A comprehensive hierarchical classification based on multi-features of breast DCE-MRI for cancer diagnosis
AbstractComputer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is widely used for early diagnosis of breast cancer. The commonly used morphological feature (MF), dynamic feature (DF), and texture feature (TF) from breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been proved very valuable and are studied in this paper. However, previous studies ignored the prior knowledge that most of the benign lesions have clearer and smoother edges than malignant ones. Therefore, two new TFs are proposed. To obtain an optimal feature subset and an accurate classification result, feature selection is applied in this paper. Moreover, mos...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - August 4, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Haar wavelet transform –based optimal Bayesian method for medical image fusion
AbstractImage fusion (IF) attracts the researchers in the areas of the medical industry as valuable information could be afforded through the fusion of images that enable the clinical decisions to remain effective. With the aim to render an effective image fusion, this paper concentrates on the Bayesian fusion approach, which is tuned optimally using the proposed Fractional Bird Swarm Optimization (Fractional-BSA). The medical image fusion is progressed using the MRI brain image taken from the BRATS database, and the source images of multimodalities are fused effectively to present an information-rich fused image. The sour...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 30, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Analysis of four methods of measuring three-dimensional pelvic tilt in the lateral decubitus position
This study compared four techniques to measure 3D pelvic rotations in LD position using computer models. CT scans of 19 subjects in LD position were used to create 3D pelvis models. Pelvic rotations were measured by three users using four techniques: landmark (LM), defined plane (DP), anterior pelvic plane (APP), and plane of best symmetry (POBS) methods. Measurements were analysed for intra-user reliability and relationships between methods were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and coefficient of determination. The POBS method exhibited the highest inter-observer reliabilit...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Acoustic characterization of upper airway variations from wakefulness to sleep with respect to obstructive sleep apnea
AbstractThe upper airway (UA) is in general thicker and narrower in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) population than in normal. Additionally, the UA changes during sleep are much more in the OSA population. The UA changes can alter the tracheal breathing sound (TBS) characteristics. Therefore, we hypothesize the TBS changes from wakefulness to sleep are significantly correlated to the OSA severity; thus, they may represent the physiological characteristics of the UA. To investigate our hypothesis, we recorded TBS of 18 mild-OSA (AHI    15) during daytime (wakefulness) and then during sleep. The power spectral de...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A statistical shape modeling approach for predicting subject-specific human skull from head surface
AbstractHuman skull is an important body structure for jaw movement and facial mimic simulations. Surface head can be reconstructed using 3D scanners in a straightforward way. However, internal skull is challenging to be generated when only external information is available. Very few studies in the literature focused on the skull generation from outside head information, especially in a subject-specific manner with a complete skull. Consequently, this present study proposes a novel process for predicting a subject-specific skull with full details from a given head surface using a statistical shape modeling approach. Partia...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 25, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Design and implementation of a novel wireless modular capsule robotic system in pipe
This study proposed and designed a new wireless modular capsule robotic system in pipe. The modular capsule robots could move forward and backward in the pipe in the axial direction, turn in a bending environment, and achieve the rendezvous and separation action through the three-dimensional rotating magnetic field generated by the three-axis Helmholtz coils. In this paper, the drive system of the three-axis Helmholtz coils, the power supply control system, and the modular capsule robot structure were analyzed and designed respectively. Finally, a series of characterization experiments were carried out to evaluate the moti...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 24, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Automatic glycemic regulation for the pediatric population based on switched control and time-varying IOB constraints: an in silico study
AbstractArtificial pancreas (AP) systems have shown to improve glucose regulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. However, full closed-loop performance remains a challenge particularly in children and adolescents, since these age groups often present the worst glycemic control. In this work, an algorithm based on switched control and time-varying IOB constraints is presented. The proposed control strategy is evaluated in silico using the FDA-approved UVA/ Padova simulator and its performance contrasted with the previously introduced Automatic Regulation of Glucose (ARG) algorithm in the pediatric population. The effect ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 24, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

BIOINTMED: integrated biomedical knowledge base with ontologies and clinical trials
AbstractBiomedical data are complex and heterogeneous. An ample reliable quantity of data is important for understanding and exploring the domain. The work aims to integrate biomedical data from various heterogeneous sources like dictionaries or corpus and amalgamate them into a uniform format for easier access by the end-user like biologist, pharmacist, and data scientist. The proposed integrated biomedical knowledge base, BIOINTMED, has 11,299, 12,981, 4428, 61,491, 48,663, and 13,146 unique entities for drugs, diseases, targets, genes, biomedical pathways, and adverse events, respectively. The uniform aggregated collect...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 24, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Deflection simulation for a needle adjusted by the insertion orientation angle and axial rotation during insertion in the muscle-contained double-layered tissue
AbstractDuring the process of percutaneous puncture, a medical needle with a beveled tip is usually inserted into a multilayered soft tissue, which contains a muscle layer, before it reaches the target. The robot-assisted needle insertion technology will help brachytherapists to perform high-accuracy seed implantation. To guide the automatic needle insertion, a mechanics-based model to simulate needle deflection caused by the asymmetric cutting force during insertion in the muscle-contained double-layered tissue is developed. The model is driven by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous interaction forces, which are updated off...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 23, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Tooth segmentation and gingival tissue deformation framework for 3D orthodontic treatment planning and evaluating
In this study, we propose an integrated tooth segmentation and gingival tissue deformation simulation framework used to design and evaluate the orthodontic treatment plan especially with invisible aligners. Firstly, the bio-characteristics information of the digital impression is analyzed quantitatively and demonstrated visually. With the derived information, the transitional regions of tooth-tooth and tooth-gingiva are extracted as the solution domain of the segmentation boundaries. Then, a boundary detection approach is proposed, which is used for the tooth segmentation and region division of the digital impression. Afte...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A machine learning approach for mortality prediction only using non-invasive parameters
AbstractAt present, the traditional scoring methods generally utilize laboratory measurements to predict mortality. It results in difficulties of early mortality prediction in the rural areas lack of professional laboratorians and medical laboratory equipment. To improve the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of mortality prediction in the remote areas, a novel mortality prediction method based on machine learning algorithms is proposed, which only uses non-invasive parameters readily available from ordinary monitors and manual measurement. A new feature selection method based on the Bayes error rate is developed to s...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Roll-over shape of a prosthetic foot: a finite element evaluation and experimental validation
The objective of this research is to introduce a novel numerical approach for thea priori evaluation of theroll-over shape (ROS) of a prosthetic foot for application in its systematic design and development. The ROS was achieved numerically by employing a non-linear finite element model incorporating the augmented Lagrangian and multi-point constraint contact formulations, a hyperelastic material model and a higher-order strain definition. The Ottobock Solid Ankle Cushion Heel (SACH) foot was chosen to experimentally validate the numerical model. The geometry of the foot was evaluated from optical scans, and the material p...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 18, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Label-free detection of thalassemia and other ROS impairing diseases
AbstractPathogenesis of different diseases showed that some of them, especially thalassemia (T) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an implicit association with oxidative stress and altered levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introducing ROS level and the balance between ROS and antioxidants as essential metrics, an attempt was made to classify T and RA from normal individuals (treated as controls)(C) using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and Raman line intensity of water. This non-invasive and label-free approach was backed up by a categorization algorithm that helped in the prediction of disease types fro...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Neuro-fuzzy patch-wise R-CNN for multiple sclerosis segmentation
AbstractThe segmentation of the lesion plays a core role in diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most frequent image modality used to evaluate such lesions. Because of the massive amount of data, manual segmentation cannot be achieved within a sensible time that restricts the usage of accurate quantitative measurement in clinical practice. Therefore, the need for effective automated segmentation techniques is critical. However, a large spatial variability between the structure of brain lesions makes it more challenging. Recently, convolutional neural network (CNN), in...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 17, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Combination of “generalized Trotter operator splitting” and “quadratic adaptive algorithm” method for tradeoff among speedup, stability, and accuracy in the Markov chain model of sodium ion channels in the ventricular cell model
AbstractThe fast hybrid operator splitting (HOS) and stable uniformization (UNI) methods have been proposed to save computation cost and enhance stability for Markov chain model in cardiac cell simulations. Moreover, Chen-Chen-Luo ’s quadratic adaptive algorithm (CCL) combined with HOS or UNI was used to improve the tradeoff between speedup and stability, but without considering accuracy. To compromise among stability, acceleration, and accuracy, we propose a generalized Trotter operator splitting (GTOS) method combined wit h CCL independent of the asymptotic property of a particular ion-channel model. Due to the acc...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Multi-class motor imagery EEG classification using collaborative representation-based semi-supervised extreme learning machine
AbstractBoth labeled and unlabeled data have been widely used in electroencephalographic (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI). However, labeled EEG samples are generally scarce and expensive to collect, while unlabeled samples are considered to be abundant in real applications. Although the semi-supervised learning (SSL) allows us to utilize both labeled and unlabeled data to improve the classification performance as against supervised algorithms, it has been reported that unlabeled data occasionally undermine the performance of SSL in some cases. To overcome this challenge, we propose a collaborative representation-...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 16, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Visco-hyperelastic characterization of human brain white matter micro-level constituents in different strain rates
In this study, we propose a computational characterization technique for obtaining the material properties of axons and extracellular matrix (ECM) in human brain white matter. To account for the dynamic behavior of the brain tissue, data from time-dependent relaxation tests of human brain white matter in different strain rates are extracted and formulated by a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model consisting of the Ogden hyperelastic model and the Prony series expansion. Through micromechanical finite element simulation, a derivative-free optimization framework designed to minimize the difference between the numerical and ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Sound transmission in human thorax through airway insonification: an experimental and computational study with diagnostic applications
AbstractPulmonary diseases and injury lead to structural and functional changes in the lung parenchyma and airways, often resulting in measurable sound transmission changes on the chest wall surface. Additionally, noninvasive imaging of externally driven mechanical wave motion in the chest (e.g., using magnetic resonance elastography) can provide information about lung stiffness and other structural property changes which may be of diagnostic value. In the present study, a comprehensive computational simulation (in silico) model was developed to simulate sound wave propagation in the airways, parenchyma, and chest wall und...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 14, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Motion correction and noise removing in lung diffusion-weighted MRI using low-rank decomposition
AbstractLung diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has shown a promising value in lung lesion detection, diagnosis, differentiation, and staging. However, the respiratory and cardiac motion, blood flow, and lung hysteresis may contribute to the blurring, resulting in unclear lung images. The image blurring could adversely affect diagnosis performance. The purpose of this study is to reduce the DWI blurring and assess its positive effect on diagnosis. The retrospective study includes 71 patients. In this paper, a motion correction and noise removal method using low-rank decomposition is proposed, which can red...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Reference-free brain template construction with population symmetric registration
AbstractPopulation registration has been proposed for normalizing a large group of images into a common space, which is important in many clinical and research studies, such as brain development, aging, and atlas construction. Different from pairwise registration problem that aligns the target image to the reference directly, determining the reference or the hidden common space with the least bias is important in population registration. In order to decrease this bias, a lot of work takes the arithmetic mean image as the reference. However, the arithmetic mean image is usually too smooth to guide the population registratio...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 10, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Classification of pure conduct disorder from healthy controls based on indices of brain networks during resting state
This study goes further by presenting a classification scheme to distinguish subjects with CD from typically developing healthy subjects based on measures of small-world networks. In this study, small-world networks were constructed, and feature data were generated for both the CD and healthy control (HC) groups. Two methods of feature selection, including theF-score and feature projection with singular value decomposition (SVD), were used to extract the feature data. Furthermore, and importantly, the classification performances were compared between the results from the two methods of feature selection. The selected featu...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Cadaveric feasibility study of a teleoperated parallel continuum robot with variable stiffness for transoral surgery
AbstractRobot-assisted technologies are overcoming the limitations of the current approaches for transoral surgeries, which are suffering from limited vision and workspace. As a result, we develop a novel teleoperated parallel continuum robot with variable stiffness for collision avoidance. This paper focuses on the feasibility study on a cadaveric model for the robotic system as a first trial. We introduce the configuration of the robotic system, the description of the processes of the trial, including the setting of the robotic system, the test of stiffness, and the action of the manipulation. The contact force between t...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Fully multi-target segmentation for breast ultrasound image based on fully convolutional network
AbstractUltrasound image segmentation plays an important role in computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. Existing approaches focused on extracting the tumor tissue to characterize the tumor class. However, other tissues are also helpful for providing the references. In this paper, a multi-target semantic segmentation approach is proposed based on the fully convolutional network for segmenting the breast ultrasound image into different target tissue regions. For handling the uncertain affiliation of pixels in blurry boundaries, the certain outputs of pixel characteristics in AlexNet are transformed into the fuzzy decisio...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 8, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Classification of heart sounds based on the combination of the modified frequency wavelet transform and convolutional neural network
AbstractWe purpose a novel method that combines modified frequency slice wavelet transform (MFSWT) and convolutional neural network (CNN) for classifying normal and abnormal heart sounds. A hidden Markov model is used to find the position of each cardiac cycle in the heart sound signal and determine the exact position of the four periods of S1, S2, systole, and diastole. Then the one-dimensional cardiac cycle signal was converted into a two-dimensional time-frequency picture using the MFSWT. Finally, two CNN models are trained using the aforementioned pictures. We combine two CNN models using sample entropy (SampEn) to det...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

On the three-objective static unconstrained leaf sequencing in IMRT
This study addresses the third one, also called the leaf sequencing problem, which arises for each chosen irradiation angle, given the optimized fluence map. It consists in defining a sequence of configurations of a device (called multileaf collimator) that correctly delivers radiation to the patient. A usual model for this problem is the decomposition of a matrix into a weighted sum of (0,1)-matrices, called segments, in which the ones in each row appear consecutively. Each (0,1)-matrix corresponds to a configuration of the device. The realization problem has three objectives. The first one is to minimize the sum of weigh...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 4, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A mapping study of ensemble classification methods in lung cancer decision support systems
AbstractAchieving a high level of classification accuracy in medical datasets is a capital need for researchers to provide effective decision systems to assist doctors in work. In many domains of artificial intelligence, ensemble classification methods are able to improve the performance of single classifiers. This paper reports the state of the art of ensemble classification methods in lung cancer detection. We have performed a systematic mapping study to identify the most interesting papers concerning this topic. A total of 65 papers published between 2000 and 2018 were selected after an automatic search in four digital ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Automated labeling of the airway tree in terms of lobes based on deep learning of bifurcation point detection
AbstractThis paper presents an automatic lobe-based labeling of airway tree method, which can detect the bifurcation points for reconstructing and labeling the airway tree from a computed tomography image. A deep learning-based network structure is designed to identify the four key bifurcation points. Then, based on the detected bifurcation points, the entire airway tree is reconstructed by a new region-growing method. Finally, with the basic airway tree anatomy and topology knowledge, individual branches of the airway tree are classified into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobes. There are several advantages i...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - July 2, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Leukocyte segmentation in peripheral blood images using a novel edge strength cue-based location detection method
AbstractThe classification of leukocytes in peripheral blood images is an important milestone to be achieved because it can greatly assist pathologists to diagnose diseases such as leukemia, anemia, and other blood disorders. To a certain extent, a good segmentation method for identifying leukocytes from their background is the first step to the efficient functioning of the leukocytes classification system. However, the morphological structure of leukocytes, poor contrast, and the variations in their shape and size lead to the degradation of the segmentation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new leukocyte segmentation ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 28, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

An in vitro model of temporal enhancement of epithelium barrier permeability by low-energy shock waves without contrast agents
AbstractOne of the commonly used techniques for drug delivery is to temporarily increase the permeability of tissue barriers. Acoustic energies such as ultrasound and shock waves are known to modulate tissue permeability. Recently, it was found that shock waves modulate the blood-brain barrier in the rat brain without injection of contrast agents such as microbubbles. This finding implies that modulation of other tissue barriers by shock wave exposure without contrast agents may be possible. To examine whether the modulation is also possible with other tissue barriers, we here investigated whether shock waves would modulat...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Computer-aided diagnosis systems for osteoporosis detection: a comprehensive survey
AbstractComputer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has revolutionized the field of medical diagnosis. They assist in improving the treatment potentials and intensify the survival frequency by early diagnosing the diseases in an efficient, timely, and cost-effective way. The automatic segmentation has led the radiologist to successfully segment the region of interest to improve the diagnosis of diseases from medical images which is not so efficiently possible by manual segmentation. The aim of this paper is to survey the vision-based CAD systems especially focusing on the segmentation techniques for the pathological bone disease known ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 25, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Contour-based lung shape analysis in order to tuberculosis detection: modeling and feature description
AbstractStatistical shape analysis of lung is a reliable alternative method for diagnosing pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). The 2D contour-based lung shape analysis is investigated and developed using Fourier descriptors (FDs). The proposed 2D lung shape analysis is carried out in threefold: (1) represent the normal and the abnormal (i.e. pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB)) lung shape models using Fourier descriptors modeling (FDM) framework from chest X-ray (CXR) images, (2) estimate and compare the 2D inter-patient lung shape variations for the normal and abnormal lungs by applying principal component analysis (PC...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Superpixel-based deep convolutional neural networks and active contour model for automatic prostate segmentation on 3D MRI scans
AbstractAutomatic and reliable prostate segmentation is an essential prerequisite for assisting the diagnosis and treatment, such as guiding biopsy procedure and radiation therapy. Nonetheless, automatic segmentation is challenging due to the lack of clear prostate boundaries owing to the similar appearance of prostate and surrounding tissues and the wide variation in size and shape among different patients ascribed to pathological changes or different resolutions of images. In this regard, the state-of-the-art includes methods based on a probabilistic atlas, active contour models, and deep learning techniques. However, th...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A novel framework for noninvasive analysis of short-term atrial activity dynamics during persistent atrial fibrillation
AbstractECG-based representation of atrial fibrillation (AF) progression is currently limited. We propose a novel framework for a more sensitive noninvasive characterization of the AF substrate during persistent AF. An atrial activity (AA) recurrence signal is computed from body surface potential map (BSPM) recordings, and a set of characteristic indices is derived from it which captures the short- and long-term recurrent behaviour in the AA patterns. A novel measure of short- and long-term spatial variability of AA propagation is introduced, to provide an interpretation of the above indices, and to test the hypothesis tha...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Convolutional neural network for detection and classification of seizures in clinical data
In this study authors present the approach for detection and classification of a seizure using clinical data of electroencephalograms and a convolutional neural network trained on features of brain synchronisation and power spectrum. Various deep learning methods were applied, and the network was trained on a very heterogeneous clinical electroencephalogram dataset. In total, eight different types of seizures were considered, and the patients were of various ages, health conditions and they were observed under clinical conditions. Despite this, the classifier presented in this paper achieved sensitivity and specificity equ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 12, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Hip implant performance prediction by acoustic emission techniques: a review
This article presents a thorough literature review associated with the implementation of acoustic emission as a diagnostic tool for total hip replacement (THR) implants. Structural health monitoring of an implant via acoustic emission and vibration analysis is an evolving research area in the field of biomedical engineering. A review of the literature reveals a lack of reliable, non-invasive, and non-traumatic early warning methods to evaluate implant loosening that can help to identify patients at risk for osteolysis prior to implant failure. Developing an intelligent acoustic emission technique with excellent condition m...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 12, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Coronary arteries hemodynamics: effect of arterial geometry on hemodynamic parameters causing atherosclerosis
Conclusion and novelty: This paper provides useful insights into the causative mechanisms of the high incidence of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. It also provides guidelines for how simulation of blood flow in patient coronary arteries and determination of the hemodynamic parameters of WSS and WPG can provide a medical assessment of the risk of development of atherosclerosis and plaque formation, leading to myocardial ischemia and infarction. The novelty of our paper is our showing how in actual coronary arteries (based on their CT imaging), curvilinearity and narrowing complications affect the computed WSS and WPG ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Predictive mechanics-based model for depth of cut (DOC) of waterjet in soft tissue for waterjet-assisted medical applications
AbstractThe use of waterjet technology is now prevalent in medical applications including surgery, soft tissue resection, bone cutting, waterjet steerable needles, and wound debridement. The depth of the cut (DOC) of a waterjet in soft tissue is an important parameter that should be predicted in these applications. For instance, for waterjet-assisted surgery, selective cutting of tissue layers is a must to avoid damage to deeper tissue layers. For our proposed fracture-directed waterjet steerable needles, predicting the cut depth of the waterjet in soft tissue is important to develop an accurate motion model, as well as co...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 9, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Efficacy of the FDA nozzle benchmark and the lattice Boltzmann method for the analysis of biomedical flows in transitional regime
AbstractFlows through medical devices as well as in anatomical vessels despite being at moderate Reynolds number may exhibit transitional or even turbulent character. In order to validate numerical methods and codes used for biomedical flow computations, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established an experimental benchmark, which was a pipe with gradual contraction and sudden expansion representing a nozzle. The experimental results for various Reynolds numbers ranging from 500 to 6500 were publicly released. Previous and recent computational investigations of flow in the FDA nozzle found limitations in various C...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 7, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Automated lung cancer diagnosis using three-dimensional convolutional neural networks
We present a general framework for the detection of lung cancer in chest LDCT images. Our method consists of a nodule detector trained on the LIDC-IDRI dataset followed by a cancer predictor trained on the Kaggle DSB 2017 dataset and evaluated on the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2018 Lung Nodule Malignancy Prediction test set. Our candidate extraction approach is effective to produce accurate candidates with a recall of 99.6%. In addition, our false positive reduction stage classifies successfully the candidates and increases precision by a factor of 2000. Our cancer predictor obtained a ROC AU...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 5, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Effects of triceps surae fatigue and weight training level on gait variability and local stability in young adults
AbstractMuscle fatigue negatively affects gait, and the changes in gait pattern due to muscle fatigue is influenced by which muscles are fatigued and pre-existing physical activity levels. However, how these factors alter gait stability and variability, measures related to risk of fall, remains unclear. To explore how muscular fatigue affects linear and nonlinear gait features in young adults, the effects of triceps surae fatigue and weight training level on gait variability and local stability, as well as a 12-min recovery time of post-fatigue period, were evaluated in young adults (trained and untrained groups). Some fea...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 5, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Multiple functional connectivity networks fusion for schizophrenia diagnosis
AbstractAccurate diagnosis of schizophrenia is of great importance to patients and clinicians. Recent studies have found that different frequency bands contain complementary information for diagnosis and prognosis. However, conventional multiple frequency functional connectivity (FC) networks using Pearson ’s correlation coefficient (PCC) are usually based on pairwise correlations among different brain regions on single frequency band, while ignoring the interactions between regions in different frequency bands, the relationship among different networks, and the nonlinear properties of blood-oxygen- level-dependent (...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Radiogenomics model for overall survival prediction of glioblastoma
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a very aggressive and infiltrative brain tumor with a high mortality rate. There are radiomic models with handcrafted features to estimate glioblastoma prognosis. In this work, we evaluate to what extent of combining genomic with radiomic features makes an impact on the prognosis of overall survival (OS) in patients with GBM. We apply a hypercolumn-based convolutional network to segment tumor regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI), extract radiomic features (geometric, shape, histogram), and fuse with gene expression profiling data to predict survival rate for each patient. Se...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 3, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Machine learning –based identification of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) effect on brain morphology: a preliminary study
AbstractThe brain of a human and other organisms is affected by the electromagnetic field (EMF) radiations, emanating from the cell phones and mobile towers. Prolonged exposure to EMF radiations may cause neurological changes in the brain, which in turn may bring chemical as well as morphological changes in the brain. Conventionally, the identification of EMF radiation effect on the brain is performed using cellular-level analysis. In the present work, an automatic image processing –based approach is used where geometric features extracted from the segmented brain region has been analyzed for identifying the effect o...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - June 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

In silico validation of electrocardiographic imaging to reconstruct the endocardial and epicardial repolarization pattern using the equivalent dipole layer source model
AbstractThe solution of the inverse problem of electrocardiology allows the reconstruction of the spatial distribution of the electrical activity of the heart from the body surface electrocardiogram (electrocardiographic imaging, ECGI). ECGI using the equivalent dipole layer (EDL) model has shown to be accurate for cardiac activation times. However, validation of this method to determine repolarization times is lacking. In the present study, we determined the accuracy of the EDL model in reconstructing cardiacrepolarization times, and assessed the robustness of the method under less ideal conditions (addition of noise and ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 31, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A two-stage approach towards protein secondary structure classification
Abstract:Protein secondary structure (PSS) describes the local folded structures which get formed inside a polypeptide due to interactions among atoms of the backbone. Generally, globular proteins are divided into four classes, namely all-α, all-β,α + β, and  α/β. As nearly 90% of proteins fall into the said four classes, these are mostly considered for the purpose of computational classification of proteins. Classification of PSS is important for different biological functions that include protein fold recognition, tertiary structure prediction, prediction of DNA-binding...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Machine learning –based operation skills assessment with vascular difficulty index for vascular intervention surgery
AbstractAn accurate assessment of surgical operation skills is essential for improving the vascular intervention surgical outcome and the performance of endovascular surgery robots. In existing studies, subjective and objective assessments of surgical operation skills use a variety of indicators, such as the operation speed and operation smoothness. However, the vascular conditions of particular patients have not been considered in the assessment, leading to deviations in the evaluation. Therefore, in this paper, an operation skills assessment method including the vascular difficulty level index for catheter insertion at t...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 28, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

The effect of follower load on the range of motion, facet joint force, and intradiscal pressure of the cervical spine: a finite element study
In this study, the follower load was applied to the finite element model by connector elements. At the same time, a moment of 1 Nm was applied in the three anatomical planes to simulate different postures. (Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing)
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 28, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Improvement in osseointegration of tricalcium phosphate-zircon for orthopedic applications: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation
AbstractSimilar to metallic implant, using the compact bio-nanocomposite can provide a suitable strength due to its high stiffness and providing sufficient adhesion between bone and orthopedic implant. Therefore, using zirconia-reinforced calcium phosphate composites with new generation of calcium silicate composites was considered in this study. Additionally, investigation of microstructure, apatite formation, and mechanical characteristic of synthetic compact bio-nanocomposite bones was performed. Desired biodegradation, optimal bioactivity, and dissolution of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were controlled to optimize its me...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Spatial-dependent regularization to solve the inverse problem in electromyometrial imaging
AbstractRecently, electromyometrial imaging (EMMI) was developed to non-invasively image uterine contractions in three dimensions. EMMI collects body surface electromyography (EMG) measurements and uses patient-specific body-uterus geometry generated from magnetic resonance images to reconstruct uterine electrical activity. Currently, EMMI uses the zero-order Tikhonov method with mean composite residual and smoothing operator (CRESO) to stabilize the underlying ill-posed inverse computation. However, this method is empirical and implements a global regularization parameter over all uterine sites, which is sub-optimal for E...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Towards improving the accuracy of aortic transvalvular pressure gradients: rethinking Bernoulli
AbstractThe transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG) is commonly estimated using the Bernoulli equation. However, the method is known to be inaccurate. Therefore, an adjusted Bernoulli model for accurate TPG assessment was developed and evaluated. Numerical simulations were used to calculate TPGCFD in patient-specific geometries of aortic stenosis as ground truth. Geometries, aortic valve areas (AVA), and flow rates were derived from computed tomography scans. Simulations were divided in a training data set (135 cases) and a test data set (36 cases). The training data was used to fit an adjusted Bernoulli model as a function ...
Source: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing - May 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research