'These Are the Medicines That "Make" Monsters': Thalidomide in Southern Africa, 1958-1962.
This article raises, however, questions about intended, explored, initiated or sometimes thwarted markets for thalidomide-containing preparations outside 'the West'. It does so by focusing on Southern African markets for thalidomide, particularly those in Angola, Mozambique, (now) Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa. We place differences in the drug's distribution channels in the context of the political economies of pharmaceuticals markets in the region in the decades after World War 2 and argue that colonial legacies and circuits of commerce can contribute to an understanding of why some regions 'escaped a thalidomide dis...
Source: Medical History - July 31, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Parle J, Wimmelbücker L Tags: Soc Hist Med Source Type: research

Editorial - News About the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences.
Authors: PMID: 32626905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - July 6, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Newtonian medicine and its influence in Jos é Celestino Mutis's General Plan for Medical Studies.
Newtonian medicine and its influence in José Celestino Mutis's General Plan for Medical Studies. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2020 Jun 10;: Authors: Molina-Betancur S Abstract This paper presents the development of a Newtonian approach to medicine in the eighteenth century by studying the case of its appropriation in the Viceroyalty of New Granada by the Spanish botanist and savant José Celestino Mutis (1732-1808). First, I briefly depict the academic milieu in which Mutis presented his ideas on modern medicine in his General Plan for the Medical Studies in 1804, claiming that they were greatl...
Source: Medical History - June 10, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Molina-Betancur S Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

"Physician's prescriptions accurately prepared" - The Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prescription Books of Four Gloucester Chemists.
"Physician's prescriptions accurately prepared" - The Mid-Nineteenth-Century Prescription Books of Four Gloucester Chemists. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2020 May 22;: Authors: Helm DP Abstract Britain's mid-nineteenth-century healthcare economy has often been described as a "medical marketplace" in which struggling doctors faced intense competition from a range of unqualified rivals. Chemists and druggists, who proliferated in industrial cities and supposedly prospered by exploiting the poor and the gullible, are widely regarded as having presented a serious threat to medical livelihood...
Source: Medical History - May 22, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Helm DP Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Changing Expectation: Prenatal Care and the Creation of Healthy Pregnancy.
Abstract In the early to mid-twentieth-century United States, prenatal care helped reshape pregnancy by extending medical directives into the everyday life of pregnant women. What began with minimal strategies for a few women at high risk grew into a "lifestyle" for all expecting babies. Maternity manuals helped popularize this process. Studying revisions of a widely circulated and publicly funded manual, Prenatal Care, from the U.S. Children's Bureau between 1913 and 1983, shows that prenatal-care standards offered women healthy pregnancies on condition that they abandon older ways of understanding preg...
Source: Medical History - May 17, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Howard AR Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 32362591 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

The Neglected Role of Buddhism in the Development of Medicine in Late Imperial China Viewed through the Life and Work of Yu Chang (1585-1664).
Abstract Despite significant revisions over recent decades, the field of medicine in late imperial China continues to be defined by a number of problematic boundaries such as that between medicine and religion. In this article I challenge the validity of this boundary through a detailed examination of the life and work of the hugely influential seventeenth-century physician Yu Chang (1585-1664), whose openly Buddhist critique of literati medicine has hitherto largely escaped the attention of medical historians. I argue that Yu Chang's case, read against the more widespread revival of Buddhism at the time, the impo...
Source: Medical History - May 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Scheid V Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Blowing Smoke Up Your Arse: Drowning, Resuscitation, and Public Health in Eighteenth-Century Venice.
This article examines resuscitation practices in the second half of the eighteenth century, especially the new use of tobacco smoke enema machines on people who had been extracted from water with no signs of life. Drownings accounted for a small number and proportion of urban deaths, yet governments promoted resuscitation techniques at considerable expense in order to prevent such deaths. The visibility of drowning in religious, urban, and civic life encouraged engagement with new approaches. Analyzing the deployment of resuscitation practices illuminates three key features of premodern public health interventions: the foc...
Source: Medical History - May 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Bamji A Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Dead or Alive? Stillbirth Registration, Premature Babies, and the Definition of Life in England and Wales, 1836-1960.
Abstract When stillbirth registration became mandatory in England and Wales in 1926, it was not to amass statistics in the service of public health. Instead, it was part of broader anxieties that victims of infanticide were being disposed of under the guise of having been stillborn. But because it necessitated distinguishing between the living and the dead, the legislation that introduced stillbirth registration generated debate about the definition of life itself. This focused both on what counted as a sign of life and on questions about the viability of preterm infants. These contentious disputes had serious rep...
Source: Medical History - May 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Durbach N Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

The Gospel of Wealth and the National Health: The Rockefeller Foundation and Social Medicine in Britain's NHS, 1945-60.
This article examines the Rockefeller Foundation's (RF) engagement with the British National Health Service (NHS) between 1945 and 1960. It argues that the organization morally invested in the success of the NHS because, to them, it offered a world-inspiring model for how to provide medical care following the tenets of social medicine. The RF administratively and financially supported two health centers, in Edinburgh and Manchester, to help realize these ambitions. While the development of both centers exposed conflicting understandings of social medicine, these facilities later became important examples when British healt...
Source: Medical History - May 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Seaton A Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Note from the Section Editor.
PMID: 32362596 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: DiMeo M Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Editors' Note  / Note de la rédaction.
Editors' Note / Note de la rédaction. Can Bull Med Hist. 2020;37(1):1 Authors: Dyck E, Charles A PMID: 32354282 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 2, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Dyck E, Charles A Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Prix Georgina Feldberg pour les étudiant.e.s en histoire de la santé et de la médecine.
Prix Georgina Feldberg pour les étudiant.e.s en histoire de la santé et de la médecine. Can Bull Med Hist. 2020;37(1):21-22 Authors: PMID: 32354283 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 2, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Georgina Feldberg Memorial Student Award in the History of Health and Medicine.
Authors: PMID: 32354284 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 2, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Gina Feldberg: A Brief Intellectual Biography.
PMID: 32354285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 2, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Vipond R Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

In Memory of the Life and Work of Gina Feldberg.
PMID: 32354286 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 2, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mosby I Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Remembering Gina Feldberg.
PMID: 32354287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - May 2, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Rogers N Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

National Socialist Medical Literature and the Censorship Practices in the Soviet Occupation Zone and Early East German State.
This study examines how medical discourse and culture were affected by the denazification policies of the Soviet occupation authorities in East Germany. Examining medical textbooks in particular, it reveals how the production and dissemination of medical knowledge was subject to a complex process of negotiation among authors, publishers, and censorship officials. Drawing on primary-source material produced by censorship authorities that has not been rigorously examined to date, it reveals how knowledge production processes were structured by broader ideological and political imperatives. It thus sheds new light on a unique...
Source: Medical History - May 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Polianski IJ Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Professionalism among medical residents in a young second-level university in Iran: a cross-sectional study.
Abstract Professionalism is a set of behaviors that build trust in physicians' relationships with patients and the public. The aim of this study was to assess professionalism among residents in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 139 residents recruited through the census method. Data were collected using the American Board of Internal Medicine Professionalism Questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was on residents' personal characteristics, and the second part contained fifteen items in the three domains of professionalism, namely excellence...
Source: Medical History - April 29, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Mianehsaz E, Tabatabaee SMR, Sharif MR, Gilasi HR, Shojaee Far HR, Nejad Tabrizi B Tags: J Med Ethics Hist Med Source Type: research

Obituary: Robert J.T. Joy (1929-2019).
PMID: 32280988 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Barr J Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Contraception and Catholicism in the Twentieth Century: Transnational Perspectives on Expert, Activist and Intimate Practices.
Abstract This special issue uses Catholicism as a thread to bring together five contributions to the transnational history of contraception. The articles, which cover examples from Western and East-Central Europe, East Africa and Latin America, all explore the complex interplay between users and providers of birth control in contexts marked by prevalence of the Catholic religion and/or strong political position of the Catholic Church. In the countries examined here, Brazil, Belgium, Poland, Ireland and Rwanda, Catholicism was the majority religion during the different moments of the long twentieth century the auth...
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Ignaciuk A, Kelly L Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

The Degenerating Sex: Female Sterilisation, Medical Authority and Racial Purity in Catholic Brazil.
This article examines female sterilisation practices in early twentieth-century Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It argues that the medical profession, particularly obstetricians and psychiatrists, used debates over the issue to solidify its moral and political standing during two political moments of Brazilian history: when the Brazilian government separated church and state in the 1890s and when Getúlio Vargas's authoritarian regime of the late 1930s renewed alliances with the Catholic church. Shifting notions of gender, race, and heredity further shaped these debates. In the late nineteenth century, a unified medical prof...
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Roth C Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

The Contraceptive Pill in Ireland c.1964-79: Activism, Women and Patient-Doctor Relationships.
Abstract The twentieth-century history of men and women's attempts to gain access to reproductive health services in the Republic of Ireland has been significantly shaped by Ireland's social and religious context. Although contraception was illegal in Ireland from 1935 to 1979, declining family sizes in this period suggest that many Irish men and women were practising fertility control measures. From the mid-1960s, the contraceptive pill was marketed in Ireland as a 'cycle regulator'. In order to obtain a prescription for the pill, Irish women would therefore complain to their doctors that they had heavy periods o...
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Kelly L Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

'There Are No Other Options?': Rwandan Gender Norms and Family Planning in Historical Perspective.
This article surveys the evolution of Rwandan family planning practices from the nation's mythico-historical origins to the present. Rwanda is typically regarded as a patriarchal society in which Rwandan women have, throughout history, endured limited rights and opportunities. However, oral traditions narrated by twentieth-century Rwandan historians, storytellers and related experts, and interpreted by the scholars and missionaries who lived in Rwanda during the nation's colonial period, suggest that gender norms in Rwanda were more complicated. Shifting practices related to family planning - particularly access to contrac...
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Jessee E Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Family Planning Advice in State-Socialist Poland, 1950s-80s: Local and Transnational Exchanges.
Abstract This paper scrutinises the relations between different models of family planning advice and their evolution in Poland between the mid-1950s and the late 1980s, focusing on their similarities and dissimilarities, conflicts and concordances. From 1956 onwards, the delivery of family planning advice became a priority for both the Polish Catholic Church and the party-state, especially its health authorities, which supported the foundation of the Society of Conscious Motherhood and aspired to mainstream birth control advice through the network of public well-woman clinics. As a consequence, two systems of fami...
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Kuźma-Markowska S, Ignaciuk A Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

The 'Converted Unbelievers': Catholics in Family Planning in French-Speaking Belgium (1947-73).
Abstract This paper looks at the journey of eleven counsellors in marital counselling centres in French-speaking Belgium, from the creation of the centres in 1953, to the 1970s, when contraception became legal, and abortion became a public issue. At the time of Humanae Vitae, groups of volunteers, working within Catholic organisations where counselling took place, began to structure their activity around Carl Rogers's ethics of client-centred therapy, placing their religious ideology in a secondary position to focus on the problems experienced by the couples and women they were receiving in the centres. These were...
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Crosetti AS Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

MDH volume 64 Issue 2 Cover and Front matter.
Authors: PMID: 32284638 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - April 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Tags: Med Hist Source Type: research

Travailler aupr ès des familles indigentes : les gardes-malades catholiques à l'avant-garde de la santé communautaire au Canada (1934-1959).
We present the Bulletins as agents of resistance to a science perceived as being devoid of morality, in the face of a growing administrative technocracy seen as detrimental to human beings' living conditions. These sources allow us to give a different interpretation to nurses' contribution to the modernization of care given to the poorest families. We contend that it is French-speaking Catholic nurses who, beyond institutions and inspired by personalism, developed and laid the groundwork for community health in Canada. PMID: 32208107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - March 23, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: McCready G, Thifault MC Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Darwinian Evolution's First 50 Years of Impact on Medicine and Botany at the University of Toronto, 1859 to 1909.
Abstract Prior to Darwin's masterworks, a university professor of medicine's purview generally included the professorship of botany and direction of the botanical gardens. Yet from the landmark 1876 Johns Hopkins model and especially after the 1910 Flexner Report, botany was limited at certain medical schools to (exaggerating somewhat) decorating their lobbies! Darwinian-era scientific paradigms spread from continental Europe through promulgators such as Huxley and Osler, transforming laboratory research, disease aetiology, biochemical therapeutics, and clinical "bedside" teaching. Unintended consequence...
Source: Medical History - March 23, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Court JPM Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

À la recherche de la vision « normale » : mesurer l'acuité visuelle au XIXe siècle.
This article aims to reconstruct and analyze debates centring on normal eye and vision standards during the second half of the 19th century in Europe. It particularly addresses the creation of ophthalmology charts, one of the main tools for measuring visual acuity. Having briefly described the historical context in which modern eye charts were developed, we will present the better known ones of these and their characteristics. We will then analyze ophthalmologists' debates about what constitutes a normal eye and normal vision, and show the discrepancy between established definitions and clinical studies. Finally, we will c...
Source: Medical History - March 20, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Doria C Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

The Beginnings of the Canadian Cooperative Clinical Cancer Trials Program and the American Influences, 1962-76.
Abstract Clinical cancer research in Canada entered a new phase in 1971. In that year, the National Cancer Institute of Canada agreed to initiate and support a multidisciplinary cooperative clinical trials program. The first collaborative randomized controlled trial (RCT) for the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease was launched in medical centres across the country in December 1971. Simultaneously, in the United States, the National Cancer Act came into effect. To what extent were these Canadian and American developments coincidental? I argue that the cooperative clinical trials program in Canada was timed to ...
Source: Medical History - March 20, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Razumenko F Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

"Babies Needn't Follow": Birth Control and Abortion Policy and Activism at the University of Waterloo and Waterloo Lutheran University, 1965-74.
This article examines birth control and abortion policy and activism at the University of Waterloo and Waterloo Lutheran University. Through an analysis of the student newspapers at both universities, this article illustrates the ways in which students lobbied their universities and initiated their own organizations to further women's access to contraceptive services. A case study of these universities illuminates the different experiences of two schools within the same community and considers the impact that religion and university administration can have on student activism. PMID: 32208109 [PubMed - as supplied by p...
Source: Medical History - March 20, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Blair M Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

The Stethoscope in 19th-Century American Practice: Ideas, Rhetoric, and Eventual Adoption.
Abstract The stethoscope was invented in 1816 by the French physician R.T.H. Laennec, who, after three years of clinical observations, published his treatise Mediate Auscultation in 1819. In his treatise, Laennec included details of his new method of using the stethoscope to provide physiological and pathological evaluation of patients. American physicians attended lectures and clinics at Paris hospitals and carried this information back to their respective medical schools and practices. This was accomplished by a relatively limited number of elite American physicians who were able to take advantage of travel abro...
Source: Medical History - March 20, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Reinhart RA Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

"Whatever Works": Innovations in the Treatment of Hemophilia in the United States 1783-1950.
"Whatever Works": Innovations in the Treatment of Hemophilia in the United States 1783-1950. Can Bull Med Hist. 2020 Mar 20;:e386092019 Authors: Rushton AR Abstract Treatment of the bleeding disorder hemophilia in the nineteenth century was empirical, based on clinical experience. Medications, transfusions of human or animal blood, and injections of blood sera were utilized in an attempt to halt life-threatening hemorrhages. After 1900, the application of clinical laboratory science facilitated the utilization of anti-coagulated blood and donor blood compatibility tests for safer emergency t...
Source: Medical History - March 20, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Rushton AR Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

The 1918 "Spanish Flu" Pandemic in the Ottoman Capital, Istanbul.
The 1918 "Spanish Flu" Pandemic in the Ottoman Capital, Istanbul. Can Bull Med Hist. 2020 Mar 20;:e356052019 Authors: Temel MK Abstract Although the general course, possible transmission routes, and actual sociodemographic destruction of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Western world are well documented, the literature lacks similar data about the Middle East. On the calamity's centenary, this article aims to contribute to filling this gap, investigating the presence and effects of the pandemic in Istanbul, the city bridging the West and East, then as the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Aft...
Source: Medical History - March 20, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Temel MK Tags: Can Bull Med Hist Source Type: research

Just the Basic Facts: The Certification of Insanity in the Era of the Form K.
Abstract This paper investigates the certification of insanity through a standardized template called Form K which was used in Ontario between 1873 and 1883. My main thesis is that the introduction of the Form K had profound and long-lasting effects on the determination of insanity. In particular, it created a unique case in the history of certification, it grounded civil confinement on a strategy of consensus, and it informed mental health documentation for more than a century. As the result of a transnational mediation from Victorian England, the Form K prescribed an examination setting which involved a high num...
Source: Medical History - March 5, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Sposini FM Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

For the Benefit of Students: Memory and Anatomical Learning at Bologna in the Fourteenth to Early Sixteenth Centuries.
Abstract The anatomical textbook in the late Middle Ages was one part of a greater pedagogical process that involved students' seeing, hearing, reading, and eventually knowing information about the human body. By examining the role of the anatomical textbook and accompanying bodily images in anatomical learning, this article illuminates the complexity and self-consciousness of anatomical education in the medieval university, as professors focused on ways to enhance student memory of the material. Traditionally, the history of anatomy has been heavily influenced by the anatomical Renaissance of the late-sixteenth c...
Source: Medical History - February 26, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Robison KL Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Strange Cases: Jekyll & Hyde Narratives as Rhetorical Strategy in Sir Alexander Morison's Physiognomy of Mental Diseases.
Strange Cases: Jekyll & Hyde Narratives as Rhetorical Strategy in Sir Alexander Morison's Physiognomy of Mental Diseases. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2020 Feb 25;: Authors: Kearin MB Abstract Sir Alexander Morison's Physiognomy of Mental Diseases (1838) was created as a didactic tool for physicians, depicting lunatics in both the active and dormant states of disease. Through the act of juxtaposition, Morison constituted his subjects as their own Jekylls and Hydes, capable of radical transformation. In doing so, he marshaled artistic and clinical, visual and textual approaches in order to pose a particu...
Source: Medical History - February 25, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Kearin MB Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Jonathan M. Weber, Death is All around Us: Corpses, Chaos, and Public Health in Porfirian Mexico City.
PMID: 32049347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - February 12, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Sloan KA Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Wendy Kline, Coming Home: How Midwives Changed Birth.
PMID: 32049349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - February 12, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Reis E Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

AIDS Inside and Out: HIV/AIDS and Penal Policy in Ireland and England & Wales in the 1980s and 1990s.
This article compares the policy decisions made by the prison services of the Republic of Ireland and England & Wales in response to HIV/AIDS in the 1980s and 1990s, bringing together the histories of penal policy and HIV/AIDS for the first time. It develops our understanding of contemporary policy history, and demonstrates the value of a comparative approach to both penal and health histories. Policy-making was shaped by both national and more localised traditions and trends, from attitudes to criminal justice and responses to HIV/AIDS at the national level, to the histories, structures, and staffing of prison service...
Source: Medical History - February 1, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Weston J, Berridge V Tags: Soc Hist Med Source Type: research

Historicising the "Crisis" in Undergraduate Mental Health: British Universities and Student Mental Illness, 1944-1968.
This article explores how and why student mental health became an issue of concern in British universities between 1944 and 1968. It argues that two factors drew student mental health to the attention of medical professionals across this period: first, it argues that the post-war interest in mental illness drew attention to students, who were seen to be the luminaries of the future, investing their wellbeing with particular social importance. Second, it argues that the development of university health services made students increasingly visible, endorsing the view that higher education posed distinctive yet shared mental c...
Source: Medical History - January 8, 2020 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Crook S Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Merit Ptah, "The First Woman Physician": Crafting of a Feminist History with an Ancient Egyptian Setting.
Merit Ptah, "The First Woman Physician": Crafting of a Feminist History with an Ancient Egyptian Setting. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2019 Nov 22;: Authors: Kwiecinski JM Abstract Merit Ptah is widely described as "the first woman physician and scientist" on the Internet and in popular history books. This essay explores the origins of this figure, showing that Merit Ptah came into being in the 1930s when Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead misinterpreted a report about an authentic ancient Egyptian healer. Merit Ptah gradually became a prominent figure in popular historical accounts during second-w...
Source: Medical History - November 22, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Kwiecinski JM Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

The (Dis)assembling of Form: Revealing the Ideas Built Into Manchester's Medical School.
Abstract This paper addresses a gap in our understanding of medical history - the architecture of medical schools - and demonstrates the ways in which architectural form can be used to better understand medical epistemology and pedagogy. It examines an instructive case study - the late-nineteenth-century medical school buildings in Manchester - and examines the concepts that were drawn together and expressed in the buildings. Through its exploration, the paper argues first, that medical schools and spaces for medical education should be given greater consideration as a significant category in the history of medica...
Source: Medical History - November 21, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Hopkins J Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

Investigating Software Requirements for Systems Supporting Task-Shifted Interventions: Usability Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these high-level requirements adequately captured the functionality required to enable the health workers to provide the intervention successfully. Nevertheless, the analysis of results indicated that some improvements were required for the system to be useable in a task-shifted intervention. The most important of these were better access to a training environment, access for supervisors to metadata such as duration of sessions or exercises to identify issues, and a more robust and human-error-proof approach to the availability of patient data on the mobile devices used during the intervention. P...
Source: Medical History - November 12, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Van de Ven P, Araya R, P de Paula Couto MC, Henrique MG, Meere D, Vilela Mendes A, Peters TJ, Seabra A, Franzin RM, Carvalho Pereda P, Scazufca M Tags: J Med Internet Res Source Type: research

Scatological Asklepios: The Use of Excrement in Graeco-Roman Healthcare1.
Abstract In the classical world, "official" rationalistic medicine made therapeutic use of excrement, urine and other substances that modern humans normally regard as repulsive (this was even true of Galen, the culminating authority); and popular medicine seems to have done so on a large scale. Such practices, which finally lost their professional though not their popular acceptability in the 18th century, have been studied to good purpose by other historians, but they have never been explained in a satisfactory fashion, partly because the relevant evidence is highly diverse. The present paper, by consid...
Source: Medical History - November 12, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Harris WV Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

A Load off Whose Heart? Psychiatry and the Politics of Respectability and Race Representation in Harlem, 1943-45.
Abstract In wartime Harlem, liberal mental health professionals, eager to serve the black freedom struggle, sought to depict the minds of troubled black children as human without reinforcing pernicious racial stereotypes. This paper examines how psychiatrist Viola W. Bernard and the Community Service Society struggled to portray the black community as both psychologically damaged and morally beyond reproach when publicly presenting the cases of her male and female clients. As a consequence, liberals helped champion the mental health needs of delinquent black males as a matter of racial justice while rendering youn...
Source: Medical History - November 8, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Doyle D Tags: J Hist Med Allied Sci Source Type: research

An automatic multipoint inoculator for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics in low-income countries: a technical note.
Abstract Multipoint inoculator is a laboratory equipment that is used to inoculate with a very high precision a certain number of microorganisms in culture media, in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics that would inhibit microbial growth. MICs values are crucial in the control of microbial drug-susceptibility profile for effective infectious disease control and microbial resistance stewardship. The complexity of multipoint inoculator makes it very rare or almost non-existent in developing countries laboratories. In this paper, a robust, precise and, above all, innovative ...
Source: Medical History - October 28, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Tiam Kapen P, Fotsing Kwetche PR, Youssoufa M, Kayo Mbomda WC, Ketchogue RM, Ganwo Dongmo S Tags: Australas Phys Eng Sci Med Source Type: research

Medical Compromise and Its Limits: Religious Concerns and the Postmortem Caesarean Section in Nineteenth-Century Belgium.
This article uses the Belgian debates about the postmortem caesarean section as a means to investigate methods of negotiation between liberal and Catholic doctors. The article analyzes, first, how doctors incorporated religious concerns such as baptism in the medical profession. Second, physicians' strategies to come to a compromise in ideologically diverse settings are examined. Overall, this article casts light on the dynamics of medical debate in times of both ideological rapprochement and polarization. PMID: 31631069 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical History)
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Gijbels J Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research

Population Control, Family Planning, and Maternal Health Networks in the 1960s/70s: Diary of an International Consultant.
This article bridges the gap between these studies by exploring the work diaries of Dr. Adaline Pendleton ("Penny") Satterthwaite, a midlevel technical advisor who traveled to over two dozen countries for the Population Council from 1965 to 1974. Penny's diaries draw our attention to a diverse network of advocates who mediated between international population activists, state actors, and local communities while also acting as conduits for the transnational spread of strategies and resources. Her experiences also provide evidence of the coercive practices, gendered tensions, and political conflicts shaping the mov...
Source: Medical History - October 23, 2019 Category: History of Medicine Authors: Bourbonnais NC Tags: Bull Hist Med Source Type: research