A Load off Whose Heart? Psychiatry and the Politics of Respectability and Race Representation in Harlem, 1943-45.
Abstract In wartime Harlem, liberal mental health professionals, eager to serve the black freedom struggle, sought to depict the minds of troubled black children as human without reinforcing pernicious racial stereotypes. This paper examines how psychiatrist Viola W. Bernard and the Community Service Society struggled to portray the black community as both psychologically damaged and morally beyond reproach when publicly presenting the cases of her male and female clients. As a consequence, liberals helped champion the mental health needs of delinquent black males as a matter of racial justice while rendering youn...
Source: Medical History - November 8, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Doyle D Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

An automatic multipoint inoculator for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics in low-income countries: a technical note.
Abstract Multipoint inoculator is a laboratory equipment that is used to inoculate with a very high precision a certain number of microorganisms in culture media, in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics that would inhibit microbial growth. MICs values are crucial in the control of microbial drug-susceptibility profile for effective infectious disease control and microbial resistance stewardship. The complexity of multipoint inoculator makes it very rare or almost non-existent in developing countries laboratories. In this paper, a robust, precise and, above all, innovative ...
Source: Medical History - October 28, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Tiam Kapen P, Fotsing Kwetche PR, Youssoufa M, Kayo Mbomda WC, Ketchogue RM, Ganwo Dongmo S Tags: Australas Phys Eng Sci Med Source Type: research

Medical Compromise and Its Limits: Religious Concerns and the Postmortem Caesarean Section in Nineteenth-Century Belgium.
This article uses the Belgian debates about the postmortem caesarean section as a means to investigate methods of negotiation between liberal and Catholic doctors. The article analyzes, first, how doctors incorporated religious concerns such as baptism in the medical profession. Second, physicians' strategies to come to a compromise in ideologically diverse settings are examined. Overall, this article casts light on the dynamics of medical debate in times of both ideological rapprochement and polarization. PMID: 31631069 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Gijbels J Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Population Control, Family Planning, and Maternal Health Networks in the 1960s/70s: Diary of an International Consultant.
This article bridges the gap between these studies by exploring the work diaries of Dr. Adaline Pendleton ("Penny") Satterthwaite, a midlevel technical advisor who traveled to over two dozen countries for the Population Council from 1965 to 1974. Penny's diaries draw our attention to a diverse network of advocates who mediated between international population activists, state actors, and local communities while also acting as conduits for the transnational spread of strategies and resources. Her experiences also provide evidence of the coercive practices, gendered tensions, and political conflicts shaping the mov...
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Bourbonnais NC Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

International Health Research and the Emergence of Global Health in the Late Twentieth Century.
Abstract An influential policy network emerged from two overlapping developments of the 1970s and 1980s: new research programs focusing on tropical diseases and debates about how to implement the concept of primary health care at the World Health Organization. Participating actors came together in an informal network that, by the late 1980s, expanded advocacy to include the promotion and reorganization of all forms of research that might improve health in the Global South. This goal became associated with a search for new research methods for determining priorities, a quest that reached a peak in the early 1990s w...
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Weisz G, Tousignant N Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

American Association for the History of Medicine: Report of the Ninety-Second Annual Meeting.
Authors: PMID: 31631072 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

News and Events.
Authors: PMID: 31631073 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Editors' Note / Note de la r édaction.
Editors' Note / Note de la rédaction. Can Bull Med Hist. 2019;36(2):253 Authors: Dyck E, Kroker K, Charles A PMID: 31622122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 18, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Dyck E, Kroker K, Charles A Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Pittsburgh's Freedom House Ambulance Service: The Origins of Emergency Medical Services and the Politics of Race and Health.
Abstract This manuscript explores the history of the Freedom House Enterprises Ambulance Service, a social and medical experiment that trained "unemployable" black citizens during the late 1960s and early 1970s to provide then state of the art prehospital care. Through archives, newspapers, personal correspondence, university memoranda, and the medical literature, this paper explores the comparable, yet different roles of the program's two leaders, Drs. Peter Safar and Nancy Caroline. Despite its success in demonstrating national standards for paramedic training and equipment, the program ended abruptly ...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Edwards ML Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Tracing the Boundaries of the Natural: Medicine and the Inquiry on Miracles in Early Modern Canonization Trials.
Abstract Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the inquiry on miracles in the canonization process reveals a fundamental cooperation between medicine and religion. During the last stage of the trials, theologians, lawyers, and physicians concurred with refined reports to accomplish full analysis of the alleged miracles. The promoter of the faith had the task of doubting the supposed miracle healing on juridical, medical and theological grounds; the lawyer supporting the cause responded to any inconsistency in witnesses' depositions; the physician had the task of finding any natural causes which could l...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Laverda A Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Editorial.
PMID: 31571692 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Bhattacharya S Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

McKinsey and the 'Tripartite Monster': The Role of Management Consultants in the 1974 NHS Reorganisation.
This article draws on archival records and a witness seminar held in November 2016 to provide a more nuanced assessment of the 1974 reorganisation and understand more fully why it took the form that it did. In particular it identifies the reorganisation as an important moment in the ongoing story of management consultants engaging with health policymakers, and explores the role of McKinsey and Co. in detail for the first time. Key explanatory factors for their involvement are identified, including the perceived lack of expertise and manpower inside the civil service and the NHS, and perceptions of their impact and effectiv...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Begley P, Sheard S Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Kr änkung and Erkrankung: Sexual Trauma before 1895.
Kränkung and Erkrankung: Sexual Trauma before 1895. Med Hist. 2019 Oct;63(4):411-434 Authors: Janssen DF Abstract A tropology of moral injury and corruption long framed the plight of the sex crime victim. Nineteenth-century psychiatric acknowledgment of adverse sexual experience reflected general trends in etiological thought, especially on 'epileptic' and hysteric seizures, but on the whole remained descriptive, guarded and limited. Various experiential threats to the modern sexual self beyond assault and rape were granted etiological significance, however: illegitimate motherhood, masturba...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Janssen DF Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Vaccine Development and Collaborations: Lessons from the History of the Meningococcal A Vaccine (1969-73).
Abstract Based on a wide range of historical sources, including published scientific literature and archives (Institut Mérieux, WHO and IMTSSA), this article examines the history of the development of the meningococcal A vaccine between 1969 and 1973. It explores the social factors of vaccine development including various collaborations, informal discussions, the circulation of products and materials, formal meetings, trials and setbacks to highlight the complex reality of the development, production and use of the vaccine. Inscribed in a 'Golden Age' of vaccine development and production, this episode not ...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Baylac-Paouly B Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Changing Narratives and Persisting Tensions: Conflicts between Chinese and Western Medicine and Professional Profiles in Chinese Films and Literature, 1949-2009.
Abstract This paper analyses the shifting images of Chinese medicine and rural doctors in the narratives of literature and film from 1949 to 2009 in order to explore the persisting tensions within rural medicine and health issues in China. Popular anxiety about health services and the government's concern that it be seen to be meeting the medical needs of China's most vulnerable citizens - its rural dwellers - has led to the production of a continuous body of literary and film works discussing these issues, such as Medical Practice Incident, Spring Comes to the Withered Tree, Chunmiao, and Barefoot Doctor Wan Quan...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Fang X Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

A Gift from the Buddhist Monastery: The Role of Buddhist Medical Practices in the Assimilation of the Opium Poppy in Chinese Medicine during the Song Dynasty (960-1279).
Abstract This paper aims to critically appraise the incorporation of opium poppy into medical practice in Song-dynasty China. By analysing materia medica and formularies, along with non-medical sources from the Song period, this study sheds light on the role of Chinese Buddhist monasteries in the process of incorporation of foreign plants into Chinese medicine. It argues that Buddhist monasteries played a significant role in the evolution of the use of opium poppy in Song dynasty medicine. This is because the consumption practices in Buddhist monasteries inspired substantial changes in the medical application of t...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Canton-Alvarez JA Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

An Uneasy Pleasure: Representing the Dangers of Skin-to-skin Contact in Eighteenth-century London 'The William Bynum Prize Essay'.
This article considers the social function of contagious disease as moderator of class relationships in England during the first half of the eighteenth century and takes into account the ways in which the 'communicability' of the plague, great pox (syphilis) and smallpox (variola) was used by authors to crystallise social interaction and tension along class lines. The essay begins by examining the representation of the plague, syphilis and smallpox in the medical tradition, before shifting its attention to the practice of maritime quarantine, as laid out by Richard Mead in his Short Discourse Concerning Pestilential Contag...
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Fernandes S Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

MDH volume 63 Issue 4 Cover and Front matter.
Authors: PMID: 31571699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

A Propensity to Murder: Phrenology in Antebellum Medico-Legal Theory and Practice.
This article concludes with an exploration of explicit and implicit uses of phrenology, focusing on court cases featuring phrenological expertise or language. The article thus suggests both the uses of phrenology for the building of medico-legal expertise and the extent to which phrenological language around the propensities inflected lay and medico-legal discourse around criminal responsibility and insanity. PMID: 31553441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - September 25, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Thompson CE Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Who Controls the Power over Pain? A Comparative History of Nurse Anaesthesia.
Abstract From the advent of the use of anaesthesia during surgery through the Second World War, confusion and competition over who should administer the technology - doctors or nurses - dominated gendered discussions of professional boundaries. Using information about practice in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France in this period, we find vastly different outcomes for nurse-administered anaesthesia. Differences in perceptions regarding the gendered nature of this technology and its related level of prestige largely determined who could practice it. When administering anaesthesia carried low prestige ...
Source: Medical History - September 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Vigil-Fowler M, Hillman S, Desai S Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

"A Normal Amount of Masculine Hardness": Representations of Male Nurses in 1960s West Germany.
"A Normal Amount of Masculine Hardness": Representations of Male Nurses in 1960s West Germany. Can Bull Med Hist. 2019 Sep 16;:e032019 Authors: Schwamm C Abstract The nursing studies narrative of the role of masculinity can be summarized as follows: hegemonic masculinity prevents men from doing care work. An analysis of public relations efforts to recruit male nurses in West Germany during the 1960s does not provide evidence for such a link. Representing nursing as compatible with hegemonic masculinity was also able to legitimize the existence of male nurses, while the idea of promoting gend...
Source: Medical History - September 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Schwamm C Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Borders and Blood Fractions: Gamma Globulin and Canada's Fight against Polio, 1950-55.
Abstract During the early 1950s, Canada's efforts to prevent polio became heavily influenced by developments in the United States. America's foremost polio charity, the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, sponsored University of Pittsburgh researcher Dr. William McD. Hammon to evaluate the efficacy of a human blood fraction, gamma globulin (GG), to prevent paralytic polio. When the resulting clinical trial data appeared to show that the blood fraction offered some protection against the disease, Canadians embraced the concept for reasons of historical trust, parental demand, and public health pragmatism. ...
Source: Medical History - September 6, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mawdsley SE Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Politics Ahead of Patients: The Battle between Medical and Chiropractic Professional Associations over the Inclusion of Chiropractic in the American Medicare System.
Abstract Health care professions struggling for legitimacy, recognition, and market share can become disoriented to their priorities. Health care practitioners are expected to put the interests of patients first. Professional associations represent the interests of their members. So when a professional association is composed of health care practitioners, its interests may differ from those of patients, creating a conflict for members. In addition, sometimes practitioners' perspectives may be altered by indoctrination in a belief system, or misinformation, so that a practitioner could be confused about the reality...
Source: Medical History - September 6, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Young K Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Erasing the Personal Baseline: Graphing Responders to Psychiatric Drug Maintenance Therapy.
This article identifies changes in the graphical representation of drug responders in psychiatric journals between the mid-1950s and the mid-1990s. It argues that before 1970, psychiatrists assessed patients' responses in relation to their personal baselines or symptom trajectories. After 1970, clinical trials made it possible to see responders through a statistical lens, as a homogeneous population, decontextualized from its past and having a future consisting of two possible states: relapse or remission. Abstracted from their life's context, responders became the desired outcome of prescribing protocols that could be app...
Source: Medical History - September 6, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Deshauer D Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

A Master Mariner's Left Testicle and the Law of Surgical Consent in Mid-Twentieth-Century Canada.
This study considers why these cases became more common by the early twentieth century, teases out the changing law of consent, and suggests what the case tells us about judicial attitudes towards patients and doctors. PMID: 31518181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - September 6, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Brown RB Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Michelle McClellan. Lady Lushes: Gender, Alcoholism and Medicine in Modern America.
Authors: PMID: 31504645 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - September 5, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

The commercialization of the biomedical sciences: (mis)understanding bias.
e;n I Abstract The growing commercialization of scientific research has raised important concerns about industry bias. According to some evidence, so-called industry bias can affect the integrity of the science as well as the direction of the research agenda. I argue that conceptualizing industry's influence in scientific research in terms of bias is unhelpful. Insofar as industry sponsorship negatively affects the integrity of the research, it does so through biasing mechanisms that can affect any research independently of the source of funding. Talk about industry bias thus offers no insight into the particular ...
Source: Medical History - September 4, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: de Melo-Martín I Tags: Hist Philos Life Sci Source Type: research

Between Shell Shock and PTSD? 'Accident Neurosis' and Its Sequelae in Post-War Britain.
This article focuses on the concept of 'accident neurosis', popularised by neurologist Henry Miller in studies published in 1961. It aims to realise two goals. First, it introduces Miller's concept of accident neurosis to the broader history of trauma-to a field, that is, more preoccupied with military traumata and clear-cut psychiatric aetiologies. Secondly, I use Miller's studies, and the considerable legacy they created, to reflect on how historians of trauma construct historical narratives, asking whether there is sufficient appreciation of the ways in which events seem to leak into or retroactively animate one another...
Source: Medical History - August 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Ross R Tags: Soc Hist Med Source Type: research

Orphans in the Market: The History of Orphan Drug Policy.
Abstract This paper examines the history of orphan drug policy, from the emergence of 'orphans' in the American pharmaceutical market in the 1960s, through the debates and agitations that resulted in the passage of the US Orphan Drug Act of 1983, to attempts in the 1990s to prevent abuse of that Act and restore its original intentions. Although an increased number of drugs for rare diseases have since been developed and marketed, the extremely high price of some such drugs is considered a major public health issue internationally. The present paper traces the origins of this issue to the market-based approach to r...
Source: Medical History - August 1, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mikami K Tags: Soc Hist Med Source Type: research

Adoption of Iran's code of ethics for blood donation and transfusion as a public health policy.
This study aimed to develop a national code of ethics for blood donation and transfusion (BDT). This was a qualitative research with a multi methods approach in which a combination of methods including situational analysis, focus group discussion and expert panels were used. After situational analysis and orientation, the code of ethics for BDT was developed based on the findings of a content analysis within the framework of the four principles of biomedical ethics. The results were categorized into two sections: situational analysis and underpinnings measures, and the clauses of the code. The Iranian Blood Transfusion Org...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Asghari A, Pourfathollah A, Abbasi M, Mohammadi T, Akrami F Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

A study of the validity and reliability of the questionnaire entitled "physicians' approach to and disclosure of medical errors and the related ethical issues".
A study of the validity and reliability of the questionnaire entitled "physicians' approach to and disclosure of medical errors and the related ethical issues". J Med Ethics Hist Med. 2019;12:2 Authors: Mohammadi M, Larijani B, Tabatabaei SM, Nedjat S, Yunesian M, Nayeri FS Abstract Medical errors are among the major challenges that threaten patients' health worldwide. The aim of this study was to design a valid and reliable questionnaire to investigate the status of medical error disclosure by physicians. A preliminary questionnaire was developed based on the extracted results from 37 inter...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mohammadi M, Larijani B, Tabatabaei SM, Nedjat S, Yunesian M, Nayeri FS Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Medical ethics and the trolley Problem.
Abstract The so-called Trolley Problem was first discussed by Philippa Foot in 1967 as a way to test moral intuitions regarding the doctrine of double effect, Kantian principles and utilitarianism. Ever since, a great number of philosophers and psychologists have come up with alternative scenarios to further test intuitions and the relevance of conventional moral doctrines. Given that physicians routinely face moral decisions regarding life and death, the Trolley Problem should be considered of great importance in medical ethics. In this article, five "classic" trolley scenarios are discussed: the driver...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Andrade G Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Ethical considerations in the biomedical research: analysis of national biomedical research ethics guidelines in Iran.
Abstract The national guidelines for biomedical research ethics are approved by the "National Committee for Ethics in Biomedical Research" at the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education as the regulatory body for biomedical research in the country. The focus of these guidelines should be on the ethical issues related to different stages of the research process, which would lead to increased research integrity and better supervision of research activities. The present study analyzed the contents of these national guidelines to clarify the ethical considerations connected to the five stages of a r...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mardani A, Nakhoda M, Noruzi A, Shamsi Gooshki E Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Lived experiences of nursing students about ethical concerns regarding mobile learning in educational and clinical contexts.
This study explored the experiences of nursing students about the ethical concerns regarding the use of mobile devices for learning purposes, that is, mobile learning, in educational and clinical contexts. A qualitative phenomenological study was carried out on nursing students (n = 19) in Saveh University of Medical Sciences of Iran between December 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. Data analysis was done using Colaizzi's 7-step method, revealing four themes and nine sub-themes including: 1) preserving professional dignity (in front of the patient, and t...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Koohestani HR, Baghcheghi N, Karimy M, Hemmat M, Shamsizadeh M Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Factors influencing the attitudes of NICU physicians toward care of neonates with very poor prognosis.
Abstract Attitudes of physicians toward neonates with poor prognosis greatly influence their decisions regarding the course of treatment and care. The present study aimed to investigate factors contributing to attitudes of medical practitioners toward poor prognosis neonates. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study. Questionnaires for assessing subjects' attitudes toward care of very poor prognosis neonates were administered to all neonatologists, pediatricians, neonatology assistants, and pediatric residents (a total of 88 individuals) working in the NICUs of Imam Khomeini Hospital. Participants' a...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Nayeri F, Asghari F, Baser A, Janani L, Shariat M, Tanha K, Eabrhim B Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Examining the ethical challenges in managing elder abuse: a systematic review.
Abstract Elder abuse is an increasingly intangible phenomenon that has created numerous ethical issues for care teams and caregivers. Although different studies have concentrated on various ethical issues regarding abuse, no study has arrived at a comprehensive conclusion. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the existing ethical challenges in this context. For this purpose, two researchers familiar with systematic search approach examined national and international journals on PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Scientific Information Database (SID) and similar databases between January and Febr...
Source: Medical History - July 29, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Saghafi A, Bahramnezhad F, Poormollamirza A, Dadgari A, Navab E Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Plague before the Pandemics: The Greek Medical Evidence for Bubonic Plague before the Sixth Century.
This article evaluates the textual evidence for bubonic plague in classical antiquity from medical sources and discusses methodologies for "retrospective diagnosis" in light of new developments in microbiology. A close study of Greek medical texts suggests that bubonic plague was unfamiliar to medical writers until sometime before the second century AD, when sources cited by Rufus of Ephesus report a disease that resembles bubonic plague. Rufus of Ephesus describes this disease around AD 100, and Aretaeus (fl. ca. AD 50 or 150) appears to describe the same disease as well. Intriguingly, the disease then disappear...
Source: Medical History - July 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mulhall J Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Between Defectological Narratives and Institutional Realities: The "Mentally Retarded" Child in the Soviet Union of the 1930s.
This article analyzes the gap between the defectological narrative of care and the reality of institutional life for children with learning disabilities in the Soviet Union of the 1930s. It shows that, under Stalin, the Soviet discipline of defectology entailed a promise of correction and social integration that aligned well with the official rhetoric of triumphant socialism and that incorporated new, specific ideological meanings into its long-standing narrative of care. I also show that the defectological narrative was rarely realized in practice due to not only scarce material resources but also a profound reversal of d...
Source: Medical History - July 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Galmarini-Kabala MC Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Designing Penfield: Inside the Montreal Neurological Institute.
Abstract Neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) envisioned hospital architecture as a powerful medical tool. Focusing on two key interiors in the 1934 Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI)-the operating room and the foyer-this article engages newly accessible textual and material evidence to show Penfield's intense involvement in the design of the building. A unique, tri-level surgical room, with a sophisticated setup for photography, made the MNI's surgery interactive. The OR is discussed with regard to the relationship of doctors and architects and Penfield's penchant for architectural travel. Subsequently, we...
Source: Medical History - July 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Adams A Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Moving Away from the "Medical Model": The Development and Revision of the World Health Organization's Classification of Disability.
Moving Away from the "Medical Model": The Development and Revision of the World Health Organization's Classification of Disability. Bull Hist Med. 2019;93(2):241-269 Authors: Hogan AJ Abstract Recently, there has been a prominent call in the history of medicine for greater engagement with disability perspectives. In this article, I suggest that critiques of the so-called medical model have been an important vehicle by which alternative narratives of disability entered the clinical arena. Historians of medicine have rarely engaged with the medical model beyond descriptive accounts of it. I ar...
Source: Medical History - July 16, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Hogan AJ Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

En qu ête de financement pour la création d'une clinique externe et d'un service social comme parachèvement de la désinstitutionnalisation à l'Hôpital Saint-Michel-Archange de Beauport, 1961-72.
This article proposes a new reading of the commission's report on Beauport's Hôpital Saint-Michel-Archange, and offers a new perspective on deinstitutionalization in Québec. Data gathered from medical records help illustrate the organizational changes that occurred between 1962 and 1972 through new public funding. PMID: 31298939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - July 12, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Aubin K Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

The Psychopharmacological Revolution in the USSR: Schizophrenia Treatment and the Thaw in Soviet Psychiatry, 1954-64.
Abstract Twentieth-century psychiatry was transformed in the 1950s and 1960s by the introduction of powerful psychopharmaceuticals, particularly Chlorpromazine (Thorazine). This paper examines the reception of Chlorpromazine in the Soviet Union and its effect on the Soviet practice of psychiatry. The drug, known in the USSR by the name Aminazine, was first used in Moscow in 1954 and was officially approved in 1955. I argue that Soviet psychiatrists initially embraced it because Aminazine enabled them to successfully challenge the Stalin-era dogma in their field (Ivan Pavlov's 'theory of higher nervous activity'). ...
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Zajicek B Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Citizenship, Vulnerability and Mental Incapacity in England, 1900-1960s.
This article uses the archives of the Office to examine the evolution of the concept of mental incapacity over the first half of the twentieth century, offering a corrective to the popular impression that the time before the Mental Capacity Act of 2005 was an era of ignorance and bad practice. It examines the changing ways in which being 'incapable' was understood and described, with particular reference to shifting ideas of citizenship. I argue that incapacity was not always seen as absolute or permanent in the first half of the century, that models of incapacity began to include perceived vulnerability in the interwar pe...
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Weston J Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Psychiatry's 'Others'? Rethinking the Professional Self-Fashioning of British Mental Nurses c.  1900-20.
This article draws upon a corpus of previously unattributed contributions to the Asylum News (1897-1919) - one of the first journals produced for the edification of asylum workers - to illustrate the diversity of medical personae developed and disseminated by these employees in the Edwardian era. Through scientific and creative works, nurses engaged with the pressing social and medical debates of the day, in the process exposing a heterogeneous intellectual culture. Moreover, as their writings attest, for some ambitious nurses these pretensions to intellectual authority prompted claims for medical autonomy, driving agitati...
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Neuendorf M Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

The Human Wallace Line: Racial Science and Political  Afterlife.
The Human Wallace Line: Racial Science and Political Afterlife. Med Hist. 2019 Jul;63(3):314-329 Authors: Sysling F Abstract This paper examines racial science and its political uses in Southeast Asia. It follows several anthropologists who travelled to east Nusa Tenggara (the Timor Archipelago, including the islands of Timor, Flores and Sumba), where Alfred Russel Wallace had drawn a dividing line between the races of the east and the west of the archipelago. These medically trained anthropologists aimed to find out if the Wallace Line could be more precisely defined with measurements of the hum...
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Sysling F Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

'We Won't Ban Castrating Pervs Despite What Europe Might Think!': Czech Medical Sexology and the Practice of Therapeutic Castration.
ehradová A Abstract The Czech Republic holds one of the highest numbers of men labelled as sexual delinquents worldwide who have undergone the irreversible process of surgical castration - a policy that has elicited strong international criticism. Nevertheless, Czech sexology has not changed its attitude towards 'therapeutic castration', which remains widely accepted and practised. In this paper, we analyse the negotiation of expertise supporting castration and demonstrate how the changes in institutional matrices and networks of experts (Eyal 2013) have impacted the categorisation of patients and the metho...
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Lišková K, Bělehradová A Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Testing the Truth of Phrenology: Knowledge Experiments in Antebellum American Cultures of Science and Health.
Abstract In the first half of the nineteenth century, many Americans visited phrenological practitioners. Some clients were true believers, who consulted phrenology to choose an occupation, select a marriage partner and raise children. But, as this article demonstrates, many others consumed phrenology as an 'experiment', testing its validity as they engaged its practice. Consumers of 'practical phrenology' subjected themselves to examinations often to test the phrenologist and his practice against their own knowledge of themselves. They also tested whether phrenology was true, according to their own beliefs about ...
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Bittel C Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Laurence Brockliss  (ed.), From Provincial Savant to Parisian Naturalist: The Recollections of Pierre-Joseph Amoreux (1741-1824) (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2017), pp. xx + 435, £78, paperback, ISBN: 9780729412032.
Laurence Brockliss (ed.), From Provincial Savant to Parisian Naturalist: The Recollections of Pierre-Joseph Amoreux (1741-1824) (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2017), pp. xx + 435, £78, paperback, ISBN: 9780729412032. Med Hist. 2019 Jul;63(3):375-376 Authors: Easterby-Smith S PMID: 31208485 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Easterby-Smith S Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Shelley McKellar, Artificial Hearts: The Allure and Ambivalence of a Controversial Medical Technology (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 2018), pp.  xii + 350, $54.95, hardcover, ISBN: 9781421423555.
Shelley McKellar, Artificial Hearts: The Allure and Ambivalence of a Controversial Medical Technology (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 2018), pp. xii + 350, $54.95, hardcover, ISBN: 9781421423555. Med Hist. 2019 Jul;63(3):377-378 Authors: MacDonald H PMID: 31208486 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: MacDonald H Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Matthew Oram, The Trials of Psychedelic Therapy: LSD Psychotherapy in America (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018), pp.  288, £37.00, hardback, ISBN: 9781421426204.
Matthew Oram, The Trials of Psychedelic Therapy: LSD Psychotherapy in America (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2018), pp. 288, £37.00, hardback, ISBN: 9781421426204. Med Hist. 2019 Jul;63(3):378-380 Authors: Siff SB PMID: 31208487 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - June 19, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Siff SB Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research