Inflammaging and human longevity in the omics era
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omics data – particularly on glycomic...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 16, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Transgenerational epigenetics: integrating soma to germline communication with gametic inheritance
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Abhay Sharma Evidence supporting germline mediated epigenetic inheritance of environmentally induced traits has increasingly emerged over the past several years. Although the mechanisms underlying this inheritance remain unclear, recent findings suggest that parental gamete-borne epigenetic factors, particularly RNAs, affect post-fertilization and developmental gene regulation, ultimately leading to phenotypic appearance in the offspring. Complex processes involving gene expression and epigenetic regulation are consid...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 16, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Exaptation, serendipity and aging
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Pierpaolo Andriani The paper shows the importance of serendipity and exaptation in selected key moments of ageing research and argue that rationalistic dominant models in scientific research have masked the importance of reverse models of discovery based on serendipity and exaptation. I ask why this is the case and analyze three contributing factors: unprestatability of the functions of technologies, multidimensionality and astronomical complexity of the space over which biological reactions occurs and role of scienti...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 13, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The use of information theory for the evaluation of biomarkers of aging and physiological age
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): David Blokh, Ilia Stambler The present work explores the application of information theoretical measures, such as entropy and normalized mutual information, for research of biomarkers of aging. The use of information theory affords unique methodological advantages for the study of aging processes, as it allows evaluating non-linear relations between biological parameters, providing the precise quantitative strength of those relations, both for individual and multiple parameters, showing cumulative or synergistic effec...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 13, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The role of SUMOylation in ageing and senescent decline
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Andrea Princz, Nektarios Tavernarakis Posttranslational protein modifications are playing crucial roles in essential cellular mechanisms. SUMOylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of specific target proteins by the attachment of a small ubiquitin-like protein. Although the mechanism of conjugation of SUMO to proteins is analogous to ubiquitination, it requires its own, specific set of enzymes. The consequences of SUMOylation are widely variable, depending on the physiological state of the cell and the...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 12, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Plasticity vs Mutation. The role of microRNAs in human adaptation
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Konstantinos Voskarides The variability potential of a phenotype, on the background of the same genotype, is termed “phenotypic plasticity”. This is considered by some scientists as a more important evolutionary procedure than mutation based natural selection. In this review, I discuss the fact that microRNAs have the potential to determine significantly the spectrum of phenotypic plasticity by regulating translation rate. MicroRNAs constitute a complicate network that can adjust at a variety of external en...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 3, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The gut microbiota of centenarians: Signatures of longevity in the gut microbiota profile
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Biagi Elena, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Sara Quercia, Candela Marco, Brigidi Patrizia The changing physiology and lifestyle of elderly people affect the gut microbiota composition, the changes of which can, in turn, affect the health maintenance of the ageing host. In a co-evolutionary vision of the relationship between gut microbiota and ageing as an adaptive process of the human superorganism, long-living individuals who get to “successfully” age might be the ones whose microbiota manages to conti...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 1, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cellular aging towards osteoarthritis
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Yu-Sheng Li, Wen-feng Xiao, Wei Luo Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common form of degenerative joint disease. Aging process is supposed to be a leading predictor for developing OA. In this review, we have discussed the potential roles of aging in OA, a better understanding of which might delay or stop the development and progression of OA. Different cellular signaling mechanisms are involved process of aging that induces age-related changes in chondrocytes. These changes influence the expression of catabolic factors result...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - January 1, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Autophagy induction reduces telomerase activity in HeLa cells
In this study, we evaluated the effect of Beclin 1 overexpression in induction of autophagy and the relationship between autophagy induction and telomerase activity in HeLa cells. We found that overexpression of Beclin 1 in HeLa cells leads to autophagosome formation as shown by intracellular autophagosomal marker LC3-II staining. Expression of Beclin1 reduced telomerase activity for about 100 fold compared with the control while it did not affect TERT expression level. The results of cell cycle analysis indicated that the cell cycle and proliferation progressed normally up to 48h post-transfection. Understanding the role ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 31, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Another stage of development: Biological degeneracy and the study of bodily ageing
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Paul H. Mason, Ryszard Maleszka, Juan F. Dominguez D. Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of ‘degeneracy’, which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degener...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 29, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Demographics, Phenotypic Health Characteristics and Genetic Analysis of Centenarians in China
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Yi Zeng, Qiushi Feng, Danan Gu, James Vaupel After a brief introduction to the background, significance and unique features of the centenarian population in China, we describe the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS), which is the world’s largest study of centenarians, nonagenarians, octogenarians, and compatible young-old aged 65-79. Based on the CLHLS data and other relevant studies, we summarize demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as self-reported and objectively-tested heal...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 29, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Inflammaging and omics in human longevity
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omic data − particularly on glycomics...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 28, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Metabonomics of ageing – towards understanding metabolism of a long and healthy life
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): François-Pierre J. Martin, Ivan Montoliu Roura, Martin Kussmann Systems biology approaches have been increasingly employed in clinical studies to enhance our understanding of the role of genetics, environmental factors and their interactions on nutritional, health and disease status. Amongst the new omics technologies, metabonomics has emerged as a robust platform to capture metabolic and nutritional requirements by enabling, in a minimally invasive fashion, the monitoring of a wide range of biochemical compou...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 23, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Aging rather than stress strongly influences amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs of female mice
In conclusion, we found that aged mice were more susceptible to stress in terms of body-weight reduction, and that amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs were largely influenced by aging rather than by stress. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 23, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

1 Another stage of development: biological degeneracy and the study of bodily ageing
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Paul H. Mason, Ryszard Maleszka, Juan F. Dominguez D. Ageing is a poorly understood process of human development mired by a scientific approach that struggles to piece together distributed variable factors involved in ongoing transformations of living systems. Reconfiguring existing research paradigms, we review the concept of ‘degeneracy’, which has divergent popular and technical definitions. The technical meaning of degeneracy refers to the structural diversity underlying functional plasticity. Degener...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 22, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mitochondrial activity and dynamics changes regarding metabolism in ageing and obesity
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Guillermo López-Lluch Mitochondria play an essential role in ageing and longevity. During ageing, a general deregulation of metabolism occurs, affecting molecular, cellular and physiological activities in the organism. Dysfunction of mitochondria has been associated with ageing and age-related diseases indicating their importance in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Three major nutritional sensors, mTOR, AMPK and Sirtuins are involved in the control of mitochondrial physiology. These nutritional sensors con...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 17, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Circulating miRNAs and miRNA shuttles as biomarkers: perspective trajectories of healthy and unhealthy aging
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Fabiola Olivieri, Miriam Capri, Massimiliano Bonafè, Cristina Morsiani, Hwa Jin Jung, Liana Spazzafumo, Jose Viña, Yousin Suh Human aging is a lifelong process characterized by a continuous trade-off between pro-and anti-inflammatory responses, where the best-adapted and/or remodeled genetic/epigenetic profile may develop a longevity phenotype. Centenarians and their offspring represent such a phenotype and their comparison to patients with age-related diseases (ARDs) is expected to maximize the chance ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines may Act as one of the Signals for Regulating MicroRNAs Expression in Alzheimer ’s disease
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Kedar N. Prasad Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are one of the earliest defects that initiate and promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Studies showed that expressions of microRNAs were upregulated or downregulated in AD. Therefore, these biochemical defects may influence the levels of microRNAs. The up-regulated microRNAs cause neurodegeneration by: (a) decreasing the levels of a nuclear transcriptional factor-2 (Nrf2), (b) reducing the levels of α-secretase ADM10; and (c) reducing the levels of ph...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mitochondria and mitochondria-induced signalling molecules as longevity determinants
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Giuseppina Rose, Aurelia Santoro, Stefano Salvioli An intense cross talk between mitochondria and nucleus continuously informs the cell about the functional state of these crucial organelles and elicits an effective stress response that strenghtens the cell, promoting its survival. Interestingly, this effect can spread also in a non-cell autonomous fashion to distal tissues by means of soluble factors. This stress response is responsible of a consistent lifespan increase in many animal models, while in humans there i...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 11, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

GH/IGF-I/insulin system in centenarians
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Giovanni Vitale, Michelangela Barbieri, Marina Kamenetskaya, Giuseppe Paolisso The endocrine system plays a major role in the regulation of several biological activity and in the ageing process. Evolutionary conservation of GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway from worms to mice and similarities in this system between mice and humans raised expectations that downregulated activity of the GH/IGF-I/insulin pathway could be beneficial for the extension of human life span. Centenarians represent the best example of successful ageing ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of centenarians in Okinawa and Japan: Part 1 —centenarians in Okinawa
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Bradley J. Willcox, Donald Craig Willcox, Makoto Suzuki A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world’s...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - December 2, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

In Old BALB/c Mice, Bone Marrow Pre-B Cell and Surrogate Light Chain Reduction Is Associated With Increased B Cell Reactivity to Phosphorylcholine, But Reduced T15 Idiotype Dominance
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Kelly Khomtchouk, Sarah Alter, Michelle Ratliff, Bonnie B. Blomberg, Richard L. Riley In young adult BALB/c mice, antibodies to phosphorylcholine (PC) bearing the T15 (TEPC 15) idiotype confer protection against pneumococcal infections. In old age, even though PC reactive B cells are often increased, the proportion of T15+ antibodies declines. We hypothesize that limited surrogate light chain (SLC) and compromise of the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint in old mice contribute to both reduced new B cell generation and ch...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - November 19, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

New mechanism of lipotoxicity in diabetic cardiomyopathy: Deficiency of Endogenous H2S Production and ER stress
Conclusion Deficiency of endogenous H2S was involved in lipotoxicity-induced myocardial injury. Exogenous H2S attenuates PA-induced myocardial injury though inhibition of ER stress. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - November 18, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Long-term exposition to a high fat diet favors the appearance of β-amyloid depositions in the brain of C57BL/6J mice. A potential model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease
Conclusions The present findings confirm that HFD favors the formation of βA depositions in the brain, a key feature of AD, supporting the metabolic hypothesis of sporadic AD. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - November 15, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The RAG Recombinase: Beyond Breaking
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Chloé Lescale, Ludovic Deriano DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are commonly seen as lesions that threaten genome integrity and contribute to cancer and aging processes. However, in the context of antigen receptor gene assembly, known as V(D)J recombination, DSBs are obligatory intermediates that allow the establishment of genetic diversity and adaptive immunity. V(D)J recombination is initiated when the lymphoid-restricted recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 are expressed and form a site-specific endo...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - November 15, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Demographic, Phenotypic, and Genetic Characteristics of Centenarians in Okinawa and Japan: Part 1 − Centenarians in Okinawa
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Bradley J. Willcox, Donald Craig Willcox, Makoto Suzuki A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world’s...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - November 12, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Electrochemical sensor for the detection of multiple reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from ageing central nervous system homogenates
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): A. Fagan-Murphy, L. Hachoumi, M.S. Yeoman, B.A Patel Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) have been widely implicated in the ageing process and various approaches exist for monitoring these species in biological tissues. These approaches at present are limited to monitoring either a single pro-oxidant species or total pro-oxidant levels and therefore provide limited insight into the range of pro-oxidant species and their relative proportions in the ageing process. We have utilised a sensor that allows us to ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - October 15, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Low Protein to Carbohydrate ratio diet delays onset of Parkinsonism like phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster parkin null mutants
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Rijan Bajracharya, J. William O. Ballard Dietary management plays a key role in the treatment of many diseases. However, no prospective studies have critically investigated the potential for dietary modification to delay the onset, or slow the progression, of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). To study whether manipulating the Protein to Carbohydrate (P:C) ratio in the diet could affect the progression of PD, we compared Drosophila melanogaster parkin null mutants and their experimental controls fed with diets differing i...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - October 6, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Immune and inflammatory responses to DNA damage in cancer and aging
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Clara Soria-Valles, Alejandro López-Soto, Fernando G. Osorio, Carlos López-Otín Genome instability is a hallmark of both cancer and aging processes. Beyond cell-autonomous responses, it is known that DNA damage also elicits systemic mechanisms aimed at favoring survival and damaged cells clearance. Among these mechanisms, immune activation and NF-κB-mediated inflammation play central roles in organismal control of DNA damage. We focus herein on the different experimental evidences that have a...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - October 5, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mouse models of ageing and their relevance to disease
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Sulev Kõks, Soner Dogan, Bilge Guvenc Tuna, Herminia González-Navarro, Paul Potter, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke Ageing is a process that gradually increases the organism’s vulnerability to death. It affects different biological pathways, and the underlying cellular mechanisms are complex. In view of the growing disease burden of ageing populations, increasing efforts are being invested in understanding the pathways and mechanisms of ageing. We review some mouse models commonly used in studies on age...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - October 4, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

DNA damage-Induced Inflammation and Nuclear Architecture
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Kalliopi Stratigi, Ourania Chatzidoukaki, George A. Garinis Nuclear architecture and the chromatin state affect most −if not all- DNA-dependent transactions, including the ability of cells to sense DNA lesions and restore damaged DNA back to its native form. Recent evidence points to functional links between DNA damage sensors, DNA repair mechanisms and the innate immune responses. The latter raises the question of how such seemingly disparate processes operate within the intrinsically complex nuclear landscape a...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - October 1, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Interventions for age-related diseases: shifting the paradigm
Publication date: Available online 29 September 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Inês Figueira, Adelaide Fernandes, Aleksandra Mladenovic, Andres Lopez-Contreras, Catarina M. Henriques, Colin Selman, Elisabete Ferreiro, Efstathios S. Gonos, José Luis Trejo, Juhi Misra, Lene Juel Rasmussen, Sara Xapelli, Timothy Ellam, Ilaria Bellantuono Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily in...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 29, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

DNA damage responses and stress resistance: Concepts from bacterial SOS to metazoan immunity
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Ashley B. Williams, Björn Schumacher The critical need for species preservation has driven the evolution of mechanisms that integrate stress signals from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Past research has been largely focused on cell-autonomous stress responses; however, recently their systemic outcomes within an organism and their implications at the ecological and species levels have emerged. Maintenance of species depends on the high fidelity transmission of the genome over infinite generations; thus, ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 27, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The chicken or the egg: mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause or consequence of toxicity in Huntington ’s disease
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Aris A. Polyzos, Cynthia T. McMurray Mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing oxidative damage is typically thought to be a primary cause of Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson disease. There is little doubt that mitochondria (MT) become defective as neurons die, yet whether MT defects are the primary cause or a detrimental consequence of toxicity remains unanswered. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and glycolysis provide sensitive and informative measures of the functional status MT and t...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 25, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effect of glycation inhibitors on aging and age-related diseases
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz, Grzegorz Bartosz Vast evidence supports the view that glycation of proteins is one of the main factors contributing to aging and is an important element of etiopathology of age-related diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, cataract and neurodegenerative diseases. Counteracting glycation can therefore be a means of increasing both the lifespan and healthspan. In this review, accumulation of glycation products during aging is presented, pathophysiological effects of glycation are dis...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 24, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Chronic Oxidative Damage together with Genome Repair Deficiency in the Neurons is a Double Whammy for Neurodegeneration: Is Damage Response Signaling a Potential Therapeutic Target?
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Haibo Wang, Prakash Dharmalingam, Velmarini Vasquez, Joy Mitra, Istvan Boldogh, K.S. Rao, Thomas A. Kent, Sankar Mitra, Muralidhar L. Hegde A foremost challenge for the neurons, which are among the most oxygenated cells, is the genome damage caused by chronic exposure to endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), formed as cellular respiratory byproducts. Strong metabolic activity associated with high transcriptional levels in these long lived post-mitotic cells render them vulnerable to oxidative genome damage, incl...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 20, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Heterologous expression of carnation italian ringspot virus p36 protein enhances necrotic cell death in response to acetic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Luisa Rubino, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Sergio Giannattasio A universal feature of the replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is the association with intracellular membranes. Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) replication in plants occurs in vesicles derived from the mitochondrial outer membrane. The product encoded by CIRV ORF1, p36, is required for targeting the virus replication complex to the outer mitochondrial membrane both in plant and yeast cells. Here the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a m...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 14, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1 –driven DNA repair—A paradoxical role in lung aging
This study hypothesizes that signaling and consequent gene expression during cellular response to OGG1-BER “wires” senescence/aging processes. To test OGG1-BER was mimicked by repeatedly exposing diploid lung fibroblasts cells and airways of mice to 8-oxoG base. Results showed that repeated exposures led to G1 cell cycle arrest and pre-matured senescence of cultured cells in which over 1000 genes were differentially expressed −86% of them been identical to those in naturally senesced cells. Gene ontology analysis of gene expression displayed biological processes driven by small GTPases, phosphoinositide 3...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

MouseAge: Leading the way in the development of geroprotectors in Europe
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Ilaria Bellantuono, Stathis Gonos (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development)
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Enforced DNA repair enzymes rescue neurons from apoptosis induced by target deprivation and axotomy in mouse models of neurodegeneration
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Lee J. Martin, Margaret Wong It is unknown whether DNA damage accumulation is an upstream instigator or secondary effect of the cell death process in different populations of adult postmitotic neurons in the central nervous system. In two different mouse models of injury-induced neurodegeneration characterized by relatively synchronous accumulation of mitochondria, oxidative stress, and DNA damage prior to neuronal apoptosis, we enforced the expression of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) and human apurinic-apyr...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Parkin loss-of-function pathology: Premature neuronal senescence induced by high levels of reactive oxygen species?
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Lori M. Buhlman Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases (PD and AD, respectively) are considered to be diseases of advanced brain ageing, which seems to involve high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). AD neurodegeneration is initially apparent in the hippocampus; as AD progresses, many more brain regions are affected. PD-associated neurodegeneration is relatively limited to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), especially in cases in which patients inherit particular disease-ca...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

C. elegans screening strategies to identify pro-longevity interventions
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 157 Author(s): Silvia Maglioni, Nayna Arsalan, Natascia Ventura Drugs screenings in search of enhancers or suppressors of selected readout(s) are nowadays mainly carried out in single cells systems. These approaches are however limited when searching for compounds with effects at the organismal level. To overcome this drawback the use of different model organisms to carry out modifier screenings has exponentially grown in the past decade. Unique characteristics such as easy manageability, low cost, fast reproductive cycle, short lifespan, simp...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Toll-like Receptor function of murine macrophages, probed by cytokine induction, is biphasic and is not impaired globally with age
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 157 Author(s): Goutham Pattabiraman, Karol Palasiewicz, David S. Ucker Aging is associated with a waning of normal immune function. This “immunosenescence” is characterized by a diverse repertoire of seemingly discreet and unbalanced immune alterations. A number of studies have suggested that aging-associated alterations in innate immune responsiveness, especially responsiveness dependent on Toll-like Receptor (TLR) engagement, are causally involved. We find, however, that the magnitude and dose-dependency of responsiveness to TLR ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Methionine restriction improves renal insulin signalling in aged kidneys
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 157 Author(s): Louise Grant, Emma K. Lees, Laura A. Forney, Nimesh Mody, Thomas Gettys, Paul A.J. Brown, Heather M. Wilson, Mirela Delibegovic Dietary methionine restriction (MR) leads to loss of adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity and lifespan extension. The possibility that dietary MR can protect the kidney from age-associated deterioration has not been addressed. Aged (10-month old) male and female mice were placed on a MR (0.172% methionine) or control diet (0.86% methionine) for 8-weeks and blood glucose, renal insulin signalling, and...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-related reduction of chromatin fractal dimension in toluidine blue – stained hepatocytes
In this study, we proposed a hypothesis that chromatin of mouse hepatocytes exhibits age-related reduction of fractal dimension. This hypothesis was based on previously published works demonstrating that complexity of biological systems such as tissues, decreases during the process of physiological aging. Liver tissue was obtained from 24 male mice divided into 3 age groups: 10-days-old (young, juvenile), 210-days-old (adult) and 390-days-old. The tissue was stained using a modification of toluidine blue (nucleic acid – specific) staining method. A total of 480 chromatin structures (20 for each animal) were analyzed....
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum stress related molecular mechanisms in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Volume 157 Author(s): Perinur Bozaykut, Ali Sahin, Betul Karademir, Nesrin Kartal Ozer Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered to be a common health problem since the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased in recent years. Disturbed hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and free cholesterol accumulation in liver results in increased oxidative stress leading to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activated ER stress maintains protein homeostasis however, delayed or inadequate ER stress responses may induce fat accum...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Frailty in mouse ageing: A conceptual approach
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Thomas von Zglinicki, Isabel Varela Nieto, Dora Brites, Niki Karagianni, Saida Ortolano, Spiros Georgopoulos, Ana Luisa Cardoso, Susana Novella, Günter Lepperdinger, Anne-Ulrike Trendelenburg, Ronald van Os Human life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century and as a result also the prevalence of a variety of age-related diseases and syndromes. One such syndrome is frailty, which is defined as a combination of organ dysfunctions leading to increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. In human...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cell-cycle involvement in autophagy and apoptosis in yeast
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Maria Azzopardi, Gianluca Farrugia, Rena Balzan Regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis are two eukaryotic processes required to ensure maintenance of genomic integrity, especially in response to DNA damage. The ease with which yeast, amongst other eukaryotes, can switch from cellular proliferation to cell death may be the result of a common set of biochemical factors which play dual roles depending on the cell’s physiological state. A wide variety of homologues are shared between different yeasts and metazoans ...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

With mouse age comes wisdom: A review and suggestions of relevant mouse models for age-related conditions
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Susanne Drechsler, Marina A Lynch, Susana Novella, Herminia González-Navarro, Silva Hecimovic, Erica Barini, Valter Tucci, Rui E Castro, Roosmarijn E. Vandenbroucke, Marcin Osuchowski, Paul K. Potter Ageing is a complex multifactorial process that results in many changes in physiological changes processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to a wide range of diseases. As such an ageing population is resulting in a pressing need for more and improved treatments across an assortment of diseases. Such treatments...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Neurological disorders associated with DNA strand-break processing enzymes
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Bingcheng Jiang, J.N. Mark Glover, Michael Weinfeld The termini of DNA strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species or by abortive DNA metabolic intermediates require processing to enable subsequent gap filling and ligation to proceed. The three proteins, tyrosyl DNA-phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), aprataxin (APTX) and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) each act on a discrete set of modified strand-break termini. Recently, a series of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders have been associated with muta...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - September 13, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research