 27, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Marc Russo, Peter Georgius, Danielle M Santarelli Source Type: research

Shame as an evolved basic affect – approaches to it within the Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM)
Shame is an evolved emotional response which requires relational evaluation at a prefrontal cortical level but which has the visceral sensation and defence response impulse of a basic affect. We argue that the severe forms of shame, those residual from traumatic interpersonal experiences, have midbrain and diencephalic components mediating experiences of painful withdrawal while anhedonia is derived from a negatively valenced state of the mesolimbic dopamine system. This specific form of separation distress, with a characteristic sense of exclusion and unworthiness, benefits in treatment from the presence of attachment res...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 27, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Frank M Corrigan, Elisa Elkin-Cleary Source Type: research

Use of recombinant Lactobacillus sakei for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced enteritis
Radiation-induced enteritis is one of the most common complications in patients under radiotherapy at abdominal or pelvic cavity. Up to 50% of patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy has been reported radiation-induced acute enteritis, and half of them developed chronic enteritis. Overproduction of free radicals, activation of inflammatory pathways and vascular endothelial dysfunction were considered as the primary mechanisms of radiation-induced enteritis. Because probiotics have been demonstrated as a promising potential candidate for treating intestinal diseases, it may be a safer and more effective radioprotector for...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 27, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jun-yan He, Wu-zhou Wang, Hui-zhou Qi, Yun Ma, Shu-ya He Source Type: research

Majoon Birjandi (MB): A rationale for the medical use of a traditional and uniquely processed Iranian folk medicine containing cannabis
Extensive research has been conducted on the benefits of cannabinoids in the treatment of various medical conditions including nausea, pain, anorexia, weight loss, spasticity, and age-related macular degeneration [1,2]. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 26, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Omid Mehrpour, Roland J Lamarine, Samaneh Nakhaee Source Type: research

Aging is an adaptation that selects in animals against disruption of homeostasis
During evolution, Muller ’s ratchet permanently generates deleterious germline mutations that eventually must be defused by selection. It seems widely held that cancer and aging-related diseases (ARDs) cannot contribute to this germline gene selection because they tail reproduction and thus occur too late, at the end of t he life cycle. Here we posit however that by lessening the offspring’s survival by proxy through diminishing parental care, they can still contribute to the selection.The hypothesis in detail: The widespread occurrence of aging in animals suggests that it is an adaptation. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 26, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anthonie W.J. Muller Source Type: research

A proposed tandem mechanism for memory storage in neurons involving magnetite and prions
Knowledge about how information is stored in neurons of animals and in the human brain is still incomplete. A hypothesis related to long-term changes in synaptic efficiency has strong experimental support, but does not seem to be able to explain all observations. It has recently been proposed that magnetite together with a prion-like protein could be involved in a tandem mechanism for storage of memory in neurons in which electric impulses are received and reshaped by the magnetite to a form which can be accepted by the protein. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Erik M. Alfsen, Fredrik C. St ørmer, Arild Njå, Lars Walløe Source Type: research

Salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a tool for early diagnosis of oral cancer in individuals with Fanconi Anemia
Currently one of the greater challenges is the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Many studies address the genetic and metabolic aspects to support in early diagnosis and increase the survival of individuals at high risk. Individuals with Fanconi anemia can be included in this high risk group because they have a predisposition to develop head and neck cancer. The use of salivary enzymes as biomarkers to detect the changes in oral tissue at the initial phase seems viable, because saliva is easy to obtain, it moisture oral mucosa and cells metabolic compounds can be found on it. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Talita Piassa Mafessoni, Carol Eurich Mazur, Jos é Miguel Amenábar Source Type: research

High risk for neural tube defects; the role of arsenic in drinking water and rice in Asia
Neural tube defects (NTDs) affect>300,000 children annually worldwide. The incidence of NTDs in Northern India (7.7/1000), is tenfold higher than in the US (0.7/1000). Higher rates were previously reported in Northern China. The causes of these trends have not been elucidated. Arsenic is a teratogen shown in animals to induce NTDs. The main potential sources for environmental arsenic exposure, groundwater and rice as a staple food, are high in India and China. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yona Amitai, Gideon Koren Source Type: research

Pitfall in the mouth caused by longevity
To the Editor (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Koichi Tsunoda, Mihiro Takazawa, Tonghyo Chong, Yoko Morita Source Type: research

Astroglial water channel aquaporin 4-mediated glymphatic clearance function: a determined factor for time-sensitive treatment of aerobic exercise in patients with Alzheimer ’s disease
Currently, there are no effective drug therapies for Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Thus, exploring new non-pharmacological strategies, including the neuroprotective mechanisms of aerobic exercise, to enhance therapeutic treatment of AD are essential. Previous studies have shown that the beneficial efficiency of aerobic exercise in the prevention and treatment of AD is time-sensitive, but its mechanism is not clear. Recent studies revealed that the water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) mediates the glymphatic system to clear interstitial solutes, including β-amyloid, from the brain. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mengmei Yin, Tinglin Pu, Linmei Wang, Charles Marshall, Ting Wu, Ming Xiao Source Type: research

Continuation of Evolution: Headliner Glargine U300
When the glargine U300 molecule was first developed, the target was the patients, who treated with high insulin dosage, due to its three times concentrated composition and gradual release compared to U100 formulation. The following studies have also showed that, with the use of U300 formulation compared to the use of U100 formulation, there were fewer nocturnal episodes of severe hypoglycemia, lower weight gain (-0.5 kg) and smaller difference between maximum and minimum glucose levels within the 24 hour period, which means less glucose variability. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Utku Erdem Soyaltin, Ilg ın Yildirim Şimşir, Şevki Çetinkalp Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Hypobaric Birth Room May Prevent Intraventricular Hemorrhage In Extremely Low Birth Weights Infants
In the early postnatal period, intraventricular hemorrhage may develop in infants with extremely low birth weights due to hemodynamic instability. One of the most significant factors in intraventricular hemorrhage development is fluctuations in the cerebral blood flow due to left-to-right shunting as a result of patent ductus arteriosus, and such cases most frequently develop intraventricular hemorrhage within the first 72 hours. The frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage may be reduced through the prevention of fluctuations in the cerebral blood flow in this time frame. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kadir Şerafettin Tekgündüz, Sibel Ejder Tekgündüz Source Type: research

Big data vs accurate data in health research:large-scale physical activity monitoring, smartphones, wearable devices and risk of unconscious bias
Fundamental to the advancement of scientific knowledge is unbiased, accurate and validated measurement techniques. Recent United Nations and landmark Nature publications highlight the global uptake of mobile technology and the staggering potential for big data to encourage people to be physically active and to influence health policy.However, concerns exist about inconsistencies in smartphone health apps. Big data has many benefits, but noisy data may lead to wrong conclusions. In reaction to the increasing availability of low quality data; we call for a rigorous debate into the validity of substituting big data for accura...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M.A. Brodie, E.M. Pliner, A. Ho, Kalina Li, Z. Chen, S.C. Gandevia, S.R. Lord Source Type: research

Proposed Mechanisms of Relative Bradycardia
Relative bradycardia is the term used to describe the mechanism where there is dissociation between pulse and temperature. This finding is important to recognize since it may provide further insights into the potential underlying causes of disease. There is no known proposed mechanism to explain this phenomenon. We hypothesize that relative bradycardia is the central mechanism reflecting and influenced potentially by the direct pathogenic effect on the sinoatrial node as well as cross-talk between the autonomic nervous system and immune system. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fan Ye, David Winchester, Carolyn Stalvey, Michael Jansen, Arthur Lee, Matheen Khuddus, Joseph Mazza, Steven Yale Source Type: research

Role of copper in depression. Relationship with ketamine treatment
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric issues with a proportion of adults with major depressive disorder who fail to achieve remission with index pharmacological treatment. There are unmet needs in ADT focus on non-monoaminergic agents. Accumulating evidence suggests that the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plays an important role in the neurobiology and treatment of major depressive disorder. The role of copper ions in pathogenesis and treatment of depression is not fully clarified, however interaction between copper and NMDAR is of prime importance. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jakub S łupski, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała, Natalia Górska, Maria Gałuszko-Węgielnik, Mariusz Stanisław Wiglusz Source Type: research

Hamstring injury prevention: A role for genetic information?
Hamstring Strain Injuries (HSI) are common within many sports, imposing a significant burden in terms of both financial cost, recovery time, and loss of performance. Recently, research has focused on better understanding the factors that increase an individual ’s risk of suffering a HSI, with both lower strength (particularly eccentric strength) and shorter hamstring muscle fascicles found to play a significant role. Such findings have led to an increased popularization of eccentric hamstring exercises, such as the Nordic Hamstring Exercise, the correct utilization of which has been shown to reduce HSI rates. (Source...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 15, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Craig Pickering, John Kiely Source Type: research

Melatonin: A hypothesis for Kawasaki disease treatment
Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease with unknown etiology among children in developed countries. Acute inflammation of the vasculature, genetic susceptibility and immunopathogenesis based on a transmittable and infectious origin, are the pathologic events involved in the early inflammatory etiology and progression of this disease. However, the exact causes of KD remain unknown. Current proposed recommendations include three therapy lines; firstly, an initial standard therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) followed by aspirin. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 15, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eva Ramos, Paloma Pati ño, Russel J. Reiter, Emilio Gil-Martín, Francisco López-Muñoz, Alejandro Romero Source Type: research

How did Lou Gehrig get Lou Gehrig ’s disease? Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in manure, soil, dirt, dust and grass and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (motor neurone disease) clusters in football, rugby and soccer players
There are several suspected infectious causes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neurone disease including HIV-1 and species of Brucella, Cyanobacteria and Schistosoma. The increased rates and clusters of ALS in amateur and professional outdoor sports players including rugby, football and soccer players suggest a microorganism present in the grass, dirt and dust they play on and in may be a causative factor. The probable zoonosis Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is heavily excreted in an infected domestic ruminant ’s feces or manure and is extensively distributed throughout the soil ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ellen S. Pierce Source Type: research

Asprosin: Possible target in connection with ghrelin and cytokine network expression in the post-burn treatment
Burn injury is a severe form of trauma associated with pain, metabolic abnormalities, susceptibility to infections, muscle loss, mental and emotional distress. Conventional therapies as well as some recent approaches for the treatment of burned patients are currently in use. Nutritional therapy is also suggested as a supplementary option in major burns. Within this context, hormones involved in the regulation of appetite will have a paramount importance. The aim is to evaluate the interactions among ghrelin, some inflammatory parameters and the burn injury. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma Source Type: research

The putative glymphatic signature of chronic fatigue syndrome: a new view on the disease pathogenesis and therapy
The underlying pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome remains incompletely understood and there are no curative treatments for this disorder at present. However, increasing neuroimaging evidence indicates that functional and structural abnormalities exist in the brains of chronic fatigue syndrome patients, suggesting that the central nervous system is involved in this disorder and that at least some chronic fatigue syndrome patients may have an underlying neurological basis for their illness. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peter Wostyn, Peter Paul De Deyn Source Type: research

Clinical features of a fatal shoulder dystocia: the hypovolemic shock hypothesis
Shoulder dystocia is a r a r e b u t severe obstetric complication associated with an increased risk of brachial plexus palsies, fractures of the clavicle and humerus, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and, rarely, neonatal death.Here we describe a fatal case of shoulder dystocia in a term newborn, although labor was uneventful, fetal heart rate tracing was normal until the delivery of the head and the head- to- body delivery interval (HBDI) occurred within 5 minutes. Full resuscitation was performed for 35 minutes without success. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: E. Cesari, S. Ghirardello, G. Brembilla, A. Svelato, A Ragusa Source Type: research

Differential proteomics analysis of bile between Gangrenous cholecystitis and Chronic cholecystitis
To establish human biliary protein expression profiles of gangrenous cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, and to discover differently expressed proteins for gangrenous cholecystitis by comparative proteomics, we gathered human gallbladder bile samples from gangrenous cholecystitis and chronic cholecystitis patients, respectively After removing the bile salts and lipid peptide fragments were identified by the iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS technology,then identified in SwissProt with Mascot software. A total of 2251 proteins from chronic cholecystitis patients and 2180 proteins from gangrenous cholecystitis patients were identifie...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhenghui Yi, Linjie Wang, Wei Sun, Yinbin Chang Source Type: research

Vibration as Adjuvant Treatment Modality for Central Poststroke Pain
Central post-stroke pain (CPSP), formerly known as thalamic pain syndrome, is a chronic complex disabling pain syndrome characterized by pain and temperature sensation abnormalities after a cerebrovascular accident, infarct, or hemorrhage. It was first described, with pathophysiologic correlation to a lesion in the thalamus, in 1906 by Dejerine and Roussy as a “severe persistent, paroxysmal, often intolerant pain on the hemiplegic side, not yielding to analgesic treatment” [1,2]. There were previous descriptions of pain after a central lesion by Edinger [3] and others earlier in the 19th century [4]. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eric L. Altschuler Source Type: research

The potential use of scaffold-mediated local delivery of bone modulators in accelerated orthodontics: A hypotheses
Accelerated orthodontics involves the use of fixed orthodontic appliance with the assistance of surgical and/or non-surgical interventions to reduce the overall treatment duration. The surgical techniques used in accelerated orthodontics include dental-alveolus distraction, periodontal ligament distraction, alveolar decortication, and conticision [1]. The potential complication associated with the ‘surgery assisted orthodontics’ has led to the development of non-surgical modalities of accelerated orthodontics. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Amit Jaisinghani, Archana A. Gupta, A. Thirumal Raj Source Type: research

Cellular stress and AMPK activation as a common mechanism of action linking the effects of metformin and diverse compounds that alleviate accelerated aging defects in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype that typically leads to death via stroke or myocardial infarction at approximately 14.6  years of age. Most cases of HGPS have been linked to the extensive use of a cryptic splice donor site located in the LMNA gene due to a de novo mutation, generating a truncated and toxic protein known as progerin. Progerin accumulation in the nuclear membrane and within the nucleus distorts the n uclear architecture and negatively effects nuclear processes including DNA replication and repair, leading to accelerated ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jahahreeh Finley Source Type: research

Autonomic imbalance in cardiac surgery: a potential determinant of the failure in remote ischemic preconditioning
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a cardioprotective strategy against myocardial damage by ischemia-reperfusion. Many in-vivo and ex-vivo animal researches have demonstrated that RIPC decreases significantly the ischemia-reperfusion myocardial damage, by up to 58% in isolated rat heart. Cardiac artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is a clinical model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and a clinical potential application to RIPC. However, although RIPC has shown successful results in experimental studies, clinical trials on CABG have failed to demonstrate a benefit of RIPC in humans. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Abraham I.J. Gajardo, Lukas Karachon, Pablo Bustamante, Pablo Repullo, Marcelo Llancaqueo, Gina S ánchez, Ramón Rodrigo Source Type: research

Risk of gastric cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: A nationwide population-based cohort study
To investigate whether percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chih-Cheng Tsao, Shih-Yu Lee, Wei-Kuo Chang, Kuen-Tze Lin, Sheng-Der Hsu, Chen-Liang Tsai, Chun-Shu Lin Source Type: research

Reconceptualizing Delirium as a Disorder of Complex System Failure
Delirium is conceptually elusive and falls outside of conventional biomedical models. Positivist theoretical paradigms of single linear causality are therefore insufficient to provide mechanistic enlightenment. Delirium does, however, share parallels with features of failure within a complex system. Lessons from complex system theory provide important potential healthcare dividends with respect to delirium. The brain is complex and exhibits emergence, a feature of consciousness, which is crucially impacted in delirium. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: E. Eeles, A. Teodorczuk, E. Miteleton-Kelly Source Type: research

Ferulic Acid May Target MyD88-Mediated Pro-Inflammatory Signaling – Implications for the Health Protection Afforded by Whole Grains, Anthocyanins, and Coffee
Higher dietary intakes of anthocyanins have been linked epidemiologically to decreased risk for metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events; clinical trials and rodent studies evaluating ingestion of anthocyanin-rich extracts confirm favorable effects of these agents on endothelial function and metabolic syndrome. However, these benefits of anthocyanins are lost in rats whose gut microbiome has been eliminated with antibiotic treatment – pointing to bacterial metabolites of anthocyanins as the likely protective agents. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mark F. McCarty, Simon B. Iloki Assanga Source Type: research

Unified Neural Structured Model: a new Diagnostic Tool in Primary Care Psychiatry
In this report, the relationships between each of the major mental disorders and each neuropsychiatric component like personality, reward system, or reinforcement learning have been comprehensively reviewed to construct a new integrated structured model for assessing the overlapped mental conditions in primary care psychiatry. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tetsuya Akaishi Source Type: research

Cellular stress and AMPK links the effects of diverse compounds that alleviate accelerated aging defects in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype that typically leads to death via stroke or myocardial infarction at approximately 14.6 years of age. Most cases of HGPS have been linked to the extensive use of a cryptic splice donor site located in the LMNA gene due to a de novo mutation, generating a truncated and toxic protein known as progerin. Progerin accumulation in the nuclear membrane and within the nucleus distorts the nuclear architecture and negatively effects nuclear processes including DNA replication and repair, leading to accelerated cell...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jahahreeh Finley Source Type: research

Theoretical basis for a new approach of studying Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy by means of thermography
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a clinical condition characterized by neuro-skeletal and cardiac impairments. By means of thermography, an image acquisition technique that allows the recording of the heat emitted by objects or bodies, news insight can be obtained insights about the evaluation and follow-up of this disease. Actually, musculoskeletal disorders are a major cause of counseling and access to rehabilitation services and are some of the most important problems that affect the quality of life of many people. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A. Cabizosu, N. Carboni, A. Martinez-Almagro Andreo, J.M. Vegara-Meseguer, N. Marziliano, G. Gea Carrasco, G. Casu Source Type: research

Intracranial pressure and glaucoma: is there a new therapeutic perspective on the horizon?
Primary open-angle glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Raised intraocular pressure is the most important modifiable risk factor and lowering it remains the mainstay therapeutic approach for slowing optic nerve damage and visual field progression in glaucoma patients. An intriguing finding of clinical retrospective and prospective studies is that intracranial pressure is lower in patients with glaucoma. Furthermore, in a recent study on monkeys subjected to an implantation of a lumboperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid shunt to lower intracranial pressure, chronic reduction in intracranial p...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peter Wostyn, Debby Van Dam, Peter Paul De Deyn Source Type: research

No significant cancer mortality increase after the TMI accident
Sir, (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - June 26, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alfred K örblein Source Type: research

Hypothesis Kynurenic and quinolinic acids: the main players of the kynurenine pathway and opponents in inflammatory disease
I hypothesize that the intermediates of the kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation kynurenic acid (KA) and quinolinic acid (QA) play opposite roles in inflammatory diseases, with KA being antiinflammatory and QA being immunosuppressant. Darlington et al. have demonstrated a decrease in the ratio of plasma 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid to anthranilic acid ([3-HAA]/[AA]) in many inflammatory conditions and proposed that this decrease either reflects inflammatory disease or is an antiinflammatory response. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - June 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Abdulla A-B Badawy Source Type: research

Relapse Prevention: Using Sound to Reduce the Probability of Recidivism and Suffering Following Detoxification
The truth of the adage, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”, is exemplified by the opioid crisis now facing the world. While the best way to rid society of drug addiction is to prevent it from occurring in the first place, this is highly unlikely in the near future given the many ways that individuals can be first exposed to some potentially addicting substance. When an addiction is established, the first treatment for it is detoxification, but the insidious nature of addiction is its propensity to relapse. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - June 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Sewak, Neil I. Spielholz Source Type: research